12 views

Uploaded by leonravi

Convection, Wavy Channel, Particle image velocimetry

save

- 139-177
- 701038
- Slid Mesh
- The Most Famous PI Numbers
- FLOODING AND FLOW REVERSAL IN ANNULAR TWO-PHASE FLOWS
- Viscosity
- AIChE-155f
- Hugh L Dryden and George C Hill Wind pressure on Circular Cylinders and Chimneys.pdf
- Fluid Flow
- Ansys Flotran 2d Duct Example
- IJFMR30-2003
- Dimensionless Parameters
- Lisbon 2010
- Incompressible Turbulent Flow Simulation Using the - Model and Upwind Schemes
- Steady Flow Past a Cylinder
- s 0022112070220996
- Cap. 08.pdf
- PhysRevE.93.021102
- Estimation of Energy Dissipation Rate in a Taylor-Couette Reactor using Particle Image Velocimetry
- S8_XE-B
- Chow - Open Channel Hydraulics
- Thesis Final
- Heat Transfer
- Simulation and Experimental Validation of Two-Phase Flow in an Aerosol-Counter Flow Reactor using Computational Fluid Dynamics939_ftp
- Friction Loss in Pipe
- The Effect of insertion of different geometries on heat transfer performance in circular pipe- A review
- Hydraulics(Rough Boundary)
- r1.ppt
- Numerical Simulation of Shedding Pattern of Near Wake Vortices Behind a Circular Cylinder Near a Plane Boundary
- gaslaws(1).pptx
- FENET Budapest Feb2005 DLE DesignByAnalysis Mackenzie
- Soo Whan Ahn, Experimental Studies on Heat Transfer in the Annuli with Corrugated Inner Tubes, KSME International Journal Vol. 17 No. 8, pp. 1226~ 1233, 2003
- Customer Self Care PPBB
- M Tech Production Engineering Batch National Institute of Technology, Trichy 2010-2012
- Flow and Heat Transfer in Narrow Channels With Corrugated Walls a Cfd Code Application
- Parameterized Model for Stress Analysis of Nozzles
- M Tech Production Engineering Batch National Institute of Technology, Trichy 2010-2012
- 12. on Forced Convective Heat Transfer for a Stokes Flow in a Wavy Channel
- Design and Application of Twisted Tube Exchangers
- An Experimental Study of Developing and Fully Developed Flows in a Wavy Channel by PIV
- Numerical Study on Heat Transfer of Turbulent Channel Flow Over Periodic Grooves
- Numerical Study on Heat Transfer of Turbulent Channel Flow Over Periodic Grooves
- Combined Adaptive Meshing Technique and Segregated Finite Element Algorithm for Analysis of Free and Forced Convection Heat Transfer
- Rigid Thermocouple Rake Assemblies
- Free convection of Walter’s fluid flow in a vertical double-passage wavy
- A Study on Performance Improvement of Corrugated Type Total Heat Exchanger Considering the Structure of Flow Passage on Surface
- Numerical Simulation of Forced Convection Over a Periodic Series 2011
- InTech-Modeling of Turbulent Flows and Boundary Layer
- A Study on Performance Improvement of Corrugated Type Total Heat Exchanger Considering the Structure of Flow Passage on Surface

You are on page 1of 7

2001 1853

An Experimental Study of Developing and Fully Developed Flows

in a Wavy Channel by PIV

Sung Kyun Kim*

Professor, department of Mechanical Engineering, Konkuk University 1 Whayang-dong Kwanggin-Icu,

Seoul. 143-701. Korea

An experimental study is presented for a flow field in a two dimensional wavy channels by

PlY. This flow has two major applications such as a blood flow simulation and the

enhancement of heat transfer in a heat exchanger. While the numerical flow visualization results

have been limited to the fully developed cases, existing experimental results of this flow were

simple qualitative ones by smoke or dye streak test. Therefore, the main purpose of this study

is to produce quantitative flow data for fully developed and developing flow regimes by the

Correlation Based Correction PlY (CBC PlY) and to conjecture the analogy between flow

characteristics and heat transfer enhancement with low pumping power. Another purpose of this

paper is to examine the onset position of the transition and the global mixing, which results in

transfer enhancement. PlY results on the Fully developed and developing flow in a wavy

channel at Re=500, 1000 and 2000 are obtained. For the case Reynolds Number equals 500, the

PlY results are compared with the finite difference numerical solution.

