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Ths book s dcdcatcd to thc mcmory o|
Erch !antsch
Aharon Katcha|sky
Pcrrc Rcsbos
Lcon Roscntc|d
L.c C LCcNc
tL. Sc|cncc and Chanc by A|v|n Tomcr x|
1t^L. Man`s Ncw D|a|o0c w|th Nat0rc xxv||
P1LLL1P. Thc Cha||cnc to Sc|cncc
LDDK \|O' 10O .OlB|D0 D| 0O O0|vO|S0|
LM& . Thc Tr|umph ot Rcason 1
. Thc Ncw Moscs 1
. A Dch0man|zcd World J
J. Thc Ncwton|an Synthcs|s J1
1. Thc Expcr|mcnta| D|a|o0c 1
3. Thc Myth at thc Or||n ot Sc|cncc 11
0. Thc l|m|ts ot CIass|caI Sc|cncc 3
LM^11 . Thc dcnt|hcat|on ot thc RcaI 31
. Ncwton`s laws 31
. Mot|on and Chanc bZ
J. Tbc Lan0ac ot Dynam|cs 0
1. lap|acc`s Dcmon 75
LM1 M. Thc To Cu|t0rcs 1V
. D|dcrot and thc D|sco0rsc ot thc l|v|n 1V
Z. Kant`s Cr|t|caI Rat|cat|on 0
J. A Ph||osophy ot Naturc? HccI and crson V
1. Poccss and Rca||ty: Wh|tchcad VJ
3. "noramus, lnoram|b0s:
Thc Pos|t|v|st`s Stra|n V0
0. A Ncw Start V
LM^11 N. Encry and thc nd0str|a| Ac J
1. Hcat, thc RvaI 0 Gravtaton OJ
. Thc Prncp|c ot thc Conscrvaton ot Encry 07
J. Hcat Enncs and thc Arrow ot Tmc
1. lrom Tcchno|oy to Cosmo|oy 5
5. Thc Brth ot Entropy 7
5. Bo|tzmann`s Ordcr Prncp|c 22
7. Carnot and Darwn 27
LMPVLH N+ Thc Thrcc 5tacs ot Thcrmodynamcs 31
. l|ux and lorcc J
. lncar Thcrmodynamcs J7
J. lar tmm Equ|brum 10
1. Bcyond thc Thrcsho|d ot ChcmcaI lnstab|ty 15
5. Thc Encountcr wth Mo|ccu|ar Bo|oy 5J
5. Bturcatons and Symmctry-Brcakn 6
7. Cascadn Bturcatons and
thc Transtons to Chaos 57
. lrom Euc|d to Arstot|c 7
LMPVLH N. Ordcr Throuh l|uctuatons 77
. l|uctuatons and Chcmstry 77
2. l|uctuatons and Corrc|atons 79
J. Thc Amp|caton ot l|uctuatons 8
+. Structura| Stab|ty 89
5. lostc Evo|uton 92
5. Evo|utonary lccdback 95
7. Modc|zatons ot Comp|cxty 20J
. An Opcn Wor|d 207
3JJ- 1ss. J 3sg |J 3sJg
LMPVLH N. Rcdscovcrn Tmc 2J
1. A Chanc ot Emphass 2J
. Thc End ot Unvcrsa|ty 27
J. Thc Rsc ot Quantum Mcchancs 28

1. Hcscnbcr`s Unccrtanty Rc|aton 222

. h2 2mQOta VOUOD Ol @UaDUm by8m8 226
5. A Noncqu|ibrum Unvcrsc 229
LM^11 N. Thc C|ash ot Doctrncs 2JJ
. ProbabiIity and lrrcvcrsibiIity 2JJ
2. BoItzmann`s Brcakthro0h 210
J. Q0cstionin BoItzmann`s lntcrprctation 21J
1. Dynamics and Thcrmodynamics: To Scparatc
WorIds 217
5. BoItzmann and thc Arrow ot Timc 25J
LMP11 A. lrrcvcrsibiIity-thc Entropy Barricr 257
. Entmpy and thc Arrow ot Timc 257
2. lrrcvcrsibiIity as a Symmctry-Brcakin Proccss 26J
J. Thc Limits ot CIassica| Conccpts 26
1. Thc RcncwaI ot Dynamics 261
5. lrom Randomncss to lrrcvcrsibiIity 272
b. Thc Entmpy Barricr 2Z7
1. Thc Dynamics ot CorrcIations 280
. Entmpy as a ScIcction PrincipIc 285
V. Activc Mattcr 286
LLP\LbLPb. lrom Earth to Hcavcn-
thc Rccnchantmcnt ot Nat0rc 29
An Opcn Scicncc 29
2. Timc and Times 293
J. Thc Entropy Barricr 295
1. Thc EvoI0tionary Pradim 297
5. Actors and Spcctators 298
6. A WhirIwind in a T0rb0Icnt Nat0rc J0
Z. Bcyond Ta0toIoy J05
8. Thc Crcativc Co0rsc ot Timc J07
V. Thc H0man Condition J
0. Thc RcncwaI ot Nat0rc 32
P1b J5
5|L!L 1
/v'| J|
Onc ot thc most h|gh|y dcvc|opcd sk|||s |n contcmporary Wcst-
crn c|v|||zat|on |s d|sscct|on. thc sp||t-up ot prob|cms |nto thc|r
sma||cst poss|bIc componcnts. Wc arc good at |t. So good, wc
ottcn torgct to p0t thc p|cccs back togcthcr aga|n.
Th|s sk||| |s pcrhaps most nc|y honcd |n sc|cncc. Thcrc wc
not on|y ro0t|ncly brcak prob|cms down |nto b|tc-s|zcd chunks
and m|n|-chunks, wc thcn vcry

