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Adriano Cruz Mestrado NCE, IM, UFRJ

Logica Nebulosa – p. 1/3

Summary

• • • • •

Introduction ANFIS Architecture Hybrid Learning Algorithm ANFIS as a Universal Approximatior Simulation Examples

Logica Nebulosa – p. 2/3

Introduction

• • • •

ANFIS: Artiﬁcial Neuro-Fuzzy Inference Systems ANFIS are a class of adaptive networks that are funcionally equivalent to fuzzy inference systems. ANFIS represent Sugeno e Tsukamoto fuzzy models. ANFIS uses a hybrid learning algorithm

Logica Nebulosa – p. 3/3

Sugeno Model

• • • •

Assume that the fuzzy inference system has two inputs x and y and one output z . A ﬁrst-order Sugeno fuzzy model has rules as the following: Rule1: If x is A1 and y is B1 , then f1 = p1 x + q1 y + r1 Rule2: If x is A2 and y is B2 , then f2 = p2 x + q2 y + r2

Logica Nebulosa – p. 4/3

Sugeno Model - I

A1

B1

W1 X A2 Y

B2

W2 X x f1=p1x+q1y+r1 f2=p2x+q2y+r2 f= Y y w1.f1+w2.f2 w1+w2

Logica Nebulosa – p. 5/3

ANFIS Architecture

Layer1 Layer2 Layer3 Layer4 x W1 Prod A2 W2 Prod B1 Norm x y W1f2 Norm f Sum y W1f1 Layer5

A1 x

y B2

Logica Nebulosa – p. 6/3

Layer 1 - I

• Ol,i •

is the output of the ith node of the layer l.

Every node i in this layer is an adaptive node with a node function O1,i = µAi (x) for i = 1, 2, or O1,i = µBi−2 (x) for i = 3, 4 (or y ) is the input node i and Ai (or Bi−2 ) is a linguistic label associated with this node Therefore O1,i is the membership grade of a fuzzy set (A1 , A2 , B1 , B2 ).

• x •

Logica Nebulosa – p. 7/3

Layer 1 - II

•

**Typical membership function:
**

µA (x) = 1 1 + | x−ci |2bi ai

• ai , bi , ci •

is the parameter set.

Parameters are referred to as premise parameters.

Logica Nebulosa – p. 8/3

Layer 2

• •

Every node in this layer is a ﬁxed node labeled Prod. The output is the product of all the incoming signals. Each node represents the ﬁre strength of the rule Any other T-norm operator that perform the AN D operator can be used

• O2,i = wi = µAi (x) · µBi (y), i = 1, 2 • •

Logica Nebulosa – p. 9/3

Layer 3

• •

Every node in this layer is a ﬁxed node labeled Norm. The ith node calculates the ratio of the ith rulet’s ﬁring strenght to the sum of all rulet’s ﬁring strengths. Outputs are called normalized ﬁring strengths.

• O3,i = w i = wi , i = 1, 2 w1 +w2 •

Logica Nebulosa – p. 10/3

Layer 4

•

**Every node i in this layer is an adaptive node with a node function:
**

O4,1 = wi fi = w i (px + qi y + ri )

• wi

is the normalized ﬁring strenght from layer 3. is the parameter set of this node.

• {pi , qi , ri } •

These are referred to as consequent parameters.

Logica Nebulosa – p. 11/3

Layer 5

•

The single node in this layer is a ﬁxed node labeled sum, which computes the overall output as the summation of all incoming signals:

i w i fi

• overall output = O5,1 =

=

i

wi fi i wi

Logica Nebulosa – p. 12/3

Alternative Structures

•

**There are other structures
**

Layer1 Layer2 Layer3 x W1 y W1f1 W1f1+W2f2 A2 W2 Layer4 Layer5

A1 x

Prod

Sum

Prod

W1f2 x y

/

f

B1

y B2

Sum

Logica Nebulosa – p. 13/3

Learning Algorithm

Logica Nebulosa – p. 14/3

**Hybrid Learning Algorithm - I
**

•

The ANFIS can be trained by a hybrid learning algorithm presented by Jang in the chapter 8 of the book. In the forward pass the algorithm uses least-squares method to identify the consequent parameters on the layer 4. In the backward pass the errors are propagated backward and the premise parameters are updated by gradient descent.

•

•

Logica Nebulosa – p. 15/3

Hybrid Learning Algorithm - II

Forward Pass Premise Parameters Consequent Parameters Signals Fixed Least-squares estimator Node outputs

Backward Pass Gradient Descent Fixed Error signals

Two passes in the hybrid learning algorithm for ANFIS.

