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Muddasser Jatala

ChiId Labor: A iIIer eaIiIy

in PakisIan
Child Labor is a MulIidimehsiohal SocieIal Problem
ahd 1here is a DebaIe Over iI WheIher iI Should 8e
Legal or NoI
1he child labor is a persisIehI social phehomehoh ih Ihe developihg world
ahd speci!ically ih PakisIah. lh Ihe lasI decay, Ihe sehsiIive issue o! child
labor has goI Ihe aIIehIioh o! policymakers, sIaIesmeh, ahd researchers.
Ahy exacI ih!ormaIioh oh child labor is usually hard Io come by as mosI o!
Ihe childreh work ih Ihe uhorgahized ih!ormal secIor, which is heiIher
regulaIed by labor laws hor is mohiIored by ahy orgahizaIioh. LegislaIioh
agaihsI child work or labor is hoI ah ideal soluIioh ih a couhIry such as
PakisIah. lh Ihis regard, oIher measures such as poverIy reducIioh
programs, more !aciliIies !or educaIioh ahd vocaIiohal Iraihihg are
Muddasser JataIa
Muddasser JaIala sIudied GovI.& Public policy !rom
NaIiohal De!ehse UhiversiIy lslamabad ahd workihg
as a lecIurer. Ma|or areas o! ihIeresI are social secIor
developmehI, PoliIical Ecohomy, ahd Goverhahce.




Muddasser JataIa
ChiId Labor: A Bitter ReaIity in Pakistan
Muddasser JataIa
ChiId Labor: A Bitter ReaIity in
ChiId Labor is a MuItidimensionaI SocietaI ProbIem
and There is a Debate Over it Whether it ShouId Be
LegaI or Not
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D De ed di ic ca at ti io on n 2 2
1. Chapter-1 I In nt tr ro od du uc ct ti io on n 3
1 1. .1 1. . I In nt tr ro od du uc ct ti io on n 4 4
1 1. .1 1. .1 1. . C Ch hi il ld d- -L La ab bo or r: : S So oc ci ie et ta al l P Pr ro ob bl le em m 4 4
1 1. .1 1. .2 2. . C Cu ur rr re en nt t S Sc ce en na ar ri io o o of f C Ch hi il ld d L La ab bo or r 6 6
1 1. .2 2. . B Ba ac ck kg gr ro ou un nd d o of f t th he e S St tu ud dy y 1 10 0
1 1. .3 3. . C Ch hi il ld d L La ab bo or r T Tr re en nd ds s i in n P Pa ak ki is st ta an n: : A An n O Ov ve er rv vi ie ew w 1 11 1
1 1. .4 4. . P Pr ro ob bl le em m S St ta at te em me en nt t 1 17 7
1 1. .5 5. . R Re es se ea ar rc ch h O Ob bj je ec ct ti iv ve es s 1 17 7
1 1. .6 6. . S Si ig gn ni if fi ic ca an nt t O Of f S St tu ud dy y 1 17 7
1 1. .7 7. . R Re es se ea ar rc ch h Q Qu ue es st ti io on ns s 1 18 8
1 1. .8 8. . P Pl la an n o of f t th he e S St tu ud dy y 1 18 8
2. Chapter-2 literature Review & Theoretical Framework 19
2 2. .1 1. . T Th he eo or re et ti ic ca al l f fr ra am me ew wo or rk k 2 20 0
2 2. .1 1. .1 1. . C Ch hi il ld dr re en n a as s H Ho ou us se eh ho ol ld d A As ss se et ts s 2 20 0
2 2. .1 1. .2 2. . T Th he e P Po ov ve er rt ty y H Hy yp po ot th he es si is s 2 21 1
2 2. .2 2. . R Re ev vi ie ew w o of f l li it te er ra at tu ur re e 2 21 1
2 2. .3 3. . C Co on nc cl lu us si io on n 3 32 2
3. Chapter-3 M Me et th ho od do ol lo og gy y 33
3.1. Introduction 3 34 4
3.2 primary technique 3 35 5
3.3. Instrumentation 36
3.4. Editing 39
3.5. Research Setting 39
3.6. Ethical Consideration 41
4 Chapter-4 Findings, Discussions & Analysis 4 42 2
4 4. .1 1. . I In nt tr ro od du uc ct ti io on n 4 43 3
4 4. .2 2 M Ma aj jo or r F Fi in nd di in ng gs s 4 44 4
4 4. .3 3. . A An na al ly ys si is s & & d di is sc cu us ss si io on ns s 6 64 4
4 4. .4 4. . S Su um mm ma ar ry y o of f R Re es su ul lt ts s 7 73 3
5 5. . C Ch ha ap pt te er r- -5 5 C Co on nc cl lu us si io on n a an nd d S Su ug gg ge es st ti io on ns s 7 74 4
5 5. .1 1. . C Co on nc cl lu us si io on n 7 75 5
5 5. .2 2. . P Po ol li ic cy y D Di is sc cu us ss si io on n 7 77 7
R Re ef fe er re en nc ce es s
A Ap pp pe en nd di ix x