Key Words: Wavy Channel, CBC PlY, Image Coding, Global Mixing, Heat Exchanger

1. Introduction

A channel with a periodically converging-di-

verging cross section is one of several devices

employed for enhancing the heat and mass

transfer efficiency due to turbulence promotion

and unsteady vortices formation.

After the first work of flow in corrugated

channels with triangular wavy cross-section by

Goldstein and Sparrow (1977), many researchers,

among others Nishimura and co-workers

(Nishimura et al., 1986; 1990), Wang and Vanka

(1995), have investigated this flow numerically

and experimentally for sinusoidal wavy channel.

Most works considered only fully developed

periodic flows and Rush et al's (1999) studied

developing wavy channel flow by multiple dye

E-mail: sungkim@kkucc.konkuk.ac.kr

TEL: +82-2-450-3472; FAX: +82-2-3436-0540

Professor, department of Mechanical Engineering,

Konkuk University I Whayang-dong Kwanggin-ku,

Seoul,- 143-701, Korea. (Manuscript Received August

20, 2001; Revised October 16. 2001)

streak visualization and mass transfer

measurement. They concluded that there was

analogy between the flow instability and the heat

transfer enhancement. Most experimental results

on flow visualization were simple and qualitative

ones by using smoke or dye streak. In this study,

a flow field in a two dimensional wavy channel

was investigated by PlY experiments.

The practical use of the particle image

velocimetry (PIV) , a whole flow field

measurement technique, requires the use of fast,

reliable, computer-based methods for tracking

velocity vectors. The full search block matching,

the most widely studied and applied technique

both in the area of PIV and Image Coding &

Compression is computationally costly. Many

alternatives have been proposed and applied suc-

cessfully in the area of image compression and

coding, i. e. MPEG, H. 261 etc. Among others, the

Three Step Search (TSS) (Jain, 1981), the New

Three Step Search (NTSS) (Li et al., 1994), the

Hierarchical Projection Method (HPM) (Sauer

and Schuartz, 1996), the FFT-Direct Hybrid

1854 Sung Kyun Kim

12 16 20 2" 8 J2

Fig. 1 Numerical solution and synthetic data

00 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9

3. Experiment

12 16 X 2.4. 2e 32'

..

·~ .. 1"-

~ ~ I •

., e

~ "W' '::'" ~ .

• • • •• - - = ~

• . 'W

· :e . ·

. ~ - ~ . ~ . ~ .

~ ~ ~ ~ "It=l

Table 1. A Correlation Based Correction PlY

(CBC) is found to be most accurate with minor

loss in CPU time due to having less spurious

vectors. Therefore, CBC with bi -linear

interpolation for recovering vectors is used for the

flow analysis in this paper. (Kim, 1999)

The experimental facility is shown in Fig. 2. A

closed water channel of 25cm long (including 24

wavy modules ) . IOcm wide and O.5cm deep

(mean dept h) is mounted vertically after a

straight developing channel of 20cm long. A

Method (HYB) and the Two Resolution Method

(TRM) (Anandan, 1989) are introduced. A

Correlation Based Correction technique (CBC)

(Hart, 2000) is also appreciated and found to be

most accurate and adequate for this flow.

For the cases Reynolds number f Re) of 500,

1000 and 2000. developing and fully developed

flow data are obtained by CBC PIV with one

window shifting. The global mixing phenomenon.

which results in the increase in heat and mass

transfer and drag, can be identified through the

investigation of developing flow in beginning

modules. At Re above 500, promotion to turbu-

lence is prominent. while it happens at Re above

2300 in a straight channel.

