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An adverb is a word that changes or qualifies the meaning of a verb, adjective, other
adverb, clause, sentence or any other word or phrase, except that it does not include
the adjectives and determiners that directly modify nouns. Adverbs are traditionally
regarded as one of the parts of speech, although the wide variety of the functions
performed by words classed as adverbs means that it is hard to treat them as a single
Adverbs typically answer questions such as how?, in what way?, when?, where?, and to
what extent?. This function is called theadverbial function, and is realized not just by
single words (i.e., adverbs) but by adverbial phrases and adverbial clauses.
Adverbs are words like slowly, now, soon, and suddenly. An adverb usually modifies a
verb or a verb phrase. It provides information about the manner, place, time, frequency,
certainty, or other circumstances of the activity denoted by the verb or verb phrase.
1. She was walking slowly (Slowly is the adverb.)
2. The kids are skating together. (Here, the adverb together provides information about
how the kids are skating.)
Adverbs can also modify adjectives and other adverbs.
1. You are quite right. (Here, the adverb quite modifies the adjective right.)
2. She spoke very loudly. (Here, the adverb very modifies another adverb – loudly.)
I found the film incredibly dull.
The meeting went well and the directors wereextremely happy with the outcome.
Crabs are known for walking sideways.
Only members are allowed to enter.
I often have eggs for breakfast.
However, I shall not eat fried eggs again.
In English, adverbs of manner (answering the question how?) are often formed
by adding -ly to adjectives. Other languages often have similar methods for
deriving adverbs from adjectives (French, for example, uses the suffix -ment), or
else use the same form for both adjectives and adverbs. Some examples are listed
underAdverbs in specific languages below.
Where the meaning permits, adverbs may undergo comparison,
taking comparative and superlative forms. In English this is usually done by
adding more and mostbefore the adverb (more slowly, most slowly), although there
are a few adverbs that take inflected forms, such as well, for
which better and best are used.
For more information about the use of adverbs in English, see English grammar:
Adverbs. For use in other languages, see Adverbs in specific languages below,
and the articles on individual languages and their grammars.
Adverbs as a "catch-all" category
Adverbs are considered a part of speech in traditional English grammar and are
still included as a part of speech in grammar taught in schools and used in
dictionaries. However, modern grammarians recognize that words traditionally
grouped together as adverbs serve a number of different functions. Some would
go so far as to call adverbs a "catch-all" category that includes all words that do
not belong to one of the other parts of speech.
A more logical approach to dividing words into classes relies on recognizing
which words can be used in a certain context. For example, a noun is a word that
can be inserted in the following template to form a grammatical sentence:
The_____is red. (For example, "The hat is red".)
When this approach is taken, it is seen that adverbs fall into a number of
different categories. For example, some adverbs can be used to modify an entire
sentence, whereas others cannot. Even when a sentential adverb has other
functions, the meaning is often not the same. For example, in the sentences She
gave birth naturally and Naturally, she gave birth, the word naturally has different
meanings. Naturally as a sentential adverb means something like "of course" and
as a verb-modifying adverb means "in a natural manner". This "naturally"
distinction demonstrates that the class of sentential adverbs is a closed
class (there is resistance to adding new words to the class), whereas the class of
adverbs that modify verbs isn't.
Adverbs are traditionally defined as words that describe verbs.
Adverbs answer any of the following questions about verbs:
how? when? where? why?
The following examples illustrate adverbs modifying verbs:
How did he lift the barbell?
Easily is an adverb.
When will we use it?
Tomorrow functions as an adverb.
Where did she hide the key?
Nearby is an adverb.
Adverbs are the most moveable of all parts of speech; therefore, it is sometimes difficult to identify
an adverb on the basis of its position in a sentence.
For example, the adverb slowly will fit into three places in the sentence He climbed the ladder:
Most adverbs end in -ly. In fact, most adverbs are formed by adding -ly to adjectives:
Like adjectives of more than one syllable, adverbs usually become comparative and
superlative by using more and most.
Adjectives that do not change form (add -ly) to become adverbs are called "flat
Typical flat adverbs are early, late, hard, fast, long, high, low, deep, near.
To determine whether these words are functioning as adjectives or adverbs, one must determine
1) what the word is describing (noun or verb)
2) what question the word is answering
The following examples illustrate the distinction.
Early as adjective:
Early describes the noun train and answers the question "which one?"
Early as adverb:
Early describes the verb arrived and answers the question "when?"
Hard as adjective:
Hard describes the noun pass and answers the question "what kind?"
Hard as adverb:
Hard describes the verb threw and answers the question "how?"
KINDS OF ADVERBS
Here you can see the basic kinds of adverbs.
1. Adverbs of Manner
Adverbs of Manner tell us the manner or way in which something happens. They
answer the question "how? Adverbs of Manner mainly modify verbs.