This research work is lovingly dedicated to my Parents

The prevalence of child labor is not a new activity in recent world. Children are
employed in the different human societies at different stages of their history and still it
is growing and continues to flourish all over the globe. It started from the primitive
age until the recent era; perhaps, the poverty-stricken families have no choice except
to compel their children to work. Indeed, child labor was not a social problem during
the industrial revolution in 18th century and the industrial revolution played a critical
role to boost this phenomenon (Edmounds and Pavcnik 2005). During the industrial
revolution, approximately 10 percent of 5 to 9 year old children and more than 75
percent of 10 to 14 years old children were employed in the industrial sector and work
for extraordinarily long hours (Bachman 2000). In Great Britain, the factory owners
were taking services of children from poverty-stricken families and orphans at very
low wages (Currie 1997). In the era of industrial revolution, novelist like the one,
Charles Dickens could not keep silent. Moreover, he threw the light on unbearable
environment of the industrial units and factories in his novels like Oliver Twist
(Dickens 1837) and Hard Times (Dickens 1854).
1.1.1. Child-Labor: Societal Problem:
Child labor is a multidimensional societal problem. There are many controversial
arguments over it whether it should be legal or not. Different arguments are existing
on this matter, opponents of child labor argues that it is morally wrong, and children
should not push to work ,it does not matter, how their families suffers due to poverty.
Advocate and major supporters of child labor argues that it is not harmful because it
gives the rewards in the form of income to the poor families. In fact, the phenomenon
of child labor is observable worldwide, but interestingly there is no un-controversial
and universal definition existing of it. Even the different societies, regions, cultures
and literature define the child labor with its own parameter. United Nations
Convention on the Rights of the Children & the International Labor Organization
(ILO) Convention`s deIinition (ILO 1973) describes the child as the person below the
age of 18 will considered as a child and a number of countries including that of
Pakistan have adopted this definition. Similarly, there is a long debate among the
scholars, researchers and different agencies to distinguish the work and labor. Some
researcher distinguishes between child labor and work as labor is an activity for
monetary gains leads the child to hazardous or risk while work is harmless economic
activity for financial benefits (Schultz 2001). But the literature and different agencies
including ILO agreed on the conceptual meaning of labor or work. They define it as a
physical and mental exertion for the sake of economic gains whether it is hazardous or
harmless (138 # ILO 1973; Britannica 2005). The same definition of work or labor
have adopted by a lot of countries and agencies for defining child labor including
Therefore, the minimum age for economically active children should not below 15
years. Some developing countries including Pakistan have fixed the age for work or
labor at 14 while the most of developed countries have fixed it at 16 years. An
operational and conceptual definition of child work or labor, for the sake of present
study, extracted from the above mention parameters. It is defined as the all sorts of
activities performed by a child for monetary benefits, either for self or family,
whether it is Hazardous or undamaging up to age 15. Thus, according to these
parameters all the children that has the age upto 15 if work or labor for any monetary
gain would be considered as child labor whether it is light or worse labor or the work.
1.1.2. Current Scenario of Child-Labor:
The exact data and statistics are not available on the child labor, but different
international organizations such as ILO, UNICEF, and the world bank (WB),
estimated that approximately 217.7 million children are participating in labor force
throughout the world. The rate of working children is different country to country, but
the highest ratio is exiting in all developing and under developing countries (Beegle et
al. 2004). On the other hand, developed nations have been successful to overcome this
phenomenon by implementing optimal policies and through subsidies to people, yet
they could not abolish completely. U.S.A is a very prosperous and high-income
country in the world even around I50000 Californian and Texas many Mexican
immigrant children are employees in different sectors of U.S. especially as farm
workers (Hindman 2002).
According to the ILO estimation, there are around 246 million children working
around the globe, whilst 179 million are engage in hazardous and worst forms of
labor. Generally, about 2.5 million children are contributing in the economy of
developed countries and remaining children belong to developing countries.
In 2012, the risk analysis organization Maplecroft recently published a report
(Maplecroft 2012) mentioning that the unstable global security, wars and economic
depression in the world would be enhancing the rate of child labor in the world. The
report further figured out that the ratio of child labor is increasing in countries, Brazil,
Russia, India and China (BRICs). The Maplecroft also published a world map (Figure
1.1), in which the most under threat countries have been pointed out. The map
illustrates that some countries are on extreme risk, few on high risk, several are on
medium stage of risk and only some on very low risk. The countries included in the
list of extreme risk are Myanmar, North Korea, Somalia, Sudan, Zimbabwe,
Afghanistan, Burundi, Pakistan and Ethiopia. According to Maplecroft survey
Pakistan is on ninth position with extreme risk. It can be called as very dangerous
thing as the ratio of child labor has increased in this decade and the bulk of Pakistani
children are sacrificing their future because of unbearable economic circumstances
and war situation in the country (Maplecroft 2012).
Figure 1.1: Child Labor Index 2012
Source: Maplecroft (2012)
Furthermore, According to UNICEF report (2005), approximately thirty percent of
working children are in least developed countries (LSE). While, sixteen (16) percent
are working in developing countries of which twelve (12) percent are residents of
Asia. The African region is contributing the highest ratio of child labor in the world;
almost 35 percent from central Africa, eastern and southern African region contributes
thirty-four (34) percent. According to UNICEF statistics, the rate of child labor in
south Asia is thirteen percent, Latin American and Caribbean region, East Asia,
Middle East, North Africa and pacific regions are supplying 10 percent of child labor.
The highest rates of child labor are prevailing in Africa, especially in central and
southern African regions are the core areas, where worst forms of child labor have
found. Figure 1.2 explains the scenario of child-labor in the world.
FIGURE 1.2: Children aged 514 engaged in child labor (%), by region
Source: UNICEF (2009)
The whole discussion leads to the realization that child labor is increasing gradually
throughout the world due to gap between have and have not. Child labor is multi-
faced socio-politico-economic and insurmountable issue, humanity is struggling with
The literature on child labor is divided into two distinct determinants, the supply side
and the demand side. The present study is an attempt to look at the determinants that
revolves around the supply side as the study has considered full time economically
active children in labor market. The present study analyzes the socioeconomic
determinants of working children in the capital territory of Islamabad. The study only
focuses on the supply side determinants of the working children and demand side
determinants are considered out of the scope. Furthermore, the study analyzes the
current scenario of child labor in Islamabad Capital territory and also examines the
working hours; amount of payment, current education level, reasons for starting work
of the children and afterwards it explores policy measures and framework to prevent
child labor.
1.1.3. Agencies & Institutions Working on Child Labor
Despite of all this discussion, countless NGOs and CBOs are working to protect the
children`s rights all over the world. These institutes and NGOs are assisting the
deprived children of our society with the same plan and principles given by ILO. In
1900, the International Association for Labor Legislation was launch at Basel in
collaboration of sixteen countries .The key purpose of the IALL, to promote the rules
and regulation on child labor as integral part of other international labor legislation.
The intensive and concrete efforts, to abolish the child labor phenomenon over the
world made by the ILO, which was establish in 1919 and now a well established
component of UNO. ILO made numerous treaties on child labor with the assistance of
member countries, including age conventions and other rights of children, although
the ILO fixed minimum age sixteen year for entering to work place. Moreover, in late
century, ILO started a movement throughout the world to eliminate the worst
forms of child labor, such as slavery, prostitutions, and military force service.
However, unfortunately, ILO has no appropriate ways and capacity to enforce and
endorse these conventions to prevent the children from worst labor, without
cooperation of member countries, which is the most hectic issue for ILO.
A list of such NGOs and associations working on the children is putting in appendix
(Appendix, A and B). In Pakistan, the ministry of finance & Labor and FBS (under
Statistics Division, Ministry of Finance) are the responsible to collect statistics on the
matter of child labor. Conversely, various NGOs and CBOs are submitting their
services with the help of international assistance across the country. These NGOs
have launched several programs, project for save the children, and conducted
numerous surveys. Actually, these surveys and case studies are very limited and cover
the small areas of country and not statistically satisfactory for a wide study.
Child labor is a bitter reality and very deep-rooted phenomenon in Pakistan, like other
developing countries of the world. In Pakistan, a large number of children are
economically active in different kind of occupations by sacrificing their childhood,
education, health and their lives (Siddiqi and Patrinos 1995). The most popular term
"Chhotas (child worker) is commonly used for these child workers in our society and
these Chhotas can be seen in every cluster and surface of our society. Mostly, these
Chottas are considered inevitable part of workshops, roadside hotels, and College or
office canteens. As an agrarian country, the huge ratio of children is playing their role
in the agricultural activities with helping their parents on farms for their livelihood
(Khan 2000).
The female children mostly are doing domestic or household chores in Pakistan.
Some children are performing wide range of economic activities in different sectors
like manufacturing, Transport, trade, and other services in urban areas. In
manufacturing sector, children are working in, sports industry, surgical industry,
cottage, chemical, industry, carpet weaving (Awan et al. 1992). In construction side,
wide numbers of children are active in building and road construction, stone
quarrying and brick kiln sector (Ali et al. 1999). In services sector, children are
engage in, hotel, restaurants, and food shops, service stations, as assistant boys on
laundry and cobbler shops (Ali et al. 2003). Boys are mostly active in the urban areas
and girls are working, as a baby sister, servant, house cleaner, in the well off families
(Karim 1995).ThereIore, Children are working in all sector oI Pakistan`s economy,
although mostly engage in informal sector, domestic work, or agricultural activities.
Pakistan is also fall in the category of developing countries, so the situation is not
very different like other developing countries, where 12 percent people are living
below poverty line (Khan 2006). Consequently, the phenomenon of child labor is
unwillingly growing day by day in the country. Therefore, the present study aims to
empirically explore the socioeconomic determinants of working children in the capital
territory of Islamabad.
The data or statistics are considered imperative for policy makers, but the exact
statistics and estimates on child labor is unavailable in Pakistan due to lack of
systematic data collection and unavailability of micro based data (Amjad 2001 and
Zaidi 2005). The Government of Pakistan (GOP) seems to be unwilling to conduct
research on the issue of child labor with its magnitude. The most of the available
research work is based on case studies and small surveys, which covers the few cities,
villages, and small entities of country.
The most recent nation-wide survey of child labor was conducted in 1996 by the
Federal Bureau of Statistics (FBS), Pakistan with the help of Ministry of Labor and
Manpower and IPEC, which is part of ILO. This child labor survey was first
comprehensive and unique kind of survey in Pakistan. According to its findings,
among the total 40 million children aged from 5-14, there are more than 3.3 million
children are part of labor force and working in all sectors of country. Approximately
fifty percent of children of both genders were included in the age bracket of 5-9, and
these 3.3 million children were one-third (30 percent) of total population of country.
The child labor participation ratio in Pakistan and provinces by age and sex are shown
in Annex-C.
1.3.1. Occupational Structure
According to child labor survey (CLS 1996), approximately 71 percent children are
economically active in unskilled, non-technical and elementary occupations. Being an
agrarian country, most of the child laborers are involved in agricultural and farms
activity with their parents. The next major occupation group is engaged in craft and
trade related activities, which grasp the 19 percent of child workers.
1.3.2. Industrial sectors
The Industrial sector falls in the secondary economic activity, like manufacturing or
skill activities, which utilizes around 11 percent of child employees. The wholesale,
retail trade, hotel, and restaurants are also very major sectors as well which absorb
about the 9-8 percent of child labor respectively.
1.3.3. Economic Activities
The CLS 1996 has the limitations of not having data about the detailed economic
activities of children but micro case studies, and surveys exposed that children are
economically active in manufacturing, transport, and services sectors. In
manufacturing sector, children are working in textile, food processing, chemical,
printing and publishing, leather, and leather goods and sports industry, surgical
industry, furthermore in services sector; children are working as laundry boys,
cobbler, watchmakers, electricians, mechanics, and painter, etc.
1.3.4. Educational Status
According to CLS 1996, there are 33.2 percent children are literate out of 3.3-million
child workers, and male-worker are more educated then girl-workers. Approximately
40.4 percent of the total boys worker have found under metric, whereas the girls are
11.2 percent and the child worker are more educated in urban areas then rural areas.
The educational status of children is different and fluctuates with gender and
1.3.5. Employment Status
According to CLS 1996, about 70 percent of children are voluntarily working in their
family business including both male and female children. The next group has found
paid child worker, which consists of 25 percent and 4 percent for male and female
respectively. The huge rural and urban differences have observed in employment
The three-fourth of the children is working in rural areas; most of them are unpaid
family helper, on the other hand, it is below one third in cities or urban areas. The
paid child workers add approximately three-fifth of the total child labor force in urban
areas of Pakistan and ratio for boy and girl workers is almost the same. Although in
cities, the employment status and condition is comparatively better then villages.
1.3.6. Working Hours
The available literature on child labor shows that working hours are very long for
child labor. According to CLS 1996, at the national level 46 percent children are
spending considerable time in work, although the 35 hours per week is normal
working hours. A large ratio of children spends 56 hours, or more per week, and in
this group the ratio of boys i.e. 14 percent twice higher than compared to female girl
workers. The ratio of working hours is differs in rural and urban areas, about 73
percent children are working more than normal working hour in cities, while it is 42
percent in rural areas.
1.3.7. Reasons to work
According to CLS 1996, the key reason of children work is parental or guardian
decision to send their children to work to support their families. The 54 percent
children are working in their respective family farms and household enterprises and
the next 27 percent has been seen to supplement family income and rest of 14 percent
are doing household chores ,because no person is available for family chores. The
majority of the girls are engaged in the household chores, i.e. 76 percent girl child
workers are doing domestic activities as compared to 66 percent boy child workers. In
rural areas, the 61 percent of the children are working to enhance their family income.
1.3.8. Household income
According to CLS 1996, the 39 percent child workers belong to the family, whose
income ranges from Rs. 2501 to 4000 per month. The 31 percent come from the
household, which fall the income group of Rs 1501 to 2500 per month and next 21
percent hail from Rs 4001 per month and above, and rest of 9 percent from less than
Rs 1500 per month.
1.3.9. Illness and Injuries
According to CLS 1996, the child laborer are doing household chores are less prone
to injuries or illness, mostly female comes in this category and they are less prone to
injuries comparatively male child workers. The 7 percent of child workers faces
injuries and illness frequently and 28 percent suffers from injuries occasionally and 33
percent very rarely. A micro studies disclosed that most of the children, i.e. 75 percent
suffers from illness or injuries are engage in unskilled occupations or working in
industrial sector and hazardous jobs.
1.3.10. Labor Force Survey in Pakistan 1999-2000
Moreover, According to LFS 1999-2000, the child workers aged ranging from 10-14
are around 20 per cent of the total population of country and about 11 percent of them
are engaged in the entire country. The highest ratio of children participation in labor
force has observed in Punjab i.e. 11.83 percent while the less ratio is in Sindh about
8.5 percent. The LFS revealed that, the unemployment ratio of child laborer aged
ranges from 10-14 have observed approximately 21 percent in the survey year (FBS
1.3.11. Base Line Surveys of Selected Industries in Pakistan, 2004
The other base line surveys have also been undertaken at district levels for example in
Sialkot, Hyderabad, Kasur, Chirat, and Chakwal, by ILO with the coordination of
FBS. These base line surveys conducted to gather accurate and exact data on each of
the target groups and to establish the nature, magnitude, causes, and consequences of
the worst forms of child labor in country. Approximately 9800 to 10000 children
estimated to involve in the glass bangles industry of Hyderabad and about 5800
children have found in surgical instrument manufacturing industry of Sialkot (ILO
2004a). The large numbers of children have seen in Kasur`s tanneries and coal mines
of Chirat & Chakwal, moreover the 900 to 1500 children under 16, employed in
Kasur`s tanneries while around 850 to 1200 children involve in coal mines of
Chakwal and Chirat (ILO 2004b).
1.3.12. Official position in Pakistan, regarding child labor followings
United Nation`s Convention have a claim to protect the all aspects oI children`s right
and have successful to make the policies oI children`s right. On the other hand,
Pakistan has initiated a few policies and child labor laws to prohibit the child
participation in labor force as well as signed some agreement and conventions with
international bodies to eliminate the child labor from Pakistan. The GOP also has
ratified the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child in 1990, and then GOP
cancelled the old-fashioned child labor Act 1938 as well as approved new laws known
as employment of children Act 1991(See Act 1991). This employment of children Act
1991 define the children a boy or girl under the age of fourteen would considered a
child. Moreover ,the 2
part of Act 1991 ban and disallow the all worst form of
child labor especially in the manufacturing ,carpet weaving ,fireworks, brick kiln
industry, and chemical etc. Third section of Act 1991, gives the permission to the
employment of children with limited conditions, in which only maximum 7 hours are
allow for work with one-hour break after three hours regular work and children would
not work between the 7 p.m. to 8 a.m. After accepting the UN Convention on the
Rights of the Child, the GOP totally prohibit the all worst forms of child labor
mention under.
the recruitment of children in armed forces
the slavery of children
the child prostitution
the child pornography
The Employment of Children Act 1991 was comprehensive and extensive legislation
in Pakistan, which deIends the all aspect oI children`s rights and prohibits the all sort
of child labor
(For more detail see, Employment of Children Act 1991). However,
some time these policies have been ignore and violate because of lack of political will
and mismanagement.
See Employment of Children Act 1991 (Section1, 2, 3)
Child labor is a social evil and prevalence of child labor is a result of, poverty,
illiteracy and family background. Children are engaged in work at different places to
support their family and to fulfill their economic and social requirement. The
socioeconomic background of family is a basic factor to build the future of child.
Keeping the gravity and significance of the issue, the present study aimed to
investigate the socio-economic problems of working children and all the issues
associated with it.
The main objective of the study is to analyze the socioeconomic determinants of
working children in capital territory of Islamabad. The study exclusively focuses on
the supply side determinants of the working children and demand side determinants
are out of the scope.
1.5.1 Sub Objectives
To analyze the current scenario of child labor in Islamabad,
To examine the working hours, amount of payment, current education level,
reasons for starting work of the children,
To recommend policy measures to prevent child labor.
The child labor is public policy issue, and has theoretical and practical importance.
Theoretically, it contributes in the limited existing literature of child labor in Pakistan,
but practically, it would provide the framework and an essential guideline to the
policymakers of Pakistan to combat the child labor phenomenon, moreover, it would
try to explore the optimal policy options and provide the recommendations to the
government for the working children welfare. The study is also important, because it
would highlight and expose the socio-economic determinants and causes behind the
children`s work, in addition to that, it would highlight the children`s rights according
to Employment of Children Act 1991.
1.7. Research Questions
What is the major supply side determinates of working children in the
Why these children are victims of child labor and who stolen their childhood
and their right to get education?
How can the legal framework be used to effectively combat child labor
What measures should be put in place to prevent child labor?
The remaining part of the work is organized as: Chapter 2 presents the theoretical
framework and literature review of different research papers and books which
investigates the socio-economic determinants of child-labor. Chapter 3 contains the
explanation of methodology, variables and techniques which have been applied to
analyze the socio-economic determinants of child-labor in Pakistan. Chapter 4
presents analysis and the results of primary sources which have been used in the study
and it also summarizes the study under all the questions which have been asked in
primary data collection technique (Questionnaire). Lastly, Chapter 5 presents the
concluding remarks of the study and gives some recommendations.

