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12/14/05 Physics 103, Spring 2005, U.

Wisconsin 1
Physics 103:
Physics 103:
Lecture 12
Lecture 12
Rotational Kinematics
Rotational Kinematics
Today’s lecture will cover
rotational kinematics
centripetal force
12/14/05 Physics 103, Spring 2005, U. Wisconsin 2
Rotation
Rotation
s

R
=

t
=
s
R
v =
s
t
= R

t
= R
a =
v
t
=R

t
= R
=

t
R =s
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Question
Question
I spin a 1-m long cord with 1-kg mass attached to it
horizontally above my head at 1 revolution per second.
When I let go of the thread the mass flies off tangentially
and strikes the ground at distance D. If I spin a 2-m long
cord with 2-kg mass attached to it at the same height at the
same angular speed, and let go of the string,
The second mass strikes the ground at a distance > D
The second mass strikes the ground at a distance < D
The second mass strikes the ground at the same
distance D
CORRECT
v = R
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Vector Nature of Angular Quantities
Vector Nature of Angular Quantities
Right hand rule
Grasp the axis of
rotation with your
right hand
Wrap your fingers in
the direction of
rotation
Your thumb points
in the direction of
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Rotation Summary
Rotation Summary
(with comparison to 1-D kinematics)
(with comparison to 1-D kinematics)
Angular Linear
constant =
=
0
+t
= + +
0 0
2
1
2
t t
constant a =
v v at = +
0
x x v t at = + +
0 0
2
1
2
And for a point at a distance R from the rotation axis:
x = R v = R a = R

2
=
0
2
+ 2
v
2
= v
0
2
+ 2ax
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Centripetal Acceleration
Centripetal Acceleration
Force is required to change motion
i.e. velocity (magnitude and direction)
V
1
V
2
magnitude is constant,
but direction changes
V
1
V
2
V
V points toward the center of
rotation
V
V
=
s
R
V =
V
R
R
a
c
=
V
t
=
V
R
s
t
=
V
2
R
= R
2
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Question
Question
Case A: I spin a 1-m long cord with 1-kg mass attached to it
horizontally above my head at 1 revolution per second.
Case B: I spin a 2-m long cord with 2-kg mass attached to it
at the same height at the same angular speed.
In which case is the centripetal acceleration larger?
Case A
Case B
Both cases have same centripetal acceleration
a = R
2
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Total Acceleration
Total Acceleration
The tangential component of the acceleration is due to changing speed
The centripetal component of the acceleration is due to changing
direction
Total acceleration can be found from these components
2
C
2
t
a a a + =
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Lecture 13,
Lecture 13,
Preflight 1 & 2
Preflight 1 & 2
You and a friend are playing on the merry-go-round at Carle Park. You
stand at the outer edge of the merry-go-round and your friend stands
halfway between the outer edge and the center. Assume the rotation
rate of the merry-go-round is constant.
Who has the greatest angular velocity?
1. You do
2. Your friend does
3. Same
CORRECT
You both cover the same angle
in the same amount of time.
49%
21%
30%
0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50%
Pretty Sure
Not Quite Sure
Just Guessing
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Lecture 13,
Lecture 13,
Preflight 3 & 4
Preflight 3 & 4
Who has the greatest tangential velocity?
1. You do
2. Your friend does
3. Same
CORRECT
for a given angular speed, the tangential
speed is directly proportional to the radius
17%
22%
61%
0% 20% 40% 60% 80%
Pretty Sure
Not Quite Sure
Just Guessing
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Lecture 13,
Lecture 13,
Preflight 5 & 6
Preflight 5 & 6
Who has the greatest centripetal acceleration?
1. You do
2. Your friend does
3. Same
CORRECT
centripetal acceleration = r
2
- you have a larger
radius so therefore you have a larger centripetal
acceleration
18%
39%
43%
0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50%
Pretty Sure
Not Quite Sure
Just Guessing
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Your Car
Your Friends Car
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Lecture 13,
Lecture 13,
Preflight 7 & 8
Preflight 7 & 8
Tired of playing in the park, you and your friend hop into your cars and decide
to drive over to The Custard Cup. During some part of your trip down Florida
Avenue your cars are side by side and have the same speed and the same
acceleration. The wheels on your 1965 Corvette Stingray have a larger radius
than the wheels on your friends 1986 Chevette Hatchback.
Which car's wheels have the greatest angular acceleration?
1. Corvette
2. Chevette
3. Same
CORRECT
The Chevette's
wheels have a smaller
circumference than
the Corvette's wheels
therefore the wheels
of the Chevette must
make more rotations
to keep up.
24%
40%
36%
0% 10% 20% 30% 40%
Pretty Sure
Not Quite Sure
Just Guessing
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Forces Causing Centripetal
Forces Causing Centripetal
Acceleration
Acceleration
Newton’s Second Law says that the centripetal
acceleration is accompanied by a force
F = ma
C
F stands for any force that keeps an object following a
circular path
»Tension in a string
»Gravity
»Force of friction
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Problem Solving Strategy
Problem Solving Strategy
Draw a free body diagram, showing and labeling all the
forces acting on the object(s)
Choose a coordinate system that has one axis
perpendicular to the circular path and the other axis tangent
to the circular path
Find the net force toward the center of the circular path (this
is the force that causes the centripetal acceleration)
Solve as in Newton’s second law problems
The directions will be radial and tangential
The acceleration will be the centripetal acceleration
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Applications of Forces Causing
Applications of Forces Causing
Centripetal Acceleration
Centripetal Acceleration
Many specific situations will use forces that cause
centripetal acceleration
Level curves
Banked curves
Horizontal circles
Vertical circles
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Level Curves
Level Curves
Friction is the force that
produces the centripetal
acceleration
Can find the frictional force,
, v
Force balance in vertical direction n = mg
Frictional force, f = µn = µmg
Net force is in horizontal direction F
net
= f
F
net
= ma = m
v
2
r
= µmg v
2
= µgr
v = µrg
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Banked Curves
Banked Curves
A component of the normal force
adds to the frictional force to allow
higher speeds
Can the ability of car to turn be
made independent of the coefficient
of friction?
Yes
No
Vertical : ncos = mg
Horizontal : nsin = m
v
2
r
Dividing : tan =
v
2
rg
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Example
Example
An automobile successfully turns on a very icy roadway (no friction).
This means that the net external force is just what is needed to provide
the centripetal acceleration.
g tan =
V
2
R
Note that there is no
dependence on µ,
(which is good
since it is zero!! )
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Horizontal Circle
Horizontal Circle
The horizontal component
of the tension causes the
centripetal acceleration
Vertical : Tcos = mg
Horizontal : Tsin = m
v
2
r
= ma
c
Dividing : tan =
a
c
g
a
C
= g tan
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Vertical Circle
Vertical Circle
Look at the forces at the top of the
circle
The minimum speed at the top of
the circle can be found
Should we be worried about the
mass of the people on the roller
coaster?
Yes
No
mv
top
2
R
= mg
v
top
= gR
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Rotation Summary
Rotation Summary
(with comparison to 1-D kinematics)
(with comparison to 1-D kinematics)
Angular Linear
constant =
=
0
+t
= + +
0 0
2
1
2
t t
constant a =
v v at = +
0
x x v t at = + +
0 0
2
1
2
And for a point at a distance R from the rotation axis:
x = R v = R a = R

2
=
0
2
+ 2
v
2
= v
0
2
+ 2ax