2. PIV Algorithm

A numerical solution of a lid driven cavity flow

of Reynolds number 1000 is used to produce a

synthetic image with variable length scales and

velocity gradients. (Kim, 1996) A Gaussian noise

is superimposed on panicle images. To compare

the accuracy and computation time. algorithms

with same validation, subpixel fit and vector

smoothing schemes are applied to a synthetic

image data. The three-point Gaussian fit is used

for a sub pixel estimator. and the Local Median

Filter (LMF) is chosen to validate a vector field.

(Kim, 1999)

Vector searching algorithms compared are

summarized as follows; TSS that operates in de-

creasing search radii. NTSS that a modification of

TSS to deal with small displacement. HPM that is

based on matching of integral projection image,

HYB that is a hybrid method in calculation of a

cross-correlation coefficient, TRM which uses

Gaussian filtered image, and CBC PlY that is

based on the correlation tables calculated during

processing ofone region is multiplied. element-by-

element, by the correlation tab les calculated from

an adjacent region that overlaps the first region

by fifty-percent.

The comparison of CPU time, from Cross-

correlation Step to Final Velocity Vector Step

with PC (Pentium II 266 MHz) . and the average

pixel errors of algorithms are summarized in

An Experimental Study of Developing and Fully Developed Flows in a Wavy Channel by PIV 1855

Table 1 CPU time and mean error

MAX MOVE=7 pixel MAX MOVE=IO MAX MOVE=15

pixel pixel

CPU

I

Mean Error CPU

I

Mean Error CPU Mean Error

(sec) (pixel) (sec) (pixel) (sec) (pixel)

FULL 119.84 0.181148 232.8 0.199498

!

965.59 0.286080

HYB 5.11 0.179420 5.99 0.2082559 20.10 0.327700

HPM 1.78 0.216993 2.42 0.322161

I

3.02 0.581900

NTSS 12.64 0.195907 21.09 0.218521 - -

NTSS" 3.63 0.207645 5.98 0.267543

I

9.12 0.526304

CBe 4.56 0.1202406 4.61 0.1582305 4.61 0.2316873

(a)

Loisel Conlrol let

...

.."""

double pulse Nd:Yag Laser (SPECTRON Co.,

150 mf /pulse ) is synchronized to the CCD cam-

era (LaVision Co., 1280"1024 pixels, 8 pair

frames/sec.) with a 105mm Nikkor Micro-lens by

a Trigger Controller. The polyester particles

(Glass Bead-Hollow's part#900890, 8-12 f.J.m in

diameter) are used as tracers.

A nineteenth wavy module (IOmm"7.5mm) is

chosen as a test section of fully developed flow.

[Fig. 2(c) ] A CBC with window shifting (64"64

to 32"32 pixels in window size) is applied to these

images. Adjacent interrogation spots of a final

stage were overlapped by 50%, providing a reso-

lution of 10 f.J.ffi/pixeI. 1024 velocity data (80"64

vectors) are averaged to give mean velocity and

RMS set.

4. Results

(c)

Fig. 2 (a) Experimental Set-up (b) Connection of

Straight Pipe and Modules (c) Test Section:

L=lOmm, Dmax=7.5mm, Dmin=2.5mm

First, fully developed Flow data of Re 500,

1000, 2000 are obtained through the CBC PIV

measurements of flow in the 19th wavy module.

1024 instantaneous velocity data are post-

processed to produce mean and RMS quantities.

Fig. 3 A pair of images: 1280xl024 pixels

1856 Sung Kyun Kim

Figure 4 show the numerical and PlY streamlines

on Reynolds number 500, which agrees well with

(Rush et al., 1999). The instantaneous and mean

velocity of Re 500 and 2000, depict in Figs . 5 and

6. While there is difference in the amount of

turbulence and instability varying Reynolds

numbers, there exist the turbulence and instability

in both cases, which become prominent at higher

Re. Urms and Yrms reaches 25% of average ve-

locity in a section for Re=500, and 40% for Re=

2000, while flows in a straight channel is laminar

at those Reynolds numbers. In the transition

problem, the upstream flow condition is impor-

tant. The average velocity data of Re 1000 at a

inlet portion of the first wavy module are given in

Fig. 7. It shows a typical parabolic velocity prof-

iles with maximum Urms and Yrms of 2-3% of

average velocity, which is within accuracy limit of

algorithm and image resolution, 0.2 pixel move-

ment error. Therefore, the increase in turbulence

Fig.4 Mean Streamlines of Numerical Solution IRight) and PlY Resultf Left) : Re=500

