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APMO 2001

1. For any positive integer n let S(n) be the sum of the digits in the decimal representation of n. Any positive integer obtained by removing several (at least one) digits
from the right-hand end of the decimal representation n is called a stump of n. Let T (n)
be the sum of all stumps of n. prove that n = S(n) + 9T (n).
soln 1. Let a be the unit digit of n and m be obtained by dropping the unit digit of
n. Then
n − S(n) = 10m + a − S(m) − a
= 10m − S(m)

Thus the proof cam be completed by using induction on the number of digits of n.
2. Find the largest positive integer N so that the number of integers in the set
{1, 2, . . . , N } which are divisible by 3 is equal to the number of integers which are divisible
by 5 or 7 (or both).
soln 2. This is equivalent to finding the largest positive integer solution of the equation
–

N
3

—

–

N
=
5

—

–

N
+
7

—

–

—
N

.
35

Let N = 35k + r be a solution. Then equation becomes
–
Now

35k+r−2
3

35k + r
3

„ 35k+r … „ r …
, i ≤
3

r
i

—

– — j k
3
r
= 11k +
+
.
5
7

for i = 5, 7. So

35k + r − 2
r
12r
r
≤ 11k + + =
,
3
5 7
35

which implies 70k ≤ r + 70 < 35 + 70 = 105. Then k ≤ 1 or equivalently N ≤ 69. Checking
values of N ≤ 69 shows that N = 65 is the answer.
3. Let two equal regular n-gons S and T be located in the plane such that their
intersection is a 2n-gon (n ≥ 3). The sides of the polygon S are coloured in red and the
sides of T in blue.
Prove that the sum of the lengths of the blue sides of the polygon S ∩ T is equal to
the sum of the lengths of the red sides.
soln 3. First observe that S ∩ T has 2n sides only if the sides of S ∩ T alternate.
Label the vertices of the red n-gon R1 , R2 , . . . Rn and the vertices of the blue n-gon
1

. . . .+an xn is a polynomial with ai ∈ Q and degree n ≥ 2.. .. ..... ......... Place the n-gons so that the vertices are in the following clockwise order: B1 . 2 . . .... .. Bn .. because the sets of solutions of 2 .. di in the clockwise order where bi is the side opposite Bi such that bi /b1 = ci /c1 = di /d1 = pi ... All the polynomials of degree 1 with rational coefficients.. ...... . .. . In fact.. . .... .... .. .... q = (q1 + · · · + qn ).. ... ..... . . . .. ... . R1 . .. ....... rn . ... .... ....... where n = deg f (x).. .... we have the formula of Lagrange f (x) = n X f (ri ) i=0 Y x − rj . r1 .. ... ...... . ... . .... It is easy to see that all the polynomials of first degree with rational coefficients do not contain mixed points while all polynomials of degree 0 do......... .. . Rn ...... Answer... 2 . . . we have p = q as required. . .. ..B1 .... . . .. ... .. ..... . ..... ........ .. .. .. d c b t r s c b r t s2 R1 B2 d R2 4... . .. si . ..... .... . ti in the counter clockwise order such that ri /b1 = si /c1 = ti /d1 = qi ......... .... Likewise the perimeter of the red n-gon is i=1 (bi +si +ti ) = pb1 +qc1 +qd1 .. where p1 = 1.. .. 1 .. . . Each of these vertices together with the opposite side determines a triangle and all these triangles are similar. ....... ... First Solution... .... .... We may assume that the coefficients of f (x) are integers.It is well known that if f (r) ∈ Q for every r ∈ Q then all the coefficients of f (x) are rational.. ... ... ..... A point in the plane with a Cartesian system is called a mixed point if one of its coordinates is rational and the other is irrational...... . Bn .. ........... . . .. ... . ............. 2 . B1 . We also let the lengths of the sides of the triangle determined by Ri be ri ... . .... ... . .. 1.. ... .... .... B2 .... Suppose that f (x) = a0 +a1 x+...... Pn p = q where p = (p1 + · · · + pn )... .... ..... .. ... .... ... . .... ... soln 4.... . .. ... ...... . .... .. ...... Find all polynomials with real coefficients such that their graphs do not contain any mixed point. ...... .. .. .. ....... .. 1 .. 1 . ... ...... . . . .. .. or equivalently. .. . Since c1 + d1 − b1 > 0 by the triangle inequality. ... ... . ... . ... . For each i = 1.... ... .... .. . for distinct rational numbers r0 .. ... . . . .... . .. . Equating the two we have p(c1 +d1 −b1 ) = q(c1 +d1 −b1 ). . ci . . . . . . n.. .......... . . B2 ....... ....... .. .. .... .. . .. . . . The perimeter of the blue n-gon Pn is i=1 (ci + di + ri ) = pc1 + pd1 + qb1 .... ... ... ..... ri − rj j6=i where all the coefficients on the right are rational. ... . ..... ... ..... ... .. .. 1 ... ......... .. 2.... .. .. ..... . .. . . . . 2 . . Then we want to prove that b1 + · · · + bn = r1 + · · · + rn or b1 (p1 + · · · + pn ) = b1 (q1 + · · · + qn ). 1 ... .. we let the lengths of the sides of the triangle determined by Bi be bi .... . .... . . . R2 . .........