The supply side determinants of child labor, its consequences, effects and impacts
have been subject to theoretical and empirical discourses. Although the variety of
approaches have been developed but the well-known shifts in this debate regarding
the supply-side determinants of child labor are being discussed here. These
approaches are well known among social scholars and have been used to deal with
issue of child labor. Some of these approaches are discussed below.
2.1.1. Children as Household Assets:
The household decision approach is one of the basic tools to analyze the supply side
of child labor. Household always considered child-labor as consumption good to
increase the income level. The various studies (Basu 1998; Parsons and Goldin
1989; Lloyd 1992) find the correlation between household decision and child labor;
these studies basically focus the household conditions, parental characteristics and the
interaction between child labor and that of adults.
In the general household model, each household consists of one or more adults and
one or more children. If the market wages are sufficient and fulfill the household
subsistence needs, then only adults will work, conversely, if the market wages are
declined and are below the household subsistence level, then children will have to
work. Consequently, it formulates the two possible equilibriums: one where wages are
high enough and only adults` work, in opposition, where wages are below the
subsistence level and children must work (Basu and Van 1998). In this context,
children are viewed strictly in terms of their value as assets. In fact, exploiting a
household`s assets may Irequently require the inputs oI child labor.
2.1.2. The Poverty Hypothesis:
Poverty is the most important and well-known supply side determinant of child labor.
Poverty can be observed as a prominent supply side factor at both the micro and
macro level. At the macro level, it is seen that working children represent a decreasing
proportion of the total labor force as Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita
increases; the micro level factors of poverty directly affect the household. Some of the
literature reveals that poverty may be analyzed in relation to cultural and gender
factors, contrary to that, a lot of studies (Ray, 1998; Edmonds and Pavcnik, 2003)
conclude that poverty and risk factors (war, disease, and disaster) collectively enhance
child labor phenomenon.
While the literature suggests that poverty is a causal factor in the child labor (Rosati
and Tzannatos 2003) but the literature discloses another frequent approach ~poverty
trap that cannot also be ignored. In any generation, the children who do not work do
not go to school and do not acquires any skills. Subsequently, upon becoming parents
themselves, they send their own children to work and this constitutes never ending
process (Akabayashi and Psacharopoulos 1999). This vicious cycle is known as a
~poverty trap.
The purpose of this section is to review the literature regarding the child labor. The
literature discussed in this section provides the base from which empirical setting of
the study has been derived. The literature has been divided into five parts. The first
part explains the causes of child labor while the second part reveals the literature
finding and their linkages between human capital and child-labor. The third part
explains the impact of child labor on different determinants like education, marital
status, and employment choices etc while the fourth part discusses the literature that
finds the relationship between globalization and child-labor and the last portion
describes different policies that have been made so far.
2.2.1. Causes of child labor:
Ali et al. (2010) made a comparison of child labor between urban and rural regions of
Pakistan. The study conducted a survey from two different districts and then the
statistical model (probit) applied for estimations and results. The study finds that the
causes of child labor are different in both urban and rural areas of Pakistan. However,
gender discrimination, strict family attitude and ignorance of parents are the main
cause of child-labor in both areas. The study further points out that girls are more
neglected as compare to the boy as girls are more involved in the labor-force in rural
areas as compared to the urban areas. Children of rural area leave the school in early
ages if are compared to urban children. The results further shows that the
determinants of child labor in both regions are different because of the presence
different socioeconomic, cultural and political conditions, therefore, both regions,
urban and rural, need different kind of program and policies for the reduction of the
child labor.
Ali and Khan (2003) scrutinized the determinants of supply side of urban areas of
Pakistan. They conducted a survey by exploiting a structured interview tool from
2000 households for getting observation of districts Pakpattan. The study further put a
sequential probit model for empirical estimations by utilizing four independent
variables. The findings of research describes that girls are in a prestigious position and
are contributing less in the economic activities because of socio-religious factors.
Ownership of assets or family business further increases the possibility of work for
boys. The research suggests reducing the poverty from country and increases the
wages of adult labors to eliminate the child labor. Hence, it will ensure the children
participation in education or school attendance.
Awan et al. (2009) have examined the parents` decisions about their children work
and look at the reasons why the parents enforce their children to work. The data was
collected from multiple indicator cluster survey2007-08 and probit models was
applied to find results. This paper pointed-out many supply side determinants of child
labor and the results confirmed that less income of family head, less parental
education, low income of a family and huge family size are the major indicators that
propel the children to work.
Ali and Hamid (2004) carried-out a study on female child labor in the city of Multan
and illustrated the factors that are behind the female child labor that are working in
very well off and educated families. The observation were collected from the sixty
girls, those are working as maidservant, baby sister and doing other household tasks.
They pointed-out that the ratio of female child labor is very high like other developing
countries. The result depicts that the intolerable economic circumstances of a family,
huge family sizes and low income of parents push the girls to work instead of school
as they have left with no option. Further these girls start jobs at the age of 7 to 8 year
with long working hours in a harsh condition on very less wages and sometime they
also experience different types of abuse from the employer
Hou (2009) has found the association among money, child labor and child-schooling
and some others. The study has deeply examined the current scenario of working
children in Pakistan. In addition to that, the Probit model has been used to explore the
relationship among money, child labor and schooling. The findings of the paper
suggest that money is the basic factor that usually forces the children to work but it
has less role in the working of rural girls as the they are not sent to the schools
because of strict socio-cultural environment. The study further pointed-out that
poverty is the major problem but there is another important category of children that
are deployed in the family business and deliberately drop their schooling in both
urban and rural areas. Hence, the ownership of productive means, assets and family
enterprise are playing a crucial role to enhance the child labor.
Pitriyan (2006) has examined the impacts of child labor on education of children in
Indonesia. The author has used two dependent variables, working and schooling and
other control variables, child and household characteristics are also used in the study.
The result showed that work of children is dependent on their respective household
income, working status and gender of household head. Moreover, the females as the
household heads are less earning comparatively to their male counterparts, so chances
of child participation in the labor force are more, if women are heads of their families.
Secondly, there is strong positive relationship between work and household
characteristics in agricultural areas, because the participation of children in work with
their parents definitely enhances the income of family. In addition, there has been
seen an extremely adverse relationship between child characteristics and schooling
since the absence from school make them less progressive and socially inactive also.
Chakrabarty and Grote (2007) discussed the condition of child labor in the Indian
carpet industry and the impacts of social labeling on them. The research also
examined the role of Non-Governmental Organizations (NGO) working for the
welfare of the children that are engaged in the Indian carpet industry. The interviews
were conducted from the 470 households for obtaining primary data in north region of
India. The econometric analysis showed that there were two kinds of groups in
children that were working in the carpet industry; one was the group of those children
who are spending their life below the subsistence level (very poor) while the second
group comprising of those children who are living above subsistence level. Moreover
the results showed a positive relationship between child labor and household debt,
because illiterate people avoid formal credit institutions and huge paper work, on the
contrary to it, they prefer the informal credit market. Children belonging to the first
group (below subsistence level) are in more vulnerable condition; moreover, the
children under the age of ten are also at risk.
Haile and Astatike (2007) used the rural survey of Ethiopia to discover the
determinants of working children and school attendance. In Ethiopia, the children
begin economic activities at very early ages and spend more hours in work place. In
spite of this, there is big specialization between male and female children activities as
boys do the market jobs or agricultural work but girls only carryout the household or
domestic work .The research used a bivariate probit model to check the relationship
between all variables. The study shows that boys are in better position than girls.
Apart from doing work, boys are attending the school while the girls are engaged in
domestic chores and they are completely absent from the schools due to gender
discrimination and cultural barriers.
Wahba (2005) investigated the impacts of market wages and parental decision on
child labor by using individual level data and conducted information from the ten
thousand household that approximately comprises ten thousand children in Egypt.
Second, he examined the regional characteristics and income equality among the
regions. The key findings of the study that less market wages have strong negative
impacts on children labor activities, as well as there is huge income inequality among
all the regions of country in term of resources and market wages .The regional
disparities increases the probability of child labor in Egypt. He concluded that the
cash should be transfer to the less develop regions of the country, which are under
threat. He recommends starting micro financing schemes for female as working
women are in the most vulnerable conditions in the Egyptian markets.
Ray (2000) used the cross-sectional data of two countries, Pakistan and Peru, to
examine the two hypotheses. The first hypothesis tested that if poverty and
economically active children have strong positive correlation while, the second
hypothesis examined the strength of adverse relationship between child schooling and
poverty. The study confirmed that huge child labor is existed in both countries and the
main factor for it is less income of parents and consequently it propels the children to
work. Moreover, Pakistan`s data set does not reject both hypotheses, on the other
hand, Peruvian`s data Iailed to Iind out any correlation. In Pakistan, when poor
families face trouble to generate income, they push their children to the work for the
Rasheda (2005) discussed the trends of child labor in Bangladesh and examined the
magnitude and worst patterns of child labor as well as analyzed the previous and
current pattern of policies. The paper finds that Bangladesh is growing economy and
attained satisfactory economic condition during the last decay. But, the trend of child
labor has been increasing as compare to other neighboring countries like India and
Pakistan. Further, the pattern of child labor is different in different sectors of economy
.The participation of children in agriculture sector is less but still rate is very high
while the rate of working children are extremely above average in the urban areas. As
far as the study explores that child labor, laws are insufficient and policies are
inappropriate to reduce the participation of children in labor. The paper suggests that
less education cost, reforms in education system, infrastructure, and labor laws are the
first step to break the vicious cycle of child labor.
2.2.2. Human Capital and Child Labor:
Bellettini et al. (2003) looked at the issue of child labor in a different way from the
developing countries and analyzed the relationship between child labor, investment in
human capital and scientific advancement. The first world is going to be more
advance especially in term of industrial sector but in developing countries, firms are
working manually and firm do not want to deploy technological innovation due to
heavy expenditure . They prefer to hire the uneducated labor on a very low wages
especially children to reduce the maximum cost. The research explore that people
who are very deprived, unskilled and less educated are earning less .So, they prefer to
send their children to the work places as compare to the schools. On the one side
Governments are not delivering sufficient funds for enhance the level of people in
education and social sectors while on the other hand, firms are not ready to install the
new technological innovation in industry, therefore, the both factors are equally
playing active role to enhancing the child labor in these countries. The study shows a
very positive and significant relationship between investment in human capital,
technological advancement and child labor.
Hazan and Berduge (2002) checked the relationship among human capital,
technology, and child labor in the early phases of economy development. According
to them, the ratio of working children is always high and per capita income is less in
the early stage of economy, but these elements might be improve with the passage of
time. The optimal use of technological innovation in the economy leads to the skilled
human capital and does increases the wages of worker. The increment of income
makes the parents decision better and then they push their children to education
instead of work. The study has shown the positive results between human capital child
labor and technological progress in a developed economy but there is negative
relationship between per capita income and child labor in the early stage of economy.
Fan (2004) exposed the positive effects of child labor in the human capital
participation. He argued that child labor is product of differences of relative wages of
children and adults workers and children participation in work can lead to the
enhancement oI children`s human capital. Financial resources and labor market oI a
country is not adversely affected by child labor and optimistically increases the
human capital but the study hour may be disturbed. He suggested that tradeoff
between child work and education is the first step to the skillful human capital but it is
impossible without optimal policy and subsidy to the children including both study
and work.
Dessy and Pallage (2000) discovered the less coordination among the parental
decisions, Iirms` decisions and Government policies. They argued that the poor parent
are not willing to push their children to school and firms do not want to install a new
scientific innovation in industrial sectors and Government policies of these countries
are less progressive to improve the both supply and demand sides . The research
suggest that the government is in better position to improve the coordination system
among all sides and can provide the funds for technology to industry and can
convince the firms to avoid employing the children. In additions, there is a need to
improve the education system and should start investment in a skill development
programs for adults in developing countries.
2.2.3. Impacts of child labor:
Beegle et al. (2007) examined the extent of child labor and its impacts on education,
marital status, and employment choices by using a different longitudinal data set from
Tanzania. In this paper rainfall and crop shock has been used as independent
variables. The results of the study shows that rainfall and crop shocks raises the child
labor in rural areas for boys, while girls holds the household chores due to early
marriages and are away from farm duties. They figured out that the magnitude of
child labor in the country is at alarming stage like other African countries and major
reason for this social evil is poverty and less economic development of the whole
region of Africa. Moreover, the Tanzanian paying a social cost of child labor in a
form of huge unskilled labor, less educated, deprived, chaotic, and scattered society.
Beegle et al. (2004) examined the impacts of child labor on health, income, education
and human capital from the Vietnam. He took data set from Vietnam Living
Standards Survey and embedded the econometric model for estimation and found that
child labor deIinitely decreases school enrollment but have no eIIects on children`s
health and increases the income of household. They show the negative association
between child labor and education and significant relationship between working and
Iamily`s income and children`s health. They suggests that whether child labor
enhances the income level, and increases the human capital on the one side, but these
working children without education is a great hazard in a future and this trend would
create the more poverty and unskilled human capital in country.
2.2.4. Impacts of Globalization:
Dagdemir and Acaroglu (2010) examined the impacts of globalization on child labor
from the developing countries. They test a relationship between foreign direct
investment (FDI) and economic growth. The paper exposes that globalization increase
the proportion of child labor in developing countries, while there is strong positive
correlation between FDI and economic growth. Even so, the economic growth of
these countries cannot decline the ratio of working children, and it shows a negative
relationship between trade openness and child labor.
Cigno et al. (2002) exposed that globalization is not the reason to boost the child
labor in developing countries. They argue that the process of globalization improved
the economies of third world countries and because of this phenomenon uneducated
and unskilled labor are receiving high wages from markets. They analyzed that the
globalization is positively effecting on people live, the problem of child labor was
already exiting in these countries because of less income of parents, less education of
parents, and household poverty. The study illustrated that there is no empirical
evidence, which can proof that, globalization is a mother of evil behind high ratio of
child labor in developing countries.
Dinopoulos and Zhao (2007) have analyzed the trade liberalization and economic
openness only serving the modern industrial sector of economy in developing
countries. There are two sectors modern industrial and agrarian sector, in developing
countries. In a modern sector, industries and firms are going to be more technologies
due to FDI and MNCs as well as they only require a skillful and educated worker on
every level. In addition, the factor pushed the child worker to other jobs especially to
agrarian sector of the country. They find that trade liberalization, and FDI change the
pattern of wages, mind-set of workers and it is a process, which creates hurdles on the
way of child labor by following universal human rights acts.
Dagdemir and Acaroglu (2009) checked the relationship between globalization and
child labor by using the cross sectional data of developing countries. Foreign direct
investment (FDI) and trade openness increase the GDP per capita income of the
developing countries. On the other hand, globalization imposes the labor and human
rights laws in developing countries but still child labor is exiting there. The paper has
shown that the strong positive relationship exists between child labor and FDI,
because globalization reduces the child labor from the developing countries and there
are the other determinants of child labor except income, and poverty.
2.2.5. Policies:
Fasih (2007) assessed the legislation on children participation in labor force with
reference to its impacts on the Children Employment Act 1991. The secondary data
set was taken from Pakistan integrated survey 1991 and a natural experiment
approach has been applied. Moreover, the empirical results shows that male children
are mostly victim by Act 1991 and girls are less affected by this Act because they are
engage in household activities and are not a part of formal economic sector.
Sugawara (2011) discussed the worst forms of child labor with a few policy
implications and measures .According to him, child labor can never be eliminated
from the poor societies because it contributes in the income of family but the worst
forms of child labor should be completely abolished. He proposed some ideas that the
worst forms of child labor, which is damaging children personality, physically,
mentally, psychologically, like child prostitutions, child pornography, and all forms of
child slavery and trafficking should be completely banned. Moreover, the
Governments of developing countries should take substantial actions to provide
education with their related work, because it is the only way to produce the skilled
and educated human capital for a future.
Krueger and Tjornhom (2002) reviewed the child labor law`s eIIects on economic
inequality in the developing countries. They argued that economic inequality is
already prevailing phenomenon in the developing countries; therefore, policy-makers
would have to modify their laws where child labors can be rightly trade-off with the
education. They recommended that Government can start innovative programs and
vocational training for working children. In addition to that, international governing
bodies should start worldwide agenda to abolish the worst forms of child labor and
involve the local stakeholders, like firms, educationist ,NGOs , legislators to aware
the people.
Brown (2001) in his work reviewed those policies and laws which have been
implemented till date to prevent the child labor, further he recommended the some
programs to be launched for the welfare of working children. He argued that
developed countries have successfully eliminated the child labor from their respective
society by implementing laws and optimal policies. But under develop and developing
countries doesn`t have suIIicient resources, Iunds and issues oI mismanagement and
governance are the some big hurdles in the way of elimination of child labor. He
articulated that, especially in the case of developing countries, subsidy in the
education sector can not compensate with the income level. These governments would
have to provide the financial assistance and flexible schedules in work with the
cooperation of employers.
This chapter has reviewed available literature on working children from all angles. It
covers the supply and demand side determinants of working children, and reasons,
causes and consequences of working children. The chapter discusses the all worst
forms of child labor and its impact on children development as well as it reviews the
polices, and recommendations, which can be applied. The major reasons, causes, and
determinants of working children given by researchers are described under:
Gender discrimination, socio-religious and family behaviors
Huge family sizes, and population pressure
Less education and ignorance of parents
Household poverty, less income of parents
Ownership of assets and family business
Less wages of adults, and unequal distribution of wealth
Less technical education facilities, mismanagement in education system and
high education cost,
Less public amenities and lacking of enforcement of laws and government will
Migration from rural to urban area, regional disparities,
Less Technological innovation, scientific advancement in firms and labor-
intensive markets
Political instability, civil unrest and war, chaos, disaster,
Globalization and consumerism,

