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Wisconsin 1

Physics 103:

Physics 103:

Lecture 12

Lecture 12

Rotational Kinematics

Rotational Kinematics

Today’s lecture will cover

rotational kinematics

centripetal force

12/14/05 Physics 103, Spring 2005, U. Wisconsin 2

Rotation

Rotation

s

R

=

t

=

s

R

v =

s

t

= R

t

= R

a =

v

t

=R

t

= R

=

t

R =s

12/14/05 Physics 103, Spring 2005, U. Wisconsin 3

Question

Question

I spin a 1-m long cord with 1-kg mass attached to it

horizontally above my head at 1 revolution per second.

When I let go of the thread the mass flies off tangentially

and strikes the ground at distance D. If I spin a 2-m long

cord with 2-kg mass attached to it at the same height at the

same angular speed, and let go of the string,

The second mass strikes the ground at a distance > D

The second mass strikes the ground at a distance < D

The second mass strikes the ground at the same

distance D

CORRECT

v = R

12/14/05 Physics 103, Spring 2005, U. Wisconsin 4

Vector Nature of Angular Quantities

Vector Nature of Angular Quantities

Right hand rule

Grasp the axis of

rotation with your

right hand

Wrap your fingers in

the direction of

rotation

Your thumb points

in the direction of

12/14/05 Physics 103, Spring 2005, U. Wisconsin 5

Rotation Summary

Rotation Summary

(with comparison to 1-D kinematics)

(with comparison to 1-D kinematics)

Angular Linear

constant =

=

0

+t

= + +

0 0

2

1

2

t t

constant a =

v v at = +

0

x x v t at = + +

0 0

2

1

2

And for a point at a distance R from the rotation axis:

x = R v = R a = R

2

=

0

2

+ 2

v

2

= v

0

2

+ 2ax

12/14/05 Physics 103, Spring 2005, U. Wisconsin 6

Centripetal Acceleration

Centripetal Acceleration

Force is required to change motion

i.e. velocity (magnitude and direction)

V

1

V

2

magnitude is constant,

but direction changes

V

1

V

2

V

V points toward the center of

rotation

V

V

=

s

R

V =

V

R

R

a

c

=

V

t

=

V

R

s

t

=

V

2

R

= R

2

12/14/05 Physics 103, Spring 2005, U. Wisconsin 7

Question

Question

Case A: I spin a 1-m long cord with 1-kg mass attached to it

horizontally above my head at 1 revolution per second.

Case B: I spin a 2-m long cord with 2-kg mass attached to it

at the same height at the same angular speed.

In which case is the centripetal acceleration larger?

Case A

Case B

Both cases have same centripetal acceleration

a = R

2

12/14/05 Physics 103, Spring 2005, U. Wisconsin 8

Total Acceleration

Total Acceleration

The tangential component of the acceleration is due to changing speed

The centripetal component of the acceleration is due to changing

direction

Total acceleration can be found from these components

2

C

2

t

a a a + =

12/14/05 Physics 103, Spring 2005, U. Wisconsin 9

Lecture 13,

Lecture 13,

Preflight 1 & 2

Preflight 1 & 2

You and a friend are playing on the merry-go-round at Carle Park. You

stand at the outer edge of the merry-go-round and your friend stands

halfway between the outer edge and the center. Assume the rotation

rate of the merry-go-round is constant.

Who has the greatest angular velocity?

1. You do

2. Your friend does

3. Same

CORRECT

You both cover the same angle

in the same amount of time.

49%

21%

30%

0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50%

Pretty Sure

Not Quite Sure

Just Guessing

12/14/05 Physics 103, Spring 2005, U. Wisconsin 10

Lecture 13,

Lecture 13,

Preflight 3 & 4

Preflight 3 & 4

Who has the greatest tangential velocity?

1. You do

2. Your friend does

3. Same

CORRECT

for a given angular speed, the tangential

speed is directly proportional to the radius

17%

22%

61%

0% 20% 40% 60% 80%

Pretty Sure

Not Quite Sure

Just Guessing

12/14/05 Physics 103, Spring 2005, U. Wisconsin 11

Lecture 13,

Lecture 13,

Preflight 5 & 6

Preflight 5 & 6

Who has the greatest centripetal acceleration?