ttcn |so|atc cach onc trom |ts

cnv|ronmcnt by mcans ot a 0sctu| tr|ck. Wc say cctcris pur-
ibux~a|| othcr th|ngs bc|ng cq0a|. ln th|s way wc can |gnorc
thc comp|cx | ntcract|ons bctwccn our prob|cm and thc rcst ot
thc 0n|vcrsc.
l|ya Pr|gog|nc, who won thc Nobc| Pr|zc |n VJJ tor h| s
work on thc thcrmodynam|cs ot noncq0|||br|0m systcms, | s
not sat|scd, howcvcr, w|th mcrc|y tak|ng th|ngs apart. Hc has
spcnt thc bcttcr part ot a ||tct|mc try|ng to "p0t thc p|cccs
back togcthcr aga|n"~thc p|cccs |n th|s casc bc|ng b|o|ogy
and phys|cs, ncccss|ty and chancc, sc|cncc and human|ty.
Born |n R0ss|a |n 1V1 and ra|scd |n Bc|g|0m s|ncc thc agc
ot tcn, Pr|gog|nc |s a compact man w|th gray ha|r, c|can|y ch|s-
cIcd tcaturcs, and a |ascr||kc |ntcns|ty. Dccp|y |ntcrcstcd | n
archaco|ogy, art, and h|story, hc br|ngs to sc|cncc a rcmark-
ab|c po|ymath|c m|nd. Hc ||vcs w|th h|s cng|nccr-w|tc, Ma-
r| na, and h| s son, Pasca| , | n Br0ssc| s, whcrc a cross-
d|sc|p||nary tcam | s b0sy cxp|or|ng t hc | mp||cat|ons ot h|s
|dcas |n c|ds as d|sparatc as thc soc|a| bchav|or ot ant co|o-
n|cs, d|0s|on rcact|ons |n chcm|ca| systcms and d|ss|pat|vc
proccsscs |n g0ant0m cld thcory.
Hc spcnds part ot cach ycar at thc l|ya Pr|gog|nc Ccntcr tor
buBlCu NCCDuuCS and Thcrmodynamcs oI thc Un|vcrs|ty
ot Tcxas |n A0st|n. To h|s cv|dcnt dc|ght and s0rprsc, hc was
awardcd thc Nobc| Prizc tor his work on "dissipativc str0c-
t0rcs" ari sin o0t ot non|incar proccsscs in noncg0iIibri0m
systcms. Thc coa0thor ot this vo|0mc, lsabc||c Stcncrs, is a
phi|osophcr, chcmist, and historian ot scicncc who scrvcd tor
a timc as part ot Prionc `s Br0ssc|s tcam. Shc now |ivcs in
Paris and is associatcd with thc M0scc dc |a ViIIcttc.
ln UrJcr Uut o/ Chuoa thcy havc ivcn 0s a Iandmark-a
work that is contcntio0s and mind-cncrizin, a book ||cd
with ashin insihts that s0bvcrt many ot o0r most basic as-
s0mptions and s0cst trcsh ways to think abo0t thcm.
Undcr thc tit|c Lu nouvc//c ul/iunce, its appcarancc i n
lrancc i n !979 tricrcd a marvc|o0s scicntitic trcc-tor-a|l
amon prcstiio0s intc||cct0a|s in c|ds as divcrsc as cntomo|-
oy and |itcrary criticism.
lt is a mcas0rc ot Amcrica`s ins0|arity and c0|t0raI ar-
roancc that this book, which is cithcr p0b|ishcd or abo0t to
bc p0bIishcd in twc|vc |an0acs, has takcn so |on to cross
thc At|antic. Thc dc|ay carrics with it a si|vcr |inin, howcvcr,
in that this cdition inc|0dcs Prioinc `s ncwcst ndins, par-
tic0|ar|y with rcspcct to thc Sccond Law ot thcrmodynamics,
which hc scts into a trcsh pcrspcctivc.
lor a|| thcsc rcasons, UrJcr Uut o/Chuoa is morc than ]0st
anothcr book: lt is a |cvcr tor chanin scicncc itsc|t, tor com-
pc||in 0s to rccxaminc its oa|s, its mcthods, its cpistcmoI-
oy~its wor|d vicw. lndccd, this book can scrvc as a symbol
ot today`s hstoric transtormation in scicncc-onc that no in-
tormcd pcrson can attord to inorc.
Somc scho|ars pict0rc scicncc as drivcn by its own intcrnal
|oic, dcvc|opin accordin to its own |aws in sp|cndid iso|a-
tion rom thc wor|d aro0nd it. Yct many scicntic hypothcscs ,
thcorics, mctaphors, and modc|s (not t o mcntion thc choiccs
madc by scicntists cithcr to st0dy or to inorc vario0s prob-
|cms) arc shapcd by cconomic, c0|t0ra|, and po|iticaI torccs
opcratin o0tsidc thc |aboratory.
l do not mcan to s0cst to ncat a pam||cI bcIwccn thc nat0m
O soicty and thc rcinin scicntic worId vicw or "padig."
Sti|| |css wo0|d l rc|catc scicncc to somc "s0pcrstr0ct0rc
mo0ntcd atop a sociocconomic "basc," as Marxists U wont to
do. Uut aoOnoO a not un "ndOpOndOnt vurublO.'' !t 8 un opOn
systcm cmbcddcd in soicty and |inkcd to it by vcry dcnsc tccd-
back |oops. lt is powcn0I|y im0cnccd by its ctcmm cnvimn-
mcnt, and, n a cncraI way, its dcvc|opmcnt is shapcd by c0|t0m
nccptivity to |ts dominant |dcas.
Takc that body ot |dcas that camc tocthcr |n thc scvcn-
tccnth and cihtccnth ccntur|cs undcr thc hcadin ot "c|ass|-
ca| sc|cncc or "Ncwtonianism. Thcy picturcd a wor|d in
which cvcry cvcnt was dctcrmincd by initia| conditions that
wcrc, at |cast |n pr|ncip|c, dccrminab|c with prccision. lt was
a wor|d |n which chancc p|aycd no part, |n which a|| thc picccs
camc tocthcr |ikc cos in a cosmic machinc.
Thc acccptancc ot this mcchanistic vicw coincidcd w|th thc
risc ot a tactory civ||ization. And divinc d|cc-shootin sccms
hard|y cno0h to account tor thc tact that thc Ac ot thc Ma-
chinc cnthusiastica|| y cmbraccd scicntit|c thcorics that pic-
tund thc cntirc 0nivcrsc as a machinc.
This vicw ot thc wor|d |cd Lap|acc to his tamo0s c|aim that,
|vcn cnouh tacts, wc cou|d not mcrc|y prcd|ct thc t0turc b0t
rctrodict thc past. And this |mac ot a simp|c, 0nitorm, mc-
chan|ca| 0nivcrsc not on|y shapcd thc dcvc|opmcnt ot sc|cncc,
it a|so sp|||cd ovcr into many othcr c|ds. lt |nucnccd thc
tramcrs ot thc Amcrican Constitution to crcatc a machinc tor
ovcrni n, |ts chccks and ba|anccs c|ickin |ikc parts ot d
c|ock. Mcttcrn|ch, whcn hc rodc torth to crcatc h|s ba|ancc ot
powcr |n E0ropc, carr|cd a copy ot Lap|acc`s wr|t|ns |n h|s
baac. And thc dramatic sprcad ot tactory c|vhzat|on, w|th
i ts vast c| ank|n machincs, its hcroic cninccrin brcak-
thro0hs, thc r|sc ot thc rai|road, and ncw |nd0strics s0ch as
stcc| , tcxt||c, and auto, sccmcd mcrc|y to conrm thc imac ot
thc 0nivcrsc as an cninccr`s Tinkcrtoy.
Today, howcvcr, thc Ac ot thc Machinc is scrccch|n to a
ha|t, it acs can scrccchand o0rs ccrta|n|y sccms to. And
thc dcc||nc ot thc |ndustria| ac torccs 0s to contront thc pain-
tu| ||m|tat|ons ot thc machinc modc| ot rca|ity.
Ot coursc, most ot thcsc | im|tat|ons arc not trcsh| y dis-
covcrcd. Thc notion that thc wor|d |s a c|ockwork, thc p|ancts
timc|css|y orbit|n, a|| systcms opcratin dctcrministica||y |n
cq0i|ibrium, a|| s0b|cct to 0n|vcrsa| |aws that an o0tsidc ob-
scrvcr co0|d d|scovcrth|s modc| has comc 0ndcr withcrn
rc cvcr s|ncc |t rst arosc.
ln thc car|y ninctccnth ccnt0ry, thcrmodynami cs cha| -
Icncd thc timc|cssncss |mp|icd | n thc mcchanistic imac ot
thc uni vcrsc. lt thc wor|d was a b machi nc, thc thcr-
modynamicists dcc|arcd, it was runnin down, its usctu| cn-
cry |cak|n o0t. lt co0|d not o on torcvcr, and t|mc,
thcrctorc, took on a ncw mcan|n. Darw|n's to||owcrs soon
|ntrod0ccd a contrad|ctory tho0ht. Thc wor|d-mach|nc m|ht
bc r0nn|n down, |os|n cncry and oran|zat|on, b0t b|o|o-
|ca| systcms, at |cast, wcrc r0nn|n up, bccom|n morc, not
|css, oran|zcd.
By thc car|y twcnt|cth ccnt0ry, E|nstc|n had comc a|on to
p0t thc obscrvcr back |nto thc systcm. Thc mach|nc |ookcd
d|ttcrcnt-|ndccd, tor a|| pract|ca| p0rposcs |t wua d|hcrcnt-
dcpcnd|n 0pon whcrc yo0 stood w|th|n |t. B0t |t was st||| a
dctcrm|n|st|c mach|nc, and God d|d not throw d|cc. Ncxt, thc
g0ant0m pcop|c and thc 0nccrta|nty to|ks attackcd thc modc|
w|th p|ckaxcs, s|cdchammcrs, and st|cks ot dynam|tc.
Ncvcrthc|css, dcsp|tc a|| thc |ts, ands, and b0ts, |t rcma|ns
ta|r to say, as Pr|o|nc and Stcncrs do, that thc mach|nc par-
ad|m |s st|II thc "rctcrcncc po|nt" tor phys|cs and thc corc
modc| ot sc|cncc |n cncra|. lndccd, so powcrt0| |s |ts con-
t|n0|n |n0cncc that m0ch ot soc|a| sc|cncc, and cspcc|a||y
cconom|cs, rcma|ns 0ndcr |ts spc||.
Thc |mportancc ot th|s book |s not s|mp|y that |t 0scs or|-
na| ar0mcnts to cha||cnc thc Ncwton|an modc|, b0t a|so
that |t shows how thc st||| va||d, thouh m0ch ||m|tcd, c|a|ms
ot Ncwton|an|sm m|ht t compat|b|y |nto a |arcr sc|cnt|c
|mac ot rca||ty. lt ar0cs that thc o|d "0n|vcrsa| |aws arc not
0n|vcrsa| at a||, b0t app|y onIy to |oca| rc|ons ot rca||ty. And
thcsc happcn to bc thc rc|ons to wh|ch sc|cncc has dcvotcd
thc most cttort.
Th0s, |n broad-strokc tcrms, Pr|o|nc and Stcncrs ar0c
that trad|t|ona| sc|cncc |n thc Ac ot thc Mach|nc tcndcd to
cmphas|zc stab|||ty, ordcr, 0n|torm|ty, and cq0|||br|0m. lt con-
ccrncd |tscIt most|y w|th c|oscd systcms and ||ncar rcIat|on-
sh|ps |n wh|ch sma|| |np0ts 0n|torm|y y|cId sma|| rcs0|ts.
W|th thc trans|t|on trom an |nd0str|a| soc|cty bascd on
hcavy |np0ts ot cncry, cap|ta|, and |abor to a h|h-tcchno|oy
soc|cty |n wh|ch |ntormat|on and |nnovat|on arc thc cr|t|ca|
rcso0rccs, |t |s not s0rpr|s|n that ncw sc|cnt|c worId modc|s
sho0|d appcar.
What makcs thc Pr|o|n|an parad|m cspcc|aI|y |ntcrcst|n
|s that |t sh|s attcnt|on to thosc aspccts ot rca||ty that charac-
l2 OUuy5 uCC\lucU 5OCu CDuD@1 U:5OlUCt, D5uD:!:,
d|vcrs|ty, d|scq0|||br|0m, non||ncar rc|at|onsh|ps (|n wh|ch
sma|| np0ts can trcr massvc conscqucnccs), and tcm-
pora|ty-a hchtcncd scnstivity to thc Rows ot Imc.
Thc work ot l|ya Pronc and hs co| | caucs n Ihc so-
ca||cd "Br0ssc| s schoo| may wcI| rcprcscnt thc ncxt rcvo|0-
ton n sccncc as t cntcrs nto a ncw da|ouc noI mcrc| y wth
naturc, but wth soccty tsc|t.
Thc dcas ot thc Br0ssc|s schoo| , bascd hcav|y on Pr|-
onc`s work, add 0p to a novcI, comprchcnsvc thcory ot
Summcd 0p and smp|cd, thcy ho|d that wh|c somc parts D
thc 0nvcrsc may opcratc |kc machincs, thcsc an c|oscd systcms,
and cIoscd systcms, at bcst, torm on|y a sma|| part D Ihc physcaI
0n|vcrsc. Most phcnomcna D |ntcrcst to 0s arc, n tact, oea
systcms, cxchann cncry or mattcr (and, onc mht add, ntor-
mat|on) wIh thcir cnvronmcnt. Sun|y bo|oca| and soca| sys-
tcms arc opcn, whch mcans that thc attcmpI to 0ndcrstand thcm
|n mcchan|stc tcrms s domcd to ta|0n.
Ths s0csts, morcovcr, that most ot rca| ty, |nstcad ot
bcn ordcr| y, stab| c, and cqu|bra!, s sccthn and bubb|n
wIh chanc, dsordcr, and proccss.
ln Pronan tcr ms, a|| systcms contan s0bsystcms,
whch arc contn0a|| y "uct0atn. At tmcs, dsn|c uctua-
ton or a combnaton ot thcm may bccomc so powcrt0| , as a
rcsu|t ot posi tvc tccdback, Ihat t shattcrs thc prccxstn or-
anzaton. At ths rcvo| utionary momcntIhc authors ca|| |t
d "snu|ar momcnt or a "biturcaton pontit s inhcrcnt|y
|mpossb|c to dctcrmnc |n advancc which drccton chanc
w| | takc. whcthcr thc sysIcm wI| dsntcratc nto "chaos or
Icap to a ncw, morc dttcrcnIiatcd, hhcr |cvc| ot "ordcr or
oranzaton, whch thcy ca|| a "dsspatvc str0ct0rc. (S0ch
physcaI or chcm|caI str0cI0rcs arc tcrmcd dssipatvc bc-
ca0sc, comparcd with thc simp|cr str0cturcs thcy rcp|acc, thcy
rcquirc morc cncry to susIan Ihcm.)
Onc ot thc kcy controvcrscs surroundn this conccpt has
to do wth Prioinc`s insisIcncc that ordcr and oranzaton
can actua| | y arsc "spontancous| y out ot dsordcr and chaos
throuh a proccss ot "sc|t-oranzaton.
To rasp ths cxtrcmc|y powcrtu| dca. wc Hrs! nccd fo mako
a d|stincton bctwccn systcms Ihat arc n "cqui|brum, sys-
0R0ER OT 0F CHA05 v|
tcms that arc "ncar cqui|ibrium, and systcms that arc "tar
trom cqui|ibrium.
lmainc a primitivc tribc. lt its birthratc and dcath ratc arc
cqua|, thc sizc ot thc popu|ation rcmains stab|c. Assumin ad-
cquatc tood and othcr rcsourccs, thc tribc torms part ot a |oca|
systcm in cco|oica| cqui|ibrium.
Now incrcasc thc birthratc. A tcw additiona| births (witho0t
an cquiva|cnt numbcr ot dcaths) miht havc |itt|c cttcct. Thc
systcm may movc to a ncar-cqui|ibria! statc. Nothin much
happcns. lt takcs a bi jo|t to producc bi conscqucnccs in
systcms that arc in cqui|ibriaI or ncar-cq0i| ibriaI statcs.
But i t thc birthratc shou|d suddcn|y soar, thc systcm is
pushcd into a tar-trom-cqui|ibrium condition, and hcrc non-
Iincar rc|ationships prcvai| . ln this statc, systcms do stranc
thins. Thcy bccomc inordinatc|y scnsitivc to cxtcrna| in0-
cnccs. Sma|| inputs yic|d huc, start|in cttccts. Thc cntirc
systcm may rcoranizc itsc|t in ways that strikc 0s as bizarrc.
Examp|cs ot such sc|t-rcoranization abound in UrJcr Uut
o/Chuos. Hcat movin cvcn|y throuh a |iquid suddcn|y, at a
ccrtain thrcsho|d, convcrts into a convcction currcnt that radi-
ca| |y rcoranizcs thc |iquid, and mi||ions ot mo|ccu|cs, as it on
c0c, suddcn|y torm thcmsc|vcs into hcxaona| cc||s.
Evcn morc spcctacu|ar arc thc "chcmica| c|ocks dcscribcd
by Prioinc and Stcncrs. lmainc a mi||ion whitc pin-pon
ba||s mxcd at random wth a mi||on b|ack oncs, bouncn
around chaotica||y in a tank with a |ass window in it. Most ot
thc timc, thc mass sccn throuh thc window wou|d appcar to
bc ray, but now and thcn, at irrcu|ar momcnts, thc samp|c
sccn throuh thc |ass miht sccm b|ack or whitc, dcpcndin
on thc distribution ot thc ba||s at that momcnt in thc vicinity ot
thc window.
Now imainc that suddcn|y thc window ocs a|| whitc, thcn
a|l b|ack, thcn a|| whitc aain, and on and on, chanin its
co|or comp|ctc|y at xcd intcrva|s|ikc a c|ock tickin.
Why do a|| thc whitc ba||s and a|| thc b|ack oncs suddcn|y
oranizc thcmsc|vcs to chanc co|or in timc with onc anothcr?
By a|| thc traditiona| ru|cs, this shou|d not happcn at aII. Yct,
wc |cavc pin-pn bchind and |o0k at mo|cc0|cs in ccrtain chcm|-
ca nactions, wc nd that prccisc|y such a sc|t-oranization or
orderng can and dos ocur-espte what cIasscaI physcs and
thc pmbabi|ity thcorics D Bo|tzmann tc|| us.
ln tar-trom-cqui|i brium situations othcr sccmin|y spon-
tanco0s, ocn dramat|c rcoran|zat|ons ot mattcr w|th|n t|mc
and spacc a|so takc p|acc. And |t wc bc|n thnk|n |n tcrms ot
two or thrcc d|mcns|ons, thc n0mbcr and var|cty ot s0ch pos-
s|b|c str0ct0rcs bccomc vcry rcat.
Now add to th|s an add|t|ona| d|scovcry. lma|nc a s|t0aton
|n wh|ch a chcm|ca| or othcr rcact|on produccs an cnzymc
whosc prcscncc thcn cnco0racs t0rthcr product|on ot thc
samc cnzymc. Ths |s an cxamp|c ot what computcr sc|cnt|sts
wou|d ca|| a pos|t|vc-tccdback |oop. ln chcm|stry |t |s ca||cd
"auto-cata|yss. Such s|tuat|ons arc rarc |n |noran|c chcm|s-
try. B0t |n rcccnt dccadcs thc mo|ccu|ar b|o|o| sts havc tound
that s0ch |oops (a|on w|th |nhb|tory or "ncat|vc tccdback
and morc comp||catcd "cross-cata|yt|c` proccsscs) arc thc
vcry st0h ot ||tc |tsc|t. Such proccsscs hc|p cxp|an how wc o
trom |tt|c |0mps ot DNA to comp|cx |v|n oransms.
Morc cncra|| y, thcrctorc, |n tar-trom-cqu||brum cond|-
t|ons wc nd that vcry sma|l pcrt0rbat|ons or uctuat|ons can
bccomc amp||t|cd nto antc, structurc-brcak|n wavcs.
And th|s shcds ||ht on a|| sorts ot "qua||tatvc or "rcvo|0-
t|onary chanc proccsscs. Whcn onc comb|ncs thc ncw |n-
s|hts a|ncd trom study|n tar-trom-cqu|||br|um statcs and
non|ncar proccsscs, a|on w|th thcsc comp|catcd tccdback
systcms, a who|c ncw approach |s opcncd that makcs |t poss|-
b|c to rc|atc thc so-ca||cd hard sc|cnccs to thc socr sc|cnccs
ot |tc~and pcrhaps cvcn to soca| proccsscs as wc||.
(Such nd|ns havc at |cast ana|o|ca| sn|cancc tor so-
c|a| , cconomc or po||t|ca| rca||t|cs. Words ||kc "rcvo|ut|on,
"cconomc crash, "tcchno|oca| uphcava| , and "parad|gm
sh| a|| takc on ncw shadcs ot mcann whcn wc bcn thnk-
|n ot thcm |n tcrms ot uctuat|ons, tccdback amp||cat|on,
d|sspat|vc struct0rcs, b|turcatons, and thc rcst ot thc Pr|o|-
n|an conccptua| vocabu|ary.) lt |s thcsc panoram|c v|stas that
arc opcncd to us by UrJcr Uut o' Chos.
Bcyond th| s, thcrc |s thc cvcn morc p0zz||n, pcrvas|vc |s-
s0c ot t|mc.
Prt ot today`s vast rcvo|ut|on |n both sc|cncc and cu|turc |s
a rccons|dcraton ot t|mc, and t s |mportant cnouh to mcrt a
brct d|rcss|on hcrc bctorc rcturn|n to Pro|nc`s m|c |n |t.
Takc h|story, tor cxamp|c. Onc ot thc rcat contrbutons to
hstororaphy has bccn Braudc|`s d|v|son ot t|mc |nto thrcc
sca|cs~" coraph|ca| tmc, |n wh|ch cvcnts occ0r ovcr thc
coursc ot acons , thc much shortcr "socia| timc sca|c by
which cconomics, statcs, and civi|izations arc mcasurcd, and
thc cvcn shortcr sca|c ot "individua| timc-thc history ot
human cvcnts.
ln socia| scicncc, timc rcmains a |arc|y unmappcd tcrrain.
Anthropo|oy has tauht us that cu|turcs dittcr sharp|y i n thc
way thcy conccivc ot timc. lor somc, timc is cyc|ica|-history
cnd|css|y rccurrcnt. lor othcr cu|turcs, our own inc|udcd,
timc is a hihway strctchcd bctwccn past and tut0rc, and pco-
p|c or who|c socictics march a|on it. ln sti|| othcr cu|turcs,
human |ivcs arc sccn as st
tionary in timc, thc tuturc advanccs
toward us, instcad ot 0s toward it.
Each socicty, as l` vc writtcn c|scwhcrc, bctrays its own
charactcristic "timc biasthc dcrcc to which it p|accs cm-
phasis on past, prcscnt, or tuturc. Onc |ivcs in thc past. An-
othcr may bc obscsscd with thc tuturc.
Morcovcr, cach cu|turc and cach pcrson tcnds to think in
tcrms ot "timc horizons. Somc ot us think on|y ot thc immc-
diatc-thc now. Po|iticians, tor cxamp| c, arc ocn criticizcd
tor scckin on|y immcd| atc, short-tcrm rcs0|ts. Thcir timc
horizon is said to bc inucnccd by thc datc ot thc ncxt c|cc-
tion. Othcrs amon us p|an tor thc |on tcrm. Thcsc dihcrin
timc horizons arc an ovcr|ookcd sourcc ot socia| and po|itica|
trictionpcrhaps amon thc most important.
But dcspitc thc rowi n rcconition that cu| tura| con-
ccptions ot timc dhcr, thc socia| scicnccs havc dcvc|opcd |itt|c
in thc way ot a cohcrcnt thcory ot timc. Such a thcory miht
rcach across many discip|incs, trom po|itics to roup dynam-
ics and intcrpcrsona| psycho|oy. lt m|ght, tor cxamp|c, takc
account ot what, in Ia|are 5hock, l ca||cd "durationa| cxpcc-
tancics-our cu|tura||y induccd assumptions about how |on
ccrtain proccsscs arc supposcd to takc.
Wc |carn vcry car|y, tor cxamp|c, that brushin onc`s tccth
shou|d |ast on|y a tcw minutcs, not an cntirc mornin, or that
whcn Daddy |cavcs tor work, hc is |ikc|y to bc onc approx-
imatc|y ciht hours, or that a "mca|timc may |ast a tcw min-
utcs or hours, but ncvcr a ycar. (Tc|cvision, with its division ot
thc day into tixcd thirty- or sixty-minutc intcrva| s, subt|y
shapcs our notions ot duration. Thus wc norma||y cxpcct thc
DCtO D u FC!OUtuFu lO gCl lDC gt! O DU lDC DODCy O1 WH
thc war in thc |ast vc minutcs. ln thc Unitcd Statcs wc cxpcct
commcrcia|s to brcak in at ccrtain intcrva|s.) Our minds am
IIcd with such durationa| assumptions. Thosc ot chi|drcn arc
much dittcrcnt trom thosc ot tu||y socia|izcd adu|ts, and hcrc
aain thc dittcrcnccs arc a sourcc ot conict.
Morcovcr, chi | drcn i n an i ndustria| socicty arc "ti mc
traincd-thcy |carn to rcad thc c|ock, and thcy |carn to dis-
tinuish cvcn quitc sma|| s|iccs ot timc, as whcn thcir parcnts
tc|| thcm, "You`vc on|y ot thrcc morc minutcs ti|| bcdtimc!
Thcsc sharp| y honcd tcmpora| ski | | s arc ottcn abscnt in
s|owcr-movin ararian socictics that rcquirc |css prccisiDn in
da|y schcduIin than our timc-obscsscd socicty.
Such conccpts, which t within thc socia| and individuaI
Iimc sca|cs ot BraudcI, havc ncvcr bccn systcmatica||y dc-
vcIopcd in thc socia| scicnccs. Nor havc thcy, in any sini-
cant way, bccn articuIatcd with our scicntic thcorics ot timc,
cvcn thouh thcy arc ncccssari|y conncctcd with our assump-
tions about physica| rca|ity. And this brins us back to Pri-
onc, who has bccn tascinatcd by thc conccpt ot timc sincc
boyhood. Hc oncc said to mc that, as a youn studcnt, hc was
str0ck by a rand contradiction i n thc way scicncc vicwcd
timc, and this contradiction has bccn thc sourcc ot his |itc's
work cvcr sincc.
ln thc wor|d modc| constructcd by Ncwton and his toI-
|owcrs, timc was an acrthouht. A momcnt, whcthcr in thc
prcscnt, past, or tuturc, was assumcd to bc cxact|y |ikc any
othcr momcnt. Thc cnd|css cyc|in ot thc pIancts-indccd,
thc opcrations ot a cIock or a simp|c machinc-can, in princi-
p|c, o cithcr backward or torward in timc without a|tcrin thc
basics ot thc systcm. lor this rcason, scicntists rctcr to timc i n
Ncwtonian systcms as "rcvcrsib|c.
ln thc ninctccnth ccntury, howcvcr, as thc main tocus ot
physics shittcd trom dynamics to thcrmodynamics and thc
Sccond Law ot thcrmodynamics was proc|aimcd, timc sud-
dcn|y bccamc a ccntra| conccrn. lor, accordin to thc Sccond
Law, thcrc is an incscapab|c |oss ot cncry in thc univcrsc.
And, it thc wor|d machinc is rcaI| y runni n down and ap-
proaching thc hcat dcath, thcn it to|Iows that onc momcnt is no
|oncr cxact|y |ikc thc |ast. You cannot run thc univcrsc back-
ward to makc up tor cntropy. Evcnts ovcr !hc |on tcrm cannot
rcp|ay thcmsc| vcs. And thi s mcans !hB! !hCtC 9 W UtC-
tonality or, as Eddington |atcr callcd it, an "arrow i n timc.
Thc whoIc 0n|vcrsc | s, |n tact, a|n. And, |n t0rn, |t th|s s
tr0c, t|mc |s a onc-way strcct. lt |s no |oncr rcvcrs|bIc, b0t
ln short, w|th thc r|sc ot thcrmodynam|cs, sc|cncc sp||t
down thc m|dd|c w|th rcspcct to t|mc. Worsc yct, cvcn thosc
who saw t|mc as |rrcvcrs|b|c soon a|so sp||t |nto two camps.
Ahcr a|I , as cncry |cakcd o0t ot thc systcm, |ts ab|||ty to
s0sta|n oran|zcd str0ct0rcs wcakcncd, and thcsc, |n t0rn,
brokc down |nto |css oran|zcd, hcncc morc random cIc-
mcnts. B0t |t |s prcc|scIy oran|zat|on that |vcs any systcm
|ntcrna| d|vcrs|ty. Hcncc, as cntropy dra|ncd thc systcm ot cn-
cry, |t aIso rcd0ccd thc d|ttcrcnccs |n |t. Th0s thc Sccond
Law po|ntcd toward an |ncrcas|n|y homocnco0s-and, trom
thc h0man po|nt ot v|cw, pcss|m|st|c-t0t0rc.
lma|nc thc probIcms |ntrod0ccd by Darw|n and h|s toI-
Iowcrs! lor cvoI0t|on, tar trom po|nt|n toward rcd0ccd oran-
|zat| on and d|vcrs| ty, po| nts | n thc oppos| tc d| rcct| on.
Evo|0t|on procccds trom s|mpIc to comp|cx, trom "|owcr to
"h|hcr torms ot I|tc, trom 0nd|ttcrcnt|atcd to d|ttcrcnt|atcd
str0ct0rcs. And, trom a h0man po|nt ot v|cw, a|| th|s |s q0|tc
opt|m|st|c. Thc 0n|vcrsc cts "bcttcr oran|zcd as |t acs,
cont|n0a|Iy advanc|n to a h|hcr IcvcI as t|mc swccps by.
ln th|s scnsc, sc|cnt|c v|cws ot t|mc may bc s0mmcd 0p as
a contrad|ct|on w|th|n a contrad|ct|on.
lt |s thcsc paradoxcs that Pr|o|nc and Stcncrs sct o0t to
iII0m|natc, ask|n, "What |s thc spcc|c str0ct0rc ot dynam|c
systcms wh|ch pcrm|ts thcm to 'd|st|n0|sh` bctwccn past and
t0t0rc? What |s thc m|n|m0m comp|cx|ty |nvo|vcd?
Thc answcr, tor thcm, is that timc makcs its appcarancc
w|th randomncss. "On|y whcn a systcm bchavcs |n a s0m-
c|cnt|y random way may thc d|ttcrcncc bctwccn past and t0-
t0rc, and thcrctorc |rrcvcrs|b|||ty, cntcr |ts dcscr|pt|on.
l n c|assicaI or mcchan|st|c sc|cncc, cvcnts bc|n w|th "ini-
t|aI cond|t|ons, and thc|r atoms or part|cIcs to|Iow "wor|d
I|ncs or tra|cctor|cs. Thcsc can bc traccd c|thcr backward
into thc past or torward |nto thc t0t0rc. Th|s is |0st thc op-
pos|tc ot ccrta|n chcm|caI rcact|ons, tor cxamp|c, |n wh|ch two
I|q0|ds po0rcd |nto thc samc pot d|tt0sc 0nt|| thc m|xt0rc is
0n|torm or homocnco0s. Thcsc I|q0|ds do not dc-d|tt0sc
thc cnt|rc proccss |s "t|mc-or|cntcd.
lor cIass|caI sc|cncc, at |cast | n |ts car|y stacs, s0ch pro-
ccsscs wcrc rcardcd as anoma||cs, pcc0| |ar|t|cs that arosc
trom h|h|y 0n||kc|y |n|t|a| cond|t|ons.
lt |s Pr|o|nc and Stcncrs` thcs|s that s0ch t|mc-dcpcn-
dcnt, onc-way proccsscs arc not mcrc|y abcrrat|ons or dcv|a-
t|ons trom a wor|d |n wh|ch t|mc |s |rrcvcrsb|c. lt anyth|n,
thc oppos|tc m|ht bc tr0c, and |t |s rcvcrs|b|c t|mc, assoc|atcd
w|th "c|oscd systcms (|t s0ch, |ndccd, cx|st in rca||ty), that
may wc|| bc thc rarc or abcrrant phcnomcnon.
What |s morc, |rrcvcrs|b| c proccsscs arc thc so0rcc ot
ordcr~hcncc thc t|t|c OrJcr Oa| o' Chos. lt |s thc proccsscs
assoc|atcd w|th randomncss, opcnncss, that |cad to hhcr |cv-
cIs o| oran|zaton, s0ch as d|ss|pat|vc str0ct0rcs.
lndccd, onc ot thc kcy thcmcs ot ths book |s |ts str|k|n
rc|ntcrprctat|on ot thc Sccond Law ot thcrmodynam|cs. lor
accord|n to thc a0thors, cntropy |s not mcrc|y a downward
s||dc toward d|soran|zat|on. Undcr ccrta|n cond| t|ons, cn-
tropy |tsc|t bccomcs thc procn|tor ot ordcr.
What thc a0thors arc propos|n, thcrctorc, |s a vast syn-
thcs|s that cmbraccs both rcvcrs|b|c und |rrcvcrs|b|c t|mc, and
shows how thcy rc|atc to onc anothcr, not mcrc|y at thc |cvc| ot
macroscop|c phcnomcna, b0t at thc most m|n0tc |cvc| as wc|I.
lt |s a brcathtak|n attcmpt at "p0tt|n thc p|cccs back to-
cthcr aa|n. Thc ar0mcnt |s comp|cx, and at t|mcs bcyond
casy rcach of thc lay rcadcr. B0t t ashcs w|th trcsh |ns|ht
and s0csts a cohcrcnt way to rc|atc sccm| n| y 0ncon-
ncctcd~cvcn contrad|ctory-ph||osoph|ca| conccpts.
Hcrc wc bc|n to ||mpsc, |n t0 r|chncss, thc mon0mcnta|
synthcs|s proposcd |n thcsc pacs. By |nsst|n that |rrcvcrs-
|b|c t|mc |s not a mcrc abcrrat|on, b0t a charactcr|st|c ot much
ot thc 0n|vcrsc, thcy s0bvcrt c|ass|ca| dynam|cs. lor Pr|-
o|nc and Stcncrs, |t |s not a casc ot c|thcr/or. Ot co0rsc,
rcvcrs|b|||ty st||| app||cs (at |cast tor s0mc|cnt|y |on t|mcs)-
b0t |n c|oscd systcms on|y. lrrcvcrs|b|||ty app||cs to thc rcst ot
thc 0n|vcrsc.
P|o|nc and Stcncrs a|so 0ndcrm|nc convcnt|ona| v|cws
ot thcrmodynam|cs by show|n that, 0ndcr noncq0|||br|0m
cond|t|ons, at |cast , cntropy may prod0cc, rathcr than dc-
radc, ordcr, oran|zat|on-and thcrctorc ||tc.
l t th|s | s so, thcn cntropy, too, |oscs |ts c!HC1/OI CHu1uCCt.
Wh | c ccrta| n systcms r0n down, othcr systcms s| m0| -
tanco0s|y cvo|vc and row morc cohcrcnt. Th|s m0t0a||st|c,
noncxcI0sivc vicw makcs it possib|c tor bioIoy and physics to
cocxist rathcr than mcrc|y contradict onc anothcr.
lina|Iy, yct anothcr proto0nd synthcsis is impIicd-a ncw
rcIationship bctwccn chancc and ncccssity.
Thc ro|c ot happcnstancc in thc attairs ot thc 0nivcrsc has
bccn dcbatcd, no doubt, sincc thc rst Pa| co|ithic warrior ac-
cidcnt|y trippcd ovcr a rock. ln thc O|d Tcstamcnt, God`s wiII
|s sovcrcin, and Hc not on|y contro|s thc orbitin p|ancts but
manip0|atcs thc wi| | ot cach and cvcry individua| as Hc sccs
t. As Primc Movcr, a| | ca0sa|ity t|ows trom Him, and aIl
cvcnts in thc univcrsc arc torcordaincd. Sanuinary conicts
racd ovcr thc prccisc mcanin ot prcdcstination or trcc wi|I,
trom Ihc timc ot Auustinc throuh thc Caro|inian quarrcIs.
Wyc| ittc, H0ss, LuIhcr, Ca|vina|| contributcd to thc dcbatc.
No cnd ot intcrprcIcrs aIIcmptcd to rcconci|c dcIcrminism
wiIh trccdom ot wil | . Onc incnious vicw hc|d that God did
indccd dctcrminc thc attairs ot thc univcrsc, buI that with rc-
spcct to thc trcc wi| I ot thc individuaI, Hc ncvcr dcmandcd a
spccic action. Hc mcrc|y prcsct thc ranc ot options avaiI-
abIc to thc human dccision-makcr. lrcc wi|I downstairs opcr-
atcd only within thc Iimits ot a mcn0 dctcrmincd 0pstairs.
ln thc scc0|ar cu|turc ot Ihc Machinc Ac, hard-|inc dctcr-
minism has morc or |css hc|d sway cvcn atIcr thc cha||cngcs ot
Hciscnbcr and thc "unccrtainIists. ` Evcn today, thinkcrs
s0ch as Rcnc Thom rcjcct thc idca ot chancc as i|| usory and
inhcrcnt|y 0nscicntic.
laccd with s0ch phi|osophica| stoncwa||in, somc dctcndcrs
ot trcc wi|I, sponIanciIy, and u|IimaIc unccrIainIy, cspccia||y
thc cxistcntia|ists, havc takcn cqua||y uncompromisin stands.
(lor Sartrc, thc human bcin was "comp| cIc| y and a| ways
trcc, ` tho0h cvcn Sartrc, in ccrIain wriIins, rccognizcd
practica| |imitaIions on this trccdom. )
Two thins sccm to bc happcnin to conIcmporary conccpts
ot chancc and dcIcrminism. To bcin wiIh, Ihcy arc bccomin
morc comp|cx. As Edar Morin, a |cadin Frcnch socio|oist-
t0rncd-cpistcmo|oist, has writIcn:
"lct 0s not torct thaI thc prob|cm ot dcIcrminism has
chancd ovcr thc coursc ot a ccntury . . . . ln p|acc ot thc idca
O 3OVCtC:gD uDODjFOU C1FoDCDl !oW UI1CC\ID_ o!! \DID_5
in naturc Ihcrc has bccn subsIiIuIcd Ihc idca ot |aws ot inIcrac-
tion . . . . Thcrc is morc: Ihc prob|cm 0 dcIcrminism has bc-
comc that ot thc ordcr ot thc univcrsc. Ordcr mcans that thcrc
arc othcr thins bcsidcs 'laws' . that thcrc arc constraints, |n-
varianccs, constancics, rcu|aritics in our univcrsc . . . . ln
p|acc ot thc homocnizin and anonymous vicw ot thc o|d dc-
tcrminism, thcrc has bccn substitutcd a divcrsityin and cvo-
Iutivc vicw ot Jc|crm|a||oas."
And as thc conccpt ot dctcrminism has rown richcr, ncw
chorts havc bccn madc to rcconizc thc co-prcscncc ot both
chancc and ncccssity, not with onc subordinatc to thc othcr,
but as tu| I partncrs i n a uni vcrsc that is simu|tancousI y
oranizin and dc-oranizn itscIt.
lt is hcrc that Prioinc and Stcncrs cntcr thc anna. lor thcy
havc takcn thc arumcnt a stcp tarthcr Thcy not on|y dcmonstratc
(pcrsuasivc|y to mc, thouh not to crtics |ikc thc mathcmatician,
Rcnc Thom) that both dctcrminism and chancc opcratc, thcy a|so
attcmpt to show how thc two t tocthcr
Thus, accordin to thc thcory ot chanc imp|icd in thc idca
ot dissipativc structurcs, whcn 0uctuations torcc an cxistin
systcm into a tar-trom-cqui|ibrium condition and thrcatcn its
structurc, it approachcs a critica| momcnt or biturcation point.
At this point, accordin to thc authors, it is inhcrcnt|y impos-
sib|c to dctcrminc in advancc thc ncxt statc ot thc systcm.
Chancc nudcs what rcmains ot thc systcm down a ncw path
ot dcvc|opmcnt. And oncc that path is choscn (trom amon
many), dctcrminism takcs ovcr aain unti| thc ncxt biturcation
point is rcachcd.
Hcm, in short, wc scc chancc and ncccssity not as irrcconciI-
ab|c oppositcs, but cach p|ayin its m|c as a partncr in dcstiny.
Yct anothcr synthcsis is achicvcd.
Whcn wc brin rcvcrsib|c timc and irrcvcrsibIc timc, disor-
dcr and ordcr, physics and bioIoy, chancc and ncccssity aII
into thc samc novc| tramc, and stipuIatc thcir intcrrc|ation-
ships, wc havc madc a rand statcmcnt~aruab|c, no doubt,
but in this casc both powcrtu| and ma|cstic.
Yct ths accounts on|y in part tor thc cxcitcmcnt occasioncd
by OrJer Oa| o' Chos. For this swccpin synthcsis, as havc
sucstcd, has stron socia| and cvcn po|itica| ovcrtoncs. 10st
as thc Ncwtonian modc| avc risc to anaIoics in po|itics, di-
pIomacy, and othcr sphcrcs sccmingIy |OmOtO l|Om sc|cncc,
so, too, docs thc Prioinian modc| |cnd itsc|t to ana|oica|
By ohcrin riorous ways ot modc|in qua|itativc chanc,
tor cxamp| c, thcy shcd |iht on thc conccpt ot rcvo|ution. By
cxp|ainin how succcssivc instabi|itics ivc risc to transtorma-
tory chanc, thcy i||uminatc oranization thcory. Thcy throw a
trcsh |iht, as wc| | , on ccrtain psycho|oica| proccsscs~inno-
vation, tor cxamp| c, which thc authors scc as associatcd with
"nonavcrac bchavior ot thc kind that ariscs undcr noncqui-
|ibrium conditions.
Evcn morc sinicant, pcrhaps, arc thc imp| ications tor thc
study ot co||cctivc bchavior. Prioinc and Stcncrs caution
aainst |capin to cnctic or sociobio|oica| cxp|anations tor
puzz|in socia| bchavior. Many thins that arc attributcd to
bio|oica| prc-wirin arc not produccd by sc|sh, dctcrminist
cncs, but rathcr by socia| intcractions undcr noncqui|ibrium
(ln onc rcccnt study, tor instancc, ants wcrc dividcd into
two catcorics. Onc consistcd D hard workcrs, thc othcr ot
inactivc or "|azy ants. Onc miht ovcrhasti|y tracc such
traits to cnctic prcdisposition. Yct thc study tound that it thc
systcm wcrc shattcrcd by scparatin thc two roups trom onc
auothcr, cach in turn dcvc|opcd its own subroups ot hard
workcrs and id|crs. A sinicant pcrccntac ot thc "|azy ants
suddcn|y turncd into hardworkin Stakhanovitcs. )
Not surprisin|y, thcrctorc, thc idcas bchind this rcmarkab|c
book arc bcinnin to bc rcscarchcd in cconomics, urban
studics, human coraphy, cco|oy, and many othcr disci-
No onc~not cvcn its authors~can apprcciatc thc tu| | im-
p|ications ot a work as crowdcd with idcas as UrJcr Uut o|
Chuos. Each rcadcr wi|| no doubt comc away puzz|cd by somc
passacs (a tcw arc simp|y too tcchnica| tor thc rcadcr without
scicntic trainin), start|cd or stimu|atcd by othcrs (as thcir
imp|ications strikc homc) , occasiona||y skcptica| , yct intc||cc-
tua||y cnrichcd by thc who|c. And it onc mcasurc ot a book is
thc dcrcc to which it cncratcs ood qucstions, this onc is
surc|y succcsstu| .
Hcrc arc |ust a coup|c that havc hauntcd mc.
How, outsidc a |aboratory, miht onc dctinc a '' uctua-
lOH' Dd, H gOgHSH cms, docs onc mcan by `CdU5C
or "cttcct? And whcn thc authors spcak ot mo|ccu|cs com-
municatin with onc anothcr to achicvc cohcrcnt, synchro-
nzcd chanc, onc may ass0mc thcy arc not anthropomorphz-
n. B0t thcy rasc tor mc a host ot |ntr|0|n |ss0cs abo0t
whcthcr a|| parts ot thc cnv|ronmcnt arc s|na||n a|| thc t|mc,
or on|y ntcrm|ttcnt|y, abo0t thc |nd|rcct, sccond, and nth
ordcr comm0n|cat|on that takcs p|acc, pcrm|tt|n a mo|cc0|c
or an oran|sm to rcspond to s|na|s wh|ch |t cannot scnsc tor
|ack ot thc ncccssary rcccptors. (A s|na| scnt by thc cnv|ron-
mcnt that |s 0ndctcctab|c by A may bc rccc|vcd by B and con-
vcrtcd nto a d|ttcrcnt k|nd ot s|na| that A ia propcr| y
cq0|ppcd to rcccvc-so that B scrvcs as a rc|ay/convcrtcr,
and A rcsponds to an cnv|roumcnta| chanc that has bccn s-
na|cd to |t v|a sccond-ordcr commun|cat|on.)
ln conncct|on w|th t|mc, what do thc authors makc ot thc
dca p0t torward by Harvard astronomcr Dav|d layzcr, that
wc m|ht conccvc ot thrcc d|st|nct "arrows ot t|mc-onc
bascd on thc contn0cd cxpanson ot thc 0n|vcrsc s|ncc thc B|
Ban, onc bascd on cntropy, and onc bascd on b|o|o|ca| and
h|stor|ca| cvo|0t|on?
Anothcr q0cst|on. How rcvo|0t|onary was thc Ncwton|an
rcvo|0t|on? Tak|n |ss0c w|th somc h|stor|ans, Pr|o|nc and
5tcncrs po|nt o0t thc cont|n0|ty ot Ncwton's |dcas w|th a|-
chcmy and rc|||o0s not|ons ot cvcn car||cr v|ntac . Somc
rcadcrs m|ht conc|0dc trom th|s that thc r|sc ot Ncwton-
an|sm was nc|thcr abr0pt nor rcvo|ut|onary. Yct, to my m|nd,
thc Ncwton|an brcakthrouh shou|d not bc sccn as a ||ncar
o0trowth ot thcsc car||cr |dcas. lndccd, |t sccms to mc that
thc thcory ot chanc dcvc|opcd |n UrJcr Uut o/ Chuos ar0cs
aanst |0st s0ch a "cont|n0|st v|cw.
Evcn |t Ncwton|an|sm was dcr|vat|vc, th|s docsn' t mcan
that thc |ntcrna| str0ct0rc ot thc Ncwton|an wor|d-modc| was
act0a||y thc samc or that |t stood |n thc samc rc|at|onsh|p to |ts
cxtcrna| cnv|ronmcnt.
Thc Ncwton|an systcm arosc at a t|mc whcn tc0da||sm n
Wcstcm E0ropc was cr0mb||n-whcn thc soc|a| systcm was,
so to spcak, tar trom cq0|||br|0m. Thc modc| ot thc 0n|vcrsc
proposcd by thc c|ass|ca| sc|cnt|sts (cvcn |t part|a||y dcr|va-
t|vc) was app|cd ana|oo0s|y to ncw c|ds and d|sscm|natcd
s0cccsst0||y, not yst bcca0sc ot |ts sc|cnt|c powcr or "r|ht-
ncss, b0t a|so bcca0sc an cmcrcnt |nd0str|a| soc|cty bascd
on rcvo|0t|onary pr|nc|p|cs prov|dcd a part|cu|ar|y rcccpt|vc
cnv|ronmcnt tor |t.
As s0cstcd car||cr, mach|nc c|v|||zat|on, |n scarch|n tor
an cxp|anation ot itsc|t in thc cosmic ordcr ot thins, scizcd
0pon thc Ncwtonian modc| and rcwardcd thosc who turthcr
dcvc|opcd it. lt is not on|y in chcmica| bcakcrs that wc nd
a0to-cata|ysis, as thc a0thors wo0|d bc thc rst to contcnd.
lor thcsc rcasons, it sti|| makcs scnsc to mc to rcard thc
Ncwtonian know|cdc systcm as, itsc|t, a "c0|t0ra| dissipativc
str0ct0rc born ot socia| 0ct0ation.
lronica||y, as l' vc said, l bc|icvc thcir own idcas arc ccntra|
to thc |atcst rcvo|0tion in scicncc, and l cannot hc|p b0t scc
thcsc idcas in rc|atonshp to thc dcmsc ot thc Machinc Ac
and thc risc ot what l havc ca||cd a "Thrd Wavc civi|zaton.
App|yin thcir own tcrmino|oy, wc miht charactcrizc to-
day`s brcakdown ot ind0stria| or "Sccond Wavc socicty as a
civi|zationa| "bit0rcaton, and thc risc ot a morc dttcrcnti-
atcd, "Third Wavc socicty as a |cap to a ncw "dssipativc
str0ct0rc on a wor|d sca|c. And it wc acccpt this ana|oy,
miht wc not |ook 0pon thc |cap trom Ncwtonanism to Pri-
onansm in thc samc way? Mcrc ana|oy, no do0bt. B0t
i||0minatin, ncvcrthc|css.
lna||y, wc comc oncc morc to thc cvcr-cha||cnin iss0c ot
chancc and ncccssity. lor t Prioinc and Stcncrs arc riht
and chancc p|ays its ro|c at or ncar thc pont ot bt0rcation,
acr whch dctcrmnstic proccsscs takc ovcr oncc morc 0nti|
thc ncxt bit0rcation, arc thcy not cmbcddin chancc, itsc|t,
within a dctcrmnstic tramcwork? By assnn a partic0|ar
ro|c to chancc, don`t thcy dc-chancc it?
Ths q0cstion, howcvcr, l had thc p|cas0rc ot disc0ssin
wth Proi nc, who smi|cd ovcr dinncr and rcp|cd, "Ycs.
That wo0|d bc tr0c. B0t, ot co0rsc, wc can ncvcr dctcrmnc
whcn thc ncxt bt0rcaton w|| arisc. Chancc riscs phocnix-
|kc oncc morc.
UrJcr out o| Chuos is a br||ant, dcmandn, dazz|in book-
cha||cnn tor a|| and rch|y rcwardn tor thc attcntivc nadcr. lt
is a book to st0dy, to savor, to rcrcad-nd to q0cston yct aain. lt
p|accs scicncc and h0manity back n a wor|d in which cctcris
purihus is a myth~a wor|d in whch othcr thns arc sc|dom hc|d
stcady, cq0a|, or 0nchann. ln short, it pro|ccts scicncc into
tOay`s rcvo|0tionary wor|d O instab|ty, dscq0|bri0m, and t0r-
DulCDCC. D 5O UODg l 5CtVC5 lDC DgDC5l CtCulVC uDClOnl
hc|ps us crcatc trcsh ordcr.
M!'5 !L |1UL
Our vision ot naturc is undcroin a radica| chanc toward thc
mu|tip|c, thc tcmpora| , and thc comp|cx. lor a |on timc d
mcchanistic wor|d vicw dominatcd Wcstcrn scicncc. ln this
vicw thc wor|d appcarcd as a vast automaton. Wc now undcr-
stand that wc |ivc in a p|ura|istic wor|d. lt is truc that thcrc arc
phcnomcna that appcar to us as dctcrministic and rcvcrsib|c,
such as thc motion ot a triction|css pcndu|um or thc motion ot
thc carth around thc sun. Rcvcrsib|c proccsscs do not know
any privi|ccd dircction ot timc. But thcrc arc a|so irrcvcrsib|c
proccsscs that invo|vc an arrow ot timc. lt you brin tocthcr
two |iquids such as watcr and a|coho|, thcy tcnd to mix in thc
torward dircction ot timc as wc cxpcricncc it. Wc ncvcr ob-
scrvc thc rcvcrsc proccss, thc spontancous scparation ot thc
mixt0rc into purc watcr and purc a|coho|. This is thcrctorc an
irrcvcrsib|c proccss. A|| ot chcmistry invo|vcs such irrcvcrs-
ib|c proccsscs.
Obvious|y, in addition to dctcrministic proccsscs, thcrc
must bc an c|cmcnt ot probabi|ity invo|vcd in somc basic pro-
ccsscs, such as, tor cxamp|c, bio|oica| cvo|ution or thc cvo|0-
tion ot h0man c0|turcs. Evcn thc scicntist who is convinccd ot
thc va|idity ot dctcrministic dcscriptions wo0|d probab|y hcsi-
tatc to imp|y that at thc vcry momcnt ot thc Bi Ban, thc
momcnt ot thc crcation ot thc univcrsc as wc know it, thc datc
ot thc pub|ication ot this book was a|rcady inscribcd in thc
|aws ot nat0rc. ln thc c|assica| vicw thc basic proccsscs ot
naturc wcrc considcrcd to bc dctcrministic and rcvcrsib|c.
Poccsscs invo|vin randomncss or irrcvcrsibi|ity wcrc consid-
crcd on|y cxccptions. Today wc scc cvcrywhcrc thc ro|c ot
irrcvcrsib|c IOCc55c5, O DClDulOnS.
A|thouh Wcstcrn scicncc has stimu|atcd an cxtrcmc|y truit-
DR0R DUT DP CHAD5 xxv|||
t0| d|a|ouc bctwccn man and nat0rc, somc ot |ts c0|t0ra| con-
scq0cnccs havc bccn d|sastro0s. Thc d|chotomy bctwccn thc
"two c0|t0rcs |s to a |arc cxtcnt d0c to thc con|ct bctwccn
thc atcmpora| v|cw ot c|ass|ca| sc|cncc and thc t|mc-or|cntcd
v|cw that prcva|| s |n a |arc part ot thc soc|a| sc|cnccs and
h0man|t|cs. But |n thc past tcw dccadcs, somcth|n vcry dra-
mat|c has bccn happcn|n | n sc|cncc, somcth|n as 0ncx-
pcctcd as thc b|rth ot comctry or thc rand v|s|on ot thc
cosmos as cxprcsscd |n Ncwton`s work. Wc arc bccom|n
morc and morc consc|ous ot thc tact that on a|| |cvc|s, trom
c|cmcntary part|c|cs to cosmo|oy, randomncss and |rrcvcrs-
|b|||ty p|ay an cvcr-|ncrcas|n ro| c. 5cience is reJiscovering
time. lt |s th|s conccpt0a| rcvo|ut|on that th|s book scts o0t to
Th|s rcvo|0t|on |s procccd|n on a|| |cvc|s, on thc |cvc| ot
c|cmcntary part|c|cs, | n cosmo|oy, and on thc |cvc| ot so-
ca||cd macroscop|c phys|cs, wh|ch compr|scs thc phys|cs and
chcm|stry ot atoms and mo|cc0|cs c|thcr takcn |nd|v|d0a||y or
cons|dcrcd |oba||y as, tor cxamp|c, |n thc study ot ||q0|ds or
ascs. lt |s pcrhaps part|c0|ar|y on th|s macroscop|c |cvc| that
thc rcconccpt0a||zat|on ot sc|cncc |s most casy to to| |ow. C|as-
s|ca| dynam|cs and modcrn chcm|stry arc o|n thro0h a pc-
r|od ot drast|c chanc. lt onc askcd a phys|c|st a tcw ycars ao
what phys|cs pcrm|ts 0s to cxp|a|u and wh|ch prob|cms rc-
ma|n opcn, hc wou|d havc answcrcd that wc obv|o0s|y do not
havc an adcq0atc 0ndcrstand|n ot c|cmcntary part|c|cs or ot
cosmo|o|ca| cvo|0t|on but that o0r know|cdc ot th|ns |n bc-
twccn was prctty sat|stactory. Today a row|n m|nor|ty, to
wh|ch wc bc|on, wou|d not sharc th|s opt|m|sm. wc havc on|y
bc0n to 0ndcrstand thc |cvc| ot nat0rc on wh|ch wc ||vc, and
th|s |s thc |cvc| on wh|ch wc havc conccntratcd |n th|s book.
To apprcc|atc thc rcconccpt0a||zat|on ot phys|cs tak|n
p|acc today, wc m0st p0t |t |n propcr h|stor|ca| pcrspcct|vc.
Thc h|story ot sc|cncc |s tar trom bc|n a | |ncar 0nto|d|n that
corrcsponds to a scr|cs o s0cccss|vc approx|mat|ons toward
somc |ntr|ns|c tr0th. lt |s t0| | ot contrad|ct|ons, ot 0ncxpcctcd
t0rn|n po|nts. Wc havc dcvotcd a |arc port|on ot th|s book to
thc h|stor|ca| pattcrn to| | owcd by Wcstcrn sc|cncc, start|n
w|th Ncwton thrcc ccntur|cs ao. Wc havc tr|cd to pIacc thc
B5OIj O 5CCHCC H DC ISHC O thc history of idcas to intc-
ratc |t |n thc cvo|0t|on ot Wcstcrn c0|t0rc d0r|n thc past
thrcc ccnturics. On|y in this way can wc apprcciatc thc uniquc
momcnt in which wc arc prcscnt|y |ivin.
Our scicntitic hcritac inc|udcs two basic qucstions to
which ti|| now no answcr was providcd. Onc is thc rc|ation
bctwccn disordcr and ordcr. Thc tamous |aw o incrcasc ot
cntropy dcscribcs thc wor|d as cvo|vin trom ordcr to disor-
dcr , sti||, bio|oica| or socia| cvo|uIion shows us thc comp|cx
cmcrin trom thc simp|c. How is ths possib|c? How can
structurc arisc trom disordcr? Grcat progrcss has bccn rca|-
izcd in this qucstion. Wc know now that noncqui|ibrium, thc
ow ot mattcr and cncry, may bc a sourcc ot ordcr.
But thcrc is thc sccond qucstion, cvcn morc basic. c|assicaI
or quantum physics dcscribcs thc wor|d as rcvcrsib|c, as
static. ln this dcscription thcrc is no cvo|ution, ncithcr to
ordcr nor to disordcr , thc "intormation, as may bc dcncd
trom dynamics, rcmains constant in timc. Thcrctorc thcrc i s
an obvious contradiction bctwccn thc static vicw ot dynamics
and thc cvo|utionary paradim ot thcrmodynamics. What is
irrcvcrsibi|ity? What is cntropy? lcw qucstions havc bccn dis-
cusscd morc ocn in thc coursc ot thc history ot scicncc. Wc
bcin to bc ab|c to ivc somc answcrs. Ordcr and disordcr arc
comp|icatcd notions. thc units invo|vcd in thc static dcscrip-
tion ot dynamics arc not thc samc as thosc that havc to bc
introduccd to achicvc thc cvo|utionary paradim as cxprcsscd
by thc rowth ot cntropy. This transition |cads to a ncw con-
ccpt ot mattcr, mattcr that is "activc, as mattcr |cads to irrc-
vcrsib|c proccsscs and as irrcvcrsib|c proccsscs oranizc
Thc cvo|utionar j880gm, HCu0Hg lh COHCjl of cn-
tropy, has cxcrtcd a considcrab|c tascination that gocs tar
bcyond scicncc propcr. Wc hopc that our unication ot dynam-
ics and thcrmodynamics wi|| brin out c|car|y thc radica| nov-
c|ty ot thc cntropy conccpt i n rcspcct to thc mcchanistic wor|d
vicw. Timc and rca|ity arc c|osc|y rc|atcd. lor humans, rca|ity
is cmbcddcd in thc ow ot timc. As wc sha|| scc, thc irrcvcrs-
ibi|ity ot timc is itsc|t c|osc|y conncctcd to cntropy. To makc
timc ow backward wc wou|d havc to ovcrcomc an innitc
cntropy barricr.
Traditiona||y scicncc has dca|t with univcrsa| s, humanitics
Wlh j8IlCu8I5. h COHVIgHC of SCHC and hum8Hl5
was cmphasizcd in thc lrcnch tit|c o our book, Lu Aove0e
Amuncc, pub|ishcd by Ga||imard, Pris, in VJV. Howcvcr, wc
havc not succccdcd in ndin a propcr En|ish cquiva|cnt N
this tit|c. Hrthcrmorc, thc tcxt wc prcscnt hcrc dicrs trom
thc lrcnch cdition, cspccia||y in Chaptcrs Vll throuh lX. AI-
thouh thc oriin ot structurcs as thc rcsu|t ot noncqui|ibrium
proccsscs was a|rcady adcquatc|y trcatcd in thc lrcnch cdi-
tion (as wc|I as in thc trans|ations that to||owcd), wc had to
cntirc|y rcwritc thc third part, which dca|s with our ncw rc-
su|ts conccrnin thc roots ot timc as wc|| as with thc tormu|a-
tion ot thc cvo|utionary paradim in thc tramc N thc physical
This is a|| quitc rcccnt. Thc rcconccptua|ization o physics
is tar trom bcin achicvcd. Wc havc dccidcd, howcvcr, to prc-
scnt thc situation as it sccms to 0s today. Wc havc a tcc|in N
rcat intc||cctua| cxcitcmcnt: wc bcin to havc a |impsc o thc
road that |cads trom bcin to bccomin. As onc o us has dc-
votcd most ot his scicntic |itc to this prob|cm, hc may pcr-
haps bc cxcuscd tor cxprcssin his tcc|in ot satistaction, N
acsthctic achicvcmcnt, which hc hopcs thc rcadcr wi|I sharc.
lor too |on thcrc appcarcd a conct bctwccn what sccmcd
to bc ctcrna|, to bc out ot timc, and what was in timc. Wc scc
now that thcrc is a morc subt|c torm ot rca|ity invo|vin bth
timc and ctcrnity.
This book is thc outcomc ot a co||cctivc cttort in which
many co||caucs and tricnds havc bccn invo|vcd. Wc cannot
thank thcm a|| individua||y. Wc wou|d |ikc, howcvcr, to sin|c
out what wc owc to Erich !antsch, Aharon Katcha|sky, Picrrc
Rcsiboi s , and Lcon Roscntc|d, who untortunatc|y arc no
|ongcr with us. Wc havc choscn to dcdicatc this book to thcir
Wc want a|so to acknow|cdc thc continuous support wc
havc rcccivcd trom thc lnstituts lntcrnationaux dc Physiquc ct
dc Chimic, toundcd by E. 5o|vay, and trom thc Robcrt A.
Wc|ch loundation.
Thc human racc is in a pcriod ot transition. Scicncc is |ikc|y
to p|ay an important ro|c at this momcnt ot dcmoraphic cx-
p|osion. lt is thcrctorc morc important than cvcr to kccp opcn
thc channc|s ot communication bctwccn scicncc and s0icty.
Thc prcscnt dcvc|opmcnt ot Wcstcrn scicncc has takcn it out-
S1UC lDC Cullu1 CuV11OuDCul O lDc 5cVculcculD CcUlu1, u
which it was born. Wc bc|icvc that scicncc today carrics a uni-
vcrsaI mcssac that |s morc acccptabIc to d|crcnt cuItural
Dur|n thc past dccadcs AIv|n Tomcr`s books havc bccn |m-
portant in brinin to thc attcntion ot thc pubIic somc tcaturcs
ot thc "Third Wavc that charactcrizcs our t|mc. Wc am thcrc-
torc ratctuI to h|m tor havin writtcn thc lorcword to thc
EnIish-Ianuac vcrs|on ot our book. EnIish |s not our na-
t|vc Ianuac. Wc bcIicvc that to somc cxtcnt cvcry Ianuac
providcs a dicrcnt way ot dcscribin thc common rcaI|ty |n
wh|ch wc arc cmbcddcd. 5omc ot thcsc charactcristics w|Il
surv|vc cvcn thc most carctuI transIation. ln any casc, wc am
most ratctuI to !oscph EarI y, lan MacG| I vray, Carol
Thurston, and cspcc|aIIy to CarI Rubino tor thc|r hcIp | n thc
prcparat|on ot th|s EnIish-Ianuac vcrsion. Wc wouId aIso
I|kc to cxprcss our dccp thanks to PmcIa Ppc tor thc carctul
typin ot thc succcss|vc vcrsions ot thc manuscript.
1HL H11L!L
lt is hard|y an cxacration to statc that onc ot thc rcatcst
datcs in thc history ot mankind was Apri| 28, ! 686, whcn Ncw-
ton prcscntcd his Frincipiu to thc Roya| 5ocicty ot London. lt
containcd thc basic |aws ot motion tocthcr with a c|car tor-
mu|ation ot somc ot thc tundamcnta| conccpts wc sti|| usc to-
day, such as mass, accc|cration, and i ncrtia. Thc rcatcst
impact was probab|y madc by Book ot thc Frincipiu, tit|cd
he 5)stem o/the Wor/J, which inc|udcd thc univcrsa| |aw ot
ravitation. Ncwton`s contcmporarics immcdiatc|y raspcd
thc uniquc importancc ot his work. Gravitation bccamc a topic
ot convcrsation both in London and Paris.
Thrcc ccntur|cs havc now c|apscd s|ncc Ncwton`s Frincipiu.
5cicncc has rown at an incrcdb|c spccd, pcrmcatin thc |itc
ot a|| ot us. Our scicntic horizon has cxpandcd to tru|y tan-
tastic proportions. On thc microscopic sca|c, c|cmcntary par-
ticc physics studics proccsscs invo|vin physica| dimcnsions
ot thc ordcr ot H '` cm and timcs ot thc ordcr ot scc-
ond. On thc othcr hand, cosmo|oy |cads us to timcs ot thc
ordcr ot !0' ycars, thc "ac ot thc univcrsc. 5cicncc and
tcchno|oy arc c|oscr than cvcr. Amon othcr tactors, ncw
biotcchno|oics and thc prorcss in intormation tcchniqucs
promisc to chanc our |ivcs in a radica| way.
Runnin para||c| to this quantitativc rowth arc dccp qua|i-
tativc chancs whosc rcpcrcussions rcach tar bcyond scicncc
propcr and attcct thc vcry imac ot naturc. Thc grcat toundcrs
ot Wcstcrn scicncc strcsscd thc univcrsa|ity and thc ctcrnaI
charactcr ot natura| |aws. Thcy sct out to Omu8l gHI
schcmcs that wou|d coincidc with thc vcry idca| ot rationa|ity.
As Rocr Haushccr says in his nc introduction to lsaiah
crIin`s Aguinst thc Cuncnt, "Thcy souht a||-cmbracin
schcmas, univcrsa| unityin tramcworks, within which cvcry-
thin that cxists cou|d bc shown to bc systcmatica||y-i . c. ,
Ioica||y or causa||y~intcrconncctcd, vast structurcs in which
thcrc shou|d bc no aps |c opcn tor spontancous, unattcndcd
dcvc|opmcnts, whcrc cvcrythin that occurs shou|d bc, at
Icast in princip|c, who||y cxp|icab|c in tcrms ot immutab|c
cncra| |aws. '
Thc story ot this qucst is indccd a dramatic onc. Thcrc wcrc
momcnts whcn this ambitious proram sccmcd ncar comp|c-
t|on. A tundamcnta| |cvc| trom which a|| othcr propcrtics ot
mattcr cou|d bc dcduccd sccmcd to bc in siht. 5uch momcnts
can bc associatcd with thc tormu|ation ot Bohr`s cc|cbratcd
atomic modc|, which rcduccd mattcr to simp|c p|anctary sys-
tcms tormcd by c|cctrons and protons. Anothcr momcnt ot
rcat suspcnsc camc whcn Eiustcin hopcd to condcnsc a|| thc
|aws ot physics into a sin|c "unicd c|d thcory. Grcat pro-
rcss has indccd bccn rca|izcd in thc unication ot somc ot thc
basic torccs tound in naturc. Sti||, thc tundamcnta| |cvc| rc-
mains c|usivc. Whcrcvcr wc |ook wc ti nd cvo|ution, divcr-
sication, and instabi|itics. Curious|y, this is truc on a|| |cvc|s,
in thc c|d ot c|cmcntary partic|cs, in bio|oy, and in astro-
physics, with thc cxpandin univcrsc and thc tormation ot
b|ack ho|cs.
As wc said in thc Prctacc, our vision ot naturc is undcro|n
a radica| chanc toward thc mu|tip|c, thc tcmpora|, and thc
comp|cx. Curious|y, thc uncxpcctcd comp|cxity that has bccn
discovcrcd in naturc has not |cd to a s|owdown n thc prorcss
ot scicncc, but on thc contrary to thc cmcrcncc ot ncw con-
ccptua| structurcs that now appcar as csscntia| to our undcr-
standin ot thc physica| wor|d~thc wor|d that inc|udcs us. lt
is this ncw situation, which has no prcccdcnt in thc history ot
scicncc, that wc wish to ana|yzc in this book.
Thc story ot thc transtormation ol our conccptions about
scicncc and naturc can hard|y bc scparatcd trom anothcr
story, that ot thc tcc|ins arouscd by scicncc. With cvcry ncw
intc||cctua| proram a|ways comc ncw hopcs, tcars, and cx-
pcctations. ln c|assica| scicncc thc cmphasis was on timc-in-
U0Q0DU0DI uV5. P5 V0 5Du!! 500 ODC0 ID0 QutICU!ut 3IulC O u
systcm has bccn mcasurcd, thc rcvcrsb|c |aws ot c|assica| sci-
cncc arc s0pposcd to dctcrminc its t0t0rc, |0st as thcy had
dctcrmincd its past. lt is nat0ra| that this q0cst tor an ctcrnaI
tr0th bchind chanin phcnomcna aro0scd cnth0siasm. B0t it
a|so camc as a shock that nat0rc dcscribcd in this way was in
tact dcbascd. by thc vcry s0cccss ot scicncc, nat0rc was
shown to bc an a0tomaton, a robot.
Thc 0rc to rcd0cc thc divcrsity ot nat0rc to a wcb ot i||0-
sions has bccn prcscnt in Wcstcrn tho0ht sincc thc timc ot
Grcck atomists. L0crcti0s, to||owin his mastcrs Dcmocrit0s
and Epic0r0s, writcs that thc wor|d is "|0st atoms and void
and 0rcs 0s to |ook tor thc hiddcn bchind thc obvio0s: "5ti|I,
|cst yo0 happcn to mistr0st my words, bcca0sc thc cyc cannot
pcrccivc primc bodics, hcar now ot partic|cs yo0 m0st admit
cxist |n thc wor|d and yct cannot bc sccn.
Yct it is wc|| known that thc drivin torcc bch|nd thc work ot
thc Grcck atomists was not to dcbasc nat0rc b0t to trcc mcn
trom tcar, thc tcar ot any s0pcrnat0ra| bcin, ot any ordcr that
wo0|d transccnd that ot mcn and nat0rc. Aain and aain L0-
crcti0s rcpcats that wc havc nothin to tcar, that thc csscncc ot
thc wor|d i s thc cvcr-chanin associations ot atoms i n thc
Modcrn scicncc transm0tcd this t0ndamcnta|| y cthica|
stancc into what sccmcd to bc an cstab|ishcd tr0th, and this
tr0th, thc rcd0ction ot nat0rc to atoms and void, in t0rn avc
risc to what Lcnob|c has ca||cd thc "anxicty ot modcrn
mcn. How can wc rcconizc o0rsc|vcs in thc random wor|d
ot thc atoms? M0st scicncc bc dcncd in tcrms ot r0pt0rc bc-
twccn man and nat0rc? `7ll bodics, thc rmamcnt, thc stars,
thc carth and its kindoms arc not cq0a| to thc |owcst mind,
tor mind knows a|| this in itsc|t and thcsc bodics nothin.
This "Pcnscc by Pasca| cxprcsscs thc samc tcc|in ot a|icn-
ation wc nd amon contcmporary scicntists s0ch as !acq0cs
Man m0st at |ast tina||y awakc trom his mi||cnary
drcam, and in doin so, awakc to his tota| so|it0dc, his
t0ndamcnta| iso|ation. Now docs hc at |ast rca|izc that,
|ikc a ypsy, hc |ivcs on thc bo0ndary ot an a|icn wor|d. A
wor|d that is dcaf to his m0sic, |0st as nOICICn! tO hs
hopcs as it is to his s0hcrin or his crimcs.
This is a para