The process of collecting data and information for establish a new fact known as
research methodology. Many techniques and methods can apply in social sciences
research, in which some are qualitative and other is quantitative in nature. The aim
and objectives of study defines and choose the mode of research method and
techniques (Keane 1993).
Different researchers describe (Weiner et al. 1995; Durrant 1998; Ahmed 1991)
that the survey method is the best way to find out the determinants of working
children. Because, official and other organizational data set could not comprehend the
whole scenario and neglect lot of socio-economic factors behind the labor of children.
Since, child labor is very high in developing countries and they hide the problems and
statistics of child labor due to international laws and pressure; however, these
countries have not exact official information and comprehensive data set about
working children.
Quantitative method of research measures the things with numbers, data and involves
the statistics or other mathematical techniques to analyze the significant relationships
between variables or hypothesis of research. The quantitative analysis would fulfill
the requirement of main objective and question of the current study. A number of
researchers have the same opinion that supply side determinant of working children
cannot be found without survey. Therefore, a survey was designed and conducted and
the whole procedure of data collection, universe, sample size, data collection
instrument, or mode of survey, data analysis, and results are discussed

Besides, the descriptive analysis of the hypotheses, a survey was also conducted in the
Islamabad Capital Territory to acquire further data support for analysis.
3.2.1. Population:
The population for the study consists of the entire children of Islamabad Capital
Territory that are actively working in different commercial markets. The study is
further delimited to full time working male children aged upto 14 years.
3.2.2. Sample Size:
A sample is a subset of the populationusually with the implication that the subset
resembles the population closely on key characteristics (is representative of the
population). If the sample is representative of the population, then what is true of the
sample will also be true of the population (within a calculable margin of error). The
total sample size is consists of 384 respondents that truly represents the population.
The population has been selected randomly from every area, which was under
The data was collected on a pre-constructed research instrument covering different
determinants i.e. socio-economic characteristics, children characteristics, parental
characteristics, household characteristics, age education, income, household locality,
family size and adult employment.
3.2.3. Sampling Method:
The simple random sampling technique has been selected for primary data collection
and ICT has been selected as the universe. Islamabad is the capital of the country and
the 10
biggest city of Pakistan. It is an urban area and can be called as a very well
planned city. The city is divided into the number of sectors including one main market
that exists in each sector that provide the every kind of essential stuff and services to
the dwellers of sector. Almost of all of the targeted population (working-children) is
working in all these markets. The sample size consists of 384 respondents, which is
calculated keeping in mind the unknown population. Selection of data collection Instrument:
Structured and close-ended interview schedule is cost-effective and less time
consuming. Therefore, the same was used for data collection as it was not possible to
apply any other technique.
A structured interview schedule contacting close-ended questions was used measuring
all the following variables.
3.3.1. Socioeconomic Characteristics:
According to (Chernichovsky 1985) 'the prevalent or existing average standard of
cultural possessions, effective income sources, material procession and the
involvement or participation in the group activities of community defines an
individual`s socioeconomic status.Socio-economic characteristics are the
information by which individuals can be classified, such as, sex, age, education,
income, occupation, employment status, family type, size and locality. Such
classification in turn may assist in understanding and defining several behavior and
attitudes as well as determines the reasons of child labor.
3.3.2. Children Characteristics:
Generally, the literature on child labor revealed that the age and gender of the child
are important determinants. Beside of these, few more characteristics, such as, current
educational status of child, occupation, income (Rs/per month) and working hours as
well as children`s decision about education and work have been selected Ior the study.
3.3.3. Parental Characteristics:
The general perception is that the education of father, employment status and income
level have an effect on the children, but the education of mother, employment status
and income level cannot be ignored. So, the parental education, employment status
and income have been considered for the study. The literature has established
empirical facts that the education and employment status of the parents affect the
child labor decision (Orazemand Gunnarsson 2004; Duflo 2000).
3.3.4. Household Characteristics:
Various household characteristics like demographic and economic features may affect
the supply of child labor. On the demographic side, household size, composition, type
(nuclear or joint) and household locality (local or not) are the most important. On the
economic side, adult employment ratio has been preferred for the research.
3.3.5. Age:
Age is one of the important variables in a social research, which affects the attitude
and behavior of a person at different stages of life. Age is defined as a total number of
years completed by the respondents since their birth to the time of interviews. But for
this study, only age of respondent and his age at starting work have been chosen .The
study targeted children of age upto 14 years and above 14 year children are out of the
3.3.6. Education:
Education is the consciously controlled and deliberately managed process whereby
alterations are observed and produced by the individual`s behavior and attitudes.
Education plays a decisive role and is consider very important social indicator in
understanding and deIining respondent`s behavior. Mostly, various researches
(Psacharopoulos 1997; Bhatty and Kiran 1998) described and measured education
under the categories of Illiterate, Primary, Middle, Secondary, Intermediate,
Graduation, and Post Graduation. For this purpose, only respondent and parental
education has considered.
3.3.7. Income:
Usually, Income is a consumption and savings opportunity gained by an entity within
a particular time. Income is a very important indicator, which contribute a significant
part in studying and understanding different levels of aptitudes, behaviors, perceptions
and priorities managed and formulated by an individual. The income of respondent,
income of parents (mother and father) has been select and Income has taken in rupee
per month for the current study
3.3.8. Household Locality:
The family background in terms of local or migrated is also a major factor. The
household locality, the place of residence, and migration are often the most tested
variables in the literature of child labor (Jensen and Nielsen 1997).
3.3.9. Family Size (Household Members):
Household is a fundamental entity of the society in which a single or group live
together under the same roof, and interlinked with each other through social bond as
well as manage the whole activities of household collectively. All individuals in a
family, which shares the same social and economic affair in the same place and
interconnect with social ties. Family size or composition and type are also imperative
and social indicators, which defines the attitude, and mind-set, of respondent.
3.3.10. Adult employment:
Adult employment is a very important indicator for the current study; in addition, the
person having the age of 15 years participating in economic activity falls in the
category of adult employment. In various studies, the adult employment ratio has used
to determine the child labor (Tienda 1979; Lancaster at el. 1999).
On completion of the process of data collection, the structured interview schedule
needs to be thoroughly checked to make sure that all the responses have recoded
accurately. Subsequently, the entire questionnaires were numbered in a serial order.
The edited questionnaires were rechecked for accuracy before entering data into
Data analysis is the science and process of examining raw data with the objective of
making key points or drawing conclusions about the information. Data analysis is
used in many disciplines which allow researchers and academics to acquire basic
knowledge and information out of any data to make decisions and to verify or,
disprove existing models or theories. Data analysis focuses on inference; it is the
process of deriving a conclusion based solely on what is already known by the
Primary data has been collected by face-to-face interviews of children with the help of
structured interview schedule. The interview schedule was prepared in english but
questions were asked in the local languages for their better understanding .The mode
of questionnaire was not suitable for the collecting information, because the targeted
population (working children) were not able to fill the questionnaire due to
immaturity, age factor, and less education.
3.5.1. Development of Interview Schedule:
A pre-design comprehensive structured interview schedule has been modified for
getting information from selected population. The structured interview schedule
consists of different multiple choice and closed-ended questions, which have been opt
for study. The interview schedule is comprised of three sections; first section is
related to the child profile and next covers the parental, household and characteristics
respectively. The all questions in interview schedule were related to the socio-
economic condition of working children, like age, education, income, working hours
and reasons for works, household locality, family size and type, education, income of
parents, as well as adult employment in family.
The reason behind the selection of structured interview mode was that the information
obtained from schedule could easily be analyzed by the computer software.
3.5.2. Justification of Study area:
As a capital of a country, Islamabad is hub of all political and public administrative
activities. Therefore, the city is home of all senior politicians, civil servant, bankers,
and other professionals, as well as the people of every income group living in a city,
but the majority of the people are very well off. On the other hand, children are
working in the markets and providing basic services to the burgeon class.
3.5.3. Application and Analysis of Data:
The estimate of 384 respondents was developed on the basis of simple random
sampling and 307 structured interview schedules were successfully collected. Finally
all 307 structured interview schedules are utilized for analysis purpose, which
represent 80% response rate and data was analyzed by using SPSS statistical package.
For the purpose of data analysis both descriptive and inferential statistics were
exploited. For the frequencies of the various unique features of respondents
descriptive statistics have been applied.