Fig.S Mean(Left) and instantaneous velocity: Re=500

Fig. 6 Mean(Left) and instantaneous velocity: Re=2000

An Experimental Study of Developing and Fully Developed FIQwS in a Wavy Channel by P/V 1857

Fig.7 Mean Velocity Data in a inlet of wavy module for Re=500

(a) Mean velosity distribytion (b) - u'v' / (flA,YK distribut ion

(c) l?l/ cnYl: distribution (d) IJ'I/ cnYl: distribution

Fig. 8 Mean and Turbulent Intensities for Re = 1000

and instability is due to the geometry of this flow.

A mean velocity and turbulent intensities of Re

1000 are shown in Fig. 8 , where URMS dominates

VRMS and u' v' (look at scale ) . As Re increases

above a critical value, from beginning modules,

there exists the global mixing between core and

near wall re-circulating flows through the flow

inst ability, which results in the increase in heat

and mass transfer and drag. This phenomenon

can be seen through instantaneous velocity and

RMS distributions in beginning modules. It

occurs at 4

t h

wavy module in case Re equals 500,

and ~ module in case Re equ als 1000, that

sho ws a good agreement with Rush et al's

predictions (Rush et al., 1999). URMS dominates

VRMS and u'v' in fully developed flow (Re=

1000) . For the case Reynolds Number equals 500,

a streamline plot of PlV result shows a good

agreement with the finite difference numerical

solution. At Re above 500, promotion to turbu-

lence is prominent, while it happens at Re above

2300 in a straight channel.

Figure 9 is presented to conjecture the analogy

between the flow instability and the heat transfer

enhancement. Di stributions of RMS quantities

are parallel to tho se of local Nusselt No. in 3 dim.

wavy pipe (Russ and Beer, 1997) and local

Sherwood No. in 2 dim. Wavy channel. (Rush et

1858 Sung Kyun Kim

Nu

I I I : , •

. . , I f.i i' 1[ l"': ; :

(a) Average velocity

(b) Instantaneous velocity

modules, developing flow analysis is inevitable

due to variance of the onset position of the global

mixing. PlY can be a good tool for this problem.

(c) RMS distribution

Fig. 11 Developing flow results (1-4 Modules);

Re=1000

...

... -:

.. «: !-.

1.0

(a) Average velocity

Fig. 9 Fig. 9 RMS Intensities near wall for Re

1000. : URMS (Long dashed line), YRMS' 10

(Solid line), Mean RMS in section (Short

dashed line)

5. Summary

I ; ;

LL,-

(b) Instantaneous velocity

(c) RMS(U

2

RMS + y

2

RMS

) distribut ion

Fig. 10 Developing flow results(2-5 Modules);

Re=5oo

aI., 1999)

To obtain the position of the unsteady stall, a

global mixing between the core and near-wall

fluid which gives the increase in heat transfer and

drag, a developing flow in the beginning wavy

modules are investigated by PlY measurements.

Figure 10 shows an instantaneous velocity field in

2-5 wave modules for Re 500 case. From 4

th

wavy

module, instantaneous velocity deviates severely

from mean velocity and RMS increases abruptly.

