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You are on page 1of 8

**Design and Construction of
**

Earth Structures and Foundations

CB463

CHAPTER [3]

Design of Pile Foundations

Static Formula

Dr. Fathalla M. El-Nahhas

Dr. Adel M. Belal

section: of single pile Design - 1

A single pile is subjected to mainly axial vertical load, making

compression stress on pile.

If the pile is subjected to lateral loads as well as axial load,

there will be bending stresses.

• Axially loaded pile: Stress on pile = P / A < f

all

• Bending stresses: Stress on pile = P / A +,- (M\I)y < f

all

• Driving forces: Stress on pile = (P/A) (2/e

f

– 1) < f

all

e

f

= efficiency of blow

• Buckling effect:

Buckling shall has no considerable effect, because soil will

give enough support for the pile against buckling.

Dr Adel Belal 2

Bearing capacity of axially load single pile in soil Ultimate - 2

- The ultimate bearing capacity of pile is estimated by designer

based on soil data and somewhat empirical procedures.

- It is common practice that the pile capacity be verified by pile

load test at an early stage, such that design can be made prior

to installation of the project piles.

- The satisfactory performance of a pile is, in most cases,

governed by the limiting acceptable deformation under various

loading conditions. Therefore the settlement should also be

checked.

There are three different methods to determine the ultimate

bearing capacity of a single pile:

• A- Dynamic Formula: In the field during pile construction

• B- Pile load test: In the field

• C- Static formula: In the office

W

Q

u

Q

b

Q

s

Basic Concept

The ultimate bearing capacity (Q

ult

)of a

pile may be assumed to be the sum of skin

friction and end-bearing resistance, i.e

Q

ult

= Q

s

+ Q

b

where

Q

ult

total pile resistance,

Q

b

is the end bearing resistance

Q

s

is side friction resistance

W is the weight of pile

: Static formula

Q

all

= Q

b

/F

b

+ Q

s

/F

s

Where F

b

and F

s

is the factor of safety of

components of end bearing strength and

shaft friction strength

Dr Adel Belal 3

Loading

Settlement

Behavior of Frictional Pile

Loading

Settlement

Behavior of End Bearing Pile

Q

u

Q

S

Q

B

Q

u

Q

B

Q

S

- Shaft resistance fully mobilized at small pile

movement (<0.01D)

- Base resistance mobilized at large

movement (0.1D)

W

Q

s

Q

b

Q

U

h

o

L

d = 2R

Q

b

=A

b

q

b

q

b

= [ c

b

N

c

+ qN

q

+ (1/2) dN

]

Q

b

= A

b

[ c

b

N

c

+ qN

q

+ (1/2)dN

]

Where A

b

is the area of the base , c

b

is the

cohesion at the base of the pile, q is the

overburden stress at the base of the pile

and d is the width of the pile. Since the

length (L) of the pile is much greater than

its width d, then:

Q

b

=A

b

[ c

b

N

c

+ qN

q

]

The calculated ultimate base stress

should conservatively be limited to 10

Mpa, unless higher values have been

justified by load tests.

End Bearing Resistance

q

Dr Adel Belal 4

Shaft Friction Resistance

Q

s

= f A

s

In case of pure clay:

Q

s

= C

a

2 л R L

In case of pure granular material:

Q

s

= Σ K

Hc

P

o

tanδ. 2 л R ∆H

f : frictional resistance.

A

s

: surface area of pile shaft.

C

a

: the soil adhesion around the pile

K

Hc

: earth pressure coefficient.

P

o

: vertical stress along pile shaft.

δ : frictional angle between soil and pile

Dependent upon : soil type & soil

profile & pile material & installation

C

a

L

d = 2R

L

d = 2R

P

o

20d

Bearing Capacity of Piles in Clay

- Compression:

Q

ult

=C

b

N

c

л R

2

+ C

a

2 л R L

Q

all

= Q

ult

/ F.S

F.S = 3.0 (Case -1)

F.S = 2.5 (Case - 2)

F.S = 2.0 (Case - 3)

- Tension:

T

ult

= C

a

2 л R L + W

p

T

all

= C

a

2 л R L / F.S + W

p

Incase of bored piles, Use Table 4.4

for estimating C

a

In case of driven piles, use C

a

=(0.3:0.4)C

and not more than 1 kg/cm

2

W

Q

s

Q

b

Q

U

h

o

L

d = 2R

q

Dr Adel Belal 5

Q

ult

= q N

q

л R

2

+Σ K

Hc

P

o

tan δ. 2 л R ∆H

P

o

20d

Bearing Capacity of Piles in Sand

T

ult

=Σ K

Ht

P

o

tanδ. 2 л R ∆H + W

p

Nq is determined from Table 4-5

K

Hc

&

K

Ht

is determined from Table 4-6

δ is determined from Table 4-7

The above equations are used for piles

of diameters not more than 600 mm

W

p

Q

s

Q

b

Q

U

L

d = 2R

q

D

WEAK

SOIL

FIRM

SOIL

- End Bearing:

Q

(all)b

= q

un

K

sp

f

d

л R

2

q

un

= unconfined compressive strength

K

sp

is determined from Table 4-11

it is calculated with F.S = 3

it depends on RQD

f

d

= (1 + 0.4L

s

/ d) < 3

- Frictional Resistance:

Q

(all)f

= (α ß q

un

2 л R L

s

) / F.S (F.S > 2.0)

α

is a factor depends on q

un

is determined from Table 4-12

ß is a factor depends on RQD

is determined from Table 4-13

Bearing Capacity of Piles in Rock

Q

s

Q

b

Q

U

L

s

d = 2R

SOIL

ROCK

Dr Adel Belal 6

C

a

kN/m

2

C kN/m

2

Soil Pile

0 - 12.5

12.5 – 24

24 – 37.5

37.5 – 47.5

47.5 - 65

0 - 12.5

12.5 – 25

25 – 50

50 – 100

100 - 200

Very soft

Soft

Medium

Stiff

Very stiff

Wood or concrete

0 – 12.5

12.5 – 23

23 – 35

35 – 36

36 – 37.5

0 - 12.5

12.5 – 25

25 – 50

50 – 100

100 - 200

Very soft

Soft

Medium

Stiff

Very stiff

Steel

Table [4-4] values of adhesion values for pure clay

C : cohesion C

a

: adhesion 1 kg/cm

2

= 10 t/m

2

40 35 30 25 Φ

0

150 75 30 15 N

q

Table [4-5] the relation between Φ and N

q

for granular soil

Driven piles Φ [after] = (Φ [before] + 40

0

) /2

Bored piles Φ [after] = Φ [before] - 3

0

Dr Adel Belal 7

Table [4-6] values of [K

HT

& K

HC

]

K

HT

K

HC

pile

0.3-0.5 0.5-1.0 H Section

0.6-1.0 1.0-1.5 Driven

1.0-1.3 1.5-2.0 Circular Driven

0.3-0.6 0.4-0.9 Jetted Driven

0.4-1 0.7-1.5 Bored

Table [4-7] values of [ð]

ð

0

Pile

20 Steel

0.75 Φ concrete

0.75 Φ wood

Dr Adel Belal 8

Static Pile Capacity

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