All ethical considerations were kept in mind while collecting data and any
annoying/personal question was neither asked in the interview schedule nor during the
contact with the respondents. In addition to that, assurance was also given to the
respondents that data collected from them would only be used for the purpose of
research and would not be used for any other purpose. The field experience during
data collection was interesting and challenging as well. When respondents did not
respond or they didn`t Iollow the nature oI diIIerent questions and hesitate to answer.
They were persuaded through motivation and explanation for his better understanding
before response.

The population of the study was working or economically active children in capital
territory of Islamabad. Finally 384 questionnaires are utilized and 307 questionnaires
were considered for the purpose of analysis, which comprise 80% response rate and
data was analyzed by using SPSS statistical package. Both descriptive and inferential
statistics have been applied for data analysis. For the frequencies of the various
distinctive features of respondents descriptive statistics were applied and for testing
hypotheses etc.
4.1.1. Cronbach`s Alpha Test:
Before putting the data for various analyses, it is worthy to apply Cronbach`s alpha to
test the reliability of the data. Cronbach's alpha is a measure of internal consistency,
that is, how closely related a set of items are as a group. A "high" value of alpha is
often used (along with substantive arguments and possibly other statistical measures)
as evidence that the items measure an underlying (or latent) construct. Technically
speaking, Cronbach's alpha is not a statistical test; it is a coefficient of reliability (or
consistency). Cronbach's alpha can be written as a function of the number of test
items and the average inter-correlation among the items. Below, for conceptual
purposes, we show the formula for the standardized Cronbach's alpha:
As far as our data is concerned, It was 0.823(Table 4.1) which was quite encouraging
figure to put the data for further statistical analysis.
Table 4.1: Cronbach`s Alpha Test
Cronbach`s Alpha No of Items
0.823 20
Findings of the present study are discussed as under.
4.2.1. Age of the Respondents:
The following table 4.1 shows working children distinguished by age and the data
shows that majority of the respondents, 60.3 percent belong to the age between 13-14
years, and 30.3 percent respondents, falls in the age group 11-12 years. In the same
way, the 8.1 percent of respondents belonged to age group 8-10 years and small
number of respondents i.e. 1.3% were in the age of 7 years or below. Furthermore, the
Iigure 4.1 depicts the complete proIile oI respondent`s age.
Table 4.2: Age of the Respondent
Age (years) Frequency Percent Valid
7 or below 7 4 1.3 1.3 1.3
8-10 yrs 25 8.1 8.1 9.4
11-12 yrs 93 30.3 30.3 39.7
13-14 yrs 185 60.3 60.3 100.0
Total 307 100.0 100.0
Figure 4.1: Age of the respondent

4.2.2. Education of the respondent:
The following table 4.2 reveals that the large numbers of respondents i.e. 54.4 percent
never attended the school in their life and they are totally illiterate. Similarly, the
remaining respondents 36.5 percent were educated only to primary level and rest of
9.1 percent children has passed the middle level of school. In addition, figure 4.2
illustrates the condition oI children`s education, which they have attained.
Table 4.3: Education of the Respondent
Years of
Frequency Percent Valid
Never attend
167 54.4 54.4 54.4
Primary 112 36.5 36.5 90.9
Middle 28 9.1 9.1 100.0
Total 307 100.0 100.0

