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1. The nucleus _________, which is essential for function and survival of the cell.

A) is the site of protein synthesis

B) contains the genetic code
C) transforms cellular energy
D) initiates aeroic metaolism
!. Although energy is not made in mitochondria, they are "nown as the #power plants$ of
the cell ecause they%
A) contain &'A for protein synthesis.
B) utili(e glycolysis for o)idative energy.
C) e)tract energy from organic compounds.
D) store calcium onds for muscle contractions.
*. Although the asic structure of the cell plasma memrane is formed y a lipid ilayer,
most of the specific memrane functions are carried out y%
A) ound and transmemrane proteins.
B) comple), long carohydrate chains.
C) surface antigens and hormone receptors.
D) a gating system of selective ion channels.
+. To effectively relay signals, cell,to,cell communication utili(es chemical messenger
systems that%
A) displace surface receptor proteins.
B) accumulate within cell gap -unctions.
C) ind to contractile microfilaments.
D) release secretions into e)tracellular fluid.
.. Aeroic metaolism, also "nown as o)idative metaolism, provides energy y%
A) removing the phosphate onds from AT/.
B) comining hydrogen and o)ygen to form water.
C) activating pyruvate stored in the cytoplasm.
D) rea"ing down glucose to form lactic acid.
0. 1)ocytosis, the reverse of endocytosis, is important in _______ into the e)tracellular
A) 1ngulfing and ingesting fluid and proteins for transport
B) 2illing, degrading, and dissolving harmful microorganisms
C) &emoving cellular deris and releasing synthesi(ed sustances
D) Destruction of particles y lysosomal en(ymes for secretion
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3. The process responsile for generating and conducting memrane potentials is%
A) diffusion of current,carrying ions.
B) millivoltage of electrical potential.
C) polari(ation of charged particles.
D) ion channel neurotransmission.
4. 1pithelial tissues are classified according to the shape of the cells and the numer of
layers. 5hich of the following is a correctly matched description and type of epithelial
A) 7imple epithelium% cells in contact with intercellular matri)8 some do not e)tend to
B) 7tratified epithelium% single layer of cells8 all cells rest on asement memrane
C) 9landular epithelium% arise from surface epithelia and underlying connective tissue
D) /seudostratified epithelium% multiple layers of cells8 deepest layer rests on
asement memrane
:. Connective tissue contains firolasts that are responsile for%
A) providing a firous framewor" for capillaries.
B) synthesis of collagen, elastin, and reticular fiers.
C) forming tendons and the fascia that covers muscles.
D) filling spaces etween tissues to "eep organs in place.
1;. Although all muscle tissue cells have some similarities, smooth muscle <also "nown as
involuntary muscle) differs y%
A) having dense odies attached to actin filaments.
B) containing sarcomeres etween = lines and > ands.
C) having rapid contractions and aundant cross,striations.
D) contracting in response to increased intracellular calcium.
11. 5hich of the following aspects of the function of the nucleus is performed y riosomal
&'A <r&'A)6
A) Copying and carrying D'A instructions for protein synthesis
B) Carrying amino acids to the site of protein synthesis
C) /roviding the site where protein synthesis occurs
D) &egulating and controlling protein synthesis
1!. Brea"down and removal of foreign sustances and worn,out cell parts are performed y
which of the following organelles6
A) ?ysosomes
B) 9olgi apparatus
C) &iosomes
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D) 1ndoplasmic reticulum <1&)
1*. @mpairment in the function of pero)isomes would result in%
A) inadeAuate sites for protein synthesis.
B) an inaility to transport cellular products across the cell memrane.
C) insufficient energy production within a cell.
D) accumulation of free radicals in the cytoplasm.
1+. After several months of trying to conceive, a couple is undergoing fertility testing.
7emen analysis indicates that the manBs sperm have decreased motility, a finding that is
thought to underlie the coupleBs inaility to ecome pregnant. 5hich of the following
cellular components may e defective within the manBs sperm6
A) &iosomes
B) >icrotuules
C) >itochondria
D) >icrofilaments
1.. 5hich of the following statements is true of glycolysis6
A) 9lycolysis reAuires o)ygen.
B) 9lycolysis occurs in cells without mitochondria.
C) 9lycolysis provides the ma-ority of the odyBs energy needs.
D) 9lycolysis produces energy, water, and caron dio)ide.
10. 5hich of the following memrane transport mechanisms reAuires the greatest amount of
A) Cacilitated diffusion
B) /assive transport
C) Desicular transport
D) 7imple diffusion
13. A male patient with a diagnosis of type 1 diaetes mellitus is e)periencing
hyperglycemia ecause he lac"s sufficient insulin to increase the availaility of glucose
transporters in his cell memranes. ConseAuently, his cells lac" intracellular glucose and
it accumulates in his lood. 5hich of the following processes would est allow glucose
to cross his cell memranes6
A) Cacilitated diffusion
B) 7imple diffusion
C) 7econdary active transport
D) 1ndocytosis
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14. 5hich of the following statements is true of s"eletal muscle cells6
A) 7"eletal muscle cells each have an apical, lateral, and asal surface.
B) They are closely apposed and are -oined y cell,to,cell adhesion molecules.
C) Their asal surface is attached to a asement memrane.
D) 7"eletal muscle is multinucleated, lac"ing true cell oundaries.
1:. 5hich of the following ody tissues e)hiits the highest rate of turnover and renewal6
A) The sAuamous epithelial cells of the s"in
B) The connective tissue supporting lood vessels
C) The s"eletal muscle that facilitates movement
D) The nervous tissue that constitutes the central nervous system
!;. A patient with a pathophysiologic condition that affects the desmosomes is most li"ely
to e)hiit%
A) impaired contraction of s"eletal and smooth muscle.
B) wea"ness of the collagen and elastin fiers in the e)tracellular space.
C) impaired communication etween neurons and effector organs.
D) separation at the -unctions etween epithelial cells.
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Answer Key
1. B
!. C
*. A
+. D
.. B
0. C
3. A
4. C
:. B
1;. A
11. C
1!. A
1*. D
1+. B
1.. B
10. C
13. A
14. D
1:. A
!;. D
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