1. You do

2. Your friend does

3. Same

CORRECT

centripetal acceleration = r

2

- you have a larger

radius so therefore you have a larger centripetal

acceleration

18%

39%

43%

0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50%

Pretty Sure

Not Quite Sure

Just Guessing

12/14/05 Physics 103, Spring 2005, U. Wisconsin 12

Your Car

Your Friends Car

12/14/05 Physics 103, Spring 2005, U. Wisconsin 13

Lecture 13,

Lecture 13,

Preflight 7 & 8

Preflight 7 & 8

Tired of playing in the park, you and your friend hop into your cars and decide

to drive over to The Custard Cup. During some part of your trip down Florida

Avenue your cars are side by side and have the same speed and the same

acceleration. The wheels on your 1965 Corvette Stingray have a larger radius

than the wheels on your friends 1986 Chevette Hatchback.

Which car's wheels have the greatest angular acceleration?

1. Corvette

2. Chevette

3. Same

CORRECT

The Chevette's

wheels have a smaller

circumference than

the Corvette's wheels

therefore the wheels

of the Chevette must

make more rotations

to keep up.

24%

40%

36%

0% 10% 20% 30% 40%

Pretty Sure

Not Quite Sure

Just Guessing

12/14/05 Physics 103, Spring 2005, U. Wisconsin 14

Forces Causing Centripetal

Forces Causing Centripetal

Acceleration

Acceleration

Newton’s Second Law says that the centripetal

acceleration is accompanied by a force

F = ma

C

F stands for any force that keeps an object following a

circular path

»Tension in a string

»Gravity

»Force of friction

12/14/05 Physics 103, Spring 2005, U. Wisconsin 15

Problem Solving Strategy

Problem Solving Strategy

Draw a free body diagram, showing and labeling all the

forces acting on the object(s)

Choose a coordinate system that has one axis

perpendicular to the circular path and the other axis tangent

to the circular path

Find the net force toward the center of the circular path (this

is the force that causes the centripetal acceleration)

Solve as in Newton’s second law problems

The directions will be radial and tangential

The acceleration will be the centripetal acceleration

12/14/05 Physics 103, Spring 2005, U. Wisconsin 16

Applications of Forces Causing

Applications of Forces Causing

Centripetal Acceleration

Centripetal Acceleration

Many specific situations will use forces that cause

centripetal acceleration

Level curves

Banked curves

Horizontal circles

Vertical circles

12/14/05 Physics 103, Spring 2005, U. Wisconsin 17

Level Curves

Level Curves

Friction is the force that

produces the centripetal

acceleration

Can find the frictional force,

, v

Force balance in vertical direction n = mg

Frictional force, f = µn = µmg

Net force is in horizontal direction F

net

= f

F

net

= ma = m

v

2

r

= µmg v

2

= µgr

v = µrg

12/14/05 Physics 103, Spring 2005, U. Wisconsin 18

Banked Curves

Banked Curves

A component of the normal force

adds to the frictional force to allow

higher speeds

Can the ability of car to turn be

made independent of the coefficient

of friction?

Yes

No

Vertical : ncos = mg

Horizontal : nsin = m

v

2

r

Dividing : tan =

v

2

rg

12/14/05 Physics 103, Spring 2005, U. Wisconsin 19

Example

Example

An automobile successfully turns on a very icy roadway (no friction).

This means that the net external force is just what is needed to provide

the centripetal acceleration.

g tan =

V

2

R

Note that there is no

dependence on µ,

(which is good

since it is zero!! )

12/14/05 Physics 103, Spring 2005, U. Wisconsin 20

Horizontal Circle

Horizontal Circle

The horizontal component

of the tension causes the

centripetal acceleration

Vertical : Tcos = mg

Horizontal : Tsin = m

v

2

r

= ma

c

Dividing : tan =

a

c

g

a

C

= g tan

12/14/05 Physics 103, Spring 2005, U. Wisconsin 21

Vertical Circle

Vertical Circle

Look at the forces at the top of the

circle

The minimum speed at the top of

the circle can be found

Should we be worried about the

mass of the people on the roller

coaster?

Yes

No

mv

top

2

R

= mg

v

top

= gR

12/14/05 Physics 103, Spring 2005, U. Wisconsin 22

Rotation Summary

Rotation Summary

(with comparison to 1-D kinematics)

(with comparison to 1-D kinematics)

Angular Linear

constant =

=

0

+t

= + +

0 0

2

1

2

t t

constant a =

v v at = +

0

x x v t at = + +

0 0

2

1

2

And for a point at a distance R from the rotation axis:

x = R v = R a = R

2

=

0

2

+ 2

v

2

= v

0

2

+ 2ax

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