Figure 4.2: Education of the respondent
4.2.3. Occupation of the Respondent:
The table 4.3 describes the occupation or profession of the children in category wise.
The six occupation groups were selected for the study. According to the results the
huge number of children 25.7 percent was involved in the technical or mechanical
work like auto workshops and electronic, welder, plumbers or other mechanical
shops. The 20.2 percent children have been found in hotel or food shops and 17.3
percent children were working as shops assistants. In the same way, the 15.6 percent
children belong to other categories and most of them were working as a car or vehicle
washers in the markets. Likewise 12.7 percent children are engaged as hawkers and
they sell newspapers, fruits, vegetables (Reediwaly) and other goods. A small number
of children 8.5 percent working on garment, clothes, cosmetic or other shops as
salespersons. Figure 4.3 is showing the figures of table 4.3 in pictorial form.
Table 4.4: Occupation of the Respondent
Occupation Frequency Percent Valid
Mechanical or Technical 79 25.7 25.7 25.7
Hotel or Food shops 62 20.2 20.2 45.9
Shop Assistants 53 17.3 17.3 63.2
Hawkers 39 12.7 12.7 75.9
Sale Persons 26 8.5 8.5 84.4
Others 48 15.6 15.6 100.0
Total 307 100.0 100.0
Figure 4.3: Occupation of the Respondent
4.2.4. Income of the respondent Rs/month:
The table 4.4 exposes that large number of children approximately 47.6 percent earns
between Rs 2000-4000 per month. The next 25.4 percent children are getting around
Rs 2000 or less per month, further the 19.2 percent respondents are receiving between
Rs 4000-6000 per month .A very minute 7.8 percent of children earns above Rs 6000
per month .The graph 4.4 reveal the income levels of respondents ,which they are
getting after doing work .
Table 4.5: Income of the respondent Rs/month
Income (Rs/month) Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative
Rs 2000 or less 78 25.4 25.4 25.4
Rs 2000-4000 146 47.6 47.6 73.0
Rs 4000-6000 59 19.2 19.2 92.2
More than 6000 24 7.8 7.8 100.0
Total 307 100.0 100.0
Figure 4.4: Income of the respondent Rs/month
4.2.5. Reason for starting work of respondent:
When respondents were asked the reason behind their work, bulk of children around
61.6 percent said that they were supporting their families, and they contribute in
household income. The next 19.5 percent children showed the apathy in education and
study. The remaining 13 percent children have been found in workplace because of
their parental decision and rest of 5 percent has engaged in their family or personal
business and they are helping their parents in family business. The figure 4.5 is
disclosing causes for starting labor of children.
Table 4.6: Reason for starting work
Reasons Frequency Percent Valid
Family Enterprise or Assets 18 5.9 5.9 5.9
To Support Family 189 61.6 61.6 67.4
Parental Decision 40 13.0 13.0 80.5
No Interest in Study 60 19.5 19.5 100.0
Total 307 100.0 100.0
Figure 4.5: Reason for starting work of respondent
4.2.6. Age at starting work of the Respondents:
The following table 4.6 explains that 47.9 percent children started the work in the age
from 8-10 years, and next 30.3 percent children reached the work place when they
were between 11-12 years old. Correspondingly, 16.3 percent children started their
work in an early age from 7 year or below and a few children 5.5 percent started work
age between 13-14 years.
Table 4.7: Age at starting work
Age at starting work Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative
7 years or Below 50 16.3 16.3 16.3
8-10 years 147 47.9 47.9 64.2
11-12 years 93 30.3 30.3 94.5
13-14 years 17 5.5 5.5 100.0
Total 307 100.0 100.0
Figure 4.6: Age at starting work of Respondent
4.2.7. Working hours:
Again more than half of working children around 61.2 percent stated that they spend
above 10 hours in work sometime without break. The remaining 33.9 percent children
work 8-10 hours in daily basis similarly, 3.9 percent child laborer work 5-7 hours
every day .Only 1 percent children spend 4 hours or less in their work .Table 4.7 is
presenting the complete figures of working hours as well as figure 4.7 .
Table 4.8: Working Hours
Working Hours Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative
4 or Below Hours 3 1.0 1.0 1.0
5-7 Hours 12 3.9 3.9 4.9
8-10 Hours 104 33.9 33.9 38.8
Above 10 Hours 188 61.2 61.2 100.0
Total 307 100.0 100.0
Figure 4.7: Working Hours
4.2.8. House-hold Locality:
The largest portion of the respondents 65.5 percent is not native of Islamabad, and
they arrive from the fur furlong and remote areas of Pakistan .Majority of the children
among 65 .5 belong to rural background .According to table 4.8 the 34.5 percent of
children are local of Islamabad and they are living with their families in the city of
Islamabad. The figure 4.8 illustrating the same condition which is describes in table
Table 4.9: Household Locality
Locality Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative
Local 106 34.5 34.5 34.5
Not Local 201 65.5 65.5 100.0
Total 307 100.0 100.0
Figure 4.8: Household locality
4.2.9. Head of Family:
The data shows that mostly fathers of children are the head of family and mothers are
not in a dominant position. According to table 4.9, more than two third of the
respondents 82.7 percent reported that their fathers copes the whole household matters
and are head of family. The next 9.4 percent stated that their parents are not head of
family due to joint family system and some other personal reasons .Only 7 percent
mothers have been Iound as a head oI Iamily because oI their husband`s death or
Table 4.10: Head of Family
Head of Family Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative
Mother 24 7.8 7.8 7.8
Father 254 82.7 82.7 90.6
Other 29 9.4 9.4 100.0
Total 307 100.0 100.0
Figure 4.9: Head of Family
4.2.10. Family Type:
The results demonstrate that majority of children 83.7 belong to nuclear family
backgrounds; where they only live with their parents and sibling. Only 16.3 children
come from joint family system, wherein they live with their grandparents and other
relatives. The table and figure 4.10 shows the figures of children, s family structure.
Table 4.11: Family Type
Family Type Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative
Nuclear 257 83.7 83.7 83.7
Joint 50 16.3 16.3 100.0
Total 307 100.0 100.0
Figure 4.10: Family Type
4.2.11. Parents Life`s Cycle:
The table 4.11 shows that more the two third (83.7 ) oI children`s parents are alive;
in spite of this these children are working. Only 10.4 percent children affirmed that
their mothers have died and the remaining 3.3 percent children`s Iathers have died;
only mothers are alive. In addition, the 2.6 percent children reported their mothers and
fathers have passed away.
Table 4.12: Parents Life`s Cycle
Parents Life Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative
Both Alive 257 83.7 83.7 83.7
Father Only 10 3.3 3.3 87.0
Mother Only 32 10.4 10.4 97.4
Both Died 8 2.6 2.6 100.0
Total 307 100.0 100.0
Figure 4.11: Parents Life`s Cycle
4.2.12. Parental Employment Status:
When the question posed to the children, do your parents work? The above half of the
children (59%) respond that only their fathers are earning or working .The next 24.8
percent stated that their parents does not work or earn that`s why they have to do work
to supporting their Iamilies. Only 10 percent children`s both including mother and
fathers are earning or working. Likewise, the remaining 5.5 percent children stated
that only their mother do earn or work.
Table 4.13: Parental Employment Status
Employment Status
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative
Only Father 182 59.3 59.3 59.3
Only Mother 17 5.5 5.5 64.8
Both 32 10.4 10.4 75.2
None 76 24.8 24.8 100.0
Total 307 100.0 100.0
Figure 4.12: Parental Employment Status
4.2.13. Education of Father:
The results reveal that majority of the fathers (47%) of working children have found
illiterate and they never attended school. The 24.4 percent fathers of the respondents
attained the primary level of education; in addition, the 8.8 percent reached the middle
level of education. Moreover, 6.5 percent fathers of child laborer have metric level of
schooling and 7 percent have above metric education. The table and graph 4.12
illustrates the complete picture oI Iather`s education level oI child workers.
Table 4.14: Education of Father
Father`s Education Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative
Nil 36 11.7 11.7 11.7
No schooling 147 47.9 47.9 59.6
Primary 75 24.4 24.4 84.0
Middle 27 8.8 8.8 92.8
Metric 20 6.5 6.5 99.3
Above 2 .7 .7 100.0
Total 307 100.0 100.0
Figure 4.13: Education of Father
4.2.14. Income of Father:
The table 4.14 does disclose the income level of child workers fathers. The figures
show that an (18.9 %) father of child laborers earns Rs 6000-8000 per month and 18.6
percent fathers do obtain RS 4000-6000 per month. Furthermore, the 12.7 percent
fathers have been found who earn above RS 10000 per month, as well as 12.1 percent
falls in the income group of Rs 8000-1000 per month. According to the table 4.13, a
very small numbers of fathers are taking Rs 4000 or less .The graph 4.13 illustrates
the income level of child laborers fathers.
Table 4.15: Income of Father
Income of Father Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative
Nil 92 30.0 30.0 30.0
Rs 4000 or Below 24 7.8 7.8 37.8
Rs 4000-6000 Thousand 57 18.6 18.6 56.4
Rs 6000-8000 Thousand 58 18.9 18.9 75.2
Rs 8000-10000 Thousand 37 12.1 12.1 87.3
Above 10000 Thousand 39 12.7 12.7 100.0
Total 307 100.0 100.0
Figure 4.14: Income of Father
4.2.15. Education of Mother:
According to results, the more than two third (76.9%) of child workers mothers has
been found uneducated and illiterate. Only 10.1 percent mothers has been found who
have been attained the primary level of schooling from the formal education system.
Likewise, 2.3 percent mothers of working children have metric education and 1.3
percent mothers achieved the middle level of education .The table and graph 4.14 is
depicting the education level of child workers mothers and clearly proves that
education level of mother is very pathetic.
Table 4.16: Education of Mother
Education of Mother Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative
Nil 29 9.4 9.4 9.4
No Schooling 236 76.9 76.9 86.3
Primary 31 10.1 10.1 96.4
Middle 4 1.3 1.3 97.7
Metric 7 2.3 2.3 100.0
Total 307 100.0 100.0
Figure 4.15: Education of Mother
4.2.16. Income of Mother:
The table 4.15 expose that the high proportion (80.8%) of child laborers mothers does
not earns and not active economically. A small numbers of mothers have been found
who are earning or working, in which 12.4 percent mothers earns Rs 4000 or less per
month. The statistics shows that the (.7%) of child employees mothers earns Rs 6000-
8000 per month and 2.9 percent mothers gets RS 4000-6000 and 6000-8000 per
month respectively. The table and graph 4.15 discloses the income level of child
workers mothers which proves that their income level is very low and according to the
figures majority of the mothers are not part of economy.
Table 4.17: Income of Mother (if work) (Rs/Month)
Income of Mother Frequency Percent Valid
Don`t work 258 84.0 84.0 84.0
RS 4000 Thousand or Below 29 9.4 9.4 93.5
RS 4000-6000 Thousand 8 2.6 2.6 96.1
RS 6000-8000 Thousand 9 2.9 2.9 99.0
RS 6000-8000 Thousand 2 .7 .7 99.7
Above RS 10000 Thousand 1 .3 .3 100.0
Total 307 100.0 100.0
Figure 4.16: Income of Mother
4.2.17. Family Size:
The family size is very imperative social indicator, and table 4.15 illustrates the
family sizes of working children. The 36.2 percent children stated that they have 6-8
members in their family and 32.9 percent children belong to the category of 8-10
persons. The next 19 percent have above 10 persons in their family and very few
children 2.3 percent from normal family size around 4 or less. The graph and table
4.16 shows the family sizes of the child workers, which is very huge family size.
Table 4.18: Total Family Members
Family Members Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative
4 Members or less 7 2.3 2.3 2.3
4-6 Members 29 9.4 9.4 11.7
6-8 Members 111 36.2 36.2 47.9
8-10 Members 101 32.9 32.9 80.8
Above 10 Members 59 19.2 19.2 100.0
Total 307 100.0 100.0
Figure 4.17: Family Size
4.2.18. Adult employment Ratio:
The table 4.18 describes that the adult employment ratio is very low in child workers
families. The majority of the children around (69.4%) belong to such families which
have 2 or less adult workers. The next large proportion (26.1%) of children has 2-4
adult employees in their Iamilies and 3.3 percent children`s Iamilies have 4-8 adult
worker. The rest of the (.7%) children have 6-8 and above 8 adult worker in their
families respectively. The graph illustrates the adult employment ratio of child
workers families, which is very less.
Table 4.19: Adult Employment Ratio in Family
Adult workers Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative
2 or less 213 69.4 69.4 69.4
2-4 80 26.1 26.1 95.4
4-6 10 3.3 3.3 98.7
6-8 2 .7 .7 99.3
Above 8 2 .7 .7 100.0
Total 307 100.0 100.0
Figure 4.18: Adult employment Ratio
4.2.19. Willingness to Work:
When asked to children about willingness of their work, surprisingly half of the
respondents 50.8 showed the complete lack of interest in work and they stated that
they are working because of less economic resources and poor family background.
The remaining 49.2 children were willing to work and small number of children
showed apathy in education and few realizes that their families can be panic without
their labor.
Table 4.20: willingness to Work
w||||ngness to
Irequency ercent Va||d ercent Cumu|at|ve
?es 131 49.2 49.2 49.2
no 136 30.8 30.8 100.0
1oLal 307 100.0 100.0
Figure 4.19: Willingness to Work
4.2.20. Willingness to Education:
The table and figure 4.20 expose the entire scenario of willingness and unwillingness
oI children`s labor.
Table 4.21: willingness to Education
willingness to
Frequency Percent Valid
Yes 215 70.0 70.0 70.0
No 92 30.0 30.0 100.0
Total 307 100.0 100.0
Figure 4.20: Willingness to Education
The section analyses the findings of the present study and discuss the results in the
academic manners. The numbers of qualitative and quantitative studies in Pakistan
have analyzed this category of children, determine the causing factors by taking
sample of child workers in different areas and industries, and found almost similar
4.3.1. Age of children:
The age of children is very important variable, which determines the child work
decision, entry to work and its intensity. The age of entry to work varies considerably
from occupation to occupation, industry to industry and between urban-rural areas as
well as even country to country(Dessy and Stephane 2005).The result shows that
overwhelming children active in labor market of Islamabad (60.3 %) and (30.3%)
belonged to the age between 13-14 years and 11-12 years respectively . Furthermore,
the table 4.6 explains that majority of the children (47.9 %) and (30.3%) started the
work in the age between 8-10 and 11-12 years respectively.
Work responsibilities and hardship tend to correlate with age. One established finding
in studies of child labor is that the older the child, the higher his or her wage (Gormly
and Amy 2005; Basu et al. 2004). During the survey one more thing come front of
eyes, majority of the child worker were seniors among their sibling. When families
push their children for subsistence reason, they may select their senior children for the
employment first, where these senior children get relatively higher wages then
younger children. Most probably the elder children are more productive, useful, and
much reliable as well as better able to perform complicated and complex tasks. The
Iact that a child worker`s wages in labor market is significantly relate to the age of
children, which is a key factor in the child labor decision of a family. It is found that
child`s contribution in labor increases with child age (Grootaert and Patrinos 1999).
4.3.2. Education level of child:
Education level of the children has a negative impact on work and each additional
year of education of child decreases the probability to work (Sahn and Glick 1999).
The result shows that (54.4%) children were totally illiterate. Only (36.5%) were
educated only to primary level and (9.1%) children passed the middle level of school.
The results confirm that the children started work in early ages and drop their
4.3.3. Reason for starting work:
The results of present study disclose the several reasons for starting work. The major
cause is household poverty but some other aspects are enhancing the child labor like,
parental decision, household enterprise or assets, and children`s apathy in education.
4.3.4. To Support Family:
The results confirm that overwhelming children (61.6%) are supporting their families,
and they contribute in household income. A number of studies in Pakistan about child
laborers (Hussain 2003; Durrant 1998) by their quantitative analysis have shown
that majority of the child workers come from lower income families. According to
these studies, child labor is mainly attributed by low income of the household.
Children are often put to work as a deterrent to idling rather than as an economic
necessity. Fallon & Tzannatos (1998) find out the strong relationship between
prevalence of child labor and poverty and suggesting that at micro level poverty make
sure a supply of child labor, it is structure of demand; however that decides the use of
child labor. So the household poverty is a main reason of child labor.
4.3.5. Parental decision:
General observations in the context of Pakistan, where unemployment ratio is high,
consequently some parents deliberately drop their children`s education and push them
to the technical or other work. The results show that (13%) children are available in
workplaces because of their parental decision. Where they are doing petty jobs with
long working hours and taking less salaries as compared to adult workers .It is also
explained by (Otsuka and Hayami 1992) that parents believe that early entry into
work is beneficial for children as they argue that children essential vocation skill and
become adept at financial management and negotiation with adults.
4.3.6. No interest in study:
Corporal punishment, inadequate education system, bad behavior of teachers, is
another major factor for dropping school (Greene 1992). The 19.5 percent children
showed apathy in education and study. When asked them about their disinterest in
education, most of the children stated that they drop the education due to bad
performance in study .Some children complained about the corporal punishments and
terrible attitude of teachers. Conversely, these children come from rural background
and slum communities, where they are nurture in a hostile and worse environment. So
in this situation children must followed their senior family members and community
people and drop the education in early ages. Community attributes may affect child
labor supply through the unfavorable and conducive environment (Lieten 2002).
4.3.7. Household enterprise and Assets:
Household assets and family enterprises play a vital role in the child labor decision.
According to graph 4.5, the 5 percent children have been found in Islamabad, those
are full time working in family enterprises. There are number of studies which
confirms that the existence of family assets and enterprises decrease the likelihood of
child labor, therefore foremost strong evidence to the probability that partial and
inefficient credit market give rise to high level of child labor (Burki and Fasih 1998).
4.3.8. Income and Working hours:
Generally, when study is compare between the number of working hours and the
income. It expose that in 47.6 percent of working children earn income between Rs
2000-4000 per month and who earn between Rs 2000 or less per month constitutes
25.4 percent of the entire sample. This simply indicates that 73 percent of children
receive less than the approved minimum wages in the country. Moreover, the 61.2
percent working children stated that they work more than 10 hours in a day and
remaining 33.9 percent children work 8-10 hours.
The literature on child labor in Pakistan disclosed that the child labor work long hours
then their adult counterparts. Long working hours and low wages explained that the
overall physical condition of the children is extremely pitiable (Cartwright and
Harry 1999). Numbers of studies find out the links between long working hours,
negative psychological effects poor mental health, cardiovascular disease, diabetes
and the likelihood of workplace accidents (Maitra and Ray 2000; Chaudary and
Khan 2000). There is no clear motivation regarding the future and majority of the
children (50.8) were not satisfied with what they do and they showed the complete
lack of interest in work. The remaining (49.2) don`t know better substitutes,
because it is a fact that the majority of child workers came from less educated families
and that their parents, or perhaps their surrounding environment, is not a source of
inspiration for them. To summarize, it is quite clear that children are always exploited
in terms oI the long working hours, less wages, and they don`t enjoy any form of
security from a legal point of view.
4.3.9. Parental Education:
Generally, it is suppose that educational level of parents plays a vital role in
determining children`s labor activities. Most probably educated parent earns higher
income and they are more probably to be able to send their children to school.
Moreover well educated parents are likely to discourage child labor because they
understand the worth of education, especially long term (monetary) return to human
capital accumulation.
The results of the present study reveal that parents of the child workers are very
deprived in education. Majority oI the child laborer`s parents |Fathers (47) and
Mothers (76.9%)] has been found totally illiterate and they never attended school.
They don`t know how they are exploiting their children`s Iuture Ior present monetary
benefits. A number of studies at micro level have suggested that bulk of the child
workers come from uneducated families (Chaudhury 1997; Bhalotra 2001). The
same results show the present study.
A number of empirical studies show the negative association between parental
education and child labor (Deb and Rosati 2001; Tunail 1997) .The impact of
parental education on child labor participation conIirm the results oI parent`s
education on child schooling. The parent`s education enhances the school
participation of children and discourages the child labor. That is parental education
not only lowers the child labor but it also enhances the school participation of children
(Bhalotra and Heady 2001). But Iather`s education is more eIIective in resisting
child labor as compare to supporting school participation, while mother`s education is
more effective in the decision of school participation of children to reducing child
labor participation. Furthermore, in the decision oI labor Iorce participation Iather`s
education play more eIIective role as compared to mothers education. But mother`s
education can`t be ignored to determine the child labor, because it`s also very
important factor. It supports the common perception that education level of parents is
linked with lower prevalence of child labor and high school attendance rate.
4.3.10. Parental employment and income:
Cigno and Rosati (2000) narrated that parent`s employment status and income level
has significant impact on child labor, whether it is complementary or substitute. There
is probably the other factors, culture ,number of young sibling in the family , parent`s
employment status , income level , education level of parents , and household welfare
are the imperative determinants in establishing the complementary and substitutability
oI parent`s and children`s work .
The study used the variable (parental employment and income) to testify the impact of
parent employment on child labor and find that parental employment and income has
no significant impact. Because the results show that the only 60 percent fathers are
earning but their income level is low. Conversely high proportion (80.8%) of child
laborers mothers does not earns and not active economically.
There is a long debate over whether children and parents (especially mothers) are the
substitute or complement in economic activity. Supporters of the complementary
argument argue that when mothers contributes in the economic activities , children
take over household work from mother .Therefore, mothers and children
complementary in labor or economic activities, especially when infants and pre-
school children are present in the household (Lavy 1996). On the contrary supporters
of the substitution argument (Basu and Van 1998) articulate that when mothers are
more available for employment, then children are eradicate from the market. As a
result, decrease the rate of children participation in labor force and an increase in the
school attendance. Therefore parents (or mother) and children are the substitute in
economic activities. The result shows that children of unemployment and illiterate
mothers are more likely to engage in work i.e. there is a substitute between the
employment and education of mothers and child labor.
4.3.11. Household size and Composition:
The size of the family may be an important factor in the labor force participation of
children. The effect of the family size on children activity to work is found significant
by the present study. The results reveal that (36.2%) children have 6-8 members and
(32.9%) have 8-10 members in their family respectively. Larger family size means a
lower probability to go to school and larger household size increases the probability
for a child to work (Grootaert 1998).
It is noted that large size families increase the likelihood of the household being
improvised and thus they are more likely to need the additional income that a child
who works in the labor market can provide. It may be that families increase the
number oI children they bear as response to poverty so that the Iamily`s income may
be improve by pushing a few children to work or having them provides labor within
the household enterprise. Moreover, the extra income brought by their children may
allow families to invest in education of selected children. The phenomenon of more
likelihood of child labor from larger families of Pakistan may be explained as: larger
family sizes in Pakistan are more likely to be poor then small ones, i.e. the incidence
of poverty for household with 7 or more members is more than three times that for
households with 4 or less members (ESP 2010)
Household composition has a strong impact on tendency for a child to enter labor
force (Ridao 2000). It also found that household who have more number of children
above 15 in household tend to choose full time work for their children. A higher
number of working-age above 15 years in the family reduces child labor. This may be
the labor productivity effective i.e. greater number of adults working lowers the
returns by getting another child to work. Conversely it also suggests greater pressure
for school age children to earn when there are Iewer adults` earners in the household
(Hanushek 1992)
4.3.12. Adult employment ratio:
Less adult employment ratio is another factor in the large families which is one of the
key reasons to increase the child labor. The majority of the children (69.4%) belong to
such families, which have two or less adult workers. Adult unemployment is a cause
of child labor (Ashraf 2001) and it is assumed by many to contribute to adult
employment. Adult unemployment affects the child labor at two stages i.e. at the
household level and at the national level. At the household level, unemployment is the
cause of poverty. Therefore, the unemployment causes the lower income,
vulnerability and ultimately child labor and at the national level unemployment causes
to decline GDP (Rosenzweig 1990), for example change in employment in Pakistan
causes 30 percent change in GDP (Eswaran 2000). Hence, adult employment and
underemployment in the country increases poverty and child labor.
4.3.13. Locality of children
Rural-urban and core -periphery locality of the household has an impact on the
decision of child labor. The study finds that largest portion of the children (65.5%)
that are working in the capital has come from outside the city for earning and majority
of the children (almost 65 .5%) belong to the rural background. Only (34.5%) children
are natives of Islamabad, but they are living in slums and squatter settlements with
their families.
The rural and far-flung communities in Pakistan are living under the state of social
injustice, economic exploitation, deprivation, landlessness, and war and disaster prone
areas. The growing marginalization among these rural and remote population,
landlessness and unemployment has contributes to an increase in the magnitude of
child labor in the whole country (Arif 2000). This distant population has limited
employment opportunities for males, coupled with the fact that males usually lack the
skill needed for the high income employment (ADB 2008).Then households thus
become more dependent on children`s earning to pull themselves out oI the poverty.
Farming is still the most important means of making a living in rural areas. In
Pakistan, drastic changes are taking place in rural and distant communities. Rapidly
increasing population finds it more and more difficult to survive. Not only the
families are getting larger and more mouths are to be fed, but there are also elements
of falling prices of raw material, restructuring and rationalization in farming
inadequate government investment in farming to determine a satisfactory level of
production (Ray 1998). Lesson (2000) noted that in developing countries 70 percent
of the children living in the absolute poverty and come from rural areas. Poverty is
much severe in rural areas of Pakistan as compared to urban counterpart .The situation
of income in rural areas is more diverse for example, about 47 percent of the farms
are lesser than 2 hectares, accounting for 12 percent of the entire cultivated land
(Toor 2001).
The chapter is divided into the two sections, first section describes the empirical
findings of the study while second section analyzes and discusses the findings and
relates it to the different theories and available literature .The results showed that poor
socio-economic background of the household is the major reason for the child-labor
that propels the children to work.
The major findings of the study are described below:
Long working hours
Low wages of children
Less income of parents and poor employment status (mother and father)
Poor mother`s employment
Less education and ignorance of parents
Large family or household sizes
Less adult employment ratio
Migration from rural to urban area, regional disparities
Household poverty