q are coprime integers. k + 1] which is either an integer or an irrational number . Thus there are at least three integers in [f (k). f (x + 1) − f (x) ≥ nxn−1 − (n − 1)kxn−2 ≥ k n−1 > 2. As before we assume that the coefficients are integers. where {x1 . we may assume WLOG that f (x) has integer coefficients. In the equation f (s) = r. such that there are n + 4 points A. n. C. . Find the greatest integer n. soln Let AB = p and CD = q with p > q. If ABX equals CDX. . 5. . Γd (p) 3 . We also require that k ≥ 2. We have shown before that if f (x) = r. . If s ∈ Q. Now f (x + 1) − f (x) = nxn−1 + p(x) where p(x) is a polynomial of degree n − 2. X1 . Similarly. i. Therefore. . It follows from the intermediate value theorem that there is at least s ∈ (1. s is an integer. write s = p/q where p. Let Γa (q) be the circle with radius q and centre A. . the left hand side is a multiple of s. The equation f (x) = r has an irrational root if and only if g(x) = an−1 n irrational root and if and only if the equation f (x) − f (0) = r − f (0) has an irrational root. there must be a mixed point. . an = 1 and a0 = 0. then the root must also be an integer. When x = k. Let k be an integer strictly larger than the maximum of the absolute values of the coefficients of p(x). Another soln: (The main idea is that the graph of f (x) is very steep for large x and since the inverse image of integers must be integers or irrational if f (x) has integer coefficients with leading coefficient 1 we’ll get a mixed point. then either AX = r or BX = r. .e. x1 . it is easy to see that q = 1. .equations f (x) = r and af (x) = ar. The other circles Γb (q). . Thus s 6∈ Q and we have a mixed point. g(x) is a polynomial with integer coefficients whose leading coefficient n r has an is 1. Moreover let us denote g(x) = an−1 f ( axn ). . . Since there are only two integers in the interval. x2 . . f (k+1)]. Let r be a sufficiently large prime. r) such that f (s) − r = 0. . such that r > max{f (1). D. where r is an integer. then either a ∈ Z or a 6∈ Q. coincide.) Let f (x) be a polynomial of degree n(> 1) with rational coefficients. . 2. f (k +1)] the equation f (x) = c has a solution in [k. and then substitute into the equation f (s) = r. triangles ABXi and CDXi are equal. Thus if f (a) = r. Thus f (1) < r < f (r). where a is an integer. . For each integer c ∈ [f (k). x2 . Assume with loss of generality that AX = r. Γc (p). xk } denote the set of all real roots of f (x)−x = 0. and the leading coefficient is 1. xk }. assume that CX = p.. has a rational root. Thus r | s which is impossible since s < r. Xn in the plane with AB 6= CD that satisfy the following condition: for each i = 1. r ∈ Z. B.

... Then X lies on the intersection of Γa with Γc .. ....... . .... The following configuration of a regular hexagon gives an example with n = 4.. . . If ABW is equal to CDW ... ....... .. ... ........ . .. . ... ...... ........ . ....... Thus n ≤ 8 as there are at most 8 points that have the given properties: the 8 intersection points of the circles Γx . ..... . . d.. ...... ....... . ........ . Let W be a point of intersection of Γb with Γd ..... ... ...... ... i... . .. .... .... ....... ...... ........... . .... . . ....... .. . .. .... ... . ............. . we see that AC||BD.. ....... .... .. ....... . ... .. ...... . .... .... . ...... ..... ... ... .. .. .. ................... ... A B ............. ... ...... ... ... ........ ... .. . ..... ....... .. .. . . ........ . .......... ... ..... .. .. . ..... ..... .... .. .. ............... . . .................. .... x = a. ....... ........ ................. ... .............. ....... ... ............. .... .. ..... ... .. ..... . .... . Γd ) can contribute at most two points that satisfy the given conditions... ................ ..... . .. ..... .... ..................... ....... .. . ....... . ...... ..... . .. Y are the intersections of Γa with Γc and they both have the given properties.. ...... ...... Γc ) and (Γb ..... ............ a contradiction. ... . .. ....... ......e..... ........... ... . ..... . . . . ................... But that means q = BW > W D = p. ......... ...... ...... .. . ........ ... . ... ... .. ... .. ... ....... .... .... ... Γy .. Since XY is also perpendicular to AC...... . .. y = c.... .. .. .... .................... .... . . ..... . ... .... ........ .. . ... ..... ....... .... .... ∠BAP = ∠P CD. . . . . ................ ...... .............. ... ... B. ... . . ........ . ... . ........... ... ......... ..... ...... . . ... .. ....... ..... . ... ........ ........ . .... b.. p A q q Q P p p C q D Since ABP is equal to CDP ... .... . ..... ....................... Thus the two pairs of circles (Γa .. then AW = BW ... ..... .... .... ............ .... . ....... .. ...... ......... . Thus n ≤ 4. ... ...... . .......... ............ ...... .......... .. .. . ... .. .. . ..... . Suppose that X. .... ......... ...... ... .... ............ .. .............. .are similarly defined... ... ......... ......... . ...... .. .. Then we must have BX = DX and BY = DY .. ...... .. . ........... .... .. . ... ... ....... ..... ......... ......... ........... ... .. . .. ... ...... ... ..... .. . ....... .................. ........... W is on the perpendicular bisector of AB...... .. ..... .... . ............. . ... ... ..... . ... ........ . .... .. ... ........ ... ... ... ............... .... . ..... ...... .. ....... . .... . ......... . ... . ..... ..... ...... . C X1 D X2 X3 4 X4 ... . ... ... .. Thus the line XY is the perpendicular bisector of the segment BD.. ... . ........... .. .. Therefore ABW is not equal to CDW . ......... ..... . ..... ..... .... . . . .... .....