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A STUDY ON FINDING THE EFFECTIVE MEDIA FOR PUBLIC

SERVICE ADVERTISEMENTS IN THOOTHUKUDI DISTRICT
*Berlin Sofia. D
Abstract
Public service advertisements like all forms of advertisements, it has many different effects
and these effects are often related to one another. The message in an advertisement, no matter
how strong and persuasive, will have no effect if the public does not see the advertisement or
pay attention to it. It is important to know where an advertisement should be place to increase
the odds of reaching the public. Analyzing the public’s use of various media (e.g., what
television shows they watch, what route they take to work, and what magazines they read)
helps to identify those media to which the public are most likely to be exposed. Exposure to
an advertisement still does not mean that a consumer will attend to it. A person may simply
turn the page of a magazine, look away from the television without ever paying attention to
the advertisement. Thus, obtaining the attention of public who are, in fact, exposed to an
advertisement is a significant challenge. The highlight of this empirical study is that it
attempts to find the effective media and various characteristics of advertisements which
increase the likelihood that public will attend to an public service advertisement.
Key words
Public service advertising, effective media, characteristics of advertisements, Public
service announcements,



________________________________________________________________________
*Berlin Sofia. D, Student, Master of Philosophy, Department of Management Studies, Manonmaniam
Sundaranar Univerity, Tirunelveli.

I.INTRODUCTION
Public Service Advertisements (PSA) are primarily designed to inform and educate rather
than sell a product or service. The goal of a PSA is not to make a big sale, but rather to
change public opinion and raise awareness for a problem. However, sometimes money is
solicited, although usually not for profit.
In the context of Public service advertising, the first hurdle is to obtain the attention of the
public. This involves two important actions. First, it is important to know where a
communication should be place to increase the odds of reaching the public; this is the media
decision. Careful analysis of the public’s use of various media (e.g., what television shows
they watch, what route they take to work, and what magazines they read) allows to identify
those media to which the public are most likely to be exposed. Placing an advertisement in a
place where public are unlikely to see it assures that the advertising will be ineffective.
However, just because a person happens to view a television show or read a magazine in
which an advertisement is placed does not a guarantee that the he/she will see the
advertisement. The person may have left the room when the television commercial aired or
may not have read the particular part of the magazine in which the advertisement appeared.
This problem can be solved by repeating advertising in the same and in different media in
order to increase the probability that a public will actually be exposed to the advertising.
Thus, a key task is to identify those media to which public regularly attend and develop a
schedule of repetition for the advertisement that maximizes the number of people who will be
exposed to the advertising message. Exposure to an advertisement still does not mean that a
person will attend to it. Various characteristics of advertisements have been found to increase
the likelihood that people will attend to an advertisement.
Hence, a study was undertaken to find the effective media for public service advertisements
and the various characteristics of advertisement which contribute for the success of any
public service advertisements in Thoothukudi district, Tamilnadu.
II.OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
1. To find the best media for Public Service Advertisements in Thoothukudi district
2. To find the various characteristics of \advertisements which contribute for the success of
any Public Service Advertisements.
III. REVIEW OF LITERATURE
E W Austin,2006, in his work while studying “Questioning the value of realism: young
adults' processing of messages in alcohol-related public service announcements and
advertising” he confirms that realistic but logic-based PSAs were not as effective as
unrealistic but enjoyable ads.
Yogitha Narang,Atul Narang and Dr.Shalini Nigam,2010, in their work while studying “The
Effect of Public Service advertising and the effectiveness of media-an exploratory study of
four campaigns” they confirms that the target group of youth witnesses more of ads that have
been broadcasted on television and least in case of print media.
These research works says that Public Service Advertisements were not effective as other
commercials and television is the preferred media for public service advertisements. To find
out what exactly takes place with Public Service Advertisements in Thoothukudi an empirical
analysis is carried out. This study is an attempt in this domain.
IV. METHODOLOGY
This descriptive study was undertaken in 8 taluks of Thoothukudi district in Tamilnadu,
India. The respondents were the public of Thoothukudi district and selected using purposive
sampling method. The researcher used interview schedules to get the primary data from120
respondents. A pilot study among 20 respondents was conducted to know the reliability of the
questionnaire.
V.RESULT AND DISCUSSION
Gender of Respondents:
Among the respondents 50% were male and 50% were female. Table1(refer annexure)
shows 13% of male scores low value ,33% of male scores were moderate and 14% 0f male
scored high value. 8% of female scores low value ,43% of female scores were moderate and
9% of female scored high value.
Media which delivers majority of information on social issues:
Table 2:(refer annexure) presents the result for the media which delivers more information on
social issues. From the table it is highlighted that television media scores 62%, print media
scores 19%,16% of respondents says as radio and online,outdoor and other media covers
4%.So concentrating on the media with meager percent will help out to make the reach of
Public Service Advertisements effectively in Thoothukudi district.
Best media for Public Service Advertisements:
From the Table 3:(refer annexure) its clear that Television is the best media for Public
Service Advertisements in Thoothukudi districts as it holds the first position with 63%.Print
can be the second best media because 22% of people suggests it. Radio is suggested by 18%
of people people suggests online and outdoor media.
Association between Age and Media exposed:
The association between age and media exposed was testedby using Chi-square
analysis.Results are given in Table 5(refer annexure)The P-Values for television, print and
outdoor were significantly above 0.05 .this implies that there is no association between the
age and media exposed. In case of Air media the P-Value is below 0.05 which implies that
there is an significant association between age and the media exposed.
Association between Age and individual behaviors towards advertisements
The association between age and individual behaviors towards advertisements gives result as
in the Table 6(refer annexure) . The P-values for Interest in ads, Carefully watch and listen to
ads, Encourage others to watch ads, Believe claims made in ads, creates impacts in decision making
were significantly above 0.05 .this implies that there is no association between the age and
individual behaviors towards advertisements. The P-values for Discuss the ads with others,
Watch ads referred by others, Feel bored on repeated ads, worth spending time in ads and Ads are
exaggerated and false. below 0.05 which implies that there is an significant association between
age and individual behaviors towards advertisements.
Association between individual expectation on advertisements
The association between age and individual expectation on advertisements gives result as in
the Table 7(refer annexure) . The P-values for most of the individual expectation were
significantly below 0.05 .this implies that there is an significant association between the age
and individual expectation towards advertisements except for factors like Believe in ads of
comparison and Repeated Sponsor ads creates impact are below 0.05 which implies that
there is no association between age and individual expectation towards advertisements.
Considering these factors while creating the Public Service Advertisement will contribute for
success.
Association between age and expectations on PSA
The association between age and individual expectation on advertisements gives result as in
the Table 8(refer annexure) . The P-values for all the factors were significantly below 0.05
.this implies that there is an significant association between the age and expectations on PSA.
These factors can help in segmenting the public for each and every Public Service
Advertisements to be reached effectively,.