The child labor is persistent social evil all over the developing world and specifically
in Pakistan. In the last decay, the child labor problem has got the attention of
policymakers, statesmen, advocates and researchers. Although, abundant of case
studies, researches, and surveys have conducted to estimates the total number of
active children with their dynamics. Still there is minute understanding of that fact
that why there is child labor prevailing in society.
In Pakistan, undoubtedly there is diverse nature of child labor with different
determinants, which varies over time and from place to place and community to
community. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the supply side
determinants of full time working children in the capital territory of Islamabad .The
conclusion drawn from the findings is that child labor is widespread phenomenon.
Generally these children can be seen everywhere in our society, where they are selling
news papers, toys, flowers, funny masks, fruits etc. at the same time these children are
easily found by the roadside hotels, cafes , and auto workshop ,where they work with
their Ustad jee or Naik sab (Master or Boss) . The qualitative results show that
children are found to offering their services in diIIerent sector oI Pakistan`s economy.
On the other side, children work long hours and receiving low wages as their adult
counterparts. Long working hours and low wages explained that the overall physical
conditions of the children are extremely poor .The employers prefer to hire children
because they are less paid and easy to manage without bargain.
Virtually the poverty is the main factor, which stimulates the children to work. The
less household resources and income demand the children`s contribution in income oI
family. The analysis made in this paper, the socioeconomic backgrounds of the
children is victimizing them. There is an intolerable economic pressure exert on the
parents that force them push their children to work. These children have no substitute
and choice except to surrender to their parent`s authority. The earning level and
employment status of their parents are very pathetic especially mother`s employment
status. Overall, the women are most neglected component of Pakistani society; they
are not active in main streamline of the country. Household illiteracy and less
education of their parent is another dynamic problem, which is making them worse
off. The analysis of the study indicates that the educated parents earn more
comparatively to the uneducated parents and uneducated parents are more inclined to
compel their children to labor.
Demographic factors, large family sizes and less earning hands are the most immense
issues in child laborer`s Iamilies. The Iertility rate is very high in poor families in
Pakistan, because they don`t know the consequences oI this matter due to less
awareness. The parents compelled to children to share the economic problem of their
large families. In addition to that, according to employment act of children 1991,
children cannot work.
However, there are contradictory opinions, ideas and theories about child labor
whether it is right and wrong, it should be legal, or not .In this perspective, differences
of economic environment and circumstances of countries must be scrutinize. While
developed countries considers it nasty to propel the child to work. The developed
countries force the children to sit behind a desk at school for education. But this is
education to prepare the human capital for the future by teaching the skill. In
developing countries like Pakistan where education based job opportunities are less,
working in a factory or market is a way to learn skill as an alternative. Actually, the
analysis of the study realize that the complete ban on child labor in Pakistan can
worse off the families ,which are dependent on their children and have no way to
come out the poverty . The purpose of child labor policies should to protect children
laborers, and should not try to remove children from work. Simply ban the children
from work and try to ensure the school attendance compulsory without improving
economic condition can probably to make the family worse off. If overall economic
conditions of families would not improve, definitely children would carry on the work
to increase household income, irrespective of any policy or legislative prohibition.
Moreover, it should be note that anti child labor, policies could help to decrease the
child labor, but such policies never effective in having a large impact on child labor in
the end. In this context, policies and programs are much important to enhance
household welfare instead of child labor prohibition policies.
Therefore, all this discussion leads to the suggestion to implement a comprehensive
program, project and plan for better off the children without worse off their families.
Child labor is a cause and consequence of poverty and dissipating the human capital
of Pakistan. The deteriorating economic and political circumstances, war and disaster
during the last years coupled with the global economic crisis is affect the situation of
poverty and employment in the country. Conversely, Pakistan has signed the
Millennium Development Goals Declaration in 2000 to promote social development.
Millennium declaration aims at fostering social development through the achievement
of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) with an expectation of more allocation of
resources towards social sector. Therefore child labor eradication is a first goal of
MDG and it is primarily relevant to achieving MDG 1 (eliminate absolute poverty and
starvation). The second goal of MDG is to ensure the primary schooling of all boys
and girls. However, to achieve all these goals Pakistan need to increase the
expenditure on social development.
5.2.1. Suggested ways to combat with child labor:
In Pakistan, for attainment of these goals and curb with child labor requires
comprehensive actions extensive policies, programs and projects, and many
stakeholders in the public and private sectors. This is a major challenge in terms of
policy development and effective coordination among various state and non-state
Direct policy measures can change the economic conditions of poor households in the
desired direction without worse off any one. Secondly, indirect policy measures that
can be eliminate children from the labor market. Direct measures
The empirical evidences show that children work to support their families. So in this
context, buy the time of children and after that enroll them in school. Hence, Pakistan
can take initiatives such as Food-for-Education (FFE) in Bangladesh, (BAJ) in
Morocco and Progresa in Mexico. In Morocco, FFE purchases the children`s time and
promotes school attendance. Parents receive monthly some cash and food as long as
they propel children to school. Potential candidates are selected in two stages, first
higher authorities select community on the basis of their level of underdevelopment
then local communities decide which household in community can take benefits from
the project. In Bangladesh, the agenda of BAJ to provides the basic social services to
the poor people like preventive and curative health care, maternal care, and primary
education. For the best outcomes, the government of Bangladesh decentralizes the
decision-making authorities and entails the provincial bodies for planning,
implementation and monitoring of the project. In Mexico, the aim of Progresa is to
eliminate poverty and increase investment in human capital, through subsidies
education, health care, and nutrition to poor households. In addition to that, Progresa
provides allowance to poor household for children enrollment in school (ILO 2003).
The above mention projects can provide the best framework and strategy to eliminate
the child labor and intergenerational poverty. For this purpose, Pakistan has to deploy
the huge investment in social sector and has to increase the expenditure on social
development to cut their budget from other sectors. On the other hand, there is a dire
need of international assistance to the country like Pakistan. Pakistan can collaborate
with international institutions and involve them for attaining targets without cut their
budget like other countries such as India and Morocco.
In both countries, UNICEF and its partners worked to eliminate the child labor with
the collaboration of local institutions. UNICEF and its partners provided the life-skill
education to the adolescent girls and child workers in both countries (UNICEF 2007).
They reduce the debt burden among the families and provide them funds, and as a
result, the school enrolment has increased. Above mentioned models and frameworks
can act as a role model in the promotion of household welfare and reduces child labor
from Pakistan. It will not only eliminate the child labor from the Pakistan, equally it
will improve the other social indicators and dynamics of child labor. Obviously, it
would help to improve the primary education, which is the second goal of MDG
declaration. It will better the health condition and maternal health problem; as a result,
it will decrease the fertility rate among the targeted poor population, which is so high.
It is important to note that child labor could not wipe out immediately as a number of
independent variables need time and persistent investment for change.
80 Indirect Measures:
On the other hand, there is a dire need of appropriate policies for improving school
infrastructure, the quality of education and reducing the cost of education provide the
most effective way of eliminating child labor. Second, Easy access to education for all
is an essential step and it is government responsibility to Provides low cost schooling
in the vicinity of communities. Gender disparity in education should be minimized
and good quality education, schools, relevant curricula and vocational training
programs should be adapted to student`s circumstances. Flexibility in school hours
could adjust the working children and unique kind education programs can prepare
former child workers for return to full-time education. These policies may work better
if combined with some cash provides to the households. Adult literacy programs
should propose because adult literacy campaign may increase public and social
awareness, particularly for the adult female. Moreover, civil society and media
engagement could change attitudes, so in this context NGOs can play their role better
with the partnership of relevant stakeholders.
Employment status of the mothers (or women) and income are very critical in
Pakistan. Subsequently it is needs to provide the employment opportunities for
women could enhance child schooling and may decrease child labor. For the poor
women empowerment, micro financing schemes with vocational training programs
are better options. The fertility issue is immense especially in poor families. It is
imperatively note that only effective population planning programs could be curtailing
population pressure. However, it would help to improves maternal health, child
nutrition and reduce fertility. Worst form of child labor must curbed by implementing
laws and regulations in Pakistan. It should be monitor through protective measures,
ensure employer compliance with relevant laws.
The study only focused supply side determinants of working children in Islamabad.
The population of study consists of only male children, because the female children
were not approachable due to socio-religious environ. The sample size of 384 children
holds statistical representativeness for the working children of Islamabad. The
findings can generalize only for economically active children in urban areas and not
for the rural areas of Pakistan. Only economically active children have been select for
the current study, rag picker, street children or other form of child labor excluded due
to time limitation and resources constrain. Though, study has a worth and some merits
as well as findings of the study cannot be ignored.
There is diverse nature of child labor in Pakistan and it varies place to place and
community to community with different dynamics .so it is essential to recommend
that there are more dimensions of child labor, which can be determines in a future .
The research on child abuse during the labor, rag pickers, child baggers, female child
labor, child labor in rural areas, bonded child labor should conducted.
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Appendix A: NGO & CBO in Pakistan Working for Child Labor
1. Aasthan Latif Welfare Society
2. Adeeba Women and Children Resource Centre
3. Al-Noor Foundation
4. Association of Network for Community Empowerment
5. Blue Veins (Women Welfare and Relief Services)
6. Children Cooperation Council
7. Children Education and Welfare Organization
8. Coalition against Child Labor
9. Foundation for Advancement of Community Education
10. Friends of Humanity
11. Godh Lahore
12. Handicap & Orphan Children's Charity Society
13. Hope Worldwide - Pakistan
14. Human Friends Organization
15. Human Rights Commission Pakistan
16. Human Rights Education Program
17. International Labor Organization Pakistan
18. Pakistan Council for Social Welfare and Human Rights
19. Pakistan International Peace & Human Rights Organization
20. Pakistan Labor Federation
Appendix B: NGOs & CBOs Working for Child Labor Worldwide
1. African Child Policy Forum
2. African Commission on Human and People's Rights
3. Association for Promoting Social Action
4. Bangladesh Shishu Adhikar Forum
5. Bharat Integrated Social Welfare Agency
6. Cameroon Association for the Protection and Education of the Child
7. Centre for Women's Studies - University of Nijmegen
8. Centro Internazionale Studi Famiglia
9. Child Legal Aid Centre
10.Child line India Foundation
11. Child Protection Alliance
12. Child Rights Information and Documentation Centre
13. Child Rights Information Network
14. ILO
15.International Center for Child and Youth Studies
16. People's Action in Development
17. Plan International
18. Save the Children
20. World Vision International