ox. A bri||iant brcakthrouh iu mo|ccu|ar bi-

o|oy, thc dcciphcrin ot thc cnctic codc, in which Monod
activc|y participatcd, cnds upon a traic notc. This vcry pro-
rcss, wc arc to|d, makcs us thc ypsics ot thc univcrsc. How
can wc cxp|ain this situation? ls not scicncc a way ot com-
munication, a dia|ouc with naturc?
ln thc past, stron distinctons wcrc trcqucnt|y madc bc-
twccn man`s wor|d and thc supposcd|y a|icn natura| wor|d. A
tamous passac by Vico in hc Ncw 5cicncc dcscribcs this
most vivid|y:
. . . in thc niht ot thick darkncss cnvc|opin thc car|icst
antiquity, so rcmotc trom oursc|vcs, thcrc shincs thc ctcr-
na| and ncvcr tai|in |iht ot a truth bcyond a|| qucstion:
that thc wor|d ot civi| socicty has ccrtain|y bccn madc by
mcn, and that its princip|cs arc thcrctorc to bc tound
wi thi n thc moditicati ons ot our own human mi nd.
Whocvcr rcccts on this cannot but marvc| that thc phi-
|osophcrs shou|d havc bcnt a|| thcir cncrics to thc study
ot thc wor|d ot naturc, which, sincc God madc it, Hc
a|onc knows, and that thcy shou|d havc nc|cctcd thc
study ot thc wor|d ot nations, or civi| wor|d, which, sincc
mcn had madc it, mcn cou|d comc to know. "
Prcscnt -day rcscarch |cads us tarthcr and tarthcr away trom
thc opposit|on bctwccn man and thc natura| wor|d. lt wi|| bc
onc ot thc main purposcs ot this book to show, instcad ot rup-
turc and opposition, thc rowin cohcrcncc ot our know|cdc
O man SHU naturc.
ln thc past , thc qucstionin ot naturc has takcn thc most di-
vcrsc torms. Sumcr discovcrcd writin, thc Sumcrian pricsts
spccu|atcd that thc tuturc miht bc writtcn in somc hiddcn
way in thc cvcnts takin p|acc around us in thc prcscnt. Thcy
cvcn systcmatizcd this bc|ict, mixin maica| and rationa| c|c-
mcnts. ln this scnsc wc may say that Wcstcrn scicncc, which
OIgHSCU in thc scvcntccnth ccntury, on|y opcncd 8 ncw
chaptcr in thc cvcr|astin dia|ouc bctwccn man and naturc.
AIcxandm Koym has dcncd thc |nnovat|on brouht about
by modcrn scicncc |n tcrms ot "cxpcrimcntation. Modcrn
scicncc is bascd on thc discovcry ot a ncw and spccic torm ot
communication with naturc-that is, on thc conviction that
naturc rcsponds to cxpcrimcnta| intcrroation. How can wc
dcnc morc prcciscIy thc cxpcrimcnta| dia|ouc? Expcrimcn-
tation docs not mcan mcn|y thc taithtu| obscrvation ot tacts
as thcy occur, nor thc mcrc scarch tor cmpirica conncctions
bctwccn phcnomcna, but prcsupposcs a systcmatic intcrac-
t|on bctwcca thcorcticaI conccpts and obscrvation.
ln hundrcds ot dicrcnt ways scicntists havc cxprcsscd t

amazcmcnt whcn, on dctcrminin thc riht qucstion, thcy dis-
covcr that thcy can scc how thc puzz|c ts tocthcr. ln this
scnsc, scicncc is |ikc a two-partncr amc in which wc havc to
ucss thc bchavior ot a rca|ity unrc|atcd to our bc|icts, our
ambitions, or our hopcs. Naturc cannot bc torccd to say any-
thin wc want it to. 5cicntic invcstiation is not a mono-
Iouc. lt is prccisc|y thc risk invo|vcd that makcs this amc
But thc uniqucncss ot Wcstcrn scicncc is tar trom bcin cx-
haustcd by such mcthodo|oica| considcrations. Whcn Kar|
Hppcr discusscd thc normativc dcscription ot scicntic ra-
tiona|ity, hc was torccd to admt that in thc na| ana|ysis ra-
tionaI scicncc owcs its cxistcncc to its succcss, thc scicntic
mcthod is app|icab|c on|y by virtuc ot thc astonishin points
ot arccmcnt bctwccn prcconccivcd modc|s and cxpcrimcnta|
nsu|ts." 5cicncc is a risky amc, but it sccms to havc dis-
covcrcd qucstions to which naturc providcs consistcnt an-
Thc succcss ot Wcstcrn scicncc is an historica| tact, unprc-
dictab|c a priori , but which cannot bc inorcd. Thc surprisin
succcss ot modcrn scicncc has |cd to an irrcvcrsib|c transtor-
mation ot our rc|ations with naturc. ln this scnsc, thc tcrm
"scicntic rcvo|ution can |citimatc|y bc uscd. Thc history ot
mankind has bccn markcd by othcr turnin points, by othcr
sinu|ar con|unctions ot circumstanccs |cadin to irrcvcrsib|c
chancs. Onc such cmcia| cvcnt is known as thc "Nco|ithic
nvo|ution. But thcrc, |ust as in thc casc ot thc "choiccs
markin bio|oica| cvo|ution, wc can at prcscnt on|y procccd
by ucsswork, whi|c thcrc is a wca|th ot intormation conccrn-
in dccsvc cpisodcs in thc cvo|ution ot scicncc. Thc so-ca||cd
"Nco|ithic rcvo|ution took thousands ot ycars. 5imp|ityin
somcwhat, wc may say thc scicntic rcvo|ution startcd on|y
thrcc ccnturics ao. Wc havc what is pcrhaps a uniquc oppor-
tunity to apprchcnd thc spccic and intc||iib|c mixturc ot
"chancc and "ncccssity markin this rcvo|0tion.
5cicncc initiatcd a s0cccsstu| dia|o0c with nat0rc. On thc
othcr hand, thc rst outcomc ot this dia|o0c was thc discov-
cry ot a si|cnt wor|d. This is thc paradox ot c|assica| scicncc.
lt rcvca|cd to mcn a dcad, passivc naturc, a nat0n that bc-
havcs as an a0tomaton which, oncc prorammcd, continucs to
to||ow thc ru|cs inscribcd in thc proram. ln this scnsc thc
dia|ouc with naturc iso|atcd man trom naturc i nstcad ot
brinin him c|oscr to it. A triumph ot human rcason turncd
into a sad truth. lt sccmcd that scicncc dcbascd cvcrythin it
Modcrn scicncc horricd both its opponcnts, tor whom it
appcarcd as a dcad|y dancr, and somc ot its s0pportcrs, who
saw in man`s so|itudc as "discovcrcd by scicncc thc pricc wc
had to pay tor this ncw rationa|ity.
Thc cu|tura| tcnsion associatcd with c|assica| scicncc can bc
hc|d at |cast part|y rcsponsib|c tor thc unstab|c position ot sci-
cncc within socicty, it |cd to an hcroic assumption ot thc harsh
imp|ications ot rationa|ity, but it |cd a|so to vio|cnt rc|cction.
Wc sha|| rct0rn |atcr to prcscnt-day antiscicncc movcmcnts.
Lct us takc an car|icr cxamp|c~thc irrationa|ist movcmcnt i n
Gcrmany in thc ! 920s that tormcd thc c0|t0ra| backround to
q0ant0m mcchanics. " ln opposition to scicncc, which was
idcnticd with a sct ot conccpts such as ca0sa|ity, dctcrmi-
H5u, Ic0uClOH5u, 8H0 I8lOH8ly, thcrc W85 8 VOcHl 0p-
surc ot idcas dcnicd by scicncc but sccn as thc cmbodimcnt
ot thc tundamcnta| irrationa|ity ot nat0rc. Litc, dcstiny, trcc-
dom, and spontancity thus bccamc manitcstations ot a shad-
owy undcrwor|d impcnctrab|c to rcason. Without oin into
thc pccu|iar sociopo|itica| contcxt to which it owcd its vchc-
mcnt naturc, wc can statc that this rcjcction i||ustratcs thc
risks associatcd with c|assica| scicncc. By admittin on|y a
s0b|cctivc mcanin tor a sct ot cxpcricnccs mcn bc|icvc to bc
sinicant, scicncc runs thc risk ot transtcrrin thcsc into thc
rca|m ot thc irrationa| , bcstowin upon thcm a tormidab|c
As !oscph Nccdham has cmphasizcd, Wcstcrn tho0ht has
a|ways osci||atcd bctwccn thc wor|d as an a0tomaton and a
thco|oy in which God ovcrns thc 0nivcrsc. This is what
Nccdham cal l s t hc 'charact cri st i c E0ropcan schi zo-
phrcnia. ln tact, thcsc visious an conncctcd. An a0toma-
ton nccds an cxtcrna| od.
Do wc rcally havc to makc this traic choicc? M0st wc
choosc bctwccn a scicncc that lcads to alicnation and an anti-
scicntic mctaphysical vicw ot nat0rc? Wc think s0ch a choicc
is no loncr ncccssary, sincc thc chancs that scicncc is 0ndcr-
oin today |cad to a radica|ly ncw sit0ation. This rcccnt cvo-
|0tion ot scicncc ivcs 0s a 0nig0c opport0nity to rcconsidcr
its position in c0lt0rc in cncra|. Modcrn scicncc oriinatcd i n
thc spccic contcxt D thc E0ropcan scvcntccnth ccnt0ry. Wc
arc now approachin thc cnd ot thc twcnticth ccnt0ry, and it
sccms that somc morc univcrsu/ mcssugc is carricd by sci-
cncc, a mcssac that conccrns thc intcraction ot man and na-
t0rc as wcll as ot man with man.
What arc thc ass0mptions ot c|assica| scicncc trom which wc
bc|icvc scicncc has trccd itsc|t today? Gcncra|ly thosc ccntcr-
in aro0nd thc basic conviction that at somc |cvc| thc wor/d S
simp/c and is ovcrncd by timc-rcvcrsiblc t0ndamcnta| |aws.
Today this appcars as an cxccssivc simplitication. Wc may
comparc it to rcd0cin b0i|dins to pilcs ot bricks. Yct o0t ot
Ihc samc bricks wc may constr0ct a tactory, a palacc, or a
cathcdral . lt is on thc lcvcl ot thc b0ildin as a wholc that wc
apprchcnd it as a crcat0rc ot timc, as a prod0ct ot a c0|t0rc, a
socicty, a sty|c. B0t |hcrc is thc additiona| and obvio0s prob-
|cm that, sincc thcrc is no onc to b0ild nat0rc, wc m0st ivc to
its vcry "bricksthat is, to its microscopic activity~a dc-
scription that acco0nts tor this b0ildin proccss.
Thc g0cst ot classica| scicncc is in itsclt an ill0stration ot a
dichotomy that r0ns thro0ho0t thc hi story ot Wcstcrn
tho0ht . On|y thc imm0tablc world ot idcas was tradit|onally
rccognizcd as "ill0minatcd by thc s0n ot thc intclligiblc, to
0sc Plato`s cxprcssion. ln thc samc scnsc, only ctcrnal |aws
wcrc sccn to cxprcss scicntic rationa|ity. emporalty was
Iookcd down 0pon as an i|l0sion. This is no loncr tr0c today.
Wc havc discovcrcd that tar trom bcin an iI|0sou, rrcvcrs-
bi|ity p|ays an csscntia| ro|c in nat0rc and |ics at thc oriin ol
most proccsscs ot sc|t-oranization. Wc nd o0rscIvcs i n
wor|d iu which rcvcrsibi|ity and dctcrminism app|y on|y to
|imitin, si mp|c cascs, whi|c irrcvcrsibi|ity and randomncss
arc thc r0|cs.
Thc dcnia| ot timc and comp|cxity was ccntra| to thc c0|t0raI
iss0cs raiscd by thc scicntic cutcrprisc in its c|assica| dcni-
tion. Thc cha||cnc ot thcsc conccpts was a|so dccisivc tor thc
mctamorphosis ot scicncc wc wish to dcscribc. ln his rcat
book hc Nuturc o| thc Fh)sicu/ Wor/J, Arth0r Eddinton'
iutrod0ccd a distinction bctwccn primary and sccondary |aws.
"Pimary |aws contro| thc bchavior ot sin|c partic|cs, whi|c
"sccondary |aws arc app|icab|c to co||cctions ot atoms or
mo|cc0|cs. To insist on sccondary |aws is to cmphasizc that
thc dcscripton ot c|cmcntary bchaviors is not s0tcicnt tor
0ndcrstandiu a systcm as a who|c. Au o0tstandin casc ot
sccondary |aw is, in Eddinton`s vicw, thc sccond |aw ot thcr-
modynamics, thc |aw that i ntrod0ccs thc "armw ot timc in
physics. Eddinton writcs. "lrom thc point ot vicw ot phi-
|osophy ot scicncc thc conccption assocatcd with cntropy
m0st, l think, bc rankcd as thc rcat contrib0tion ot thc niuc-
tccnth ccnt0ry to scicntic thouht. lt markcd a rcaction trom
thc vicw that cvcrythin to which scicncc nccd pay attcntion is
discovcrcd by a mcroscopic dissccton ot ob|ccts. ' This
trcnd has bccn dramatica||y ampIicd today.
lt is tr0c that somc ot thc rcatcst s0cccsscs ot modcrn sci-
cucc arc dscovcrcs at thc mcroscopc Icvc|, that ot mo|c-
c0Ics, atoms, or cIcmcntary partcIcs. lor cxamp|c, moIccuIar
bio|oy has bccn immcnsc| y succcsst0| in isoIatin spccitic
mo|ccu|cs that p|ay a ccntra| ro|c in thc mcchanism ot |itc. ln
tact, this succcss has bccn so ovcrwhc|min that tor many sci-
cntists thc am ot rcscarch s idcntcd wth this "microscopic
disscction ot ob|ccts, to 0sc Eddiuton`s cxprcssion. How-
cvcr, thc sccond |aw ot thcrmodynamics prcscntcd thc rst
cha||cnc to a conccpt ot nat0rc that wo0|d cxp|ain away thc
comp|cx and rcd0cc it to thc simpIicity ot somc hiddcn wor|d.
Today intcrcst is shltin trom s0bstancc to rc|ation, to com-
m0nication, to timc.
trary dccision. ln physics it was torccd 0pon 0s by ncw dis-
covcrcs no onc co0I d havc torcsccn. Who wo0I d havc
cxpcctcd that most (and pcrhaps a|I) c|cmcntary partcIcs
wo0Id pmvc to bc 0nstab|c? Who wouId havc cxpcctcd that
wth thc cxpcrmcntaI conrmaton ot an cxpandn 0nvcrsc
wc co0Id conccvc ot thc hstory ot thc worId as a who|c?
At thc cnd ot thc twcntcth ccnt0ry wc havc |carncd to 0n-
dcrstand bcttcr thc mcann ot thc two rcat rcvoI0tons that
avc shapc to thc physcs ot o0r tmc, g0ant0m mcchancs and
rc|atvty. Thcy startcd as attcmpts to corrcct cIasscaI mc-
chancs and to ncorporatc nto t thc ncwIy to0nd 0nVcrsaI
constants. Today thc st0aton has chancd. Quant0m mc-
chancs has vcn 0s thc thcorctca| tramc to dcscrbc thc n-
ccssant transtormatons ot partc|cs nto cach othcr. SmIarIy,
cncraI rcIatvty has bccomc thc basc thcory n tcrms ot
whch wc can dcscrbc thc thcrma| hstory o o0r 0nvcrsc n
ts carIy stacs.
O0r 0nvcrsc has a pI0raIstc, compIcx charactcr. Str0c-
t0rcs may dsappcar, b0t a|so thcy may appcar. Somc pro-
ccsscs arc, as tar as wc know, wc|I dcscrbcd by dctcrmnstc
cg0atons, b0t othcrs nvo|vc probab|stc proccsscs.
How thcn can wc ovcrcomc thc apparcnt contradcton bc-
twccn thcsc conccpts? Wc arc |vn n a sn|c 0nvcrsc. As
wc sha|| scc, wc arc bcnnn to apprccatc thc mcann o
thcsc prob|cms. Morcovcr, thc mportancc wc now vc to thc
varo0s phcnomcna wc obscrvc and dcscrbc s g0tc dttcrcnt
trom, cvcn oppostc to, what was s0@cstcd by c|assca| physcs.
Thcrc thc basc proccsscs, as wc mcntoncd, arc consdcrcd as
dctcrmnstc and rcvcrsb|c. Poccsscs nvo|vn randomncss
or rrcvcrsb|ty arc consdcrcd to bc cxccptons. Today wc
scc cvcrywhcrc thc ro|c ot rrcvcrsb|c proccsscs, ot 0ct0a-
tons. Thc modcIs consdcrcd by c|assca| physcs sccm to 0s
to occ0r on|y n Imtn st0atons s0ch as wc can crcatc ar-
tcaI|y by p0ttn mattcr nto a box and thcn watn t|| t
rcachcs cg0|br0m.
Thc artca| may bc dctcrmnstc and rcvcrsb|c. Thc nat0-
raI contans csscnta| cIcmcnts ot randomncss and rrcvcrs-
bIty. Ths Icads to a ncw vcw ot mattcr n whch mattcr s no
|oncr thc passvc s0bstancc dcscrbcd n thc mcchanstc
worId vcw b0t s assocatcd wth spontanco0s actvty. Ths
changc s so proto0nd that, as wc SlulCO n our Pefaco, wo C0D
rcaI|y spcak abo0t a ncw da|o0c ot man wth nat0rc.
Ths book dca|s wth thc conccptua| transtormaton ot sc-
cncc trom thc Go|dcn Ac ot c|assca| sccncc to thc prcscnt.
To dcscrbc ths transtormaton wc cou|d havc choscn many
roads. Wc cou|d havc studcd thc prob|cms ot cIcmcntary par-
tc|cs. Wc cou|d havc to||owcd rcccnt tascnatn dcvc|op-
mcnts n astrophyscs. Thcsc arc thc subjccts that sccm to
dc|mt thc trontcrs ot sccncc. Howcvcr, as wc statcd n our
Prctacc, ovcr thc past ycars so many ncw tcaturcs ot naturc at
our |cvc| havc bccn dscovcrcd that wc dccdcd to conccntratc
on ths ntcrmcdatc |cvc|, on prob|cms that bc|on man|y to
our macroscopc wor|d, whch nc|udcs atoms, mo|ccu|cs, and
cspcca||y bomo|ccu|cs. St|| t s mportant to cmphaszc that
thc cvo|uton ot sccncc procccds on somcwhat para||c| |ncs at
cvcry |cvc|, bc t that ot c|cmcntary partc|cs, chcmstry, boI-
oy, or cosmo|oy. On cvcry sca|c sc|t-oranzaton, comp|cx-
ty, and tmc p|ay a ncw and uncxpcctcd ro|c.
Thcrctorc, our am is to cxamnc thc sincancc ot thrcc
ccnturcs ot sccntc prorcss trom a dcnitc vcwpont.
Thcrc s ccrtain|y a sub|cctvc c|cmcnt n thc way wc havc
choscn our matcria|. Thc prob|cm ot tmc is rca||y thc ccntcr
ot thc rcscarch that onc ot us has bccn pursun a|| hs |tc.
Whcn as a youn studcnt at thc Unvcrsty ot Brussc|s hc
camc nto contact wth physcs and chcmstry tor thc rst
tmc, hc was astonshcd that sccncc had so |tt|c to say about
t mc, cspcca||y s ncc h s car|cr cducaton had ccntcrcd
man|y around hstory and archaco|oy. Ths surprsc cou|d
havc |cd hm to two atttudcs, both ot whch wc nd cx-
cmp|cd n thc past. onc wou|d havc bccn to dscard thc pmb
|cm, sncc c|assca| sccncc sccmcd to havc no p|acc tor timc,
and thc othcr wou|d havc bccn to |ook tor somc othcr way ot
apprchcndn naturc, i n whch tmc wou|d p|ay a dttcrcnt,
morc basc ro|c. Ths s thc path Bcrson and Whtchcad, to
mcnton on|y two ph|osophcrs ot our ccntury, chosc. Thc rst
poston wou|d bc a "postvstc onc, thc sccond a "mcta-
physca| onc.
JDC1C Wu3, DOWCVC1, d DIU QD, WDCD was to ask wbcthcr
thc smp|cty ot thc tcmpora| cvo|uton tradtona||y consd-
crcd in physics and chcmistry was d0c to thc tact that attcu-
as paid main|y to somc vcry simp|icd sit0ations, to
hcaps ot bricks in coutrast with thc cathcdra| to which wc havc
This book is dividcd into thrcc parts. Thc rst part dca|s
with thc tri0mph ot c|assica| scicncc and thc c0|t0ra| con-
scg0cuccs ot this tri0mph. lnitia||y, scicncc was rcctcd with
cnth0siasm. Wc sha|| thcn dcscribc thc c0|t0ra| po|arization
that occ0rrcd as a rcs0|t ot thc cxistcncc ot c|assica| scicncc
and its astonishin s0cccss. ls this s0cccss to bc acccptcd as
s0ch, pcrhaps |imitin its imp|ications, or m0st thc scicntihc
mcthod itsc|t bc rc|cctcd as partia| or i||0sory? Both choiccs
|cad to thc samc rcs0|t~thc co||ision bctwccn what has ottcu
bccn ca||cd thc "two c0|t0rcs, scicncc and thc h0manitics.
Thcsc g0cstions havc p|aycd a basic ro|c in Wcstcrn tho0ht
sincc thc torm0|ation ot c|assica| scicucc. Aain and aain wc
comc to thc prob|cm, "How to choosc! lsaiah Bcr|in has
riht|y sccn in this g0cstion thc bcinuin ot thc schism bc-
twccn thc scicnccs and thc h0manitics:
Thc spccic and 0nig0c vcrs0s thc mpctitivc and thc 0n-
vcrsa|, thc concmtc vcrs0s thc abstract, pcrpct0a| movc-
mcnt vcrs0s rcst, thc inncr vcrs0s thc o0tcr, g0a|ity
vcrs0s g0antity, c0|t0n-bo0nd vcrs0s timc|css pnucip|cs,
mcuta| stritc and sc|t-transtormation as a pcrmancnt con-
dition ot mau vcrs0s thc possibi|ity (and dcsirabi|ity) ot
pcacc, ordcr, na| harmony and thc satistaction ot a|| ra-
tiona| h0mau wishcs-thcsc somc ot thc aspccts ot
thc contrast. '
Wc havc dcvotcd m0ch spacc t o c|assica| mcchanics. u-
dccd, in o0r vicw this is thc bcst vantac point trom which wc
may contcmp|atc thc prcscnt-day transtormation ot scicncc.
C|assica| dynamics sccms to cxprcss in an cspccia||y c|car and
trikin way thc static vicw ot nat0rc. Hcrc timc apparcnt|y i s
rcd0ccd t o a paramctcr, and t0t0rc and past bccomc cg0iv-
a|cnt. lt is tr0c that g0ant0m thcory has raiscd many ncw
prob|cms not covcrcd by c|assica| dynamics b0t it has ncvcr-
thc|css rctaincd a n0mbcr ot thc conccpt0a| positions ot c|assI-
ca| dyuamics , partic0|ar|y as tar as tme and QtOC0SS 0TO
As car|y as at thc bcinnin ot thc ninctccnth ccnt0ry,
prccisc|y whcn cIassica| scicncc was tri0mphant, whcn thc
Ncwtonian proram dominatcd lrcnch scicncc and thc |attcr
dominatcd E0ropc, thc rst thrcat to thc Ncwtonian con-
str0ction |oomcd into siht. ln thc sccond part ot our st0dy wc
sha|| to||ow thc dcvc|opmcnt ot thc scicncc ot hcat, this riva| to
Ncwton`s scicncc ot ravity, startin trom thc tirst a0nt|ct
thmwn down whcn lo0ricr tormu|atcd thc |aw ovcrnin thc
propaation ot hcat. lt was, in tact, thc rst guantitativc dc-
scription ot somcthin inconccivab|c in c|assica| dynamics-
an irrcvcrsib|c proccss.
Thc two dcsccndants ot thc scicncc ot hcat, thc scicncc ot
cncry convcrsion and thc scicncc ot hcat cnincs, avc birth
to thc rst "nonc|assica|` scicncc~thcrmodynamics. Thc
most oriina| contrib0tion ot thcrmodynamics is thc cc|c-
bratcd sccond |aw, which introd0ccd into physics thc arrow ot
timc. This introd0ction was part ot a morc |oba| intc||cct0a|
movc. Thc ninctccnth ccntury was rca||y thc ccnt0ry ot cvo|u-
tion, bio|oy, co|oy, and socio|oy cmphasizcd proccsscs ot
bccomin, ot incrcasin comp|cxity. As tor thcrmodynamics,
i t is bascd on thc distinction ot two typcs ot proccsscs. rcvcrs-
ib|c proccsscs, which arc indcpcndcnt ot thc dircction ot timc,
and irrcvcrsib|c proccsscs, which dcpcnd on thc dircction ot
timc. Wc sha|| scc cxamp|cs |atcr. lt was in ordcr to distinguish
thc two typcs ot proccsscs that thc conccpt ot cntropy was
intmd0ccd, sincc cntropy incrcascs on|y bcca0sc ot thc irrc-
vcrsib|c proccsscs.
D0rn thc ninctccnth ccnt0ry thc na| statc ot thcrmody-
namic cvo|ution was at thc ccntcr ot scicntic rcscarch. This
was cgui|ibrium thcrmodynamics. lrrcvcrsib|c proccsscs wcrc
|ookcd down on as nuisanccs, as dist0rbanccs, as s0b|ccts not
worthy ot st0dy. Today this sit0ation has comp|ctc|y chancd.
Wc now know that tar trom cq0i|ibrium, ncw typcs ot str0c-
t0rcs may oriinatc spontanco0s|y. ln tar-trom-cg0i|ibri0m
conditions wc may havc transtormation trom disordcr, trom
thcrma| chaos, into ordcr. Ncw dynamic statcs ot mattcr may
oriinatc, statcs that rc0cct thc intcraction ot a ivcn systcm
with its s0rro0ndins. Wc havc ca||cd thcsc ncw struct0rcs Jis-
siputivc structurcs to cmphasizc thc constr0ctivc ro|c ot dis-
This book dcscribcs somc ot thc mcthods that havc bccn
dcvc|opcd |n nccnt ycars to dca| w|th thc appcaraucc and cvo-
|uton ot dsspatvc structurcs. Hcrc wc nd thc kcy words
that r0n throuhout ths book |kc |ctmotvs. non|ncarty, n-
stab|ty, uctuatons. Thcy havc bcun to pcrmcatc our vcw
ot naturc cvcn bcyond thc tc|ds ot physcs and chcmstry
Wc c|tcd lsaiah Bcr|n whcn wc dscusscd thc opposton bc-
twccn thc sccnccs and thc humantcs. Hc opposcd thc spccc
and unguc to thc rcpcttvc and thc un|vcrsa|. Thc rcmarkab|c
tcaturc s that whcn wc movc trom cgu|brum to tar-trom-
cgu|brum condtons, wc movc away trom thc rcpcttve and
thc unvcrsa| to thc spccc and thc unguc. lndccd, thc |aws
ot cgu|brum arc unvcrsa|. Mattcr ncar cgu|brum bchavcs
n a "rcpcttvc way. On thc othcr hand, tar trom cgu|brum
thcrc appcars a varcty ot mcchansms corrcspondn to thc
possb|ty ot occurrcncc ot varous typcs ot dsspatvc struc-
turcs. lor cxamp|c, tar trom cqu|brum wc may wtncss thc
appcarancc ot chcmca| c|ocks, chcmca| rcactons whch bc-
havc n a cohcrcnt, rhythmca| tashon. Wc may a|so havc pro-
ccsscs ot sc| t-oran zaton | caJn to nonhomocncous
structurcs to noncgu|brum crysta|s.
Wc wou|d |kc to cmphaszc thc uncxpcctcd charactcr ot ths
bchavor. Evcry onc ot us has an ntutvc vcw ot how a chcm-
ca| rcacton takcs p|acc, wc manc mo|ccu|cs t|oat n
throuh spacc, co||dn, and rcappcarn n ncw torms. Wc
scc chaotc bchavor sm|ar to what thc atomsts dcscrbcd
whcn thcy spokc about dust dancn n thc ar. But n a chcm-
ca| c|ock thc bchavor s gutc dcrcnt. Ovcrsmp|tyn somc-
what, wc can say that n a chcmca| c|ock a|| mo|ccu|cs chanc
thcr chcmca| dcntty simu/tuncousl), at rcu|m tmc ntcr-
va|s. lt thc mo|ccu|cs can bc mancd as b|uc or rcd, wc
wou|d scc thcr chanc ot co|or to||own thc rhythm ot thc
chcmca| c|ock rcacton.
Obvous|y such a stuaton can no |oncr bc dcscrbcd n
tcrms ot chaotc bchavor. A ncw typc ot ordcr has appcarcd.
Wc can spcak ot a ncw cohcrcncc, ot a mcchansm ot "com-
muncaton amon mo|cc0|cs. But ths typc ot communca-
ton can arsc on|y n tar-trom-cgu|brum condtons. lt s
gutc ntcrcstn that such communcaton sccms to bc thc ru|c
n thc wor|d ot bo|oy. lt may n tact bc takcn as lhC VCIy bass
U thc dcfnton of a bo|oca| systcm.
ln addton, thc typc ot dsspatvc str0ct0rc dcpcnds crit-
ca||y on thc condtons n whch thc str0ct0rc s tormcd. Ex-
tcrna| c|ds s0ch as thc ravtatona| cId ot carth, as wcI| as
thc manctc cId, may pIay an csscntaI roIc n thc scIccton
mcchansm ot scIt-oranzaton.
Wc bcn to scc how, startn trom chcmstry, wc may b0|d
compIcx str0ct0rcs, compIcx torms, somc ot whch may havc
bccn thc prcc0rsors ot Itc. What sccms ccrtan s that thcsc
tar-trom-cg0Ibr0m phcnomcna II0stratc an csscnta| and 0n-
cxpcctcd propcrty ot mattcr. physcs may hcncctorth dcscrbc
str0ct0rcs as adaptcd to o0tsdc condtons. Wc mcct n rathcr
smpIc chcmcaI systcms a knd ot prcboIocaI adaptaton
mcchansm. To 0sc somcwhat anthropomorphc Ian0ac. n
cg0Ibr0m mattcr s "bInd,` b0t n tar-trom-cg0Ibr0m con-
dtons t bcns to bc abIc to pcrccvc, to "takc nto acco0nt,
n ts way ot t0nctonn, dttcrcnccs n thc cxtcrnaI wor|d
(s0ch as wcak ravtatona| or cIcctrca| cIds).
Ot co0rsc, thc probIcm ot thc orn ot |tc rcmans a dm-
c0|t onc, and wc do not thnk a smpIc soI0ton s mmncnt.
5t||, trom ths pcrspcctvc Itc no |oncr appcars to opposc thc
"norma| |aws ot physcs, str0In aanst thcm to avod ts
norma| tatc-ts dcstr0cton. On thc contrary, |tc sccms to
cxprcss n a spccc way thc vcry condtons n whch o0r bo-
sphcrc s cmbcddcd, ncorporatn thc nonIncartcs ot chcm-
ca| rcactons and thc tar-trom-cg0Ibr0m condtons mposcd
on thc bosphcrc by so|ar radaton.
Wc havc dsc0sscd thc conccpts that a|Iow 0s to dcscribc thc
tormaton ot dsspatvc str0ct0rcs, s0ch as thc thcory ot bt0r-
catons. lt is rcmarkab|c that ncar-bt0rcatons systcms prc-
scnt |arc 0ct0atons. S0ch systcms sccm to "hcstatc"
amon varo0s possbIc drcctons ot cvoI0ton, and thc ta-
mo0s |aw ot |arc n0mbcrs n ts 0s0aI scnsc brcaks down. A
smaI| 0ct0aton may start an cntrcIy ncw cvoI0ton that w||
drastcaIIy chanc thc whoIc bchavor ot thc macroscopc sys-
tcm. Thc anaIoy wth socaI phcnomcna, cvcn wth hstory, s
ncscapabIc. lar trom opposn "chancc` and "ncccssty,` wc
now scc both aspccts as csscnta| n thc dcscrpton ot non-
|ncar systcms tar trom cg0lbr0m.
Thc rst two parts ot ths book th0s dcaI wth two conict-
ng vews of Ih2 Qhy8Ca UDVt8. h 8aC VV O Cu55Cu
dynamcs, and thc cvoI0tonary vcw assocatcd wth cntropy.
A coutroutatou bctwccu thcsc vcws has bccomc 0uavod-
abIc. lor a Iou tmc ths coutroutatou was postpoucd by cou-
sdcru rrcvcrsbIty as au I|0sou, as au approxmatou, t
was mau who utrod0ccd tmc uto a tmc|css 0uvcrsc. How-
cvcr, ths so|utou u whch rrcvcrsbIty s rcd0ccd to au I|0-
sou or to approxmatous cau uo |oucr bc acccptcd, succ wc
kuow that rrcvcrsbIty may bc a so0rcc ot ordcr, ot co-
hcrcucc, D orauzatou.
Wc cau uo Ioucr avod ths coutroutatou. lt s thc s0bjcct
o thc thrd part of ths book. Wc dcscrbc tradtouaI attcmpts
to appmach thc prob|cm ot rrcvcrsb|ty rst u c|asscaI aud
thcu u g0aut0m mcchaucs. Pouccru work was douc hcrc,
cspccaIIy by Bo|tzmauu aud Gbbs. Howcvcr, wc cau statc
that thc probIcm was Ictt IarcIy 0uso|vcd. As KarI Poppcr
rc|atcs t, t s a dramatc story. rst, BoItzmauu tho0ht hc
had vcu au objcctvc tormu|atou to thc ucw couccpt ot tmc
mp|cd u thc sccoud Iaw. B0t as a rcs0It ot hs coutrovcrsy
wth ZcrmcIo aud othcrs, hc had to rctrcat.
lu thc |ht ot hstory-r u thc darkucss ot hstory-
BoItzmauu was dcfcatcd, accordu to a|| acccptcd stan-
dards, tho0h cvcrybody acccpts hs cmucucc as a phys-
cst. lor hc ucvcr s0ccccdcd u cIcaru 0p thc stat0s ot
hs J-thcorcm, uor dd hc cxpIau cutropy ucrcasc . . .
S0ch was thc prcss0rc that hc |ost fath u hmscIf . . !
Thc prob|cm ot rrcvcrsbIty stII rcmaus a s0bjcct ot IvcIy
coutrovcrsy. How s ths possbIc ouc h0udrcd fty ycars acr
thc dscovcry o thc sccoud |aw of thcrmodyuamics? Thcrc am
mauy aspccts to ths g0cstou, somc c0It0raI aud somc tcchu-
ca|. Thcrc s a c0It0raI compoucut u thc mstr0st of tmc. Wc
shaII ou scvcraI occasous ctc thc opuou ot Eustcu. Hs
|udmcut so0nds uaI. tmc (as rrcvcrsbIty) s au ||0sou. lu
tact, Eustcu was rctcratu what Gordauo Br0uo had wrt-
tcu u thc sxtccuth ccut0ry aud what had bccomc tor ccu-
t0rcs thc crcdo O sccucc. Thc 0uvcrsc s, thcrctorc, ouc,
uutc, mmobIc . . . . lt docs uot movc tscIf |ocaI|y . . . . lt
docs uot cucratc tscIf . . . . lt s uot corr0ptbIc . . . . lt s uot
aItcrabIc . . . *" lor a |oug tmc Bruuo`s vsou domuatcd
thc sccutc vcw o thc Wcstcru wor|d. lt s thcrcforc nOl
8urpr8ug thdt thc utrusou ot rrcvcrsbIty, comu mauIy
trom thc cnnccrn sccnccs and physcaI chcmstry, was rc-
ccvcd wth mstr0st. B0t thcrc arc tcchnca| rcasons n add-
ton to c0|t0ra| oncs. Evcry attcmpt to "dcrvc rrcvcrsb|ty
trom dynamcs ncssar|y had to tai| , bcca0sc rrcvcrsb|ty
s not a 0nvcrsa| phcnomcnon. Wc can manc st0atons that
arc strct|y rcvcrsb|c, s0ch as a pcnd0|0m n thc abscncc ot
trcton, or p|anctary moton. Ths ta|0rc has |cd to ds
co0racmcnt and to thc tcc|n that, n thc cnd, thc who|c con-
ccpt ot rrcvcrsb|ty has a s0bjcctvc orn. Wc sha|| dsc0ss
a|| thcsc prob|cms at somc |cnth. lct 0s say hcrc that today
wc can scc ths prob|cm trom a dttcrcnt pont ot vcw, sncc
wc now know that thcrc arc dttcrcnt c|asscs ot dynamc sys-
tcms. Thc wor|d s tar trom bcn homocnco0s. Thcrctorc thc
g0cston can bc p0t n dttcrcnt tcrms. What s thc spccic
str0ct0rc ot dynamc systcms that pcrmts thcm to "d s-
tn0sh` past and t0t0rc? What s thc mnm0m comp|cxty
Prorcss has bccn rca|zcd a|on thcsc |ncs. Wc can now bc
morc prccsc abo0t thc roots ot tmc n nat0rc. Ths has tar-
rcachn conscg0cnccs. Thc sccond |aw ot thcrmodynamcs,
thc |aw ot cntropy, ntrod0ccd rrcvcrsb|ty nto thc mac-
mscopc wor|d. Wc now can 0ndcrstand ts mcann on thc
mcroscopc |cvc| as wc||. As wc sha|| scc, thc sccond |aw cor-
rcsponds to a sc|ccton r0|c, to a rcstricton on nta| cond-
tons that s thcn propaatcd by thc |aws ot dynamcs .
Thcrctorc thc sccond |aw ntrod0ccs a ucw rrcd0cb|c c|c-
mcnt nto o0r dcscrpton ot nat0rc. Wh|c t s consstcnt wth
dynamcs, t cannot bc dcrvcd trom dynamcs.
Bo|tzmann a|rcady 0ndcrstood that probab|ty and rrcvcrs-
bty had to bc c|osc|y rc|atcd. On|y whcn a systcm bchavcs
n a s0mccnt|y random way may thc dttcrcncc bctwccn past
and t0t0rc, and thcrctorc rrcvcrsb|ty, cntcr uto ts dcscrp-
ton. O0r ana|yss conrms ths pont ot vcw. lndccd, what s
thc mcann ot an arrow ot tmc n a dctcrmnstc dcscrpton
ot nat0rc? lt thc t0t0rc s a|rcady n somc way contancd n thc
prcscnt, whch a|so contans thc past, what s thc mcann ot
an arrow ot tmc? Thc arrow ot tmc u a mantcstaton ot thc
tact that thc t0t0rc s not vcn, that, as thc lrcnch poct Pa0|
Va|cry cmphaszcd, "tmc s constr0cton. '
HC CXQCIlCHCC Ol o0r CVCI]Udj llC DdHllC55 d IdUlCd dt-
tcrcncc bctwccn tmc and spacc. Wc can movc trom onc pont
ot spacc to anothcr. Howcvcr, wc cannot t0rn timc aro0nd. Wc
cannot cxchanc past and t0t0rc. As wc shaII scc, this tccIin
ot impossibiIity is now acg0ir|n a prccisc scicntic mcanin.
lcrmittcd statcs arc scparatcd trom statcs that arc prohibitcd
by thc sccond Iaw ot thcrmodynamics by mcans ot an innitc
cntropy barricr. Thcrc arc othcr barr|crs n physics. Onc is thc
vcIocity ot Iiht, which in o0r prcscnt vicw Iimits thc spccd at
which sinaIs may bc transmittcd. lt is csscntiaI that this bar-
ricr cxist, it not, ca0saIity wo0Id taII to picccs. SimiIarIy, thc
cntropy barricr is thc prcrcg0isitc tor ivin a mcanin tp com-
m0nication. lmainc what wo0Id happcn it o0r t0t0rc wo0Id
bccomc thc past tor othcr pcopIcl Wc shaII rct0rn to this Iatcr.
Thc rcccnt cvoI0tion ot physcs has cmphaszcd thc rcaIity
ot timc. l n thc proccss ncw aspccts ot timc havc bccn 0n-
covcrcd. A prcocc0paton wth tmc r0ns aII throuh o0r ccn-
t0ry. Think ot Einstci n, Pro0st, lrc0d, TcIhard, Pcrcc, or
Onc ot thc most s0rprisin rcs0Its ot Enstcn`s spcciaI thc-
ory ot rcIatvity, p0bIishcd in ! H5, was thc introd0ction ot d
IocaI timc associatcd with cach obscrvcr. Howcvcr, this IocaI
timc rcmaincd a rcvcrsbIc timc. Eustcin`s pmbIcm both i n
thc spcciaI and thc cncraI thcorcs ot rcIativity vas mainIy
that ot thc comm0nication bctwccn obscrvcrs, thc way thcy
co0Id comparc timc intcrvaIs. B0t wc can now invcstatc timc
in othcr conccpt0aI contcxts.
ln cIassicaI mcchanics timc was a n0mbcr charactcrizin thc
position ot a point on its trgcctory. B0t tmc may havc a dit-
tcrcnt mcann on a IobaI IcvcI . Whcn wc Iook at a chId and
0css his or hcr ac, ths ac s uot Iocatcd n any spccaI part
ot thc chiId`s body. lt is a IobaI |0dmcnt. lt has ottcn bccn
statcd that scicncc spataIzcs tmc. B0t wc now dscovcr that
anothcr point ot vicw is possbIc. Considcr a Iandscapc and its
cvoI0tion. viIIacs row, bridcs and roads conncct dhcrcnt
nions and transtorm thcm. Spacc th0s acg0ircs a tcmporaI
dimcnsion, toIIowin thc words ot coraphcr B. Bcrry, wc