1. He speaks slowly. (How does he speak?)
2. They helped us cheerfully. (How did they help us?)
3. James Bond drives his cars fast. (How does James Bond drive his cars?)
4. She speaks loudly
5. He was driving slowly.
6. You replied correctly.
7. He runs fast.
8. They solved the problem easily.
9. Listen to me carefully.
10. She speaks Italian beautifully.
11. He works well.
12. You must drive your car carefully.
13. Eat quietly.
14. The brothers were badly injured in the fight.
15. They had to act fast to save the others floating in the water.
16. At the advanced age of 88, she still sang very well.
17. He spoke fluently.
18. Maria eats quickly.
19. He cries loudly.
20. Sydrick put the paint in the bucket happily.
21. Jun-Jun and Nene walk slowly.
22. He swims well, (after the main verb)
23. He ran... rapidly, slowly, quickly..
24. She spoke... softly, loudly, aggressively..
25. James coughed loudly to attract her attention.
26. He plays the flute beautifully. (after the object)
27. He ate the chocolate cake greedily.
28. He faced his enemies bravely.
29. The doctor greeted me warmly.
30. He turned slowly and walked to the door.
31. His wife looked at him coldly.
32. She dances gracefully.
We normally use Adverbs of Manner with dynamic (action) verbs, not with stative or
He ran fast. She came quickly. They worked happily.
She looked beautifully. It seems strangely. They are happily.
2. ADVERBS OF PLACE
Adverbs of Place tell us the place where something happens. They answer the question
"where?". Adverbs of Place mainly modify verbs.
1. Please sit here. (Where should I sit?)
2. They looked everywhere. (Where did they look?)
3. Two cars were parked outside. (Where were two cars parked?)
4. He will come here.
5. The children are playing outside.
6. He was standing near the wall.
7. They were flying kites on the top of hill.
8. He lives somewhere in New York.
9. She went upstairs.
10. We saw you there.
11. We were sitting here.
12. We looked everywhere.
13. We can stop here for lunch.
14. The schoolboy was knocked over by a school bus.
15. They rushed for their lives when fire broke out in the floor below.
16. Let me drive you home.
17. He rushed upstairs.
18. How long have you lived here?
19. They built a house nearby.
20. She took the child outside
21. We saw you there.
22. We were sitting here.
23. We looked everywhere.
24. Have you seen my glasses anywhere?
25. I'm sure I left them somewhere.
26. I can't find them anywhere.
27. He will come here.
28. The children are playing outside.
29. He was standing near the wall.
30. They were flying kites on the top of hill.
31. He lives somewhere in New York.
32. She went upstairs.
3. ADVERBS OF TIME
Adverbs of Time tell us something about the time that something happens. Adverbs of
Time mainly modify verbs.
They can answer the question "when?":
1. He came yesterday. (When did he come?)
2. I want it now. (When do I want it?)
3. They deliver the newspaper daily. (How often do they deliver the newspaper?)
4. We sometimes watch a movie. (How often do we watch a movie?)
5. I will buy a computer tomorrow.
6. The guest came yesterday.
7. Do it now.
8. She is still waiting for her brother.
9. He got up early in the morning.
10. We haven't started yet.
11. He still wears old-fashioned clothes.
12. She is still a student.
13. I will buy a computer tomorrow.
14. Arjay finish writing his assignment finally.
15. He finishes the exam very late.
16. She just looks for her pet.
17. Gloria Macapagal is the former president of the Philippines.
18. Turn the book on its previous page.
19. We will soon see each other in Paris.
20. Kim John brushes his teeth regularly.
21. They eventually rendezvous in the restaurant.
22. Marrying a woman means a forever commitment.
23. This gem is rarely to be found.
24. The dog is usually barking in the morning.
25. They often water the plants.
26. Since 1980, this house is built.
27. I still not yet understand what’s going on.
28. The global warming is constantly increasing.
29. We visit our grandparents occasionally.
30. They sometimes look for something different.
4. ADVERBS OF DEGREE
Adverbs of Degree tell us the degree or extent to which something happens. They
answer the question "how much?" or "to what degree?". Adverbs of Degree can
modify verbs, adjectives and other adverbs.
1. She entirely agrees with him. (How much does she agree with him?)
2. Mary is very beautiful. (To what degree is Mary beautiful? How beautiful is
3. He drove quite dangerously. (To what degree did he drive dangerously? How
dangerously did he drive?)
4. He goes to school daily.
5. She never smokes.
6. He is always late for class.
7. They always come in time.
8. Barking dogs seldom bite.
9. The employees are paid monthly.
10. The employees are paid every month.
11. She is always honest.
12. Comes before simple tenses of all other verbs:
13. They sometimes spend the whole of Saturday fishing.
14. Comes after the first auxiliary in a tense consisting of more than one verb:
15. I have often wondered how they did that.
16. I can sometimes go without food for days.
17. Seldom has one century seen so many changes.
18. No sooner did we hear the results than there was a knock at the door.
19. Never would I be persuaded to buy a second-hand.
20. She doesn't quite know what she'll do after university.
21. They are completely exhausted from the trip.
22. I am too tired to go out tonight.
23. He hardly noticed what she was saying.
24. Is your coffee hot enough? (adjective)
25. He didn't work hard enough. (adverb)
26. The dress was big enough for me.
27. She's not experienced enough for this job.
28. The coffee was too hot for me.
29. The dress was too small for her
30. he girl was not very beautiful
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