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Becky McCoy

Lesson Title: Sedimentary Layers, Pt1

Timing: 40 minutes
Becky McCoy

Target Audience:
Middle School Physical Science or Earth Science Classroom

Objectives:
Students Will Be Able To:
• Apply knowledge from Geology Unit to issues regarding drilling through
sedimentary layers.
• Demonstrate understanding of Geology Unit.

The Teacher Will Be Able To:


• Asses student understanding of Geology Unit.
• Assist in closing knowledge gaps that remain from Geology Unit.

Standards Assessed:
New York State Intermediate Level Science Standards 2.1c, 2.1e, 2.2a, 2.2g, 2.2h

Prior Knowledge:
Rocks, minerals, and plate tectonics unit. Students will have completed the lessons at:
• http://geology.com/rocks/
• http://www.nps.gov/cave/forteachers/upload/geology_ms_clams.pdf

Aim: Apply knowledge of rocks and minerals to drilling through sedimentary layers.

Concept Map Vocabulary:


See Geology Unit Concept Map

Necessary Preparation:
COPIES
• Charity:Water Discovery Sheet Homework Assignment
• Article on Oil Drilling: http://www.theoildrum.com/node/5629
• All 6 Sections from http://www.howstuffworks.com/oil-drilling.htm

MATERIALS
• Computer or SMARTboard with Power Point
• Sedimentary Layers Power Point

SET UP
• Have Power Point prepared to share
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Lesson Plan

Aim: Apply knowledge of rocks and minerals to drilling through sedimentary layers.

Do Now: Free Writing (5 minutes)


Individual students free write about their prior layers of the earth (in list or full paragraph form).
Prompt to be written on the board or power point. Geology Unit concept map to be displayed in
the room.

Activity: Discovering more about drilling – oil and water (25 minutes)
Materials:
• Sedimentary Layers Power Point
• Copies of Oil Drilling Articles

Procedure:
• Show pictures of sedimentary layers in Nevada
• Think-Pair-Share
• Introduce Oil Drilling
• Brainstorm in pre-assigned Reading Groups – “What are possible issues
presented when drilling through sedimentary layers?”
• Reading groups are given packet of oil drilling articles and are assigned
one to read and summarize.
• Students return to their seats and share with their Think-Pair-Share partner
something they learned.
• Introduce Charity:Water as a group who is trying to provide people with
clean water.

Activity Summary: (10 minutes)


Ask students what possible problems will arise when drilling wells. Answers could include
collapsing wells/holes, etc. Transition to Charity:Water project by suggesting that poor drilling
techniques might contaminate whatever you are drilling for.

Explain what Charity:Water is doing by showing the website (http://www.charitywater.org).


Show the Case Study video on the Why Water? page. Be sure to point out the Why Water? and
Projects sections.

Homework: (5 minutes)
 Complete Charity:Water Discovery Worksheet

Exit Strategy:
Students write one thing they learned and a question they still have and submit to teacher as they
exit the room.
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Extension Activity:
Explore Charity:Water website further.

Assessment:
• Do Now Assignment
• Circulating through the room, listening to student conversations
• Responses to brainstorm session
• Homework Assignment

Resources:
http://www.charitywater.org
http://www.theoildrum.com/node/5629
http://www.howstuffworks.com/oil-drilling.htm
http://geology.com/rocks/
http://www.nps.gov/cave/forteachers/upload/geology_ms_clams.pdf

Notes & Adaptations:


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Charity:Water Discovery Worksheet

 Go to the “Why Water?” page of http://www.charitywater.org.


List 5 consequences of dirty water.
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Describe Charity:Water’s process and cost for building a well.

 Go to the “Projects” page of http://www.charitywater.org.


Under “the numbers” section, list the types of projects Charity:Water is involved
in.

Which countries are digging wells at schools? Why might it be important to dig
wells for schools?
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 Do some research on the importance of water quality and write a one


paragraph summary of what you learned on the back of the page.
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Lesson Title: Sedimentary Layers, Pt2 Timing: 40 minutes

Target Audience:
Middle School Physical Science or Earth Science Classroom

Objectives:
Students Will Be Able To:
• Demonstrate understanding of physical properties of the layers of the
earth.
• Investigate the process of digging a well.

The Teacher Will Be Able To:


• Assess student understanding of Geology Unit.
• Develop student understanding of clean water issue in order to complete final
Charity:Water project.