avc bccn Icd to st0dy thc "timin ot spacc.

B0t pcrhaps thc most i mportant prorcss i s that wc now
may scc thc pmbIcm ot str0ct0rc, ot ordcr, trom a dittcrcnt
pcrspcctivc. As wc shaII show in Chaptcr Vlll, trom thc point
ot vicw ot dynamics, bc it cIassicaI or qu8ntum, thoro C0D UC
no onc tmc-dircctcd cvoI0ton. Thc nformaton as t can bc
dcncd i n tcrms ot dynamics rcmains constant in timc. This
so0nds paradoxicaI. Whcn wc mix two Iig0ids, thcrc wo0Id
occ0r no "cvoI0tion in spitc ot thc tact that wc cannot, with-
o0t 0sin somc cxtcrnaI dcvicc, 0ndo thc cttcct ot thc mixin.
On thc contrary, thc cntropy Iaw dcscribcs thc mixin as thc
cvoI0tion toward a disordcr, toward thc most probabIc
statc. Wc can show now that thcrc is no contradiction bctwccn
thc two dcscriptions, b0t to spcak abo0t intormation, or ordcr,
wc havc to rcdcnc thc 0nits wc arc considcrin. Thc impor-
tant ncw tact is that wc now may cstabIish prccisc r0Ics to o
trom onc typc ot 0nit to thc othcr. ln othcr words, wc havc
achicvcd a microscopic torm0Iation ot thc cvoI0tionary para-
dm cxprcsscd by thc sccond Iaw. As thc cvoI0tionary para-
dim cncompasscs aII ot chcmistry as wcII as csscntiaI parts ot
bioIoy and thc sociaI scicnccs, |his sccms to 0s an important
concI0sion. This insiht is g0itc rcccnt. Thc proccss ot rccon-
ccpt0aIization occ0rrin in physics is tar trom bcin compIctc.
Howcvcr, o0r intcntion is not to shcd |ht on thc dcnitivc
acg0isitions ot scicncc, on its stabIc and wcII-cstabIishcd rc-
s0Its. What wc wish to do is cmphasizc thc conccpt0aI crc-
ativcncss ot scicntic activity and thc t0t0rc prospccts and
ncw probIcms it raiscs. ln any casc, wc now know that wc arc
onIy at thc bcinnin ot this cxpIoration. Wc shaII not scc thc
cnd ot 0nccrtainty or risk. Th0s wc havc choscn to prcscnt
thins as wc pcrccvc thcm now, t0IIy awarc ot how incompIctc
o0r answcrs arc.
Erwin Schrdincr oncc wrotc, to thc indination ot many phi-
Iosophcrs ot scicncc.
. . . thcrc is a tcndcncy to torct that aII scicncc is bo0nd
0p with h0man c0It0rc in cncraI , and that scicntitic nd-
ins, cvcn thosc which at thc momcnt appcar thc most
advanccd and csotcric and dimc0It to rasp, arc mcanin-
Icss o0tsidc thcir c0It0raI contcxt. A thcorcticaI scicncc
0nawarc that thosc ot its constr0cts considcrcd rcIcvant
uU DODculOu5 dIc Uc5lucU cVculudll lO Uc Imcd in
conccpts and words that havc a rip on thc cd0catcd com-
m0nity and bccomc part and parcc| ot thc cncra| wor|d
pict0rca thcorctica| scicncc, l say, whcrc this is torot-
tcn, and whcrc thc initiatcd continuc m0sin to cach
othcr i n tcrms that arc, at bcst, 0ndcrstood by a sma||
ro0p ot c|osc tc||ow travc| |crs, wi|| ncccssari|y bc c0t oh
trom thc rcst ot cu|t0ral mankind, in thc |on run it is
bo0nd to atrophy and ossity howcvcr viru|cntly csotcric
chat may contin0c within its joytu||y iso|atcd roups ot
cxpcrts. '
Onc ot thc main thcmcs ot this book is that ot a stron intcr-
action ot thc iss0cs propcr to cu|turc as a who|c and thc intcr-
na| conccpt0a| prob|cms ot scicncc in particu|ar. Wc nd
g0cstions abo0t timc at thc vcry hcart ot scicncc. Bccomn,
|rrcvcrsibi|ity~thcsc arc g0cstions to which cncrations ot
phi|osophcrs havc a|so dcvotcd thcir |ivcs. Today, whcn his-
torybc it cconomic, dcmoraphic, or po|itica|~is movin at
an 0nprcccdcntcd pacc, ncw gucstions and ncw intcrcsts rc-

0s to cntcr into ncw dia|oucs, to |ook tor a ncw co-

Howcvcr, wc know thc promss ot scicncc has ocn bccn
dcscribcd in tcrms ot rupturc, as a shilt away trom concrctc
cxpcricncc toward a |cvc| ot abstraction that is incrcasin|y
dimcu|t to rasp. Wc bc|icvc that this kind ot intcqrctaton is
on|y a rccction, at thc cpistcmo|oica| |cvc|, ot thc historica|
sit0ation i n which c|assica| scicncc to0nd itsc|t, a consc-
gucncc ot its inabi|ity to inc|udc in its thcorctica| tramc vast
arcas ot thc rc|ationship bctwccn man and his cnvironmcnt.
Thcrc do0bt|css cxists an abstract 0cVcOj0cHl O scicntic
thcorics. Howcvcr, thc conccptua| innovations that havc bccn
dccisivc tor thc dcvc|opmcnt ot scicncc arc not ncccssari|y ot
this typc. Thc rcdiscovcry ot timc has roots both in thc intcr-
na| history ot scicncc and in thc socia| contcxt in which sci-
cncc nds itsc|t today. Discovcrics s0ch as thosc ot unstab|c
c|cmcntary partic|cs or ot thc cxpandin 0nivcrsc c|car|y bc-
Ion to thc intcrna| history ot scicncc, b0t thc cncra| intcrcst
|n noncq0i|ibrium situations, in cvo|vin systcms, may rccct
o0r tcc|in that h0manity as a who|c is today in a transition
pcriod. Many rcs0|ts wc sha|| rcport in Chaptcrs V and Vl, tor
cxamp|c thosc on osci||atin chcmica| rc8Ctons, could havo
bccn dscovcrcd many ycars ao, b0t thc study ot thcsc non-
cg0i|ibri0m prob|cms was rcprcsscd i n thc c0|t0raI and idco-
IoicaI contcxt ot thosc timcs.
Wc arc awarc that asscrtin this rcccptivcncss to c0|t0raI
contcnt r0ns co0ntcr to thc traditionaI conccpton ot scicncc.
ln this vicw sccncc dcvcIops by trccin itsc|t trom o0tmodcd
torms ot 0ndcrstandin nat0rc, it p0rcs itsc|t in a proccss
that can bc comparcd to an "asccsis ot rcason. B0t this in
t0rn |cads to thc conc|0son that scicncc sho0Id bc practiccd
onIy by comm0nitcs |ivin apart, 0ninvo|vcd in m0ndanc
mattcrs. ln ths vcw, thc idca| scicntic comm0nity sho0|d bc
protcctcd trom thc prcss0rcs, nccds, and rcg0ircmcnts ot so-
cicty. Scicntic prorcss o0ht to bc an csscntia||y a0tono-
mo0s proccss that any "o0tsidc" int|0cncc, s0ch as thc
scicntsts`s particpaton in othcr c0|t0ra|, socia|, or ccon0mic
activitics, wo0|d mcrc|y dst0rb or dc|ay.
This idca| ot abstraction, ot thc scicntist`s withdrawaI, nds
an a|Iy in st|| anothcr idca|, this onc conccrnin thc vocatiou
ot a "tr0c` rcscarchcr, namc|y, his dcsirc to cscapc trom
wor|d|y vicisst0dcs. Einstcin dcscrbcs thc typc ot scicntist
who wo0|d nd tavor with thc 'Anc| ot thc lord sho0|d thc
Iattcr bc ivcn thc task ot drivin trom thc "Tcmp|c ot Sci-
cncc a|I thosc who arc "0nworthy`

~it is not statcd in what

rcspccts. Thcy arc cncra||y
. . . rathcr odd, 0ncomm0nicativc, so|itary tcI|ows, who
dcsptc thcsc common charactcristics rcscmbIc onc an-
othcr rca|Iy |css than thc host ot thc banishcd.
What |cd thcm into thc TcmpIc? . . . onc ot thc stron-
@5l uOlV5 lhl 0 uH lO Il H0 5CHC I5 @h
trom cvcryday Itc wi th i ts pai nt0I harshncss and
wrctchcd drcarincss, and trom thc tcttcrs ot onc`s owu
shittin dcsircs. A pcrson with a ncr scnsib|ity is drvcu
to cscapc trom pcrsonaI cxistcncc and to thc wor|d ot
ob|cctivc obscrvin (5chuucn) and 0ndcrstandin. This
motvc can bc comparcd wth thc Ionin that irrcsistib|y
p0|Is thc town-dwc||cr away trom his noisy, crampcd
g0artcrs and toward thc s|cnt, hih mo0ntains, whcrc
thc cyc rancs trcc|y thro0h thc sti||, p0rc air and traccs
thc ca|m conto0rs that sccm to bc madc tor ctcrnity.
llh lhl5 0CgllVC uOllVC lhCIC os d psllVc onc. M
sccks to torm tor himsc|t, i n whatcvcr manncr is s0itabIc
tor hm, a smp||cd and |0c|d |mac ot thc wor|d (Si/d
dcr Wc/t), and so to ovcrcomc thc wor|d o cxpcr|cncc by
str|v|n to rcp|acc |t to somc cxtcnt by th|s |mac. '"
Thc ncompat|b|||ty bctwccn thc ascct|c bca0ty so0ht acr
by sc|cncc, on thc onc hand, and thc pctty sw|r| ot wor|d|y
cxpcr|cncc so kccn|y tc|t by E|nstc|n, on thc othcr, |s ||kc|y to
bc rc|ntorccd by anothcr |ncompat|b|||ty, th|s onc opcn|y Man-
|chcan, bctwccn sc|cncc and soc|cty, or, morc prcc|sc|y, bc-
twccn trcc h0man crcat|v|ty and po||t|ca| powcr. ln ths casc, |t
| s not |n an |so|atcd comm0n|ty or |n a tcmp|c that rcscarch
wo0|d havc to bc carr|cd o0t, b0t |n a tortrcss, or c|sc |n a
madho0sc, as D0crrcnmatt |ma|ncd |n h|s p|ay hc Fhysi-
cists." Thcrc, thrcc phys|c|sts d|sc0ss thc ways and mcans o
advanc|n phys|cs wh||c at thc samc t|mc satc0ard|n man-
k|nd trom thc d|rc conscg0cnccs that rcs0|t whcn po||t|ca|
powcrs appropr|atc thc rcs0|ts ot |ts prorcss. Thc conc|0s|on
thcy rcach |s that thc on|y poss|b|c way |s that wh|ch has aI-
mady bccn choscn by onc ot thcm, thcy a|| dcc|dc to prctcnd
to bc mad, to h|dc |n a |0nat|c asy|0m. At thc cnd o thc p|ay,
as latc wo0|d havc |t, th|s |ast rct0c | s d|scovcrcd to D an
|||0s|on. Thc d|rcctor ot thc asy|0m, who has bccn spy|n ou
hcr pat|cnt, stca|s h|s rcs0|ts and sc|zcs wor|d powcr.
D0crrcnmatt`s p|ay |cads to a th|rd conccpt|on o sc|cnt|c
act|v|ty. sc|cncc prorcsscs by rcd0c|n thc comp|cx|ty ot rc-
a||ty to a h|ddcn s|mp||c|ty. What thc phys|c|st Mocb|0s | s try-
| n to concca| | n thc madho0sc | s thc tact that hc has
s0cccsst0|ly so|vcd thc pmb|cm ot rav|tat|on, thc 0n|cd thc-
ory ot c|cmcntary part|cIcs, and, 0It|matcIy, thc P|nc|pIc of
Un|vcrsa| D|scovcry, thc so0rcc ot abso|0tc powcr. Ot co0rsc,
D0crrcnmatt s|mp||cs to makc h|s po|nt, yct |t |s common|y
hc|d that what | s bc|n so0ht | n thc "Tcmp|c o Sc|cncc s
noth|n |css than thc "torm0|a ot thc 0n|vcrsc. Thc man D
sc|cncc, a|rcady portraycd as an ascct|c, now bccomcs a k|nd
ot ma|c|an, a man apart, thc potcnt|a| ho|dcr o a 0n|vcrsaI
kcy to a|| phys|ca| phcnomcna, th0s cndowcd w|th a potcn-
t|a||y omn|potcnt know|cdc. Th|s br|ns 0s back to an |ss0c
wc havc a|rcady ra|scd. |t | s on|y |n a s|mp|c wor|d (cspcc|a||y
n thc wor|d ot c|ass|ca| sc|cncc, whcrc comp|cx|ty mcrc|y
vc||s a t0ndamcnta| s|mp||c|ty) that a OI0 O knowlcdgc thut
provdcs a 0n|vcrsa| kcy can cx|st.
Onc ot thc prob|cms ot o0r tmc s to ovcrcomc attt0dcs
that tcnd to j0stty and rcntorcc thc so|aton ot thc sccntc
comm0nty. Wc m0st opcn ncw channc|s ot comm0ncatou
bctwccn sccncc and soccty. lt s n ths sprt that ths book
has bccn wrttcn. Wc a|| know that man s a|tcrn hs nat0raI
cnvronmcnt on an 0nprcccdcntcd sca|c. As Scrc Moscovci
p0ts t, hc s crcatn a "ncw nat0rc. "' B0t to 0ndcrstand ths
man-madc wor|d, wc nccd a sccncc that s not mcrc|y a tooI
s0bmssvc to cxtcrna| ntcrcsts, nor a canccro0s t0mor rrc-
sponsb|y rown on a s0bstratc soccty.
To tho0sand ycars ao Ch0an Ts0 wrotc.
How [ccasc|css|y] Hcavcn rcvo|vcs l How [constantIy]
Earth abdcs at rcst l Do thc S0n and thc Moon contcnd
abo0t thcr rcspcctvc p|accs? ls thcrc somconc prcsdn
ovcr and drcctn thosc thns? Who bnds and connccts
thcm tocthcr? Who ca0scs and mantans thcm wtho0t
tro0b|c or cxcrton? Or s thcrc pcrhaps somc sccrct
mcchansm i n couscg0cncc ot whch thcy cannot b0t bc
as thcy arc ?
Wc bc|cvc that wc arc hcadn toward a ncw synthcss,
ncw nat0ra|sm. Pcrhaps wc w|| cvcnt0a||y bc ab|c to combnc
thc Wcstcrn tradton, wth ts cmphass on cxpcrmcntatou
and g0anttatvc torm0|atons, wth a tradton s0ch as thc Chi-
ncsc onc, wth ts vcw ot a spontanco0s, sc|t-oranzn
wor|d. Toward thc bcnnn ot ths lntrod0cton, wc ctcd
!acg0cs Monod. Hs conc|0son was. "Thc anccnt a||ancc
has bccn dcstroycd, man knows at |ast that hc s a|onc n thc
0nvcrsc`s ndttcrcnt mmcnsty o0t ot whch hc cmcrcd onIy
by chancc. " Pcrhaps Monod was rht. Thc ancicnt a||ancc
has bccn shattcrcd. O0r ro|c is not to |amcnt thc past. lt is to
try to dscovcr n thc mdst ot thc cxtraordnary dvcrsty ot
thc sccnccs somc 0ntyn thrcad. Each rcat pcrod ot sci-
cncc has |cd to somc modc| ot nat0rc. lor c|assca| sccncc it
was thc c|ock, tor nnctccnth-ccnt0ry sccncc, thc pcrod ot
thc lnd0stra| Rcvo|0ton, t was an cnnc r0nnn dowu.
What w|| bc thc symbo| tor 0s? What wc havc in mnd may
pcrhaps bc cxprcsscd bcst by a rctcrcncc to sc0|pt0rc, trom
uUu OI gIC~LOuDDu II IO OuI ID0- u 5UD0 U 0 UUL
bca0tit0| manitcstations ot sc0|pt0rc, bc it in thc dancin
Shiva or in thc miniat0rc tcmp|cs ot G0crrcro, thcrc appcars
vcry c|car|y thc scarch tor a |0nction bctwccn sti||ncss and
motion, timc arrcstcd and timc passin. Wc bc|icvc that this
controntation wi|| ivc o0r pcriod its 0nig0cncss.