Table .1

Tota| number of ch||dren 5-14
years o|d, by sex,
Pak|stan , January 199
group| oth sexes Ha|e
prov|nce (00} (00} (00} (7}
oth sexes Ha|e Fema|e
Pak|stan 100 13Z
932 10 100.00 51.5Z 18.13
5-9 21 011
180 10Z 100.00 51.Z8 18.22
10-11 181 393 91 11 89 Z52 105 100.00 51.33 18.Z
Rura| areas 28Z 018
98Z 108 100.00 51.92 18.08
5-9 158 25 83 201 Z5 052 111 100.00 52.58 1Z.12
10-11 128 Z2 5 82Z 2 935 105 100.00 51.12 18.88
areas 113 119 5Z 1Z1 55 915 103 100.00 50.Z 19.33
5-9 5Z Z88 28 0 29 128 98 100.00 19.0 50.10
10-11 55 31 28 811 2 81Z 10Z 100.00 51.Z9 18.21

Table 2. Percentage distribution of employed children 5-14 years old,
by household income
Areas/provinces TotalLess than Rs.1,501 to Rs.2,501 to
Rs.1,501 2,500 4,000 above
0 8.97 31.13 39.15 20.74
0 9.50 32.73 38.38 19.39
0 4.73 18.34 45.35 31.58
0 9.19 30.40 40.52 19.89
0 11.55 31.34 38.43 18.68
0 7.91 32.51 36.61 22.97
0 4.17 25.04 56.67 14.12
Source: Federal Bureau of Statistics, Child Labour Survey,
Table 3. Percentage distribution of working children 5-14 years old,
by major industry division and sex,
Pakistan and provinces, January 1996
Major industry division Last week
Last 12
Both sexes Male
e Both sexes Male Female
Pakistan 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00
Agriculture, forestry, hunting and fishing 66.97 63.26 77.23 66.41 62.99 76.12
Mining and quarrying
ng 10.75 10.37 11.80 10.97 10.45 12.44
Electricity, gas and water 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01
Construction 1.84 2.40 0.31 1.87 2.41 0.34
Wholesale and retail trade and restaurants
and 8.72 11.59 0.78 8.94 11.79 0.82
Transport storage and communication 3.65 4.94 0.08 3.83 5.11 0.19
Financing, insurance, real estate and
business 0.02 0.03 0.02 0.03 0.02
Community, social and personal services 8.04 7.40 9.80 7.95 7.21 10.07
Table 4. Percentage distribution of working children 5-14 years old,
by number of hours worked during the reference week and by sex,
Pakistan and provinces, January 1996
No. of
hours Total Not Less 5-9 10-14 15-24 25-34 35-41 42-48 49-55
worked per worked than 5 hours hours hours hours hours hours hours or more
week hours
Pakistan 100.00 0.32 0.19 5.14 12.95 20.01 15.56 11.68 16.93 4.61 12.59
Male 100.00 0.35 0.20 5.35 11.16 19.52 22.93 11.49 19.82 4.80 14.38
Female 100.00 0.26 0.15 4.57 17.91 21.37 22.86 12.21 8.93 4.10 7.64
Rural 100.00 0.33 0.18 5.68 13.95 21.07 16.38 11.72 15.12 4.47 11.09
Male 100.00 0.36 0.20 6.04 12.17 20.87 13.75 11.62 17.89 4.57 12.53
Female 100.00 0.26 0.15 4.77 18.45 21.57 23.07 11.99 8.09 4.21 7.44
Urban 100.00 0.27 0.23 0.82 4.95 11.49 8.98 11.32 31.51 5.78 24.64
Male 100.00 0.27 0.24 0.83 4.50 10.59 7.57 10.62 32.55 6.30 26.53
Female 100.00 0.26 0.18 0.80 8.12 17.76 18.91 16.30 24.19 2.15 11.34
Table 5. Distribution of working children 5-14 years old by parents`
guardian`s main reason for letting child to work (1anuary 1996)
Major occupation groups Both sexes Male Female
Pakistan 100.00 100.01 100.01
To supplement household income 27.47 29.67 21.38
To pay outstanding debt 0.85 1.00 0.44
Assist/help in household enterprise 54.39 54.92 52.93
No one else available for household chores 14.24 10.96 23.34
Other 3.05 3.46 1.92
Table 6. Percentage distribution of working children 5-14 years old,
by sex and level of education,
Pakistan and provinces, January 1996
Level of education Last week
Last 12
Both sexes Male
e Both sexes Male Female
Pakistan 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00
Illiterate 66.83 59.06 88.35 67.16 59.56 88.77
Literate 33.17 40.94 11.65 32.84 40.44 11.23
No formal education 0.62 0.68 0.46 0.62 0.70 0.42
Pre-matric 32.55 40.26 11.19 32.22 39.74 10.81
Table7. Percentage distribution of working children 5-14 years old,
by frequency of injuries/illness and by sex,
Pakistan and provinces, January 1996
Frequency of injuries/illness Both sexes Male Female
Pakistan 100.00 100.00 100.00
Often/frequently 6.60 7.50 4.12
Occasionally 27.64 29.19 23.36
Seldom/rarely 33.30 30.35 41.43
Never (no injuries or illness) 32.46 32.96 31.09
Appendix: D
Serial No._________ Date: _________
Interview Schedule
Socio-Economic determinants of working children: Evidence from
Islamabad Survey
Note: This questionnaire is designed to find out the determinants of working children
from Islamabad, for the partial fulfillment of the degree of M.Phil in Government &
Public Policy. This is purely an academic effort.
Respondent`s Basic Information
1. Age group
7 years or less
8 - 10 years
11- 12 years
13-14 years
2. Education
Never attend school Primary Middle
3. Occupation
Mechanical or Technical Hotel or Food shops Shop assistant
Hawkers Salesperson Other
4. Income (Rs/Month)
2000 or less
2000 4000
4000 6000
More than 6000
5. Reason for starting work
Family asset To support family Parents decision No interest in study
6. Age at starting work
Less than 7 years
8 - 10 years
11 - 12 years
13 - 14 years
7. How many hours you spend in works?
Less than 4 hours
5 - 7 hours
8- 10 hours
Above 10 hours
8. Are you permanent resident of Islamabad?
Yes No
9. Who is Head of household?
Mother Father Other
10. Family Type
Nuclear Joint
11. Are your parents alive?
Both alive Father only Mother only Both died
12. Do your parents work?
Only Father Only Mother Both None
13. Education of Father
No schooling Primary Middle Metric
14. Income of Father (Rs/Month)
Less than 4000 thousand
4000 - 6000 thousand
6000 - 8000 thousand
8000 - 10000 thousand
More than 10000 thousand
15. Education of Mother
No schooling Primary Middle Metric Above
16. Income of mother (If works) (Rs/month)
Less than 4000 thousand
4000 - 6000 thousand
6000 - 8000 thousand
8000 - 10000 thousand
More than 10000 thousand
17. Total members of family
Less than 4
4 6
8- 10
More than 10
18. Adult Employment ratio in Family
2 or less
4 6
6 - 8
More than 8
19. Are you willing to work?
Yes No
20. Are you willing to get education?
Yes No
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