Standards Assessed:
New York State Intermediate Level Science Standards 2.1c, 2.1e, 2.2a, 2.2g, 2.2h

Prior Knowledge:
Rocks, minerals, and plate tectonics unit. Students will have completed the lessons at:
• http://geology.com/rocks/
• http://www.nps.gov/cave/forteachers/upload/geology_ms_clams.pdf
Information about Oil Drilling and water wells from last class and homework.

Aim: Determine the importance of proper well drilling techniques and tools.

Concept Map Vocabulary:


See Geology Unit Concept Map

Necessary Preparation:
COPIES
• Homework assignment, if desired
MATERIALS
• Chart paper for KWL
• Markers for KWL
• Plastic cups (opaque is best, cover the sides with paper if using clear cups)
• Dixie cups (or similarly sized container) filled with water
• Food or materials to create the following layers:
o Hard Solid (e.g. Graham Crackers)
o Soft Solid (e.g. Bread or Cookie Dough)
o Spread able, mud-like solid (e.g. Fluff, Pie Filling, Peanut Butter
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etc.)
o Particulate Solid (e.g. Raisins, Chocolate Chips, etc.)
• The following or similar tools:
o Plastic Spoons
o Popsicle Sticks or Tongue Depressors
o Plastic to create well supports (you could cut out the bottom of
plastic cups to create a plastic sheet so students can size their tubes
accordingly
o Straws
o Any other tools teacher or students think of
• Spoons for consumption if layers are edible!
SET UP
• Have pre-assigned lab groups if not asking students to work independently.
• Create layers in cups before class starts: 1) Place small cup with water at the
bottom of the larger cup, 2) Layer the hardest sold on top of that (be careful of
setting up too far in advance since this layer might get soggy), 3) Layer the Soft
Solid, 4) Spread the next solid and sprinkle the particulates.
Becky McCoy

Lesson Plan

Aim: Determine the importance of proper well drilling techniques and tools.

Do Now: (5 minutes)
Students form groups of two or three and create a KWL chart about their research on
Charity:Water and the need for clean drinking water.

Activity: Can you drill it? Finding the importance of proper drilling… (25 minutes)
Materials:
• Plastic cups (opaque is best, cover the sides with paper if using clear cups)
• Dixie cups (or similarly sized container) filled with water
• Food or materials to create the following layers:
o Hard Solid (e.g. Graham Crackers)
o Soft Solid (e.g. Bread or Cookie Dough)
o Spread able, mud-like solid (e.g. Fluff, Pie Filling, Peanut Butter
etc.)
o Particulate Solid (e.g. Raisins, Chocolate Chips, etc.)
• The following or similar tools:
o Plastic Spoons
o Popsicle Sticks or Tongue Depressors
o Plastic to create well supports (you could cut out the bottom of
plastic cups to create a plastic sheet so students can size their tubes
accordingly
o Straws
o Any other tools teacher or students think of
• Spoons for consumption if layers are edible!

Procedure:
• Ask several students to describe the articles they found. Allow some time
for the class to discuss the issue (10 minutes max)
• Explain to the students they will have the opportunity to experience some
of the challenges of digging for clean water.
• Have activity instructions written on the board:
1. Goal: Dig to the water without contaminating it.
2. Work in your lab groups of three students or individually
(teachers’ choice).
3. You may each use one tool at a time.
4. When you have reached water, use your pipette to remove the
water into a beaker. Assess how clean your water is: is it cloudy? Are
there particulates? Is it clear, or does it have a color?
5. Discuss the importance of your findings with your group and how
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you would refine your process.

Activity Summary:
Ask for two or three students to describe what they found in one sentence. Then explain we will
be starting the Charity:Water school fundraiser and the homework assignment is important to
begin collecting resources and data to be used in writing press releases or editorials about the
fundraiser.

Homework: (5 minutes)
Students should react in writing to the following: 1) What was easy or difficult about our in class
drilling activity? What techniques did you find helpful? 2) How might your findings be useful
for people digging or drilling their own water wells? 3) Using the data from the Charity:Water
website, describe the need for proper drilling techniques. 4) If you had any unanswered questions
from today’s class include them as well as any hypotheses or related research.

Exit Strategy: (5 minutes)


Groups from Do Now fill in anything they learned from the activity and class discussions.

Extension Activity:
Students should begin homework assignment if time allows.

Assessment:
• Student discussion of well digging issue
• Responses to homework assignment
• KWL Chart

Resources:
http://www.charitywater.org
http://geology.com/rocks/
http://www.nps.gov/cave/forteachers/upload/geology_ms_clams.pdf

Notes & Adaptations:


Use tin foil to cover the water-filled cup in the activity so that the layers do not contaminate the
water before students begin digging.