.. .`
,'/ '
w V0SS
|B|U|B BO |BlU|BS |8WS |8y 0|O |0 0'Q0|`
O S8'O, |Bl |BWlO0 OB' B0O B'| WBS |'Q0l
||OQSBO LQ'l8Q0 lO| |S88C |BWlO0,
W0O O'BO '0 T /c/
Thcrc |s nothin odd |n thc dramatic tonc cmp|oycd by Popc.
ln thc cycs ot cihtccnth-ccnt0ry En|and, Ncwton was thc
"ncw Moscs who had bccn shown thc "tab|cs ot thc |aw. "
Pcts, architccts, and sc0|ptors |oincd to proposc monumcnts,
d who|c nation asscmb|cd to cc|cbratc ths 0nquc cvcnt. a
man had discovcrcd thc |ang0agc that naturc spcaks~and
Nat0rc compc||cd, his picrcn Mnd obcys,
And g|ad|y shows hm a|| hcr sccrct Ways,
'Gainst Mathcmaticks shc has no Dctcncc,
And yic|ds t`cxpcrimcnta| Conscgucncc. !
Ethics and po|itics drcw 0pon thc Ncwtonian cpsodc tor ma-
tcria| on whch to "gro0nd` thcr argumcnts . Th0s Dc-
sagu|crs transposcd thc mcann ot thc ncw natural ordcr into
a po| tca| |csson. a consttutona| monarchy is thc bcst poss|-
b|c systcm ot govcrnmcnt, sncc thc Kng, |kc thc Sun, has
hs powcr |mtcd by it.
likc Mnistcrs attcndin cv`ry G|ancc
bX Worlds 5WCCQ ro0nd hs Jhronc in Mystick Dancc.
Hc t0rns thcr Moton trom hs Dcvo0s Co0rsc,
And bcnds thcr Orbts by Attractvc lorcc,
Hs Pow`r cocrc`d by laws, st|| |cavc thcm trcc,
Drccts, b0t not Dcstroys, thcr lbcrty,
A|tho0h hc hmsc|t dd not cncroach 0pon thc doman ot thc
mora| sccnccs, Ncwton had no hcstaton rcardn thc 0n-
vcrsa| nat0rc ot thc |aws sct o0t n hs Frincipiu. Nat0rc s
"vcry consonant and contormab|c to hcrsc|t, hc asscrts n
thc cc|cbratcd Q0cston ot hs Opt/ck:-and ths stron and
c||ptca| statcmcnt concca|s a vast c|am. comb0ston, tcr-
mcntaton, hcat, cohcson, manctsm . . . thcrc s no nat0m
proccss whch wo0|d not bc prod0ccd by thcsc actvc torccs~

tractons and rcp0|sons-that ovcrn both thc moton ot thc

stars and that ot trcc|y ta||n bodcs.
A|rcady a natona| hcm bton hs dca!h, ncar|y a ccnt0ry |atcr
Ncwton was to bccomc, mau|y thm0h thc pwcn0| n0cncc
cxcrtcd by lap
acc, thc symbo| D thc sccntc nvo|0ton n
E0ropc. Astronomcrs scanncd a sky r0|cd by mathcmatcs.
Thc Ncwtonan systcm s0ccccdcd n ovcrcomn a|| obsta-
c|cs. l0rthcrmorc, t opcncd thc way to mathcmatca| mcth-
ods by whch apparcnt dcvatons co0|d bc acco0ntcd tor and
cvcn bc 0scd to ntcr thc cxstcncc ot a hthcrto 0nknown
p|anct. Thc prcdcton ot thc cxstcncc ot thc p|anct Ncpt0nc
was thc consccraton ot thc prophctc powcr nhcrcnt n thc
Ncwtonan vson.
At thc dawn ot thc nnctccnth ccnt0ry, Ncwton`s namc
tcndcd to snty anythn that c|amcd cxcmp|arty. Howcvcr,
conctn ntcrprctatons ot hs mcthod arc vcn. Somc saw
t as provdn a b|0cprnt tor g0anttatvc cxpcrmcntaton cx-
prcssb|c n mathcmatcs. lor thcm, chcmstry to0nd ts Ncw-
ton n lavoscr, who ponccrcd thc systcmatc 0sc ot thc
ba|ancc. Ths was ndccd a dccsvc stcp n thc dcnton ot a
q0anttatvc chcmstry that took mass conscrvaton as ts
Aradnc`s thrcad. Accordn to othcrs, thc Ncwtonan strat-
cy consstcd n so|atn somc ccntra|, spccc tact and thcn
0sn t as thc bass tor a|| t0rthcr dcd0ctons conccrnn a
vcn sct ot phcnomcna. ln ths pcrspcctvc Ncwton`s cn0s
was |ocatcd n hs pramatsm. Hc dd not try to cxp|an rav-
IdI0u, hc took t as a tact. 5imi|ar|y, cach discip|inc sho0|d
thcn takc somc ccntra| 0ncxp|aincd tact as its startm point.
lhysicians th0s tc|t that thcy wcrc authorizcd by Ncwton to
rctashion thc vita|ist conccption and to spcak ot a "vita|
torcc" sui gcncris, thc 0sc ot which wo0|d ivc thc dcscription
ot |ivin phcnomcna a hopcd-tor systcmatic consistcncy. This
is thc samc ro|c that atnity, takcn as thc spccica|Iy chcmica|
lorcc ot intcraction, was ca|Icd 0pon to p|ay.
5omc "tr0c Ncwtonians took cxccption to this pro|itcra-
tion ot torccs and rcasscrtcd thc 0nivcrsa|ity ot thc cxp|ana-
tory powcr ot ravitation. B0t it was too |atc. Thc tcrm
Newtoniun was now app|icd to cvcrythin that dca|t with a
systcm ot Iaws, with cg0i|ibri0m, or cvcn to a|| sit0ations in
which nat0ra| ordcr on onc sidc and mora|, socia|, and po|iti-
ca ordcr on thc othcr co0|d bc cxprcsscd in tcrms ot an a||-
cmbracin harmony. Romantic phi|osophcrs cvcn discovcrcd
in thc Ncwtonian 0nivcrsc an cnchantcd wor|d animatcd by
nat0ra| torccs. Morc "orthodox physicists saw i n i t a mc-
chanica| wor|d ovcrncd by mathcmatics. lor thc positivists it
mcant thc s0cccss ot a proccd0rc, a rccipc to bc idcnticd
with thc vcry dcnition ot scicncc.
Thc rcst is |itcrat0rc-ocn Ncwtonian |itcrat0rc. thc har-
mony that rcins in thc socicty ot stars, thc c|cctivc amnitics
and hosti|itics ivin risc to thc "socia| |itc ot chcmica| com-
po0nds appcar as proccsscs that can bc transposcd into thc
worId ot h0man socicty. No wondcr that this pcriod appcars as
thc Go|dcn Ac ot C|assica| 5cicncc.
Tday Ncwtonian scicncc sti|| occ0pics a 0nig0c position.
5omc ot thc basic conccpts it intmd0ccd rcprcscnt a dcnitivc
acg0isition that has s0rvivcd a|| thc m0tations scicncc bas
sincc 0ndcronc. Howcvcr, today wc know that thc Go|dcn
Ac ot C|assica| 5cicncc is onc, and with it a|so thc convic-
tion that Ncwtonian rationa|ity, cvcn with its vario0s con|ct-
in i ntcrprctations, torms a s0itab|c basis tor o0r dia|o0c with
A ccntra| s0b|cct ot this book is that ot thc Ncwtonian tr|-
0mph, thc contin0a| opcnin 0p ot ncw c|ds ot invcstiation
that havc cxtcndcd Ncwtonian tho0ht riht down to thc prcs-
cnt day. lt a|so dca|s with do0bts and str0|cs that arosc trom
this tri0mph. Today wc arc bc|nnin to scc morc c|car|y thc
I|mits ot Ncwtonian rationa|ity. A morc consistcnt COnCCgtOn
ot scicncc and ot nat0rc sccms to bc cmcrin. This ncw con-
ccption pavcs thc way tor a ncw 0nity ot know|cdc and c0|-
/ .d03?0 W00
||O0 S|0Q V|S|O0 80O `WlO0S S'Q|
W| ' | | 80 C' 8KB,
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O8lO `O70O| dd, od
Thcrc is no bcttcr i||0straton ot thc instabi|ity ot thc c0|t0raI
poston ot Ncwtonan sccncc than thc introd0cton to a
UNESCO co||oqui0m on thc rc|atonshp bctwccn scicncc and
lor morc than a ccnt0ry thc scctor ot scicntc actvty
has bccn rowng to s0ch an cxtcnt wthin thc s0rro0nd-
in c0|t0ra| spacc that t sccms to bc rcp|acng thc tota|ty
ot thc cu|t0rc tsc|t. Somc bc|cvc that ths is mcrc|y an
i||0son d0c to its hh rowth ratc and that thc |incs ot
torcc ot ths c0|t0rc w|| soon rcasscrt thcmsc|vcs and
brn sccncc back into thc scrvcc ot man. Othcrs con-
sdcr that thc rcccnt triumph ot sccncc cntit|cs it at |ast
to r0|c ovcr thc who|c ot c0|turc whch, morcovcr, wo0|d
dcscrvc to go on bc|ng known as such on|y bccausc t was
transmttcd throuh thc scicntt c apparat0s . Othcrs
aan, appa||cd by thc dangcr ot man and soccty bcn
manpu|atcd t thcy comc 0ndcr thc sway ot sccncc, pcr-
ccvc thc spcctrc ot c0|t0ra| dsastcr |oomng n thc ds-
ln this statcmcnt sccncc appcars as a canccr n thc body ot
c0|t0rc, a canccr whosc pro|tcraton thrcatcns to dcstroy thc
who|c ot c0|t0ra| |tc. Thc q0cston is whcthcr wc can dom-
natc sccncc and contro| ts dcvc|opmcnt, or whcthcr wc sha|I
bc cnsIavcd. n onIy onc hundrcd ty ycur8, 8OcnOc hu8 bccn
downradcd trom a sourcc ot nspiration tor Wcstcrn cu|tum
to a thrcat. Not on|y docs it thrcatcn man's matcria| cxistcncc,
but a|so, morc subt|y, it thrcatcns to dcstroy thc traditions and
cxpcricnccs that arc most dccp|y rootcd in our cu|tura| Iitc. lt
s not just thc tcchno|oica| ta||out ot onc or anothcr scicntic
brcakthrouh that is bcin accuscd, but thc spirit ot scicncc"
Whcthcr thc accusation rctcrs to a |oba| skcpticism cxudcd
by scicntic cu|turc or to spccitic conc| usions rcachcd
throuh scicntic thcorics, it is ocn asscrtcd today that sc-
cncc is dcbasin our wor|d. What tor cncrations had bccn a
sourcc ot |oy and amazcmcnt withcrs at its touch. Evcrythin
t touchcs is dchumanizcd.
Odd|y cnouh, thc idca ot a tata| discnchantmcnt brouht
about by scicntic prorcss is an idca hc|d not on|y by thc
critics ot scicncc but ottcn a|so by thosc who dctcnd or |ority
it. Thus, in his book hc LJgc o/Uh)cctivit), historian C. C.
Gi||ispic cxprcsscs sympathy tor thosc who criticizc scicncc
and constant|y cndcavor to b|unt thc cuttin cdc ot ob|cc-
lndccd, thc rcncwa| s ot thc sub|cctivc approach to naturc
makc a pathctic thcmc. lts r0ins |ic strcwn |ikc ood in-
tcntions ah a|on thc round travcrscd by scicncc, unti| it
survivcs onIy in stranc corncrs Iikc Lyscnkoism and an-
throposophy, whcrc naturc is socializcd or mora|izcd.
Such surviva|s arc rc|ics ot thc pcrpctua| attcmpt to cs-
capc thc conscqucnccs ot wcstcrn man`s most charac-
tcristic and succcsstu| campan, which uU5l doom to
conqucr. So likc any thrust in thc tacc of thc incvitablc,
romantic natura| phi|osophy has induccd cvcry nuancc of
mood trom dcspcration to hcroism. At thc u|icst, it is
scntimcnta| or vu|ar hosti|ity to intcllcct. At thc nob|cst,
t inspircd Didcrot`s natura|istic and mora|izin scicncc,
Gocthc`s pcrsonication ot naturc, thc poctry of Words-
worth, and thc phi|osophy ot A|trcd North Whitchcad, or
ot any othcr who wou|d nd a p|acc in scicncc tor our
qua|itativc and acsthctic apprcciation ot naturc. lt is thc
scicncc ot thosc who wou|d makc botany ot b|ossoms and
mctcoro|oy of sunscts.
Th0s sc|cncc Icads to a tra|c, mctaphys|caI cho|cc. Man has
to choosc bctwccn thc rcass0r|n b0t |rrat|onaI tcmptat|on to
scck |n nat0rc a 0arantcc ot h0man va|0cs, or a s|n po|nt|n
to a t0ndamcntaI corc|atcdncss, and dcI|ty to a rat|onaI|ty
that |so|atcs h|m |n a s|Icnt worId.
Thc cchocs ot anothcr Ic|tmot|v~dom|nat|on-m|nIc w|th
that ot d|scnchantmcnt. A d|scnchantcd worId |s, at thc samc
t|mc, a wor|d I|ab|c to controI and man|p0Iat|on. Any sc|cncc
that concc|vcs ot thc worId as bc|n ovcrncd accord|n to a
0n|vcrsaI thcorct|caI pIan that rcd0ccs |ts var|o0s r|chcs Io thc
drab app||cat|ons ot cncraI Iaws thcrcby bccomcs an |nstr0-
mcnt ot dom|nat|on. And man, a strancr to thc wor|d, scts
h|msc|t 0p as |ts mastcr.
Th|s d|scnchantmcnt has takcn var|o0s torms |n rcccnt dc-
cadcs. lt |s o0ts|dc thc a|m ot th|s book to st0dy systcmat|caIIy
thc var|o0s torms ot ant|sc|cncc. ln Chaptcr lll wc sha|| prc-
scnt a t0I|cr rcact|on ot Wcstcrn tho0ht to thc s0rpr|s|n tr|-
0mph ot Ncwton|an rat|ona||ty. Hcrc Ict 0s onIy notc that at
prcscnt thcrc |s a sh| ot pop0|ar att|t0dcs to nat0rc assoc|atcd
w|th a w|dcsprcad b0t |n o0r op|n|on crronco0s bc||ct that
thcrc cx|sts a t0ndamcntaI antaon|sm bctwccn sc|cncc and
"nat0ra| |sm. ` To |||0stratc at |cast somc ot thc torms ant|-
sc|cnt|c cr|t|c|sm has takcn |n rcccnt ycars, wc havc choscn
thrcc cxamp|cs. l|rst, Hc|dccr, whosc ph|Iosophy hoIds a
dccp fascinat|on for contcmporary tho0ght. Wc sha|| a|so rcfcr
to thc cr|t|c|sms statcd by Arth0r KocstIcr and by thc rcat
h|stor|an ot sc|cncc, A|cxandcr Koyrc.
Mart|n Hc|dccr d|rccts h|s crt|c|sm aa|nst thc vcry corc
ot thc sc|cut|c cndcavor, wh|ch hc sccs as t0ndamcntaIIy rc-
Iatcd to a pcrmancnt a|m, thc dom|nat|on ot nat0rc. Thcrctom
Hc|dccr c|a|ms that sc|cnt|c rat|ona||ty | s thc naI accom-
p||shmcnt ot somcth|n that has bccn |mpI|c|tIy prcscnt s|ncc
anc|cnt Grcccc, namcIy, thc w||I to dom|natc, wh|ch |s at work
|n any rat|onaI d|sc0ss|on or cntcrpr|sc, thc v|oIcncc I0rk|n | n
a|I pos|t|vc aud comm0n|cabIc knowIcdc. Hc|dcgcr cmpha-
s|zcs what hc caI|s thc tcchnoIo|caI and sc|cnt|c tram|n"
(Ucstch), " wh|ch |cads to thc cncraI sctt|n to work ot thc
worId and ot mcn.
Th0s Hc|dccr docs not prcscnt a dcta|Icd anaIys|s ot any
gutCUut cChDOlO@Cu Ot 5CcDC glOUUC Ol glOCC55. NUBI
hc cha||cncs | s thc csscncc ot tcchno|oy, thc way cach th|n
s !ckcn into uccount. Each thcory s part ot thc mp|cmcnta-
ton of thc mastcr p|an that makcs 0p Wcstcrn hstory. What
wc ca|| a sccntc "thcory mp|cs, to||own Hcdccr, d
way ot q0cstonn thns by whch thcy arc rcd0ccd to cn-
s|avcmcnt. Thc sccntst, |kc thc tcchno|ost, s a toy n thc
hands ot thc w|| to powcr ds0scd as thrst tor know|cdc,
hs vcry approach to thns s0bjccts thcm to systcmatc vo-
Modcrn physcs s not cxpcrmcnta| physcs bcca0sc t
0scs cxpcrmcnta| dcvccs n ts q0cstonn ot nat0rc.
Rathcr thc rcvcrsc s tr0c. Bcca0sc physcs, a|rcady as
p0rc thcory, rcq0csts nat0rc to mantcst tsc|t n tcrms ot
prcdctab|c torccs, t scts 0p thc cxpcrmcnts prccsc|y
tor thc so|c p0rposc ot askn whcthcr and how nat0rc
to||ows thc schcmc prcconccvcd by sccncc.
5m|ar|y, Hcdccr s not conccrncd abo0t thc tact that n-
d0stra| po||0ton, tor cxamp|c, has dcstroycd a|| anma| |tc n
thc Rhnc. What docs conccrn hm s that thc rvcr has bccn
p0t to man`s scrvcc.
Thc hydroc|cctrc p|ant s sct nto thc c0rrcnt ot thc
Rhnc. lt scts thc Rhnc to s0pp|yn ts hydra0|c prcs-
s0rc, whch thcn scts thc t0rbncs t0rnn . . . . Thc hy-
droc|cctrc p|ant s not b0|t nto thc Rhnc rvcr as was
thc o|d brdc that |oncd bank wth bank tor h0ndrcds ot
ycars. Rathcr thc rvcr s dammcd 0p nto thc powcr
p|ant. What thc rvcr s now, namc|y, a watcr s0pp|cr,
dcrvcs trom o0t of thc csscncc ot thc powcr staton.
Thc o|d brdc ovcr thc Rhnc s va|0cd not as a proot of
so0nd|y tcstcd ab|ty, ot panstakn and acc0ratc obscrva-
ton, b0t bcca0sc t docs not "0sc thc rvcr.
Hcdccr`s crtcsms, takn thc vcry dca| ot a postvc,
comm0ncab|c know|cdc as a thrcat, ccho somc thcmcs of
thc antsccncc movcmcnt to whch wc rctcrrcd n thc lntro-
d0cton. B0t thc dca ot an ndssocab|c |nk bctwccn sccncc
and thc w|| to domnatc a|so pcrmcatcs somc apparcnt|y vcry
dttcrcnt asscssmcnts ot o0r prcscnt-day slualon. or n-
stancc, 0ndcr thc vcry s0gcstvc tt|c "Thc Comn D thc
Uo|dcn Ac, " G0nthcr 5tcnt statcs that sccncc |s now mach-
n ts |mts. Wc arc c|osc to a pont ot dmnshn rct0rns,
whcrc thc g0cstons wc drcct to thns n ordcr to mastcr
thcm bccomc morc and morc comp|catcd and dcvod ot ntcr-
cst. Ths marks thc cnd ot prorcss, b0t t |s thc opport0nty
tor h0manty to stop ts trantc cttorts, to cnd thc ac-o|d
str0|c aanst nat0rc, and to acccpt a statc and comtortab|c
pcacc. Wc wsh to show that thc rc|atvc dssocaton bctwccn
thc sccnttc know|cdc ot an ob|cct and thc possb|ty ol
mastcrn t, tar trom markn thc cnd ot sccncc, sna|s
host ot ncw pcrspcctvcs and prob|cms. 5ccntc 0ndcrstand-
n ot thc wor|d aro0nd 0s s |0st bcnnn. Thcrc |s yct
anothcr dca ot sccncc that wc tcc| s potcnta||y |0st as dctr-
mcnta| , namc|y, thc tascnaton wth a mystcro0s sccncc
that, by paths ot rcasonn nacccssb|c to common morta|s,
w|| |cad to rcs0|ts that can, n onc tc|| swoop, cha||cnc thc
mcann ot basc conccpts s0ch as tmc, spacc, ca0sa|ty,
mnd, or mattcr. Ths knd ot "mystcry sccncc, thc ms0|ts ol
whch arc mancd to bc capab|c ot shattcrn thc tramcwork
ot any tradtona| conccpton, has act0a||y bccn cnco0racd
by thc s0cccssvc "rcvc|atons ot rc|atvty and g0ant0m mc-
chancs. lt s ccrtan|y tr0c that somc ot thc most manatvc
stcps n thc past, Enstcn`s ntcrprctaton ot ravtaton as
spacc c0rvat0rc or Drac`s antpartc|cs, tor cxamp|c, havc
shakcn somc sccminly wc||-cstab|ishcd conccptions. Th0s
thcrc s a vcry dc|catc ba|ancc bctwccn thc rcadncss to ma-
nc that sccncc can prod0cc anythn and a knd ot down-to-
carth rca|sm. Today thc ba|ancc s stron|y shn toward a
rcvva| ot mystcsm, bc t n thc prcss mcda or cvcn n sccncc
tsc|t, cspcca||y amon cosmo|osts. ' lt has cvcn bccn s0-
cstcd by ccrtan physcsts and pop0|arzcrs ot sccncc that
mystcro0s rc|atonshps cxst bctwccn parapsycho|oy and
g0ant0m physcs. lct 0s ctc Kocst|cr.
Wc havc hcard a who|c chor0s ot Nobc| la0rcatcs n
physcs ntormn 0s that mattcr s dcad, ca0sa|ty |s
dcad, dctcrmnsm s dcad. lt that s so, |ct 0s vc thcm
dcccnt b0ra| , wth a rcg0cm ot c|cctronc m0sc. lt s
tmc tor 0s to draw thc |csson trom twcntcth-ccnt0ry
gO8-m0ChuD8C 5C0DC0, uDU O @0 OU O h0 Stu
]ackct which ninctccnth-ccnt0ry matcria|ism imposcd on
o0r phi|osophica| o0t|ook. Paradoxica||y, had that o0t-
|ook kcpt abrcast with modcrn scicncc itsc|t, instcad ot
|ain a ccntury bchind it, wc wo0|d havc bccn |ibcratcd
trom that strait-jackct |on ao . . . . B0t oncc this is rcc-
onizcd, wc miht bccomc morc rcccptivc to phcnomcna
aro0nd 0s which onc-sidcd cmphasis on physica| scicncc
has madc 0s inorc, miht tcc| thc dra0ht that is b|owin
thro0h thc chinks ot thc ca0sa| cdicc, pay morc attcn-
tion to conucntia| cvcnts, inc|0dc thc paranorma| phc-
nomcna in o0r conccpt ot norma|ity, and rca|isc that wc
havc bccn |ivin in thc "Co0ntry ot thc B|ind.

Wc do not wish to |0dc or condcmn a prior| . Thcrc may bc in
somc ot thc apparcnt|y tantastic propositions wc hcar today
somc sccd ot ncw know|cdc. Ncvcrthc|css, wc bc|icvc that
|caps into thc 0nimainab|c arc tar too simp|c cscapcs trom
thc concrctc comp|cxity ot o0r wor|d. Wc do not bc|icvc wc
sha|| |cavc thc "Co0ntry ot thc B|ind" in a day, sincc con-
ccptua| b|indncss is not thc main rcason tor thc prob|cms and
contradictions o0r socicty has tai|cd to so|vc.
Our disarccmcnt with ccrtain criticisms or distortions ot
scicncc docs not mcan, howcvcr, that wc wish to rc|cct aII crit-
icisms. Lct 0s takc, tor instancc, thc position ot A|cxandcr
Koyrc, who has madc outstandin contrib0tions to thc 0ndcr-
standin ot thc dcvc|opmcnt o modcrn scicncc. ln his st0dy o
thc sinicancc and imp|ications ot thc Ncwtonian synthcsi s,
Koyrc wrotc.
Yct thcrc is somcthin tor which Ncwton~or bcttcr to
say not Ncwton a|onc, but modcrn scicncc in gcncra|-
can sti|| bc madc rcsponsib|c. it is thc sp|itting D our
wor|d in two. l havc bccn sayin that modcrn scicncc
brokc down thc barricrs that scparatcd thc hcavcns and
thc carth, and that it 0nitcd and unicd thc 0nivcrsc. And
that is tr0c. B0t, as l havc said, too, it did this by s0b-
stit0tin tor our wor|d o qua|ity and scnsc pcrccption,
thc wor|d in which wc |ivc, and |ovc, and dic, anothcr
wor|d~thc wor|d ot quantity, ot rcicd comctry, a wor|d
in which, though thcrc is a p|acc tor CvCrythng, ht 5
no p|acc tor man. Th0s thc wor|d