Onset of macroscopic mixing can be seen at the 4

to 5 wavy modules, excluding a beginning half

module, which agrees well with Rush et al. 's

observation. (Rush et aI., 1999) As same analogy,

onset happens at 2

nd

module in case Re equals

1000, as shown in Fig. 11. In engineering

applications with a finite number of wavy

Unlike a simple dye or smoke streak visuali-

zation, the PlY analysis can resolve the exact flow

structure, even in turbulent flow situation. It can

also deal with the unsteady behavior of global

mixing. In this paper, fully developed and

developing flow data in a wavy channel of Re

500, 1000, 2000 are obtained through the CBC

PlY measurements. The analogy between flow

characteristics and the enhancement of heat and

mess transfer in a wavy channel can be visible

through the RMS distribution near wall. The

onset point of the global mixing is clearly identi-

fied through instantaneous velocity and RMS in-

tensity distributions of a couple of beginning

modules. It happens at 4

th

wavy module for Re=

500, and 2

nd

module in case Re equals 1000,

which are in a good agreement of Rush et aI.'s

prediction from dye streak visualization.

The phase averaging of PIV results will give a

more precise insight of flow structure, like

instability and shedding vortices etc. , will be a

future work.

An Experimental Study of Developing and Fully Developed Flows in a Wavy Channel by PlV 1859

Acknowledgement

This work was supported by Grant No. 2000-1-

30400-002-3 from the Basic Research Program of

the Korea Science and Engineering Foundation,

Republic of Korea.

References

Goldstein, 1. L. and Sparrow E. M. 1977,

" Heat Mass Transfer Characteristic for Flow in

a Corrugated Wall Channel," Journal of Heat

Transfer, 99, pp. 187-195.

Nishimura, T., Kajimoto, Y., Tarurnoto, A.

Kawamura, Y. 1986, "Flow Structure and Mass

Transfer for a Wavy Channel in Transitional

Flow Regime," 1. Chemical Engin. Japen 19, pp.

449-455.

Nishimura, T., Yano, K., Kawamura, Y. 1990,

"Occurance and Structure of Taylor-Goertler

Vortices Induced in two Dimensional Wavy

Channels for Steady Flow," J. Chemical Engin.

Japen 23, pp. 697-703.

Wang, G. and Vanka, S. P. 1995, "Convective

Heat Transfer in Periodic Wavy Passages," Intl J.

Heat and Mass Transfer 38 pp. 3219-3230.

Rush, T. A., Newell, T. A. and Jacobi, A. M.

1999, "An Experimental Study of Flow and Heat

Transfer in Sinusoidal Wavy Passages," Int. J.

Heat Mass Transfer 42, pp. 1541-1553.

Jain, A. K., 1981, "Image Compression: A

Review," Proc. IEEE, vol. 69, pp. 349-389.

Li. R. et al., 1994, "A New Three-Step Search

Algorithm for Block Motion Estimation," IEEE

Trans, Circuits, systems for video Tech., vol. 4,

No.4, August, pp. 438-442.

Ken Sauer and Brian Schwartz, 1996, "Efficient

Block Motion Estimation Using Integral

Projections," IEEE Trans. Circuits, Systems for

video Tech., vol. 6, No.5, October, pp. 513-518.

Anandan, P., 1989, "A Computational Frame

-work and an Algorithm for the Measurement of

Visual Motion," Int. J. Compo Vision, Vol. 2, pp.

283-310.

Hart, D. P. 2000, "PIV error Correction," Exp.

Fluid 29, 13- 22.

Kim, S. K. 1996, "Secondary Steady Flows due

to the Small-Amplitude In-phase Oscillation of

Multi-Cylinders," Trans. Korean Society of

Mech. Eng. Vol. 20, No.2, pp, 649-658.

Kim, S. K. 1999, "The Fast Vector Search

Algorithms in PIV Analysis By Introducing the

Image Coding Techniques," Proc. PSFVIP-2

May, in Hawaii.

Russ, G. and Beer, H., 1997, "Heat Transfer

and Flow Field in a Pipe with Sinusoidal Wavy

Surface - n Experimental Investigation," Int. J.

Heat Mass Transfer, Vol. 40, No. 50, pp. 1071

-1081.