VI.CONCLUSION
This research and its findings will be helpful for the government or any other institution
which works with social issues and Public Service Advertisements. The findings of this
study helps in modifying the advertising strategy by choosing the best media and important
attributes required for the advertisements. This study was limited to find the best media for
Public Service advertisements in Thoothukudi district of Tamilnadu. Future research can
study about finding the best media for other areas.
VII.REFERENCES
Adnsager, J. L., A. ,., & Pinkleton, B. E. (March 2001). Questioning the value of realism: young adults'
processing of messages in alcohol-related public service announcements and advertising. Journal of
Communication , Volme 51 (Issue 1), pages 121–142.
Narang, Y., A. N., & D. S. (February 2012). EFFECT OF PUBLIC SERVICE ADVERTISING AND THE
EFFECTIVENESS OF MEDIA- AN EXPLORATORY STUDY OF FOURCAMPAIGNS. IJRFM , volume 2 (Issue
2).
sandy, R. (1989). Statistics for Business and Economics. Indianapolis: McGRAW-HILL International
edition.




VIII. ANNEXURE
Table 1:Level table on Gender
Gender
No of
respond
ents
% Average S.D
Low

Medium

High

Male 60 50
169.9333

14.05346

13
(22%)
33
(55%)
14
(23%)
Female 60 50
171.6

22.43272

8
(13%)
43
(72%)
9
(15%)
Total 120 100 120


Table 2:Level table on Media which delivers majority of social issues.
Media
No of
respond
ents
% Average S.D Low Medium High
Television
74 62
165.0135

21.06252

10(14%) 56(76%) 8(10)
Print
23 19
176.6957

12.31199

3(13%) 16(70%) 4(17%)
Radio
19 15
184.2105

13.63239

1(5%) 16(84%) 2(11%)
Online 1
4
179.25

35.6873

1(25%) 2(50%) 1(25%) Outdoor 2
Others 1
Total 120 100 120




Table 3:Level table on Best media for Public Service Advertisements
Media
No of
respon
dents
% Average S.D Low Medium High
Television 76 63 167.1447

21.62943

11(14%) 56(74%) 9(12%)
Print 26 22 174.9615

13.18433

4(15%) 17(65%) 5(20%)
Radio 18 15 180

20.00588

3(17%) 12(67%) 3(17%)
Online 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Outdoor 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Total 120 100 120

Table 4:Association between Age and Media exposed
Media
Chi-Square
value
P-value Significance
Television 71.606 .078 NS
Print 47.450 .785 NS
Air 104.246 .000 S
Outdoor 64.583 .320 NS
S-Significan at 5 percentage P-value(P<=0.05), NS- Not Significant at 5 percentage
P-value(P>0.05)
Table 5:Association between Age and individual behaviors towards advertisements
Attributes
Chi-Square
value
P-value Significance
Interest in ads 25.257 .065 NS
Carefully watch and listen to ads 24.334 082 NS
Encourage others to watch ads 22.088 .140 NS
Discuss the ads with others 30.561 .015 S
Watch ads referred by others 33.870 .006 S
Believe claims made in ads 20.559 .196 NS
Feel bored on repeated ads 27.352 .038 S
worth spending time in ads 46.265 .000 S
Ads are exaggerated and false 32.154 .010 S
creates impacts in decision making 20.199 .211 NS

Table 6:Association between individual expectation on advertisements
Attributes
Chi-Square
value
P-value Significance
Innovative and creativity in ads 81.957 .000 S
Likes ads of short duration 67.718 .000 S
Interested in ads with celebrities 43.524 .000 S
Remembers ads with jingles 38.614 .000 S
Recall ads with catchy taglines 68.510 .000 S
Attracted towards animated ads 46.339 .000 S
Like frequent thematic changes in ads 43.528 .000 S
Do not watch ads with rough appeals 30.671 .015 S
Believe in ads of comparison 24.235 .085 NS
Repeated Sponsor ads creates impact 20.826 .185 NS

Table 9:Association between age and expectations on PSA
Attributes Chi-Square
value
P-value Significance
Careful watch and listen to PSAs 56.943 .000 S
Encourage others to watch PSAs 52.275 .000 S
PSA creates awarness 43.776 .000 S
Discusse the PSA with others 43.622 .000 S
worth spending time in PSAs 35.689 .003 S
Likes PSAs of short duration 64.990 .000 S
Interested in PSAs with celebrities 58.345 .000 S
Recall PSAs with catchy taglines 40.868 .001 S
PSA should be of less entertaining 39.168 .001 S
Emotional appeal creates more impact 31.460 .002 s