t scicncc-thc rcaI
wor|d-bccamc cstrancd and 0ttcr|y divorccd trom thc
wor|d ot |itc, which scicncc has bccn 0nab|c to cxp|ain-
not cvcn to cxp|ain away by ca||in it "s0bjcctivc. "
Tr0c, thcsc wor|ds arc cvcryday-and cvcn morc and
morc-conncctcd by thc pruxia. Yct tor thco thcy arc
dividcd by an abyss.
To wor|ds. this mcans two tr0ths. Or no tr0th at a||.
This is thc tracdy ot thc modcrn mind which "so|vcd
thc ridd|c ot thc 0nivcrsc, b0t on|y to rcp|acc it by an-
othcr ridd|c. thc ridd|c ot itsc|t. '
Howcvcr, wc hcar in thc conc|usions ot Koyrc thc samc
thcmc cxprcsscd by Pasca| and Monod-this traic tcc|in ot
csIrancmcnt. Koyrc 's criticism docs not cha||cnc scicntic
thinking b0t rathcr c|assica| scicncc bascd on thc Ncwtonian
pcrspcctivc. Wc no |oncr havc to sctt|c tor thc prcvio0s di-
|cmma ot choosin bctwccn a scicncc that rcd0ccs man to
bcing a strancr in a discnchantcd wor|d and antiscicntic,
irrationa| protcsts. Koyrc's criticism docs not invokc thc |imits
ot a "strait-jackct rationa|ity b0t on|y thc incapacity ot c|assi-
ca| scicncc to dca| with somc t0ndamcnta| aspccts ot thc
wor|d in which wc |ivc.
O0r position in this book is that thc scicncc dcscribcd by
Koyrc is no |oncr o0r scicncc. Not bcca0sc wc arc conccrncd
today with ncw, 0nimaginab|c objccts, c|oscr to magic than to
|oic, b0t bcca0sc as scicntists wc arc now bcinnin to nd
o0r way toward thc comp|cx proccsscs tormin thc wor|d with
which wc arc most fami|iar, thc nat0ra| wor|d in which |ivin
crcat0rcs and thcir socictics dcvc|op. lndccd, today wc arc bc-
inning to go bcyond what Koyrc ca||cd "thc wor|d ot q0an-
tity into thc wor|d ot "q0a|itics and th0s ot "bccomin. "
This wi|| bc thc main subjcct ot Books Onc and To. Wc bc-
|icvc it is prccisc|y this transition to a ncw dcscription that
makcs this momcnt in thc history ot scicncc so cxcitin. Pcr-
haps it is not an cxagcration to say that it is a pcriod |ikc thc
timc ot thc Grcck atomists or thc Rcnaissancc, pcriods in
which a ncw vicw ot nat0rc was bcin born. B0t |ct 0s rst
rct0rn to Ncwtonian scicncc, ccrtain|y onc ot thc rcat mo-
mcnts of h0man history.
w0'3 oylS S
What Iay bchind thc cnthusiasm ot Ncwton's contcmporarics,
thcir conviction that thc sccrct ot thc univcrsc, thc truth about
naturc, had tina|Iy bccn rcvca|cd? Scvcra| |incs ot thought,
probab|y prcscnt trom thc vcry bcginning ot humanity, con-
vcrgc in Ncwton's synthcsis. rst ot a|| , scicncc as a way ot
acting on our cnvironmcnt. Ncwtonian scicncc is indccd an
uctivc scicncc, onc ot its sourccs is thc know|cdgc ot thc mcdi-
cva| crasmcn, thc know|cdgc ot thc bui|dcrs ot machincs.
This scicncc providcs thc mcans tor systcmatica||y acting on
thc wor|d, tor prcdicting and moditying thc coursc ot natura|
proccsscs, tor concciving dcviccs that can harncss and cxp|oit
thc torccs and matcria| rcsourccs ot naturc.
ln this scnsc, modcrn scicncc is a continuation ot thc agc-
Icss cttorts ot man to organizc and cxp|oit thc wor|d in which
hc I ivcs. Wc havc vcry scanty know|cdgc about thc car|y
stagcs ot this cndcavor. Howcvcr, it is possib|c, in rctmspcct,
to asscss thc know|cdgc and ski||s rcguircd tor thc Nco|ithic
Kvo|ution to takc p|acc, whcn man gradua||y bcgan to orga-
nizc hs natura| and socia| cnvironmcnt, using ncw tcchnigucs
l0 cxp|oit naturc and to organizc his socicty. Wc sti|| usc, or
havc uscd unti| guitc rcccnt|y, Nco|ithic tcchnigucs~tor cx-
amp|c, anima| and p|ant spccics cithcr brcd or sc|cctcd, wcav-
ng, pottcry, mcta|working. Our socia| organization was tor d
|ong timc bascd on thc samc tcchnigucs ot writing, gcomctry,
and arithmctic as thosc rcquircd lO O|g8UZc thc hc|8|ChCully
dhcrcntiatcd and structurcd socia| groups ot thc Nco|ithic
city-statcs. Thus wc cannot hc|p acknow|cdging thc continuity
that cxists bctwccn Nco|ithic tcchnigucs and thc scicntc and
ndustria| rcvo|utions. '
Modcrn scicncc has thus cxtcndcd this ancicnt cndcavor,
amp|itying it and constant|y spccding up its rhythm. Ncvcr-
thc|css, this docs not cxhaust thc signicancc ot scicncc in thc
scnsc givcn to it by thc Ncwtonian synthcsis.
ln addition to thc var|ous tcchnigucs uscd in a givcn socicty,
wc ud a numbcr ot bc|icfs and myths that scck to undcrstand
man`s p|acc in naturc. Likc myths and cosmo|ogics, scicncc's
cndcavor |s to unJcrstunJ thc nat0rc ot thc wor|d, thc way |t |s
oranizcd, and man`s p|acc in it.
lmm o0r standpoint it is q0itc irrc|cvant that thc car|y spcc-
0Iations ot thc prc-Socratics appcar to bc adaptcd trom thc
Hcs|odic myth ot crcation~that is, thc initia| po|arization ot
Hcavcn and Earth, thc dcsirc aro0scd by Eros, thc birth ot thc
rst cncrations ot ods to torm thc dittcrcntiatcd cosmic
powcrs, discord and stritc, a|tcrnatin atrocitics and vcndct-
tas, 0nti| stabi|ity is na||y rcachcd 0ndcr thc r0|c ot !0sticc
(Jikc). What docs mattcr is that, in thc spacc ot a tcw cncra-
tions, thc prc-Socratics co| |cctcd, disc0sscd, and criticizcd
somc ot thc conccpts wc arc sti|| tryin to oranizc in ordcr to
0ndcrstand thc rc|ation bctwccn bcin and bccomin, or thc
appcarancc ot ordcr o0t ot a hypothctica|| y 0ndittcrcntiatcd
initia| cnvironmcnt.
Whcrc docs thc instabi|ity ot thc homocnco0s comc trom?
Why docs i t dittcrcntiatc spontanco0s|y? Why do thins cxist
at a||? Arc thcy thc trai|c and morta| rcs0|t ot an inj0sticc, a
discq0i|ibri0m in thc static cq0i|ibri0m ot torccs bctwccn con-
ictin nat0ra| powcrs? Or do thc torccs that crcatc and drivc
thins cxist a0tonomo0s|y~rivaI powcrs ot |ovc and hatc |cad-
in to birth, rowth, dcc|inc, and dispcrsion? ls chanc an i||0-
sion or is it, on thc contrary, thc 0nccasin str0|c bctwccn
oppositcs that constit0tcs thins? Can q0a|itativc chanc bc
rcd0ccd to thc motion in a vac00m, ot atoms dihcrin on|y in
thcir torms, or do atoms thcmsc|vcs consist ot a m0|tit0dc ot
g0a|itativc|y dittcrcnt crms, cach 0n|ikc thc othcrs? And |ast,
is thc harmony ot thc wor|d mathcmatica|? Arc n0mbcrs thc
kcy to nat0rc?
Thc n0mcrica| rc0|aritics amon so0nds that wcrc dis-
covcrcd by thc Pythaorcans arc sti|| part ot o0r prcscut thco-
rics. Thc mathcmatica| schcmcs workcd o0t by thc Grccks
torm thc rst body ot abstract thouht in E0ropcan history-
that i s, a tho0ht whosc rcs0|ts arc comm0nicab|c and rc-
prod0cib| c tor a| | rcasonin h0man bcins. Thc Grccks
achicvcd tor thc rst timc a torm ot dcd0ctivc know|cdc that
containcd a dcrcc ot ccrtainty 0nahcctcd by convictions, cx-
pcctations, or passions.
Thc most important aspcct common to Grcck tho0ht and
O mOUrD 8CDCo, VhCh CODIru8I5 VIh Iho ro@OU5 und
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WDI!0 D lh0 5lI5 D0 !D0l5 D0 lh 0h0m0I!, luIDu!0Dl
anc|cnt c|v|||zat|ons thcrc | s a scparation bctwccn protanc
spacc anJ sacrcd spacc, a d|vis|on ot thc wor|d |nto an ord|-
nary spacc that |s s0b|cct to chancc and dcradat|on and a
sacrcd onc that |s mcan|nt0|, |ndcpcndcnt ot contincncy and
history. This was thc vcry contrast Ar|stot|c cstab||shcd bc-
twccn thc wor|d ot thc stars and o0r s0b |0nar wor|d. This con-
trast is cr0c|a| to thc way in wh|ch Aristot|c cva|0atcd thc
possibi|ity ot a quantitat|vc dcscription ot nat0rc. 5incc thc
motion ot thc cc|cst|a| bodics is not chanc b0t a "d|v|nc"
statc that |s ctcrna||y thc samc, |t may bc dcscr|bcd by mcans
ot mathcmat|ca| |dca|izat|ons. Mathcmatica| prccision and
r|or arc not rc|cvant to thc sub |0nar wor|d. lmprccisc nat0raI
proccsscs can on|y bc s0b|cctcd to an approximatc dcscr|p-
ln any casc, tor an Aristotc|ian |t | s morc |ntcrcst|n to
know why a proccss occ0rs than to dcscribc how |t occ0rs, or
rathcr, thcsc two aspccts arc |ndivis|b|c. Onc ot thc ma|n
so0rccs ot Aristot|c`s thinkin was Ihc obscrvation ot cm-
bryonic rowth, a hih|y oran|zcd proccss |n wh|ch intcr|ock-
in, a|thouh apparcnt|y |ndcpcndcnt, cvcnts participatc |n a
proccss that sccms to bc part ot somc |oba| p|an. likc thc dc-
vc|opin cmbryo, thc who|c ot Aristotc||an nat0rc is oranizcd
accordin to na| ca0scs. Thc p0rposc ot a|| chanc, |t |t is | n
kccp|n w|th thc nat0rc ot thins, |s to rca||zc |n cach bcin thc
pcrtcct|on of |ts |ntc||||b|c csscncc. Th0s this csscncc, wh|ch,
| n thc casc ot |ivin crcat0rcs, is at onc and thc samc timc thc|r
na|, torma|, and chcctivc ca0sc, is thc kcy to thc 0ndcrstand-
in ot naturc. ln this scnsc thc "birth ot modcrn scicncc, " thc
c|ash bctwccn thc Aristotc||ans and Ga|||co, |s a c|ash bc-
twccn two torms ot rat|ona||ty.
ln Ga||co `s v|cw thc q0cstion ot "why," so dcar to thc Ar|s-
totc|ians, was a vcry dancro0s way o1 addrcssin nat0rc, at
|cast tor a sc|cntist. Thc Aristotc|ians, on thc othcr hand, con-
sidcrcd Ga|||co`s attit0dc as a torm ot irrat|ona| tanaticism.
Thus, w|th thc comn ot thc Ncwton|an systcm it was a
ncw 0nivcrsa|ity that tri0mphcd, and |ts cmcrcncc 0n|cd
what t||| thcn had appcarcd as dividcd.
41 HL H|UM|H | HLN
1|0 c,0|0Cld| . dl0_d0
Wc havc a|rcady cmphas|zcd onc ot thc csscnt|a| c|cmcnts 0
modcrn sc|cncc: thc marr|agc bctwccn thcory and pract|cc,
thc b|cnd|ng ot thc dcs|rc to shapc thc wor|d and thc dcs|rc to
0ndcrstand |t. lor th|s to bc poss|b|c, |t was not cno0gh, dc-
sp|tc thc cmp|rc|sts' bc||cts, mcrc|y to rcspcct obscrvcd tacts.
Ou ccrta|u po|uts, |nc|0d|ng cvcn thc dcscr|pt|on ot mcchan-
caI mot|ou, t was |n tact Ar|stotc||an phys|cs that was morc
cas||y bro0ght |nto contact w|th cmp|r|ca| tacts. Thc cxpcr-
mcnta| d|a|og0c w|th nat0rc d|scovcrcd by modcrn sc|cncc |n-
vo|vcs ucltvtly rathcr than pass|vc obscrvat|on. What m0st bc
donc |s to man|p0|atc phys|ca| rca||ty, to "stagc |t |n s0ch a
way that |t contorms as c|osc|y as poss|b|c to a thcorct|caI
dcscr|pt|on. Thc phcnomcnon st0d|cd m0st bc prcparcd and
| so|atcd 0nt|| |t approx|matcs somc tdcu/ stluulton that may bc
phys|ca||y 0natta|nab|c b0t that contorms to thc conccpt0aI
schcmc adoptcd.
y way ot cxamp|c, |ct 0s takc thc dcscr|pt|on ot a systcm ot
p0||cys, a c|ass|c s|ncc thc t|mc ot Arch|mcdcs, whosc rcason-
ng has bccu cxtcndcd by modcrn sc|cnt|sts to covcr a|| s|mp|c
mach|ncs. lt |s aston|sh|ng to nd that thc modcrn cxp|anat|on
has c||m|natcd, on thc gro0nds that |t |s |rrc|cvant, thc vcry
th|ng that Ar|stotc||an phys|cs sct o0t to cxp|a|n, namc|y, thc
tact that, 0s|ng a typ|ca| |magc, a stonc "rcs|sts" a horsc's
chorts to p0|| |t and that th|s rcs|stancc can bc "ovcrcomc" by
app|y|ng tract|on thro0gh a systcm ot p0||cys. Nat0rc, accord-
ng to Ga|||co, ncvcr g|vcs anyth|ng away, ncvcr docs somc-
th|ng tor noth|ng, and can ncvcr bc tr|ckcd, |t |s abs0rd to
th|nk that by c0nn|ng or by 0s|ng somc stratagcm wc can makc
t pcrtorm cxtra work. '^ S|ncc thc work thc horsc |s ab|c to
pcrtorm |s thc samc w|th or w|tho0t thc pu||cys, thc chcct
prod0ccd musl bc thc samc. Th|s thcn bccomcs thc start|ng
po|nt tor a mcchan|ca| cxp|anat|on, wh|ch th0s rctcrs to an
|dca||zcd wor|d. ln th|s wor|d thc "ncw cttcct-thc stonc -
na| | y sct |n mot|on-|s ot sccondary |mportancc; and thc
stonc's rcs|stancc |s dcscr|bcd on|y g0a||tat|vc|y, |n tcrms ot
tr|ct|on and hcat|ng. lnstcad, what |s dcscribcd 8CCuralcy s
thc dca| st0at|on, |n wh|ch a rc|at|onsh|p ot cg0|va|cncc ||nks
thc ca0sc, thc work douc by thc horsc, to thc chcct, thc mo
t|ou ot thc stouc. lu th|s |dcaI worId, Ihc horsc cun, in uny
cusc, shgI Ihc sIonc, aud thc systcm 0 p0IIcys has thc soIc
chcct D mod|ty|ug thc way thc p0II|ug cttorts arc trausm|ttcd,
|ustcad 0 mov|ug thc stonc ovcr a d|stancc L, cg0aI to thc
d|staucc |t travcIs wh|Ic p0|||ug thc ropc, thc horsc ouIy movcs
|t ovcr a dstaucc L/n, whcrc n dcpcuds ou thc u0mbcr ot
p0||cys. L|kc a|I s|mp|c mach|ncs, thc p0I|cys torm a pass|vc
dv|cc that cau ouIy trausm|t mot|ou w|tho0t prod0c|ug |t.
Thc cxpcr|mcutaI d|aIog0c th0s corrcspouds to a h|ghIy sp-
c|c proccd0rc. Nat0rc |s cross-cxam|ucd thro0gh cxpcr|mcu-
tat|ou, as |t |u a co0rt 0 Iaw, |u thc uamc ot a pr|or| pr|uc|pIcs.
Nat0rc's auswcrs arc rccordcd w|th thc 0tmost acc0racy, b0t
rc|cvaucc 0 thosc auswcrs |s asscsscd |u tcrms ot thc vcry
|dca||zat|ons that g0|dcd thc cxpcr|mcnt. AII thc rcst docs uot
co0nt as |ntormatiou, b0t |s idlc chattcr, ncgligib|c sccondary
chccts. lt may wcII bc that nat0rc rc|ccts thc thcorct|caI hy-
pthcs|s |u g0cst|ou. Ncvcrthc|css, thc Iattcr |s st||I 0scd as a
standard aga|ust wh|ch to mcas0rc thc |mp||cat|ous aud thc
s|gu|caucc 0 thc rcspousc, whatcvcr |t may bc. lt |s prcc|scIy
th|s |mpcrat|vc way ot g0cst|ou|ng uat0rc that Hc|dcggcr rc-
tcrs to |u h|s arg0mcut aga|ust sc|cut|c rat|oua||ty.
lor 0s thc cxpcr|mcutaI mcthod |s tr0Iy au cr -that |s, |t | s
bascd ou spcc|aI sk|IIs aud uot ou gcucraI r0Ics. As s0ch thcm
arc ncvcr any g0arantccs ot s0cccss and onc a|ways rcma|us at
thc mcrcy ot tr|v|a||ty or poor |0dgmcnt. No mcthodoIog|caI
pr|nc|p|c cau cI|minatc thc r|sk, tor |nstancc, ot pcrs|sting |u a
bI|ud a||cy ot |ng0|ry. Thc cxpcr|mcntaI mcthod |s thc art ot
choos|ng au |ntcrcst|ng g0cst|ou aud ot scann|ng a|| thc cou-
scg0cnccs 0 thc thcorct|ca| tramcwork thcrcby |mpI|cd, a|I
thc ways uat0rc co0Id auswcr |u thc thcorct|caI Iaug0agc
choscu. Am|d thc coucrctc comp|cx|ty 0 uat0ra| phcnomcua,
ouc phcuomcuou has to bc sc|cctcd as thc most I|kc|y to cm-
body thc thcory's |mp||cat|ons |u an 0namb|g0o0s way. Th|s
phcnomcnon w||| thcu bc abstractcd trom |ts cuv|roumcnt aud
"stagcd to a|Iow thc thcory to bc tcstcd |u a rcprod0c|b|c aud
comm0u|cabIc way.
AItho0gh th|s cxpcr|mcutaI proccd0rc was cr|t|c|zcd r|ght
trom thc o0tsct, |guorcd by thc cmp|rc|sts, aud attackcd by
p0tt|ug uat0rc ou thc rack, |t s0rv|vcd a|l thc mod|cat|ous ot
thc thcomt|caI contcnt ot sc|cnt|c dcscr|pt|ons and 0|t|matc|y
dcncd thc ncw mcthod 0 |nvcst|gat|on |ntrod0ccd by mod-
crn sc|cncc.
Expcr|mcnta| proccd0rc can cvcn bccomc a too| tor p0rc|y
thcorct|caI ana|ys|s. lt | s thcn a "tho0ght cxpcr| mcnt, thc
|mag|n|ng ot cxpcr|mcnta| s|t0at|ons govcrncd cnt|rc|y by thc-
orct|ca| pr|nc|p|cs, wh|ch pcrm|ts thc cxp|orat|on ot thc con-
scg0cnccs ot thcsc pr|nc|p|cs |n a g|vcn s|t0at|on. S0ch
tho0ght cxpcr|mcnts p|aycd a cr0c|a| ro|c |n Ua|||co's work,
and today thcy arc at thc ccntcr 0 |nvcst|gat|ons abo0t thc
conscg0cnccs ot thc conccpt0a| 0phcava|s |n contcmporary
phys|cs, namc|y, rc|at|v|ty and g0antum mcchan|cs. Onc ot
thc most tamo0s ot s0ch tho0ght cxpcr|mcnts |s E|nstc|n's ta-
mo0s tra|n, trom wh|ch an obscrvcr can mcasurc thc vc|oc|ty
ot propagat|on ot a ray ot ||ght cm|ttcd a|ong an cmbankmcnt,
that |s, mov|ng at a vc|oc|ty C |n a rctcrcncc systcm w|th rc-
spcct to wh|ch thc tra|n |s mov|ng at a vc|oc|ty V. Accord|ng to
c|ass|ca| rcason|ng, thc obscrvcr on thc tra|n sho0|d attr|b0tc
to thc ||ght, wh|ch |s travc||ng |n thc samc d|rcct|on as hc |s, a
vc|oc|ty ot C= v. Howcvcr, th|s c|ass|ca| conc|0s|on rcprcscnts
prcc|sc|y thc abs0rd|ty that thc tho0ght cxpcr|mcnt was dc-
s|gncd to cxposc. ln rc|at|v|ty thcory, thc vc|oc|ty 0 ||ght ap-
pcars as a uni vcrsu/ constant ot nat0rc. Whatcvcr |ncrt|a|
rctcrcccc systcm |s 0scd, thc vc|oc|ty 0 ||ght |s a|ways thc
samc. And s|ncc thcn E|nstc|n's tra|n has gonc on cxp|or|ng
thc phys|caI conscg0cnccs ot th|s t0ndamcnta| changc.
Thc cxpcr|mcnta| mcthod |s ccntra| to thc d|a|oguc w|th na-
t0rc cstab||shcd by modcrn sc|cncc. Naturc gucst|oncd |n th|s
way |s, ot co0rsc, s|mp|icd and occas|ona|ly mut|latcd. Th|s
docs not dcpr|vc |t ot |ts capac|ty to rct0tc most ot thc hypoth-
cscs wc can |mag|nc. E|nstc|n 0scd to say that nat0rc says
"no" to most ot thc g0cst|ons |t |s askcd, and occas|ona||y
"pcrhaps. " Thc sc|cnt|st docs not do as hc p|cascs, and hc
cannot torcc nat0rc to say on|y what hc wants to hcar. Hc
cannot, at |cast |n thc |ong r0n, pro|cct 0pon |t h|s most chcr-
|shcd dcs|rcs and cxpcctat|ons. Hc act0a||y r0ns a grcatcr r|sk
and p|ays a morc dangcro0s gamc thc bcttcr h|s tact|cs s0c-
cccd |n cnc|rc||ng nat0rc, |n sctt|ng |t morc sguarc|y w|th |ts
back to thc wa||. ' Morcovcr, |t |s tr0c that, whcthcr thc an-
8WCI 8 yC8 OI HD, l Wll DC CXgIC88Cd H lDC 8amC lDCOICt-
ca| |ang0agc as thc g0cst|on. Howcvcr, th|s |ang0agc, too,
HLH U | LH 44
dcvcIops accord|ng to a comp|cx h|stor|caI proccss nvoIvng
uat0rc's rcpI|cs |n thc past and |ts rcIat|ons w|th othcr thcorct|-
caI |ang0agcs. ln add|t|on, ncw g0cst|ons ar|sc corrcspond|ng
to thc chang|ng |ntcrcsts ot cach pcr|od. Th|s scts 0p a com-
p|cx rcIat|onsh|p bctwccn thc spcc|c r0|cs ot thc sc|cnt|c
gamc-part|c0Iar|y thc cxpcr|mcntaI mcthod ot rcason|ng
w|th nat0rc, wh|ch p| accs thc grcatcst constra|nt on thc
gamc-and a c0|t0raI nctwork to wh|ch, somct|mcs 0nwt-
t|ngIy, thc sc|cnt|st bc|ongs.
Wc bc||cvc that thc cxpcr|mcntaI d|aIog0c |s an rrcvcrs|bIc
acg0|s|t|on ot h0man c0It0rc. lt act0a|Iy prov|dcs a g0arantcc
that whcn nat0rc |s cxp|orcd by man |t |s trcatcd as an indc-
pcndcnI bc|n. lt torms thc bas|s ot thc comm0n|cabIc and
rcprod0c|bIc nat0rc ot sc|cnt|c rcs0Its. Howcvcr part|aIIy na-
t0rc |s a||owcd to spcak, oncc |t has cxprcsscd |tscIt, thcrc s
no t0rthcr d|sscnt. nat0rc ncvcr I|cs.
1|0 Vyl| dl l|0 L_| 0|cC0|C0
Thc d|aIog0c bctwccn man and nat0rc was acc0ratcI y pcr-
cc|vcd by thc fo0ndcrs ot modcrn sc|cncc as a bas|c stcp to-
ward thc |ntc|||g|b|||ty ot nat0rc. 0t thc|r amb|t|ons wcnt cvcn
tarthcr. GaI||co, and thosc who camc ahcr h|m, concc|vcd o|
sc|cncc as bc|ng capabIc ot d|scovcr|ng /obu/ tr0ths abo0t
nat0rc. Nat0rc not on|y wo0|d bc wr|ttcn |n a mathcmat|caI
Iang0agc that can bc dcc|phcrcd by cxpcr|mcntat|on, b0t thcm
wo0|d act0a||y cx|st on|y onc s0ch |ang0agc. lo||ow|ng ths
bas|c conv|ct|on, thc worId |s sccn as homogcnco0s, and IocaI
cxpcr|mcntat|on can rcvcaI gIobaI tr0th. Thc s|mpIcst phc-
uomcna st0d|cd by sc|cncc can th0s bc |ntcrprctcd as thc kcy
to 0ndcrstand|ng nat0rc as a who|c, thc compIcx|ty ot thc Iat-
tcr |s onIy apparcnt, and |ts d|vcrs|ty can bc cxp|a|ncd |n tcrms
ot thc 0n|vcrsaI truth cmbod|cd, |n Ga|||co's casc, |n thc math-
cmat|caI |aws ot mot|on.
Th|s conv|ct|on has s0rv|vcd ccnt0r|cs. ln an cxccIIcnt sct
0 Icct0rcs prcscntcd on thc C scvcraI ycars ago, k|chard
lcynman '" comparcd nat0rc to a h0gc chcss gamc. Thc com-
QBXIg B ODg 8[[8tcD c8CD DOvc OOv5 5DQ0 tU05. O t5
carIy days, modcrn sc|cncc g0|tc poss|b|y nccdcd th|s convc-
t|on ot bc|ng abIc to rcach gIobaI tr0th. S0ch a conv|ct|on
addcd an |mmcnsc vaI0c to thc cxpcr|mcntaI mcthod and, to a
ccrta|n cxtcnt, |nsp|rcd |t. rhaps a rcvoI0t|onary conccpt|on
ot thc wor|d, onc as a||-cmbrac|ng as thc "b|oIog|caI con-
ccpt|on ot thc Ar|stotcI|an worId, was ncccssary to throw o
thc yokc ot trad|t|on, to g|vc thc champ|ons ot cxpcr|mcntat|on
a strcngth ot conv|ct|on and a powcr ot arg0mcnt that cnabIcd
thcm to hoId thc|r own aga|nst thc prcv|o0s torms ot rat|onaI-
|sm. lcrhaps a mctaphys|caI conv|ct|on was nccdcd to trans-
m0tc thc crasman's and mach|nc b0||dcr's knowIcdgc |nto a
ncw mcthod tor thc rat|ona| cxpIorat|on 0 nat0rc. Wc may
aIso wondcr what thc |mpI|cat|ons ot thc cx|stcncc O th|s k|nd
ot "myth|caI conv|ct|on arc tor cxp|a|n|ng thc way modcru
sc|cncc's rst dcvc|opmcnts wcrc acccptcd |n thc soc|aI con-
tcxt. On th|s h|ghIy controvcrs|aI |ss0c, wc sha|I rcstr|ct o0r-
scIvcs to a tcw rcmarks ot a g0|tc gcncraI nat0rc tor thc so|c
p0rposc ot p|npo|nt|ng thc prob|cm-that |s, thc prob|cm 0 a
sc|cncc whosc advancc has bccn tcIt by somc as thc tr|0mph
ot rcason, b0t by othcrs as a d|s|I|0s|onmcnt, as thc pa|nt0I
d|scovcry ot thc robotI|kc st0p|d|ty ot nat0rc.
lt sccms hard to dcny thc t0ndamcntaI |mportancc ot soc|al
and cconom|c tactors-part|c0|ar|y thc dcvc|opmcnt 0 cratts-
mcn's tcchn|g0cs |n thc monastcr|cs, whcm thc rcs|d0aI knoI-
cdgc ot a dcstroycd worId was prcscrvcd, and Iatcr |n thc
b0st||ng mcrchant c|t|cs-|n thc b|rth ot cxpcr|mcntaI sc|cncc,
wh|ch |s a systcmat|zcd torm ot part ot thc craItsmcn's knowI-
Morcovcr, a comparat|vc anaIys|s s0ch as Nccdham's cx-
ot thc M|ddIc Agcs. Not onIy was thc c|ass 0 crattsmcn and
potcnt|aI tcchn|caI |nnovators not hc|d |n contcmpt, as |t was
|n anc|cnt Grcccc, b0t, Iikc thc crattsmcn, thc |ntc||cct0a|s
wcrc, |n thc ma|n, |ndcpcndcnt ot thc a0thor|t|cs. Thcy wcrc
trcc cntrcprcnc0rs, crasmcn-|nvcntors |n scarch ot patrou-
agc, who tcndcd to |ook tor novc|ty and to cxp|o|t a|I thc op-
port0n|t|cs |t attordcd, howcvcr dangcro0s thcy may havc bccn
tor thc soc|a| ordcr. On thc othcr hanJ, as Nccdham po|nts
o0t, Ch|ncsc mcn ot sc|cncc wcrc otc|aIs, bo0nd to obscrvc
thc r0Ics ot thc b0rca0cracy. Thcy tormcd an |ntcgraI part 0
thc S1B1C, WDOSC QtmBty OD]CC1VC WBS to kccp |aw and ordcr.
Thc compass, thc pr|nt|ng prcss, and g0npowdcr, aII 0 wh|ch
HLH U | LH 4b
wcrc to contr|b0tc to 0ndcrm|n|ng thc to0ndat|ons ot mcd|cval
soc|cty and to pro|cct E0ropc |nto thc modcrn cra, wcrc d|s-
covcrcd much car||cr |n Ch|na b0t had a m0ch Icss dcstab|I|z-
|ng chcct on |ts soc|cty. Thc cntcrpr|s|ng E0ropcan mcrchant
soc|cty appcars |n contrast as part|c0|arIy wc|| s0|tcd to st|m-
0|atc and s0sta|n thc dynam|c and |nnovat|vc growth ot mod-
crn sc|cncc |n |ts carIy stagcs.
Howcvcr, thc g0cst|on rcma|ns. Wc know that thc b0|Idcrs
ot mach|ncs 0scd mathcmat|ca| conccpts-gcar rat|os, thc d|s-
pIaccmcnts 0 thc var|o0s work|ng parts, and thc gcomctry O
thc|r rc|at|vc mot|ons. 0t why was mathcmat|zat|on not rc-
str|ctcd to mach|ncs7 Why was nat0raI mot|on concc|vcd 0 |n
thc |magc ot a rat|ona||zcd mach|nc7 Th|s g0cst|on may aIso
bc askcd |n conncct|on w|th thc c|ock, onc ot thc tr|0mphs ot
mcd|cva| crasmansh|p that was soon to sct thc rhythm ot I|tc
|n thc |argcr mcd|cva| towns. Why d|d thc c|ock aImost |mmc-
d|atc|y bccomc thc vcry symboI ot worId ordcr7 ln th|s Iast
g0cst|on ||cs pcrhaps somc cIcmcnts ot an answcr A watch |s
a conlrtvunce govcrncd by a rat|ona||ty that I|cs o0ts|dc |tscIt,
by a plan that |s b||ndIy cxcc0tcd by |ts |nncr work|ngs. Thc
cIock wor|d |s a mctaphor s0ggcst|vc ot God thc Watchmakcr,
thc rat|onaI mastcr ot a robot||kc nat0rc. At thc or|g|n O m-
crn sc|cncc, a "rcsonancc" appcars to havc bccn sct 0p -
twccn thcoIog|caI d|sco0rsc and thcorct|caI and cxpr|mcutaI
act|v|ty-a rcsonancc that was no do0bt I|kcIy to ampI|ty and
conso||datc thc cIa|m that sc|cnt|sts wcrc |n thc procss ot d|s-
covcr|ng thc sccrct ot thc "grcat mach|nc ot thc 0n|vcrsc. "
Ot co0rsc, thc tcrm resonunce covcrs an cxtrcmcIy compIcx
prob|cm. lt |s not o0r |ntcnt|on to statc, uOt Bt W u Bu
pos|t|on to atrm, that rcI|g|o0s d|sco0rsc |n any way deler-
mtned thc b|rth ot thcorct|caI sc|cncc, or ot thc "worId v|cw"
that happcncd to dcvcIop |n con|0nct|on w|th cxpcr|mcntaI ac-
t|v|ty. y 0s|ng thc tcrm resonunce~IhaI |s, m0t0a| amp||ca-
t|on ot two d| sco0rscs-wc havc dc||bcratc| y choscn au
cxprcss|on that docs not ass0mc whcthcr |t was thcoIog|cal
d|sco0rsc or thc "sc|cnt|c myth that camc rst and tr|g-
gcrcd thc othcr.
Lct 0s notc that to somc ph|Iosophcrs thc g0cst|on O thc
"Chr|st|an or|g|n" ot Wcstcrn sc|cncc |s not onIy thc g0cst|ou
O 1DC 51dDZd1Ou O 1DC COuCcQ1 O ud1Utc dS du dU1Omd1Ou,
b0t a|so thc g0cst|on ot somc "csscnt|aI ||nk bctwccu cxpcr-
mcutaI sccucc as s0ch aud Wcstcru c|v|I|zat|ou |u |ts Hcbra|c
aud Grcck compoucuts. lor A|trcd North Wh|tchcad th|s I|uk
|s sit0atcd at thc |cvcI ot iust|uct|vc couv|ct|ou. 5uch d couv|c-
t|ou was "uccdcd" to |usp|rc thc " sc|cutit|c taith" ot thc
to0udcrs ot modcru sc|cucc:
l mcau thc |ucxp0guab|c bcI|ct that cvcry dcta||cd occ0r-
rcucc cau bc corrc|atcd w|th |ts autcccdcuts |u a pcrtcctIy
dcu|tc mauucr, cxcmp||ty|ug gcucra| pr|uc|p|cs. W|tho0t
th|s bcI|ct thc |ucrcdib|c Iabo0rs ot scicut|sts wo0Id bc
w|tho0t hopc. lt |s th|s |ust|uct|vc couv|ct|ou, v|v|dIy
po|scd bctorc thc |mag|uat|ou, wh|ch |s thc mot|vc powcr
ot rcscarch. that thcrc |s a sccrct, a sccrct wh|ch cau bc
0uvciIcd. How has th|s couv|ct|ou bccu so v|v|dIy |m-
p|autcd |u thc Europcau m|ud7
Whcu wc comparc this touc ot tho0ght |u Europc with
thc att|tudc ot othcr c|v|||zatious whcu |ch to thcmscIvcs,
thcrc sccms but ouc so0rcc tor |ts origiu. lt must comc
trom thc mcd|cvaI |usistcucc ou thc rat|oua|ity ot God,
coucc|vcd as w|th thc pcrsoua| cucrgy ot !chovah aud
w|th thc rat|oua||ty ot a Grcck ph||osophcr. Evcry dcta|I
was s0pcrv|scd aud ordcrcd: thc scarch |uto uaturc co0Id
ouIy rcs0|t |u thc v|ud|cat|ou ot thc taith |u rat|oua|ity.
kcmcmbcr that l am uot ta|k|ug O thc cxpI|c|t bcI|cts ot a
tcw |udividua|s. What l mcau |s thc |mprcss ou thc E0ro-
pcau m|ud ar|s|ug trom thc 0ug0cst|oucd ta|th ot ccu-
t0rics. y th|s l mcau thc |ust|uct|vc touc ot tho0ght aud
uot a mcrc crccd ot words. `
Wc wi|| uot cousidcr th|s mattcr turthcr. lt wo0|d bc o0t ot
thc g0cst|ou to '' provc that modcru sc|cucc co0|d havc or|g-
|uatcd ou|y |u Chr|st|au E0ropc. lt |s uot cvcu ucccssary to ask
|t thc to0udcrs ot modcru sc|cucc drcw auy rca| |usp|rat|ou
trom thco|og|caI arg0mcuts. Whcthcr or uot thcy wcrc s|u-
ccrc, thc importaut po|ut |s that thosc arg0mcuts madc thc
spcc0|at|ous ot modcru sc|cucc soc|aI|y crcd|bIc aud acccpt-
ab|c, ovcr a pcr|od ot t|mc varyiug trom co0utry to co0utry.
kc||gio0s rctcrcuccs wcrc sti|I trcgucut |u Eug||sh sc|cut|c
tcxts ot thc uiuctccuth ccut0ry. kcmarkab|y cuo0gh, |u thc
prcscut-day rcv|vaI ot |utcrcst |u myst|c|sm, thc d|rcct|ou ot
thc ar0mcut BcBtS tcVCt8cU. I 9 HDW 900H00 IHBI BggoBtS
to IcuJ crcdib||ity to myst|caI atrmat|ou.
Thc g0cst|ou wc havc coutroutcd hcrc obv|o0sIy Icads to
ward a m0It|t0dc ot probIcms |u wh|ch thcoIog|caI and sc|cu-
t|t|c |ss0cs arc |ucxtr|cab|y bo0nd 0p w|th thc "cxtcruaI
h|story ot sc|cncc, that |s, thc dcscr|pt|on ot thc rcIat|onsh|p
bctwccu thc torm and contcnt ot sc|cnt|c know|cdgc on thc
onc hand, and ou thc othcr, thc 0sc to wh|ch |t |s p0t |u |ts
soc|aI , ccouom|c, aud |nst|t0t|ona| contcxt. As wc havc aI-
rcady sa|d, thc on|y po|nt wc arc prcscntIy |ntcrcstcd |n |s thc
vcry part|c0Iar charactcr aud |mp||cat|ons ot sc|cnt|t|c d|s-
co0rsc that was amp||cd by rcsonaucc w|th thco|og|caI d|s-
Nccdham ` ' tc||s ot thc |rony w|th wh|ch Ch|ncsc mcu ot Ict-
tcrs ot thc c|ghtccnth ccnt0ry grcctcd thc !cs0|ts' anno0ncc-
mcnt ot thc tr|0mphs ot modcrn sc|cncc. Thc |dca that nat0rc
was govcrncd by s|mp|c, knowab|c Iaws appcarcd to thcm as a
pcrtcct cxamp|c ot anthropoccntr|c too||shncss. Nccdham bc-
I|cvcs that th|s "too||shncss" has dccp c0|t0ra| roots. ln ordcr
to |||0stratc thc grcat d|ttcrcnccs bctwccn thc Wcstcru and
Ch|ncsc conccpt|ous, hc c|tcs thc an|ma| tr|a|s hc|d |u thc
M|dd|c Agcs. Ou scvcraI occas|ous s0ch trcaks as a cock who
s0pposcd|y Ia|d cggs wcrc soIcmuIy coudcmucd to dcath and
b0rncd tor hav|ng |ntr|ngcd thc Iaws ot nat0rc, wh|ch wcrc
cg0atcd w|th thc Iaws ot God. Nccdham cxpIa|ns how, | u
Ch|na, thc samc cock wo0|d, |n a|| ||kc||hood, mcrc|y havc
d|sappcarcd d|scrcct|y. lt was not g0||ty ot any cr|mc, b0t |ts
trcak|sh bchav|or c|ashcd w|th nat0ra| and soc|aI harmony.
Thc govcrnor ot thc prov|ncc or cvcn thc cmpcror m|ght nd
h|msc|t |u a dc||catc s|t0at|ou |t thc m|sbchav|or ot thc cock
bccamc known. Nccdham commcnts that, accord|ng to B
ph||osoph|c conccpt|on dom|nant |u Ch|na, thc cosmos |s |u
spontanco0s harmony aud thc rcg0|ar|ty ot phcnomcna |s not
duc to any cxtcrna| a0thor|ty. On thc contrary, th|s harmony |n
nat0rc, soc|cty, and thc hcavcns or|g|natcs trom thc cg0|-
||br|0m among thcsc proccsscs. Stab|c and |ntcrdcpcndcnt,
thcy rcsonatc w|th cach othcr |n a k|nd ot nonconccrtcd har-
mony. lt any Iaw wcrc |nvoIvcd, |t wo0Id bc a |aw that no ouc,
nc|thcr God uor man, had cvcr concc|vcd ot. S0ch a |aw wo0|d
aIso havc to bc cxprcsscd |u a Iang0agc 0ndcc|phcrab|c by
mau and not bc a Iaw cstab||shcd by a crcator concc|vcd |n o0r
OWD mu@0.
49 HL HlUM|H | HLN
Nccdham conc|0dcs by ask|ng thc to||ow|ng g0cst|on:
ln thc o0t|ook ot modcrn sc|cncc thcrc |s, ot co0rsc, no
rcs|d0c ot thc not|ons ot command and d0ty |n thc
"Laws" ot Nat0rc. Thcy arc now tho0ght ot as stat|st|ca|
rcg0|ar|t|cs, va||d on|y |n g|vcn t|mcs and p|accs, dcscr|p-
t|ons not prcscr|pt|ons, as Kar| lcarson p0t |t |n a tamo0s
chaptcr. Thc cxact dcgrcc ot s0b|cct|v|ty |n thc form0|a-
t|ons ot sc|cnt|c |aw has bccn hot|y dcbatcd d0r|ng thc
who|c pcr|od trom Mach to Edd|ngton, and s0ch g0cs-
t|ons cannot bc to||owcd t0rthcr hcrc. Thc prob|cm | s
whcthcr thc rccogn|t|on ot s0ch stat|st|ca| rcg0|ar|t|cs
and thc|r mathcmat|ca| cxprcss|on cou|d havc bccn
rcachcd by any othcr road than that wh|ch Wcstcrn sc|-
cncc act0a||y travc||cd. Was pcrhaps thc statc ot m|nd |n
wh|ch an cgg-|ay|ng cock co0|d bc proscc0tcd at |aw ncc-
cssary |n a c0|t0rc wh|ch sho0|d |atcr havc thc propcrty
O prod0c|ng a Kcp|cr7 ` `
lt m0st now bc strcsscd that sc|cnt|c d|sco0rsc |s |n no way
d mcrc transpos|t|on ot trad|t|ona| rc||g|o0s v|cws. Obv|o0s|y
thc wor|d dcscr|bcd by c|ass|ca| phys|cs |s not thc wor|d ot
Ucncs|s, |n wh|ch God crcatcd ||ght, hcavcn, carth, and thc
||v|ng spcc|cs, thc wor|d whcrc lrov|dcncc has ncvcr ccascd
to act, spurr|ng man on toward a h|story whcrc h|s sa|vat|on |s
at stakc. Thc wor|d ot c|ass|ca| phys|cs |s an atcmpora| wor|d
wh|ch, |t crcatcd, m0st havc bccn crcatcd |n onc tc|| swoop,
somcwhat as an cng|nccr crcatcs a robot bctorc |ctt|ng |t t0nc-
t|on a|onc. ln th|s scnsc, phys|cs has |ndccd dcvc|opcd |n op-
pos|t|on to both rc||g|on and thc trad|t|ona| ph||osoph|cs. And
yct wc know that thc Chr|st|an God was act0a||y ca||cd 0pon
to prov|dc a bas|s tor thc wor|d's |ntc|||g|b|l|ty. ln tact, onc can
spcak hcrc ot a k|nd ot "convcrgcncc bctwccn thc |ntcrcsts
ot thco|og|ans, who hc|d that thc wor|d had to acknow|cdgc
God`s omn|potcncc by |ts tota| subm|ss|on to H|m, and ot
phys|c|sts scck|ng a wor|d ot mathcmat|zab|c proccsscs.
ln any casc, thc Ar|stotc||an wor|d dcstroycd by modcrn sc|-
cncc was 0nacccptab|c to both thcsc thco|og|ans and phys|c|sts.
Th|s ordcrcd, harmon|o0s, h|crarch|ca| , and rat|ona| wor|d
W8S tOO ndcpcndcnt, thc bcngs nhabtng t tOO pOwcNuI und
act|vc, and thc|r s0bscrv|cncc to thc abso|0tc sovcrc|gn too
s0spcct and ||m|tcd tor thc nccds ot many thco|og|ans. ` On
thc othcr hand, |t was too complcx and g0a||tat|vc|y d|ttcrcnt|-
atcd to bc mathcmat|zcd.
Thc "mcchan|zcd" nat0rc ot modcrn sc|cncc, crcatcd and
r0|cd accord|ng to a p|an that total|y dom|natcs |t, b0t ot wh|ch
|t |s 0nawarc, glor|tcs |ts crcator, and was th0s adm|rab|y
s0|tcd to thc nccds ot both thco|og|ans and thc phys|c|sts. A|-
tho0gh Lc|bn|z had cndcavorcd to dcmonstratc that mathcma-
t|zat|on |s compat|b|c w|th a wor|d that can d|sp|ay act|vc and
g0a||tat|vc|y d|ttcrcnt|atcd bchav|or, sc|cnt|sts and thco|og|ans
|o|ncd torccs to dcscr|bc nat0rc as a m|nd|css, pass|vc mc-
chan|cs that was bas|ca||y a||cn to trccdom and thc p0rposcs
ot thc h0man m|nd. `T d0l| aha|r, so0nd|css, sccnt|css, co|o0r-
|css, mcrc|y thc h0rry|ng ot mattcr, cnd|css, mcan|ng|css, `
as Wh|tchcad obscrvcs. Th|s Chr|st|an nat0rc, str|ppcd ot any
propcrty that pcrm|ts man to |dcnt|ty h|msclt w|th thc anc|cnt
harmony ot nat0ra| "bccom|ng, |cav|ng man a|onc, tacc to
tacc w|th God, th0s convcrgcd w|th thc nat0rc that a s|ng|c
|ang0agc, and not thc tho0sand mathcmat|ca| vo|ccs hcard by
Lc|bn|z, was s0mccnt to dcscr|bc.
Thco|ogy may a|so hc|p commcnt on man's odd pos|t|on
whcn hc |abor|o0s|y dcc|phcrs thc |aws govcrn|ng thc wor|d.
Man |s cmphat|ca||y not part ot thc nat0rc hc ob|cct|vc|y dc-
scr|bcs, hc dom|natcs |t trom thc o0ts|dc. lndccd, tor Ga|||co,
thc h0man so0| , crcatcd |n God`s |magc, |s capab|c 0 rasp|n
thc |ntc|||g|b|c tr0ths 0ndcr|y|ng thc p|an ot crcat|on. lt can
th0s grad0a||y approach a know|cdgc ot thc wor|d that God
h|msc|t posscsscd |nt0|t|vc|y, t0||y, and |nstantanco0s|y. `
Un||kc thc anc|cnt atom|sts, who wcrc pcrscc0tcd on thc
ro0nds ot athc|sm, and 0n||kc Lc|bn|z, who was somct|mcs
s0spcctcd ot dcny|ng thc cx|stcncc ot gracc or ot h0man trcc-
dom, modcrn sc|cnt|sts havc managcd to comc 0p w|th d
c0|t0raIy acccptab|c dcn|t|on ot thc|r cntcrpr|sc. Thc h0man
m|nd, |ncorporatcd |n a body s0b|cct to thc |aws ot nat0rc,
can, by mcans ot cxpcr|mcnta| dcv|ccs, obta|n acccss to thc
vantagc po|nt trom wh|ch God h|msc|t s0rvcys thc wor|d, to
thc d|v|nc p|an ot wh|ch th|s wor|d |s a tang|b|c cxprcss|on.
Ncvcrthc|css, thc m|nd |tsc|t rcma|ns o0ts|dc thc rcs0|ts ot |ts
BCD1CVCFCF1. DC 5C1CF1151 D8 f5Ct1< 85 5<COD8t
g0a||t|cs, not part ot nat0rc b0t pro|cctcd onto |t by thc m|nd,
cvcryth|n that gocs to makc 0p thc tcxt0rc ot nat0rc, s0ch as
|ts pcrt0mcs and |ts coIors. Thc dcbascmcnt ot nat0rc |s para|-
IcI to thc gIor|cat|on ot a|I that cI0dcs |t, God and man.
1|0 . 0l3 0l d33Cdl cC0|C0
Wc havc tr|cd to dcscr|bc thc 0n|g0c h|stor|ca| s|t0at|on |n
wh|ch sc|cnt|c pract|cc and mctaphys|caI couv|ct|on wcrc
cIosc|y co0p|cd. GaI||co and thosc who camc attcr h|m m|scd
thc samc probIcms as thc mcd|cvaI b0|Idcrs b0t brokc away
trom thc|r cmp|r|caI knowIcdgc to asscrt, w|th thc hcIp ot
God, thc s|mp||c|ty ot thc wor|d and thc 0n|vcrsaI|ty ot thc
Iang0agc thc cxpcr|mcntaI mcthod post0|atcd and dcc|phcrcd.
ln th|s way, thc bas|c myth 0ndcrIy|ng modcrn sc|cncc can bc
sccn as a prod0ct ot thc pcc0||ar comp|cx wh|ch, at thc c|osc
0 thc M|dd|c Agcs, sct 0p cond|t|ons ot rcsonancc and rc-
c|procaI amp||cat|on among cconom|c, po||t|caI, soc|aI, rc-
I|g|o0s, ph|Iosoph|c, and tcchn|ca| tactors. Howcvcr, thc rap|d
dccompos|t|on ot th|s comp|cx |c cIass|caI sc|cncc strandcd
and |so|atcd |n a transtormcd c0|t0rc.
CIass|caI sc|cncc was born |n a c0|t0rc dom|natcd by thc
aII|ancc bctwccn mun, s|t0atcd m|dway bctwccn thc d|v|nc
ordcr and thc nat0raI ordcr, and od, thc rat|onaI and |ntcI||g|-
bIc Icg|s|ator, thc sovcrc|gn arch|tcct wc havc concc|vcd |n o0r
own |magc. lt has o0t||vcd th|s momcnt ot c0|t0ra| consonancc
that cnt|t|cd ph||osophcrs and thco|og|ans to cngagc |n sc|cncc
and that cnt|t|cd sc|cnt|sts to dcc|phcr and cxprcss op|n|ons
on thc d|v|nc w|sdom and powcr at work |n crcat|on. W|th thc
s0pport 0 rc||g|on and ph||osophy, sc|cnt|sts had comc to bc-
||cvc thc|r cntcrpr|sc was sc|t-s0mc|cnt, that |t cxha0stcd thc
poss|b|||t|cs ot a rat|onaI approach to nat0raI phcnomcna. Thc
rc|at|onsh| p bctwccn sc|cnt|t|c dcscr|pt|on and nat0raI ph|-
Iosophy d|d not, |n th|s scnsc, havc to bc |0st|cd. lt co0|d bc
sccn as sc|t-cv|dcnt that sc|cncc and ph||osophy wcrc con-
vcrgcnt and that sc|cncc was d|scovcr|ng thc pr|nc|p|cs ot an
a0thcnt|c nat0raI ph||osophy. 0t, odd|y cno0gh, thc scIt-
s0mc|cncy cxpcr|cnccd by sc|cnt|sts was to o0t||vc thc dcpart0m
0 thc mcd|cvaI God and thc w|thdrawaI ot thc cp|stcmoIog|caI
gUBtBDcc Octc0 hj DCOOgj. Dc Ot1g1Duj DO0 D1 hu0 D-
comc thc tr|0mphant sc|cncc ot thc c|ghtccnth ccnt0ry, ` thc
sc|cncc that d|scovcrcd thc Iaws govcrn|ng thc mot|on ot ccIcs-
t|aI and carthIy bod|cs, a sc|cncc that dIcmbcrt and E0Icr
|ncorporatcd |nto a compIctc and cons| stcnt systcm and
whosc h|story was dcncd by Lagrangc as a Iog|caI ach|cvc-
mcnt tcnd|ng toward pcrtcct|on. lt was thc sc|cncc honorcd by
thc Acadcm|cs to0ndcd by absoI0tc monarchs s0ch as Lo0|s
X1N, lrcdcr|ck ll, and Cathcr|nc thc Grcat,' thc sc|cncc that
madc Ncwton a nat|onaI hcro. ln othcr words, |t was a suc-
ccssju/ sc|cncc, conv|nccd that |t had provcd that nat0rc |s
transparcnt. 'Jc n'u pus bcson dc ccllc hypolhsc was
LapIacc`s rcpIy to NapoIcon, who had askcd h|m God`s pIacc
|n h|s worId systcm.
Thc d0aI|st |mpI|cat|ons ot modcrn sc|cncc wcrc to s0rv|vc
as wcII as |ts cIa|ms. lor thc sc|cncc ot LapIacc wh|ch, n
many rcspccts, |s st|II thc cIass|caI conccpt|on ot sc|cncc to-
day, a dcscr|pt|on |s ob|cct|vc to thc cxtcnt to wh|ch thc ob-
scrvcr |s cxcI0dcd and thc dcscr|pt|on |tscIt |s madc trom a
po|nt Iy|ng dc )urc o0ts|dc thc worId, that |s, trom thc d|v|nc
v|cwpo|nt to wh|ch thc h0man so0I, crcatcd as |t was |n God's
magc, had acccss at thc bcg|nn|ng. Th0s cIass|caI sc|cncc st|I|
a|ms at d|scovcr|ng thc 0n|g0c tr0th abo0t thc worId, thc onc
Iang0agc that w|II dcc|phcr thc whoIc ot nat0rc-today wc
wo0Id spcak ot thc jundumcnlu/ /evc/ oj dcscrplon trom
wh|ch cvcryth|ng |n cx|stcncc can bc dcd0ccd.
On th|s csscnt|aI po|nt Ict 0s c|tc E|nstc|n, who has trans-
Iatcd |nto modcrn tcrms prcc|scIy what wc may caII thc bas|c
myth 0ndcrIy|ng modcrn sc|cncc.
What 1BCc UOcS hc hcOtcCB1 hjSCS`S CUtc O hc
worId occ0py among aII thcsc poss|bIc p|ct0rcs7 lt dc-
mands thc h|ghcst poss|bIc standard ot r|goro0s prcc|s|on
|n thc dcscr|pt|on ot rcIat|ons, s0ch as onIy thc 0sc O
mathcmat|caI Iang0agc can g|vc. ln rcgard to h|s s0b|cct
mattcr, on thc othcr hand, thc phys|c|st has to I|m|t h|m-
scIt vcry scvcrcIy. hc m0st contcnt h|mscIt w|th dcscr|b-
|ng thc most s|mpIc cvcnts wh|ch can bc bro0ght w|th|n
thc doma|n ot o0r cxpcr|cncc, aII cvcnts ot a morc com-
pIcx ordcr arc bcyond thc powcr ot thc h0man |ntcIIcct to
rcconstr0ct w|th thc s0btIc acc0racy and Iog|caI pcrtcc-
tOn vhch thc thcOrctcaI physcst dcmands. Suprcmc
p0r|ty, cIar|ty, and ccrta|nty at thc cost ot compIctcncss.
0t what cau bc thc attract|ou O gctt|ug to kuow s0ch a
t|uy scct|ou ot uat0rc thoro0ghIy, wh|Ic ouc Icavcs cvcry-
th|ug s0btIcr aud morc compIcx shyIy and t|m|dIy aIouc7
Docs thc prod0ct ot s0ch a modcst chort dcscrvc to bc
caIIcd by thc pro0d uamc ot d thcory ot thc 0u|vcrsc7
lu my bcI|ct thc uamc |s |0st|hcd, tor thc gcucraI Iaws
ou wh|ch thc str0ct0rc ot thcorct|caI phys|cs |s bascd
cIa|m to bc vaI|d tor auy uat0raI phcuomcuou what-
socvcr. W|th thcm, |t o0ght to bc poss|bIc to arr|vc at thc
dcscr|pt|ou, that |s to say, thc thcory, ot cvcry uat0raI
proccss, |ucI0d|ug I|tc, by mcans ot p0rc dcd0ct|ou, |t
that proccss ot dcd0ct|ou wcrc uot tar bcyond thc capac-
|ty ot thc h0mau |ntcIIcct. Thc phys|c|st's rcu0uc|at|ou 0
compIctcucss tor h|s cosmos |s thcrctorc uot a mattcr ot
t0udamcutaI pr|uc|pIc. `
lor somc t|mc thcrc wcrc thosc who pcrs|stcd |u thc |II0s|ou
that attract|ou |u thc torm |n wh|ch |t |s cxprcsscd |u thc Iaw O
rav|tat|ou wo0Id |0st|ty attr|b0t|ng au |ntr|ns|c an|mat|ou to
uat0rc and that |t |t wcrc gcucraI|zcd |t wo0Id cxpIa|u thc or|-
g|us ot |ucrcas|ugIy spcc|hc torms ot act|v|ty, |ncI0d|ng cvcu
thc |utcract|ous that composc h0mau soc|cty. 0t th|s hopc
was rap|dIy cr0shcd, at Icast partIy as a conscg0cucc O thc
dcmauds crcatcd by thc poI|t|caI , cconom|c, and |nst|t0t|onaI
sctt|ng whcrc sc|cucc dcvcIopcd. Wc sha|I not cxam|nc th|s
aspcct ot thc probIcm, |mportaut tho0gh |t |s. O0r po|nt hcrc |s
to cmphas|zc that th|s vcry ta|I0rc sccmcd to cstabI|sh thc
cons|stcucy ot thc cIass|ca v|cw and to provc that what had
oncc bccn au |nsp|r|ng conv|ct|on was B sad tr0th. lu tact, thc
ouIy |utcrprctat|ou apparcntIy capabIc ot r|vaI|ng th|s |utcr-
prctat|ou ot sc|cucc was hcncctorth thc pos|t|v|st|c rct0saI o|
thc vcry pro|cct ot 0udcrstaud|ng thc worId. lor cxampIc,
Erust Mach, thc |n00cnt|aI ph|Iosophcr-sc|cnt|st whosc |dcas
had a grcat |mpact ou thc yo0ng E|nstc|u, dchncd thc task ot
sc|cut|hc kuowIcdgc as arrang|ng cxpcncucc |u as ccouom|ca|
au ordcr as poss|bIc. Sc|cucc has uo othcr mcau|ngt0I goaI
thau thc s|mpIcst aud most ccouom|caI abstract cxprcss|ou o|
M=rc wc huvc u cluo whch strps sccncc O| uII ts mys-
tcry, aud shows 0s what |ts powcr rcaIIy |s. W|th rcspcct
to spcc|c rcs0|ts |t y|c|ds 0s noth|ng that wc co0|d not
rcach |n a s0hc|cnt|y |ong t|mc w|tho0t mcthods . . ..
!0st as a s|ng|c h0man bc|ng, rcstr|ctcd who||y to thc
tr0|ts ot h|s own |abor, co0|d ncvcr amass a tort0nc, b0t
on thc contrary thc acc0m0|at|on 0 thc |abor 0 many
mcn |n thc hands 0 onc |s thc to0ndat|on ot wca|th and
powcr, so, a|so, no know|cdgc worthy 0 thc namc can bc
gathcrcd 0p |n a s|ng|c h0man m|nd ||m|tcd to thc span O
a h0man ||tc and g|ttcd on|y w|th n|tc powcrs, cxccpt by
thc most cxg0|s|tc cconomy 0 tho0ght and by thc carct0|
amassmcnt ot thc cconom|ca||y ordcrcd cxpcr|cncc ot
tho0sands 0 co-workcrs. `
Th0s sc|cncc | s 0sct0| bcca0sc |t |cads to cconomy ot
tho0ght. Thcrc may bc somc c|cmcnt 0 tr0th |n s0ch a statc-
mcnt, b0t docs |t tc|| thc who|c story7 How tar wc havc comc
trom Ncwton, Lc|bn|z, and thc othcr to0ndcrs 0 Wcstcrn sc|-
cncc, whosc amb|t|on was to prov|dc an |ntc|||g|b|c tramc to
thc phys|ca| 0n|vcrsc! Hcrc sc|cncc |cads to |ntcrcst|ng r0|cs
ot act|on, b0t no morc.
Th|s br|ngs 0s back to o0r start|ng po|nt, to thc |dca that |t |s
c/usstcu/ sc|cncc, cons|dcrcd tor a ccrta|n pcr|od ot t|mc as
thc vcry symbo| 0 c0|t0ra| 0n|ty, and not sc|cncc as s0ch that
|cd to thc c0|t0ra| cr|s|s wc havc dcscrbcd. 8c|cnt|sts fo0nd
thcmsc|vcs rcd0ccd to a b||nd osc|||at|on bctwccn thc th0ndcr-
|ngs 0 sc|cnt|c myth" and thc s||cncc 0 "sc|cnt|c scr|o0s-
ncss, " bctwccn att|rm|ng thc abso|0tc and g|oba| nat0rc ot
sc|cnt|c tr0th and rctrcat|ng |nto a conccpt|on 0 sc|cnt|c
thcory as a pragmat|c rcc|pc for ctfcct|vc |ntcrvcnt|on |n nat0-
ra| proccsscs.
As wc havc a|rcady statcd, wc s0bscr|bc to thc v|cw that
c|ass|ca| sc|cncc has now rcachcd |ts ||m|t. Onc aspcct ot th|s
transtormat|on |s thc d|scovcry 0 thc ||m|tat|ons 0 c|ass|ca|
conccpts that |mp|y that a know|cdgc 0 thc wor|d "as |t |s"
was poss|b|c. Thc omn|sc|cnt bc|ngs, Lap|acc's or Maxwc||'s
dcmon, or E|nstc|n`s God, bc|ngs that p|ay s0ch an |mportant
m|c |n sc|cnt|c rcason|ng, cmbody thc k|nds 0 cxtrapo|at|on
phys|c|sts tho0ght thcy wcrc a||owcd to makc. As random-
ncss, comp|cx|ty, and |rrcvcrs|b|||ty cntcr |nto phys|cs as ob-
]ccts o| positivc knowlcdgc, wc arc moving away trom ths
rathcr navc ass0mpt|on ot a d|rcct conncct|on bctwccn o0r
dcscr|pt|on O thc worId and thc wor|d |tsc|t. Ob|cct|v|ty |n
thcorct|caI phys|cs takcs on a morc s0btIc mcan|ng.
Th|s cvoI0t|on was torccd 0pon 0s by 0ncxpcctcd s0ppIc-
mcntaI d|scovcr|cs that havc shown that thc cx|stcncc 0 0n|-
vcrsaI constants, s0ch as thc vc|oc|ty 0 ||ght, ||m|t o0r powcr
to man|p0Iatc nat0rc. (Wc shaII d|sc0ss th|s 0ncxpcctcd s|t0a-
t|on |n Chaptcr N11.) As a rcs0It, phys|c|sts had to |ntrod0cc
ncw mathcmat|caI tIs that makc thc rc|at|on bctwccn prccp-
t|on and |ntcrprctat|on morc compIcx. Whatcvcr rca||ty may
mcan, |t aIways corrcsponds to an act|vc |ntc||cct0aI constr0c-
t|on. Thc dcscr|pt|ons prcscntcd by sc|cncc can no Iongcr bc
d|scntang|cd trom o0r g0cst|on|ng act|v|ty and thcrctorc can
no Iongcr bc attr|b0tcd to somc omn|sc|cnt bc|ng.
On thc cvc ot thc Ncwton|an synthcs|s, !ohn Donnc Ia-
mcntcd thc pass|ng ot thc Ar|stotc||an cosmos dcstroycd by
And ncw lh|Iosophy ca|Is a|| |n do0bt,
Thc EIcmcnt ot hrc |s g0|tc p0t o0t,
Thc S0n |s Iost, and th'carth, and no man's w|t
Can wc|I d|rcct h|m whcrc to |ook tor |t.
And trccIy mcn contcss that th|s wor|d's spcnt,
Whcn |n thc lIancts and thc l|rmamcnt,
Thcy scck so many ncw, thcn thcy scc that th|s
ls cr0mbIcd o0t aga|n to h|s Atom|cs
'T|s aII |n l|cccs, aII cohcrcncc gonc."
Thc scattcrcd brcks and stoncs 0 o0r prcscnt c0|t0rc sccm,
as |n Donnc's t|mc, capab|c 0 bc|ng rcb0||t |nto a ncw "co-
hcrcncc. CIass|caI sc|cncc, thc myth|caI sc|cncc ot a s|mp|c,
pass|vc wor|d, bcIongs to thc past, k|||cd not by ph||osoph|ca|
cr|t|c|sm or cmp|r|c|st rcs|gnat|on b0t by thc |ntcrnaI dcvcIop-
mcnt ot sc|cncc |tsc|t.