- 139-177Uploaded byNghĩa Ngu Ngất Ngưỡng
- 701038Uploaded byArun Yoga
- Slid MeshUploaded byHariprasath Gunasekaran
- The Most Famous PI NumbersUploaded byManoel Xavier
- FLOODING AND FLOW REVERSAL IN ANNULAR TWO-PHASE FLOWSUploaded byNishant Manepalli
- ViscosityUploaded bygee-ess-dee
- AIChE-155fUploaded byHarsha
- Hugh L Dryden and George C Hill Wind pressure on Circular Cylinders and Chimneys.pdfUploaded byaskcmiitm
- Fluid FlowUploaded byrijintom
- Ansys Flotran 2d Duct ExampleUploaded byryinalim
- IJFMR30-2003Uploaded bySantosa Edy Wibowo
- Dimensionless ParametersUploaded bythunderheadII
- Lisbon 2010Uploaded byek_scridb
- Incompressible Turbulent Flow Simulation Using the - Model and Upwind SchemesUploaded bylumostar
- Steady Flow Past a CylinderUploaded bykiran.76100
- s 0022112070220996Uploaded byDonVic
- Cap. 08.pdfUploaded byEnt Qa Nepal
- PhysRevE.93.021102Uploaded byhasib_07
- Estimation of Energy Dissipation Rate in a Taylor-Couette Reactor using Particle Image VelocimetryUploaded byeditor3854
- S8_XE-BUploaded bymnravee
- Chow - Open Channel HydraulicsUploaded byranggarang
- Thesis FinalUploaded bymacromolecule
- Heat TransferUploaded byRHinaa MoundCasfore
- Simulation and Experimental Validation of Two-Phase Flow in an Aerosol-Counter Flow Reactor using Computational Fluid Dynamics939_ftpUploaded byLi Ch
- Friction Loss in PipeUploaded bySyahir Hamidon
- The Effect of insertion of different geometries on heat transfer performance in circular pipe- A reviewUploaded byIJMER
- Hydraulics(Rough Boundary)Uploaded byAnkush Thakur
- r1.pptUploaded byRahul Phadake
- Numerical Simulation of Shedding Pattern of Near Wake Vortices Behind a Circular Cylinder Near a Plane BoundaryUploaded byEditor IJRITCC
- gaslaws(1).pptxUploaded byshikha

- FENET Budapest Feb2005 DLE DesignByAnalysis MackenzieUploaded byleonravi
- Soo Whan Ahn, Experimental Studies on Heat Transfer in the Annuli with Corrugated Inner Tubes, KSME International Journal Vol. 17 No. 8, pp. 1226~ 1233, 2003Uploaded byleonravi
- Customer Self Care PPBBUploaded byleonravi
- M Tech Production Engineering Batch National Institute of Technology, Trichy 2010-2012Uploaded byleonravi
- Flow and Heat Transfer in Narrow Channels With Corrugated Walls a Cfd Code ApplicationUploaded byleonravi
- Parameterized Model for Stress Analysis of NozzlesUploaded byleonravi
- M Tech Production Engineering Batch National Institute of Technology, Trichy 2010-2012Uploaded byleonravi
- 12. on Forced Convective Heat Transfer for a Stokes Flow in a Wavy ChannelUploaded byleonravi
- Design and Application of Twisted Tube ExchangersUploaded byleonravi
- An Experimental Study of Developing and Fully Developed Flows in a Wavy Channel by PIVUploaded byleonravi
- Numerical Study on Heat Transfer of Turbulent Channel Flow Over Periodic GroovesUploaded byleonravi
- Numerical Study on Heat Transfer of Turbulent Channel Flow Over Periodic GroovesUploaded byleonravi
- Combined Adaptive Meshing Technique and Segregated Finite Element Algorithm for Analysis of Free and Forced Convection Heat TransferUploaded byleonravi
- Rigid Thermocouple Rake AssembliesUploaded byleonravi
- Free convection of Walter’s fluid flow in a vertical double-passage wavyUploaded byleonravi
- A Study on Performance Improvement of Corrugated Type Total Heat Exchanger Considering the Structure of Flow Passage on SurfaceUploaded byleonravi
- Numerical Simulation of Forced Convection Over a Periodic Series 2011Uploaded byleonravi
- InTech-Modeling of Turbulent Flows and Boundary LayerUploaded byleonravi
- Uploaded byleonravi