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Design and Construction of
Earth Structures and Foundations
CB463
CHAPTER [3]
Design of Pile Foundations
Static Formula
Dr. Fathalla M. El-Nahhas
section: of single pile Design - 1
A single pile is subjected to mainly axial vertical load, making
compression stress on pile.
If the pile is subjected to lateral loads as well as axial load,
there will be bending stresses.

• Axially loaded pile: Stress on pile = P / A < f
all

• Bending stresses: Stress on pile = P / A +,- (M\I)y < f
all

• Driving forces: Stress on pile = (P/A) (2/e
f
– 1) < f
all

e
f
= efficiency of blow
• Buckling effect:
Buckling shall has no considerable effect, because soil will
give enough support for the pile against buckling.
Bearing capacity of axially load single pile in soil Ultimate - 2
- The ultimate bearing capacity of pile is estimated by designer
based on soil data and somewhat empirical procedures.
- It is common practice that the pile capacity be verified by pile
load test at an early stage, such that design can be made prior
to installation of the project piles.
- The satisfactory performance of a pile is, in most cases,
governed by the limiting acceptable deformation under various
checked.

There are three different methods to determine the ultimate
bearing capacity of a single pile:
• A- Dynamic Formula: In the field during pile construction
• B- Pile load test: In the field
• C- Static formula: In the office
W
Q
u
Q
b
Q
s
Basic Concept
The ultimate bearing capacity (Q
ult
)of a
pile may be assumed to be the sum of skin
friction and end-bearing resistance, i.e
Q
ult
= Q
s
+ Q
b

where
Q
ult
total pile resistance,
Q
b
is the end bearing resistance
Q
s
is side friction resistance
W is the weight of pile

: Static formula
Q
all
= Q
b
/F
b
+ Q
s
/F
s
Where F
b
and F
s
is the factor of safety of
components of end bearing strength and
shaft friction strength
Settlement
Behavior of Frictional Pile
Settlement
Behavior of End Bearing Pile
Q
u
Q
S
Q
B
Q
u
Q
B
Q
S
- Shaft resistance fully mobilized at small pile
movement (<0.01D)

- Base resistance mobilized at large
movement (0.1D)
W
Q
s
Q
b
Q
U
h
o
L
d = 2R
Q
b
=A
b
q
b
q
b
= [ c
b
N
c
+ qN
q
+ (1/2) dN

]
Q
b
= A
b
[ c
b
N
c
+ qN
q
+ (1/2)dN

]
Where A
b
is the area of the base , c
b
is the
cohesion at the base of the pile, q is the
overburden stress at the base of the pile
and d is the width of the pile. Since the
length (L) of the pile is much greater than
its width d, then:

Q
b
=A
b
[ c
b
N
c
+ qN
q
]

The calculated ultimate base stress
should conservatively be limited to 10
Mpa, unless higher values have been
End Bearing Resistance
q
Shaft Friction Resistance
Q
s
= f A
s

In case of pure clay:
Q
s
= C
a
2 л R L
In case of pure granular material:
Q
s
= Σ K
Hc
P
o
tanδ. 2 л R ∆H

f : frictional resistance.
A
s
: surface area of pile shaft.

C
a
: the soil adhesion around the pile
K
Hc
: earth pressure coefficient.
P
o
: vertical stress along pile shaft.

δ : frictional angle between soil and pile
Dependent upon : soil type & soil
profile & pile material & installation

C
a
L
d = 2R
L
d = 2R
P
o
20d
Bearing Capacity of Piles in Clay
- Compression:
Q
ult
=C
b
N
c
л R
2
+ C
a
2 л R L
Q
all
= Q
ult
/ F.S
F.S = 3.0 (Case -1)
F.S = 2.5 (Case - 2)
F.S = 2.0 (Case - 3)
- Tension:
T
ult
= C
a
2 л R L + W
p
T
all
= C
a
2 л R L / F.S + W
p

Incase of bored piles, Use Table 4.4
for estimating C
a
In case of driven piles, use C
a
=(0.3:0.4)C

and not more than 1 kg/cm
2
W
Q
s
Q
b
Q
U
h
o
L
d = 2R
q
Q
ult
= q N
q
л R
2
+Σ K
Hc
P
o
tan δ. 2 л R ∆H
P
o
20d
Bearing Capacity of Piles in Sand
T
ult
=Σ K
Ht
P
o
tanδ. 2 л R ∆H + W
p
Nq is determined from Table 4-5
K
Hc
&

K
Ht
is determined from Table 4-6
δ is determined from Table 4-7

The above equations are used for piles
of diameters not more than 600 mm
W
p
Q
s
Q
b
Q
U
L
d = 2R
q
D
WEAK
SOIL
FIRM
SOIL
- End Bearing:
Q
(all)b
= q
un
K
sp
f
d
л R
2
q
un
= unconfined compressive strength
K
sp
is determined from Table 4-11
it is calculated with F.S = 3
it depends on RQD
f
d
= (1 + 0.4L
s
/ d) < 3

- Frictional Resistance:
Q
(all)f
= (α ß q
un
2 л R L
s
) / F.S (F.S > 2.0)

α

is a factor depends on q
un

is determined from Table 4-12
ß is a factor depends on RQD
is determined from Table 4-13
Bearing Capacity of Piles in Rock
Q
s
Q
b
Q
U
L
s
d = 2R
SOIL
ROCK
C
a
kN/m
2
C kN/m
2
Soil Pile
0 - 12.5
12.5 – 24
24 – 37.5
37.5 – 47.5
47.5 - 65
0 - 12.5
12.5 – 25
25 – 50
50 – 100
100 - 200
Very soft
Soft
Medium
Stiff
Very stiff
Wood or concrete
0 – 12.5
12.5 – 23
23 – 35
35 – 36
36 – 37.5
0 - 12.5
12.5 – 25
25 – 50
50 – 100
100 - 200
Very soft
Soft
Medium
Stiff
Very stiff
Steel

Table [4-4] values of adhesion values for pure clay
C : cohesion C
a
2
= 10 t/m
2
40 35 30 25 Φ
0
150 75 30 15 N
q
Table [4-5] the relation between Φ and N
q
for granular soil
Driven piles Φ [after] = (Φ [before] + 40
0
) /2
Bored piles Φ [after] = Φ [before] - 3
0

Table [4-6] values of [K
HT
& K
HC
]
K
HT
K
HC
pile
0.3-0.5 0.5-1.0 H Section
0.6-1.0 1.0-1.5 Driven
1.0-1.3 1.5-2.0 Circular Driven
0.3-0.6 0.4-0.9 Jetted Driven
0.4-1 0.7-1.5 Bored
Table [4-7] values of [ð]
ð
0
Pile
20 Steel
0.75 Φ concrete
0.75 Φ wood