'=/1 |
`0wl0|S Ldw3
Wc shaII now takc a cIoscr Iook at thc mcchan|st|c worId v|cw
as |t cmcrgcd trom thc work ot Ga|||co, Ncwton, and thc|r
s0cccssors. Wc w|sh to dcscr|bc |ts strong po|nts, thc aspccts
0 nat0rc |t has s0ccccdcd |n cIar|ty|ng, b0t wc a|so want to
cxposc |ts I|m|tat|ons.
Evcr s|ncc GaI|Ico, onc ot thc ccntraI probIcms D phys|cs
has bccn thc dcscr|pt|on 0 acccIcrat|on. Thc s0rpr|s|ng tca-
t0rc was that thc changc 0ndcrgonc by thc statc 0 mot|on 0 a
body co0Id bc torm0Iatcd |n s|mp|c mathcmat|caI tcrms. Th|s
sccms aImost tr|v|aI to 0s today. St||I, wc sho0Id rcmcmbcr
that Ch|ncsc sc|cncc, so s0cccsst0I |n many arcas, d|d not pro-
d0cc a g0ant|tat|vc torm0Iat|on 0 thc |aws 0 mot|on. GaI|Ico
d|scovcrcd that wc do not nccd to ask tor thc cuusc 0 a statc
ot mot|on |t thc mot|on |s 0n|torm, any morc than |t |s ncccs-
sary to ask thc rcason tor d statc 0 rcst. oth mot|on and rcst
rcmain indcnitc|y stab|c 0n|css somcthing happns to 0psct
thcm. Thc ccntraI prob|cm |s thc chunc trom rcst to mot|on,
and trom mot|on to rcst, as wc|| as, morc gcncraI|y, aII changcs
ot vcIoc|ty. How do thcsc changcs occ0r7 Thc torm0|at|on 0
thc Ncwton|an Iaws ot mot|on madc 0sc 0 two convcrgng
dcvcIopmcnts. onc |n phys|cs, KcpIcr's |aws tor p|anctary mo-
t|on and Ga|||co`s Iaws tor taII|ng bod|cs, and thc othcr |n
mathcmat|cs, thc torm0Iat|on ot d|hcrcnt|aI or "|nhn|tcs|maI"
How can a cont|n0o0sIy vary|ng spccd bc dchncd7 How cau
wc dcscr|bc thc |nstantanco0s changcs |n thc var|o0s g0an-
C, UCH 0 QOOU, VCOC], dUU acccIcration? How can
wc dcscr|bc thc statc ot a body at any g|vcn |nstant7 To answcr

HLH U | HA 5
thcsc g0cstons, mathcmatcans havc ntrod0ccd thc conccpt
ot nntcsmaI g0anttcs. An nntcsmaI g0antty s thc rc-
s0It ot a /mltn ]r0C855, t s typcaIIy thc varaton n a g0an-
tty occ0rrng bctwccn two s0cccssvc nstants whcn thc tmc
c|apsng bctwccn thcsc nstants tcnds toward zcro. ln ths way
thc changc s brokcn 0p nto an ntntc scrcs ot ntntcIy
smaII changcs.
At cach nstant thc statc ot a movng body can bc dcncd by
ts poston f by ts vcIocty v, whch cxprcsscs ts "nstanta-
nco0s tcndcncy" to modty ths poston, and by ts acccIcra-
ton u, agan ts "nstantanco0s tcndcncy, " b0t now to modty
ts vcIocty. lnstantanco0s vcIoctcs and acccIcratons arc Im-
tng g0anttcs that mcas0rc thc rato bctwccn two nntcs-
maI g0anttcs. thc varaton ot r (or v) d0rng a tcmporaI
ntcrvaI l, and ths ntcrvaI l whcn l tcnds to zcro. S0ch
g0anttcs arc "dcrvatvcs wth rcspcct to tmc, " and sncc
Lcbnz thcy havc bccn wrttcn as v=dndl and u=dvldl.
Thcrctorc, acccIcraton, thc dcrvatvc ot a dcrvatvc, u= dn
dl', bccomcs a "sccond dcrvatvc. " Thc probIcm on whch
Ncwtonan physcs conccntratcs s thc caIc0Iaton ot ths scc-
ond dcrvatvc, that s, ot thc accc|craton 0ndcrgonc at cach
nstant by thc ponts that torm a systcm. Thc moton ot cach ot
thcsc ponts ovcr a ntc ntcrvaI ot tmc can thcn bc caIc0-
|atcd by nIegruton, by adding up thc innitcsimal vclocity
changcs occ0rrng d0rng ths ntcrvaI. Thc smpIcst casc s
whcn u s constant (tor cxampIc, tor a trccIy taIIng body u s
thc gravtatonaI constant ). GcncraIIy spcakng, acccIcraton
tscIt varcs n tmc, and thc physcst's task s to dctcrmnc
prccsc|y thc naturc ot ths variation.
ln Ncwtonan Iang0agc, to st0dy accc|craton mcans to dc-
tcrmnc thc varo0s "torccs" actng on thc ponts n thc systcm
0ndcr cxamnaton. Ncwton's sccond Iaw, mu, statcs that
thc torcc appIcd at any pont s proportona| to thc accc|cra-
ton t prod0ccs. ln thc casc ot a systcm ot matcraI ponts, thc
prob|cm s morc compIcatcd, sncc thc torccs actng on a
gvcn body arc dctcrmncd at cach nstant by thc rcIatvc ds-
tanccs bctwccn thc bodcs ot thc systcm, and th0s vary at cach
nstant as a rcsuIt ot thc moton thcy thcmscIvcs producc.
A probIcm n dynamcs s cxprcsscd n thc torm ot a sct ot
d0crcnt|a '' cg0atons. Thc nstantanco0s statc o| cach o|
thc bodcs n a systcm s dcscrbcd as a pont and dcncd by
mcans ot |ts pos|t|on as wc|I as by |ts vcIoc|ty and acccIcra-
t|on, that |s, by thc rst and sccond dcr|vat|vcs ot thc pos|t|on.
At cach |nstant, a sct O torccs, wh|ch |s a t0nct|on ot thc
d|stancc bctwccn thc po|nts |n thc systcm (a t0nct|on ot r),
g|vcs a prcc|sc acccIcrat|on to cach po|nt; thc accc|crat|ons
thcn br|ng abo0t changcs |n thc d|stanccs scparat|ng thcsc
po|nts and thcrctorc |n thc sct ot torccs act|ng at thc to||ow|ng
Wh|Ic thc d|crcntaI cg0at|ons sel up thc dynamcs prob-
Icm, thc|r "|ntcgrat|on rcprcscnts thc so/ulton ot th|s prob-
Icm. lt lcads to thc ca|c0|at|on ot thc lru]eclortes, r(l). Thcsc
tra|cctor|cs conta|n aII thc |ntormat|on acknowIcdgcd as rc|c-
vant by dynam|cs, |t prov|dcs a comp|ctc dcscr|pt|on ot thc
dynam|c systcm.
Thc dcscr|pt|on thcrctorc |mp||cs two cIcmcnts. thc post-
ltons und ve/octlte1 ot cach ot thc po|nts at one tnslunl, ocn
caI|cd thc "|n|t|aI |nstant, and thc cg0at|ons ot mot|on that
rc|atc thc dynam|c torccs to thc acccIcrat|ons. Thc |ntcgrat|on
ot thc dynam|c cg0at|ons start|ng trom thc "|n|t|aI statc 0n-
toId thc s0cccss|on ot statcs, that |s, thc sct ot tra|cctor|cs ot
|ts const|t0t|vc bod|cs.
Thc tr|0mph ot Ncwton|an sc|cncc | s thc d|scovcry that a
s|ngIc torcc, grav|ty, dctcrm|ncs both thc mot|on ot pIancts
and comcts |n thc sky and thc mot|ons ot bod|cs ta|I|ng toward
thc carth. Whatcvcr pa|r O matcr|aI bod|cs |s cons|dcrcd, thc
Ncwton|an systcm |mp|cs that thcy arc I|nkcd by thc samc
torcc ot attract|on. Ncwton|an dynam|cs th0s appcars to bc
do0bIy 0n|vcrsaI. Thc dcn|t|on ot thc Iaw ot grav|ty that dc-
scr|bcs how masscs tcnd to approach onc anothcr conta|ns no
rctcrcncc to any sca|c ot phcnomcna. lt can bc app||cd cg0a||y
wc|I to thc mot|on ot atoms, ot pIancts, or ot thc stars |n a
gaIaxy. Evcry body, whatcvcr |ts s|zc, has a mass and acts as a
so0rcc ot thc Ncwton|an torccs ot |ntcract|on.
S|ncc grav|tat|ona| torccs conncct any two bod|cs (tor two
bod|cs ot mass m and m