Logica Nebulosa – p. 16/3

Universal Aproximator

Logica Nebulosa – p. 17/3

**ANFIS is a Universal Aproximator
**

•

When the number of rules is not restricted, a zero-order Sugeno model has unlimited approximation power for matching any nonlinear function arbitrarily well on a compact set. This can be proved using the Stone-Weierstrass theorem. Let D be a compact space of N dimensions, and let F be a set of continuous real-valued functions on D satisfying the following criteria:

• •

Logica Nebulosa – p. 18/3

**Stone-Weierstrauss theorem - I
**

•

Let D be a compact space of N dimensions, and let F be a set of continuous real-valued functions on D satisfying the following criteria: The constant f (x) = 1 is in F .

Indentity function: Separability:

For any two points x1 = x2 in D, there is an f in F such that f (x1 ) = f (x2 ).

Algebraic closure:

If f and g are any two functions in F , then f g and af + bg are in F for any two real numbers a and b.

Logica Nebulosa – p. 19/3

**Stone-Weierstrauss theorem - II
**

• •

Then F is dense on C(D), the set of continuous real-valued functions on D. For any > 0 and any function g in C(D), there is a function f in F such that |g(x) − f (x)| < for all x ∈ D. The ANFIS satisﬁes all these requirements.

•

Logica Nebulosa – p. 20/3

Anﬁs and Matlab

Logica Nebulosa – p. 21/3

Matlab

• •

It is possible to use a graphics user interface Command anfisedit.

•

It is possible to use the command line interface or m-ﬁle programs. There are functions to generate, train, test and use these systems.

•

Logica Nebulosa – p. 22/3

ANFIS gui

Logica Nebulosa – p. 23/3

Applying

• • • •

Initializing Training Testing Using

Logica Nebulosa – p. 24/3

Initializing - GENFIS1 - 1

•

FIS = GENFIS1(DATA) generates a single-output Sugeno-type fuzzy inference system (FIS) using a grid partition on the data (no clustering). FIS is used to provide initial conditions for posterior ANFIS training. DATA is a matrix with N+1 columns where the ﬁrst N columns contain data for each FIS input, and the last column contains the output data.

•

•

Logica Nebulosa – p. 25/3

Initializing - GENFIS1 - 2

• •

By default GENFIS1 uses two ’gbellmf’ type membership functions for each input. Each rule generated has one output membership function, which is of type ’linear’ by default. It is possible to deﬁne these parameters using FIS = GENFIS1(DATA, NUMMFS, INPUTMF, OUTPUTMF)

fis = genfis1(data, [3 7], char(’pimf’, ’trimf’));

•

•

Logica Nebulosa – p. 26/3

Initializing - GENFIS1 - 3

data = [rand(10,1) 10*rand(10,1)-5 rand(10,1)]; fis = genfis1(data, [3 7], char(’pimf’,’trimf’)); [x,mf] = plotmf(fis,’input’,1); subplot(2,1,1), plot(x,mf); xlabel(’input 1 (pimf)’); [x,mf] = plotmf(fis,’input’,2); subplot(2,1,2), plot(x,mf); xlabel(’input 2 (trimf)’);

Logica Nebulosa – p. 27/3

Initializing - GENFIS1 - 4

1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 −2 −1 0 1 input 2 (trimf) 2 3 4 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 input 1 (pimf) 0.8 0.9 1

Logica Nebulosa – p. 28/3

Initializing - GENFIS2

• • •

GENFIS2 generates a Sugeno-type FIS using subtractive clustering. GENFIS2 extracts a set of rules that models the data behavior.

The rule extraction method ﬁrst determines the number of rules and antecedent membership functions and then uses linear least squares estimation to determine each rule’s consequent equations.

Logica Nebulosa – p. 29/3

Training

•

ANFIS uses a hybrid learning algorithm to identify the membership function parameters of single-output, Sugeno type fuzzy inference systems (FIS).

• •

There are many ways of using this function. Some examples: • [FIS,ERROR] = ANFIS(TRNDATA) • [FIS,ERROR] = ANFIS(TRNDATA,INITFIS)

Logica Nebulosa – p. 30/3

Using

• •

EVALFIS evaluates a fuzzy inference system. Y = EVALFIS(U,FIS) simulates the Fuzzy Inference System FIS for the input data U and returns the output data Y.

Logica Nebulosa – p. 31/3

Example

•

run exemplo06_03.m

Logica Nebulosa – p. 32/3

The End

Logica Nebulosa – p. 33/3

- ISPRS Commission VII Mid-Term Symposium "Remote Sensing
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- Cost
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- Food Security and Agricultural Sustainability (Evor)
- WarwickHRI-UK food Influence Diagram
- Future Scenarios for the UK Food System
- FEC food distribution report
- MOM 20-10-09
- MOM 16-10-09
- Food Security and Agricultural Sustainability

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