and scparatcd by a dstancc f thc
grav|tat|onaI torcc |s kmm'/r` , whcrc k |s thc Ncwton|an torcc
ot attract|on cg0aI to r. rJcmgscc`), thc onIy tr0c dy-
nam|c systcm |s thc 0n|vcrsc as a whoIc. Any IocaI dynam|c
systcm, s0ch as o0r p|anctary systcm, can onIy bc dcncd
upprOKmutcIy, by ncgIcctng fOtccS that atc SuaII n cOuat-
son to thosc whosc cttcct |s bc|ng cons|dcrcd.
lt m0st bc cmphas|zcd that whatcvcr thc dynam|c systcm
choscn, thc Iaws ot mot|on can aIways bc cxprcsscd |n thc
torm mJ. Othcr typcs ot torccs apart trom thosc d0c to
rav|ty may bc d|scovcrcd (and act0aIIy havc bccn d| scov-
crcd-tor |nstancc, cIcctr|c torccs ot attract|on and rcp0Is|on)
and wo0Id thcrcby mod|ty thc cmp|r|caI contcnt ot thc Iaws ot
mot|on. Thcy wo0Id not, howcvcr, mod|ty thc torm ot thosc
|aws. ln thc worId ot dynam|cs, changc |s |dcnt|cd w|th acccIcr-
at|on or dcccIcrat|on. Thc |ntcgrat|on ot thc Iaws ot mot|on
Icads to thc tra|cctor|cs that thc part|cIcs toIIow. Thcrctorc thc
Iaws ot changc, ot t|mc's |mpact on nat0rc, arc cxprcsscd |n
tcrms ot thc charactcr|st|cs ot tra|cctor|cs.
Thc bas|c charactcr|st|cs ot tra|cctor|cs arc /uuju/ncss, Je-
lcrmtntsm, and rcvcrstbt/tly. Wc havc sccn that |n ordcr to caI-
c0Iatc a tra|cctory wc nccd, |n add|t|on to o0r knowIcdgc ot
thc Iaws ot mot|on, an cmp|r|caI dc||n|t|on ot a s|ng!c |n-
stantanco0s statc ot thc systcm. Thc gcncraI Iaw thcn dcd0ccs
trom th|s "|n|t|aI statc thc scr|cs ot statcs thc systcm passcs
thro0gh as t|mc progrcsscs, |0st as Iog|c dcd0ccs a concI0s|on
trom bas|c prcm|scs. Thc rcmarkabIc tcat0rc |s that oncc thc
torccs arc known, any s|ngIc statc |s s0thc|cnt to dchnc thc
systcm compIctcIy, not onIy |ts t0t0rc b0t aIso |ts past. At
cach |nstant, thcrctorc, cvcryth|ng |s g|vcn. Dynam|cs dchncs
aII statcs as cg0|vaIcnt. cach ot thcm aIIows aII thc othcrs to bc
caIc0Iatcd aIong w|th thc tra|cctory wh|ch connccts aI| statcs,
bc thcy |n thc past or thc t0t0rc.
"Evcryth|ng |s g|vcn. Th|s concI0s|on ot cIass|caI dynam-
cs, wh|ch crgson rcpcatcdIy cmphas|zcd, charactcr|zcs thc
rcaI|ty that dynam|cs dcscr|bcs. Evcryth|ng |s g|vcn, b0t cv-
cryth|ng |s aIso poss|bIc. A bc|ng who has thc powcr to controI
a dynam|c systcm may caIc0Iatc thc r|ght |n|t|aI statc |n s0ch a
way that thc systcm "spontanco0sIy rcachcs any choscn
statc at somc choscn t|mc. Thc gcncraI|ty ot dynam|c Iaws |s
matchcd by thc arb|trar|ncss o| thc |n|t|aI cond|t|ons.
Thc rcvcrstbt/tly ot a dynam|c tra|cctory was cxpI|c|tIy
statcd by aII thc to0ndcrs ot dynam|cs. lor |nstancc, whcu
GaI|Ico or H0yghcns dcscr|bcd thc |mpI|cat|ons ot thc cg0|v-
aIcncc bctwccn ca0sc and cttcct post0Iatcd as thc bas|s ot
thc|r mathcmat|zat|on ot mot|on, thcy stagcd tho0ght cxpcr|-
mcnts s0ch as an clastc ball bo0ncng on thc gm0nd. As thc
b1 HL lLNl|lLAlN | HL HLAL
rcs0It ot |ts |nstantanco0s vcIoc|ty |nvcrs|on, s0ch a body
wo0Id rct0rn to |ts |n|t|aI pos|t|on. Dynam|cs ass|gns th|s
propcrty ot rcvcrs|b|I|ty to aII dynam|c changcs. Th|s carIy
"tho0ght cxpcr|mcnt |II0stratcs U gcncraI mathcmat|caI prop-
crty ot dynam|c cg0at|ons. Thc str0ct0rc ot thcsc cg0at|ons
|mpI|cs that |t thc vcIoc|t|cs ot aII thc po|nts ot a systcm arc
rcvcrscd, thc systcm w|II go "backward |n t|mc. ' Thc systcm
wo0Id rctracc aII thc statcs |t wcnt thro0gh d0r|ng thc prcv|o0s
chaugc. Dynam|cs dct|ucs as mathcmat|caIIy cg0|vaIcnt
changcs s0ch as II, t|mc |nvcrs|on, and v~v, vcIoc|ty
rcvcrsaI . What onc dynam|c changc has ach|cvcd, anothcr
changc, dcncd by vcIoc|ty |nvcrs|on, can 0ndo, and |n th|s
way cxactIy rcstorc thc or|g|naI cond|t|ons.
Th|s propcrty ot rcvcrs|b|I|ty |n dynam|cs Icads, howcvcr, to
d d|hc0Ity whosc t0II s|gn|cancc was rcaI|zcd onIy w|th thc
ntrod0ct|on ot g0ant0m mcchan|cs. Man|p0Iat|on and mca-
s0rcmcnt arc csscnt|aIIy |rrcvcrs|bIc. Acltvc sc|cncc |s th0s,
by dcn|t|on, cxtranco0s to thc |dcaI|zcd, rcvcrs|bIc worId |t |s
dcscr|b|ng. lrom a morc gcncraI po|nt ot v|cw, rcvcrs|b|I|ty
may bc takcn as thc vcry symboI ot thc "strangcncss ot thc
worId dcscr|bcd by dynam|cs. Evcryonc |s tam|I|ar w|th thc
abs0rd cttccts prod0ccd by pro|cct|ng a Im backward-thc
s|ght ot a match bc|ng rcgcncratcd by |ts 0amc, brokcn |nk
pots that rcasscmbIc and rct0rn to a tabIctop acr thc |nk has
po0rcd back |nto thcm, branchcs that grow yo0ng aga|n and
t0rn |nto trcsh shoots. ln thc worId ot cIass|caI dynam|cs, s0ch
cvcnts arc cons|dcrcd to bc |0st as IkcIy as thc normaI oncs.
Wc arc so acc0stomcd to thc Iaws ot cIass|caI dynam|cs that
arc ta0ght to 0s carIy |n schooI that wc ocn ta|I to scnsc thc
boIdncss ot thc ass0mpt|ons on wh|ch thcy arc bascd. A worId
|n wh|ch aII tra|cctor|cs arc rcvcrs|bIc |s a strangc worId |n-
dccd. Anothcr aston|sh|ng ass0mpt|on |s that ot thc compIctc
|ndcpcndcncc ot |n|t|aI cond|t|ons trom thc Iaws ot mot|on. lt
|s poss|bIc to takc a stonc and throw |t w|th somc |n|t|aI vc-
Iocty I|m|tcd onIy by onc`s phys|caI strcngth, b0t what abo0t
a compIcx systcm such as a gas tormcd by many part|cIcs7 lt
s obv|o0s that wc can no Iongcr |mposc arb|trary |n|t|aI cond|-
tons. Thc |n|t|aI cond|t|ons m0st bc thc o0tcomc ot thc dy-
uam|c cvoI0t|on |tscIt. Th|s |s an |mportant po|nt to wh|ch wc
8hu OOmO buOk IU thO HII0 QuI Ol HI bOOK. U VHdCVCI IS
I|m|tat|ons, today, thrcc ccnt0r|cs Iatcr, wc can on|y adm|rc
thc |og|ca| cohcrcncc and thc powcr ot thc mcthods d|scovcrcd
by thc to0ndcrs ot c| ass|ca| dynam|cs.
V0`'0|d|O |d|_0
Ar|stot|c madc t|mc thc mcas0rc ot changc. 0t hc was t0|ly
awarc ot thc g0al|tat|vc m0lt|p| |c|ty ot changc |n nat0rc. St|||
thcrc |s on|y onc typc ot changc s0rv|v|ng |n dynam|cs, onc
"proccss, and that |s mot|on. Thc g0a||tat|vc d|vcrs|ty ot
changcs |n nat0rc |s rcd0ccd to thc st0dy ot thc rc|at|vc d|s-
p|accmcnt ot matcr|a| bod|cs. T|mc |s a paramctcr |n tcrms 0
wh|ch thcsc d|sp| accmcnts may bc dcscr|bcd. ln th|s way
spacc and t|mc arc |ncxtr|cab| y t|cd togcthcr |n thc wor|d ot
cIass|caI dynam|cs. (A|so scc Chaptcr lX.)
lt |s |ntcrcst|ng to comparc dynam|c changc w|th thc atom-
|sts' conccpt|on ot changc, wh|ch cn|oycd cons|dcrab|c tavor
at thc t|mc Ncwton torm0latcd h|s |aws. Act0a||y, |t sccms that
not on|y Dcscartcs, Casscnd|, and d7|cmbcrt, b0t cvcn Ncw-
ton h|msc|t bcl|cvcd that co|l|s|ons bctwccn hard atoms wcrc
thc 0|t|matc, and pcrhaps thc on|y, so0rccs ot changcs ot mo-
t|on. Ncvcrthc|css, thc dynam|c and thc atom|c dcscr|pt|ons
d|hcr rad|ca|Iy. lndccd, thc cont|n0o0s nat0rc ot thc acccIcra-
t|on dcscr|bcd by thc dynam|c cg0at|ons |s |n sharp contrast
w|th thc d|scont|n0o0s, |nstantanco0s co|||s|ons bctwccn hard
part|cIcs. Ncwton had a|rcady not|ccd that, |n contrad|ct|on to
dynam|cs, an |rrcvcrs|b|c |oss ot mot|on |s |nvo|vcd |n cach
hard co|||s|on. Thc on|y rcvcrs|b|c co|||s|on-that |s, thc on|y
onc |n agrccmcnt w|th thc |aws ot dynam|cs-|s thc "c|ast|c,
momcnt0m-conscrv|ng coI||s|on. 0t how can thc compIcx
propcrty ot "c|ast|c|ty bc app||cd to atoms that arc s0pposcd
to bc thc t0ndamcnta| c|cmcnts ot nat0rc7
On thc othcr hand, at a Icss tcchn|ca| Icvc| , thc |aws ot dy-
nam|c mot|on sccm to contrad|ct thc randomncss gcncra||y
attr|b0tcd to co|l|s|ons bctwccn atoms. Thc anc|cnt ph||oso-
phcrs had a|rcady po|ntcd o0t that any nat0raI proccss can bc
ntcrprctcd |n many d|ttcrcnt ways |n tcrms ot thc mot|on 0
und cOIIsOns bctwccn atOms. Jhs was nOt a QDDCD lOr thc
atom|sts, s|ncc thc|r ma|n a|m was to dcscr|bc a god|css, Iaw-
HL |LN| ||LlN | HL HLL
|css worId |n wh|ch man |s trcc and can cxpcct to rccc|vc nc|-
thcr p0n|shmcnt nor rcward trom any d|v|nc or nat0raI ordcr.
0t cIass|caI sc|cncc was a sc|cncc ot cng|nccrs and astrono-
mcrs, a sc|cncc ot act|on and prcd|ct|on. Spcc0|at|ons bascd
on hypothct|caI atoms co0Id not sat|sty |ts nccds. ln contrast,
Ncwton's Iaw prov|dcd a mcans ot prcd|ct|ng and man|p0|at-
|ng. Nat0rc th0s bccomcs Iaw-ab|d|ng, doc|Ic, and prcd|ct-
abIc, |nstcad ot bc|ng chaot|c, 0nr0|y, and stochast|c. 0t
what |s thc conncct|on bctwccn thc morta| , 0nstab|c worId |n
wh|ch atoms 0nccas|ng|y comb|nc and scparatc, and thc |m-
m0tab|c wor|d ot dynam|cs govcrncd by Ncwton's Iaw, a s|ng|c
mathcmat|ca| torm0|a corrcspond|ng to an ctcrnaI tr0th un-
to|d|ng toward a ta0to|og|ca| t0t0rc7 ln thc twcnt|cth ccnt0ry
wc arc aga|n w|tncss|ng thc c|ash bctwccn |awt0|ncss and ran-
dom cvcnts, wh|ch, as Koyrc has shown, had a|rcady tor-
mcntcd Dcscartcs. Evcr s|ncc thc cnd ot thc n|nctccnth
ccnt0ry, w|th thc k|nct|c thcory ot gascs, thc atom|c chaos has
rc|ntcgratcd phys|cs, and thc prob|cm ot thc rc|at|onsh|p bc-
twccn dynam|c |aw and stat|st|ca| dcscr|pt|on has pcnctratcd
to thc vcry corc ot phys|cs. lt |s onc ot thc kcy c|cmcnts |n thc
prcscnt rcncwaI ot dynam|cs (scc ook lll).
ln thc c|ghtccnth ccnt0ry, howcvcr, th|s contrad|ct|on
sccmcd to prod0cc a dcad|ock. Th|s may part|y cxpIa|n thc
skcpt|c|sm ot somc c|ghtccnth-ccnt0ry phys|c|sts rcgard|ng
thc s|gn|cancc ot Ncwton's dynam|c dcscr|pt|on. Wc havc aI-
rcady notcd that co|||s|ons may |cad to a Ioss ot mot|on. Thcy
thcrcby conc|0dcd that |n s0ch non|dcaI cascs, "cncrgy |s
not conscrvcd b0t | s trrcvcrstb/y d|ss|patcd (scc Chaptcr lV,
scct|on 3). Thcrctorc, thc atom|sts cou|d not hc|p cons|dcring
dynam|cs as an |dca||zat|on ot ||m|tcd va|0c. Cont|ncntaI
phys|c|sts and mathcmat|c|ans s0ch as d7|cmbcrt, C|a|ra0t,
and Lagrangc rcs|stcd thc scd0ct|vc charms ot Ncwton|an|sm
tor a Iong t|mc.
Whcrc do thc roots ot thc Ncwton|an conccpt ot changc I|c7
lt appcars to bc a synthcs|s ot thc sc|cncc ot |dca| mach|ncs,
whcrc mot|on |s transm|ttcd w|tho0t co|||s|on or tr|ct|on bc-
twccn parts a|rcady |n contact, and thc sc|cncc ot cc|cst|aI
bod|cs |ntcract|ng at a d|stancc. Wc havc sccn that |t appcars
as thc vcry ant|thcs|s ot atom|sm, wh|ch |s bascd on thc con-
ccpt O| rundOm cOIIsOns. OOcs ths, hOwcvcr, vndcatc thc
v|cw ot thosc who bcI|cvc that Ncwton|an dynam|cs rcprc-
scnts a r0pt0rc |n thc h|story o| th|nk|ng, a rcvo|0t|onary nov-
c|ty7 Th|s |s what pos|t|v|st h|stor|ans havc c|a|mcd whcn thcy
dcscr|bcd how Ncwton cscapcd thc spc|| ot prcconcc|vcd no-
t|ons and had thc co0ragc to |ntcr tmm thc mathcmat|ca| st0dy ot
p|anctary mot|ons and thc |aws ot ta|||ng bod|cs thc act|on ot a
"0n|vcrsa| torcc. Wc know that on thc contrary thc c|ghtccnth-
ccnt0ry rat|ona||sts cmphas|zcd thc apparcnt s|m||ar|ty bc-
twccn h| s " mathcmat|ca|" torccs and trad|t|ona| occ0|t
g0a||t|cs. lort0natc| y, thcsc cr|t|cs d|d not know thc strangc
story bch|nd thc Ncwton|an torccs! lor bch|nd Ncwton's ca0-
t|o0s dcc|arat|on-"l tramc no hypothcscs-conccrn|ng thc
naturc ot thc torccs |0rkcd thc pass|on ot an a|chcm|st. Wc
now know that, s|dc by s|dc w|th h|s mathcmat|ca| st0d|cs,
Ncwton had st0d|cd thc anc|cnt a|chcm|sts tor th|rty ycars
and had carr|cd o0t pa|nstak|ng |aboratory cxpcr|mcnts on
ways O ach|cv|ng thc mastcr work, thc synthcs|s ot go|d.
kcccnt|y somc h|stor|ans havc gonc so tar as to proposc that
thc Ncwton|an synthcs|s ot hcavcn and carth was thc ach|cvc-
mcnt ot a chcm|st, not an astronomcr. Thc Ncwton|an torcc
"an|mat|ng mattcr and, |n thc strongcr scnsc ot thc tcrm,
mak|ng 0p thc vcry act|v|ty ot nat0rc wo0|d thcn bc thc |nhcr|-
tor ot thc torccs Ncwton thc chcm|st obscrvcd and man|p0-
|atcd, thc chcm|ca| "att|n|t|cs" torm|ng and d|sr0pt|ng cvcr
ncw comb|nat|ons ot mattcr. Thc dcc|s|vc ro|c p|aycd by cc-
|cst|a| orbits ot co0rsc rcma|ns. St|||, at thc start ot h|s |ntcnsc
astronom|ca| st0d|cs-abo0t l6J9-Ncwton apparcnt|y cx-
pcctcd to hnd ncw torccs ot attract|on on|y |n thc hcavcns,
torccs stmtlur to chcm|ca| torccs and pcrhaps cas|cr to st0dy
mathcmat|ca||y. S|x ycars |atcr th|s mathcmat|ca| st0dy pro-
d0ccd an 0ncxpcctcd conc|0s|on. thc torccs bctwccn thc p|an-
cts and thosc accc|crat|ng trcc|y ta|||ng bod|cs arc not mcrc|y
s|m||ar b0t arc thc samc. Attract|on |s not spcc|hc to cach
p|anct, |t |s thc samc-tor thc moon c|rc||ng thc carth, tor thc
p|ancts, and cvcn tor comcts pass|ng thro0gh thc so|ar systcm.
Ncwton sct o0t to d|scovcr |n thc sky torccs s|m||ar to thc
chcm|ca| torccs. thc spcc|t|c att|n|t| cs, d|ttcrcnt tor cach
chcm|ca| compo0nd and g|v|ng cach compo0nd g0a||tat|vc|y
d|ttcrcnt|atcd act|v|t|cs. What hc act0a||y to0nd was a 0n|vcr-
sa| |aw, wh|ch, as hc cmphas|zcd, co0|d bc app||cd to a|| phc-
nomcna-whcthcr chcmicaI , mcchanica| , or ccIcstia| in
b HL |LNl||LlN | HL HLL
Thc Ncwton|an synthcss |s th0s a s0rpr|sc. U |s an 0ncx-
pcctcd, staggcr|n d|scovcry that thc sc|cnt|hc wor|d has com-
mcmoratcd by mak|ng Ncwton thc symbo| ot modcrn sc|cncc.
What |s part|c0|ar|y aston|sh|ng |s that thc bas|c codc ot na-
t0rc appcarcd to havc bccn crackcd |n a s|ng|c crcat|vc act.
lor a Iong t|mc th|s s0ddcn Iog0ac|o0sncss ot nat0rc, th|s
tr|0mph ot thc Eng|sh Moscs, was a so0rcc ot |ntc|Icct0aI
scandaI tor cont|ncntaI rat|ona|| sts. Ncwton's work was
v|cwcd as a p0rcIy cmp|r|caI d|scovcry that co0Id th0s cg0aIIy
wc|| bc cmp|r|caIIy d|sprovcd. ln lJ4J E0|cr, CIa|ra0t, and
dAIcmbcrt, w|tho0t do0bt somc ot thc grcatcst sc|cnt|sts ot
thc t|mc, camc to thc samc conc|0s|on. Ncwton was wrong. ln
ordcr to dcscr|bc thc moon's mot|on, a morc comp|cx mathc-
mat|caI torm m0st bc g|vcn to thc torcc ot attract|on, mak|ng |t
thc s0m ot two tcrms. lor thc to||ow|ng two ycars, cach ot
thcm bc||cvcd that nat0rc had provcd Ncwton wrong, and th|s
bc||ct was a so0rcc ot cxc|tcmcnt, not ot d|smay. lar trom con-
s|dcr|ng Ncwton's d|scovcry synonymo0s w|th phys|caI sc|-
cncc |tscIt, phys|c|sts wcrc b||thc|y contcmp|at|ng dropp|ng |t
a|togcthcr. DA|cmbcrt wcnt so tar as to cxprcss scr0p|cs
abo0t scck|ng trcsh cv|dcncc aga|nst Ncwton and g|v|ng h|m
/c coup dc ptcd dc /'nc.
On|y onc co0ragco0s vo|cc aga|nst th|s vcrd|ct was ra|scd |u
lrancc. ln lJ4B, 0hon wrotc:
A phys|ca| |aw |s a Iaw onIy by v|rt0c ot thc tact that |t |s
casy to mcas0rc, and that thc scaIc |t rcprcscnts |s not
onIy aIways thc samc, b0t |s act0aI|y 0n|g0c . . .. M.
CIa|ra0t has ra|scd an ob|cct|on aga|nst Ncwton's sys-
tcm, b0t |t |s at bcst an ob|cct|on and m0st not and cannot
bccomc a pr|nc|pIc; an attcmpt sho0Id bc madc to ovcr-
comc |t and not to t0rn |t |nto a thcory thc cnt|rc con-
scg0cnccs ot wh|ch mcrc|y rcst on a caIc0Iat|on, tor, as l
havc sa|d, onc may rcprcscnt anyth|ng by mcans ot caI-
c0Iat|on and ach|cvc noth|ny, and |t |t |s aI|owcd to add
onc or morc tcrms to a phys|caI |aw s0ch as that ot attrac-
t|on, wc arc onIy add|ng to arb|trar|ncss |nstcad ot rcprc-
scnt|ng rca||ty. '
tor on|y a short t|mc, thc rcscarch program tor chcm|stry:
Thc Iaws ot amn|ty by mcans ot wh|ch thc const|t0cnt
parts ot d|t|crcnt s0bstanccs scparatc trom othcrs to
comb|nc togcthcr to torm homogcnco0s s0bstanccs arc
thc samc as thc gcncraI Iaw govcrn|ng thc rcc|procaI ac-
t|on ot aII thc ccIcst|a| bod|cs on onc anothcr. thcy act |n
thc samc way and w|th thc samc rat|os ot mass and d|s-
tancc, a g|ob0Ic ot watcr, ot sand or mcta| acts 0pon an-
othcr gIob0Ic |0st as thc tcrrcstr|aI g|obc acts on thc
moon, and |t thc Iaws 0 amn|ty havc h|thcrto bccn rc-
gardcd as d|ttcrcnt trom thosc ot grav|ty, |t |s bcca0sc
thcy havc not bccn t0I|y 0ndcrstood, not graspcd com-
pIctcIy, |t |s bcca0sc thc whoIc cxtcnt ot thc prob|cm has
not bccn takcn |n. Thc g0rc wh|ch, |n thc casc ot ccIcs-
t|aI bod|cs has I|tt|c or no cttcct 0pon thc |aw ot |ntcrac-
t|on bctwccn bod| cs bcca0sc ot thc grcat d| stancc
nvoIvcd, |s, on thc contrary, aII |mportant whcn thc d|s-
tancc |s vcry smaI| or zcro . . . . O0r ncphcws w||I bc
abIc, by caIc0Iat|on, to ga|n acccss to th|s ncw cId ot
know|cdgc jthat |s, to dcducc thc Iaw ot |ntcract|on bc-
twccn cIcmcntary bod|cs trom thc|r g0rcs] .
H|story was to v|nd|catc thc nat0ra||st, tor whom torcc was
not mcrc|y a mathcmat|caI art|cc b0t thc vcry csscncc ot thc
ncw sc|cncc O nat0rc. Thc phys|c|sts wcrc Iatcr compc||cd to
adm|t thc|r m|stakc. l|y ycars attcrward, Lap|acc co0Id
wr|tc h|s 5yslmc du Mondc. Thc |aw O 0n|vcrsaI grav|ty had
stood aII tcsts s0cccsst0|Iy. thc n0mcro0s cascs apparcntIy
d|sprov|ng |t had bccn transtormcd |nto a br||||ant dcmonstra-
t|on ot |ts va||d|ty. At thc samc t|mc, 0ndcr B0hon`s |n00cncc,
thc lrcnch chcm|sts rcd|scovcrcd thc odd ana|ogy bctwccn
phys|ca| attract|on and chcm|ca| att| n|ty. Dcsp|tc thc sar-
casms O d^|cmbcrt, Condi||ac, and Condorcct, whosc 0nbcnd-
ng rat|ona||sm was g0|tc |ncompat|b|c w|th thcsc obsc0rc and
barrcn "ana|og|cs, thcy trod Ncwton`s path |n thc oppos|tc
d|rcct|on-trom thc stars to mattcr.
y thc carIy n|nctccnth ccnt0ry, thc Ncwton|an program~
thc rcd0ct|on ot aII phys|cohcm|caI phcnomcna to thc act|on
ot torccs (|n add|t|on to grav|tat|onaI attract|on, th|s |nc|0dcd
thc rcpcII|ng torcc ot hcat, wh|ch makcs bod|cs cxpand and
8VOI5 U55OlUlOH, 85 WCll 85 ClCClIC 8HU H8@HClC |orccs)~
had bccomc thc omc|aI program ot LapTacc's schooI, wh|ch
domnatcd thc sccntic wor|d at thc tmc whcn Napo|cou
domnatcd E0ropc. '"
Thc car|y nnctccnth ccnt0ry saw thc rsc ot thc grcat
lrcnch co/cs and thc rcorganization ot thc 0nivcrsitics. This
s thc tmc whcn scicntists bccamc tcachcrs and protcssiona|
rcscarchcrs and took 0p thc ta;k ot training thcir s0cccssors. ' '
lt s aIso thc timc ot thc rst attcmpts to prcscnt a synthcss ot
knowIcdgc, to gathcr it togcthcr n tcxtbooks and works ot
pop0Iarzaton. Scicncc was no Iongcr disc0sscd iu thc su/ons;
t was ta0ght or pop0|arzcd. ` lt had bccomc a mattcr o[ pro-
tcssona| conscns0s and magstraI a0thorty. Thc trst con-
scns0s ccntcrcd aro0nd thc Ncwtonian systcm. n lrancc
0hon's condcncc naI|y tr0mphcd ovcr thc ratonaI skcpt-
csm ot thc En|ghtcnmcnt.
Onc ccnt0ry attcr Ncwton's apothcoss n Eng|and, thc
grandi|og0cncc ot thcsc |incs writtcn by Ampcrc's son cchocs
that ot lopc's cpitaph. ' `
Announctn lhc comtn o)sctcncc's Mcsstuh
Kcplcr hud dtspc/lcd lhc c/ouds uround lhc Arch.
hcn lhc Word uus mudc mun, lhc Word o)lhc scctn
Whom /ulo rcvcrcd, und Hc uus cu//cd Aculon.
Hc cumc, hc rcvcu/cd lhc prtnctp/c suprcmc,
Llcrnu/, untvcrsu/, Onc und untguc us od Htmscg
hc uor/ds ucrc hushcd, hc spokc: AHACUA.
hts uord uus lhc vcq uord o)crculton. "
For a short timc, which ncvcrthc|css |ctt an indcIib|c mark,
sccncc was tri0mphant, acknowIcdgcd and honorcd by
powcrt0I statcs and acc|aimcd as thc posscssor ot a consistcnt
conccpton ot thc wor|d. Worshipcd by Lap|acc, Ncwton bc-
camc thc 0nivcrsaI symboI ot this go|dcn agc. lt was a happy
momcnt, indccd, a momcnt in whch scicntists wcrc rcgardcd
both by thcmscIvcs and othcrs as thc p|onccrs O progrcss,
achicvng an cntcrprsc s0staincd and tostcrcd by soicty as a
What s thc sgncancc ot thc Ncwtonan synthcss today,
mtcr thc advcnt ot c|d thcory, rcIatvity, and g0ant0m mc-
"U0r trausIatoua0thor.
chan|cs7 Th|s |s a compIcx probIcm, to wh|ch wc shaII rct0ru.
Wc now know that nat0rc |s not aIways "comtortabIc and con-
sonant w|th hcrscIt. " At thc m|croop|c IcvcI , thc Iaws o|
cIass|caI mcchan|cs havc bccn rcpIaccd by thosc ot g0ant0m
mcchan|cs. L|kcw|sc, at thc IcvcI ot thc 0n|vcrsc, rcIat|v|st|c
phys|cs has d|spIaccd Ncwton|an phys|cs. CIass|caI phys|cs
ncvcrthcIcss rcma|ns thc nat0raI rctcrcncc po|nt. Morcovcr, | u
thc scnsc that wc havc dcncd |t-that |s, as thc dcscr|pt|on o|
dctcrm|n|st|c, rcvcrs|b| c, stat|c tra|cctor|cs-Ncwton|au dy-
nam|cs st|II may bc sa|d to torm thc corc ot phys|cs.
Ot co0rsc, s|ncc Ncwton thc torm0Iat|on ot cIass|caI dy-
uam|cs has 0ndcrgonc grcat changcs. Th|s was a rcs0It ot thc
work ot somc ot thc grcatcst mathcmat|c|ans and phys|c|sts,
s0ch as Ham||ton and H|ncarc. ln br|ct, wc may d|st|ng0|sh
two pcr|ods. l|rst thcrc was a pcr|od ot cIar|cat|ou and o|
gcncra||zat|on. D0r|ng thc sccond pcr|od, thc vcry conccpts
0pon wh|ch c|ass|ca| dynam|cs rcsts, s0ch as |n|t|a| cond|t|ons
and thc mcan|ng ot tra|cctor|cs, havc 0ndcrgonc a cr|t|caI rcv|-
s|on cvcn |n thc c|ds |n wh|ch (|n contrast to g0ant0m mc-
chan|cs and rcIat|v|ty) cIass|caI dynam|cs rcma|ns va||d. At
thc momcnt th|s book |s bc|ng wr|ttcn, at thc cnd ot thc twcu-
t|cth ccnt0ry, wc arc st||| |n th|s sccond pcr|od. Lct 0s t0ru
now to thc gcncraI Iang0agc ot dynam|cs that was d|scovcrcd
by n|nctccnth-ccnt0ry sc|cnt|sts. (ln Chaptcr lX wc shaII dc-
scr|bc br|c0y thc rcv|va| ot c|ass|caI dynam|cs |n o0r t|mc.)
10 Ld|_dd_0 0l .yd0C3
Today cIass|ca| dy nam|cs can bc torm0Iatcd |n a compact and
cIcgant way. As wc shaII scc, 8II thc propcrt|cs ot a dynam|c
systcm can bc s0mmar|zcd |n tcrms ot a stnlc t0nct|ou, thc
Ham|Iton|an. Thc Iang0agc ot dynam|cs prcscnts a rcmarkabIc
cons|stcncy and comp|ctcncss. An 0namb|g0o0s torm0Iat|ou
can bc g|vcn to cach "Icg|t|matc" probIcm. No wondcr thc
str0ct0rc ot dynam|cs has both tasc|natcd and tcrr|hcd thc
mag|nat|on s|ncc thc c|ghtccnth ccnt0ry.
ln dynam|cs thc samc systcm can bc st0d|cd trom d|crcut
po|uts ot v|cw. ln cIass|caI dynam|cs aII thcsc po|uts ot v|cw
IC CQuVlCD D HC 5CD5C lH8l WC C8D @O |rom OH0 to auothcr
by a traustormat|on, a changc ot var|abIcs. Wc may spcak of
b9 HL |LN|||LP|N | HL HLAL
var|o0s cg0|va|cnt rcprcscntat|ons |n wh|ch thc |aws ot dy-
nam|cs arc va||d. Thcsc var|o0s cg0|va|cnt rcprcscntat|ons
torm thc gcncra| |ang0agc ot dynam|cs. Th|s |ang0agc can bc
0scd to makc cxp||c|t thc stat|c charactcr c|ass|ca| dynam|cs
attr|b0tcs to thc systcms |t dcscr|bcs. tor many c|asscs ot dy-
nam|c systcms, t|mc appcars mcrc|y as an acc|dcnt, s|ncc
thc|r dcscr|pt|on can bc rcd0ccd to that ot non|ntcract|ng mc-
chan|ca| systcms. To |ntrod0cc thcsc conccpts |n a s|mp|c way,
|ct 0s start w|th thc pr|nc|p|c ot conscrvat|on ot cncrgy.
ln thc |dca| wor|d ot dynam|cs, dcvo|d ot tr|ct|ons and co||-
s|ons, mach|ncs havc an cmc|cncy ot onc-thc dynam|c sys-
tcm compr|s|ng thc mach|nc mcrc|y transm|ts thc who|c ot thc
mot|on |t rccc|vcs. A mach|nc rccc|v|ng a ccrta|n g0ant|ty ot
potcnt|a| cncrgy (tor cxamp|c, a comprcsscd spr|ng, a ra|scd
wc|ght, comprcsscd a|r) can prod0cc a mot|on corrcspond|ng
to an cg0a|" g0ant|ty ot k|nct|c cncrgy, cxact|y thc g0ant|ty
that wo0|d bc nccdcd to rcstorc thc potcnt|a| cncrgy thc ma-
ch|nc has 0scd |n prod0c|ng thc mot|on. Thc s|mp|cst casc |s
that |n wh|ch thc on|y torcc cons|dcrcd |s grav|ty (wh|ch ap-
p||cs to s|mp|c mach|ncs, p0||cys, |cvcrs, capstans, ctc.). ln
th|s casc |t |s casy to cstab||sh an ovcra|| rc|at|onsh|p ot cg0|v-
a|cncc bctwccn ca0sc and chcct. Thc hc|ght (h) thro0gh wh|ch
a body ta||s cnt|rc|y dctcrm|ncs thc vc|oc|ty acg0|rcd d0r|ng
|ts taI|. Whcthcr a body ot mass m ta||s vcrt|ca||y, r0ns down
an |nc||ncd p|anc, or to||ows a ro||cr-coastcr path, thc acg0|rcd
vc|oc|ty (v) and thc k|nct|c cncrgy (mv-lZ) dcpcnd on|y on thc
drop |n |cvc| h (v = \ )and cnab|c thc body to rct0rn to |ts
or|g|na| hc|ght. Thc work donc aga|nst thc torcc ot grav|ty |m-
p||cd |n th|s 0pward mot|on rcstorcs thc potcnt|a| cncrgy, mh,
that thc systcm |ost d0r|ng thc ta| | . Anothcr cxamp|c |s thc
pcnd0|0m, |n wh|ch k|nct|c cncrgy and potcnt|a| cncrgy arc
cont|n0o0s|y transtormcd |nto onc anothcr.
Ot co0rsc, |t |nstcad ot a body ta|||ng toward thc carth, wc
arc dca||ng w|th a systcm ot |ntcract|ng bod|cs, thc s|t0at|on | s
|css cas||y v|s0a||zcd. St||, at cach |nstant thc g|oba| var|at|on
|n k|nct|c cncrgy compcnsatcs tor thc var|at|on |n potcnt|a|
cncrgy (bo0nd to thc var|at|on |n thc d|stanccs bctwccn thc
po|nts |n thc systcm). Hcrc a|so cncrgy |s conscrvcd |n an |so-
|atcd systcm.
Dtcntal cncrgy (or ''potcntal, convcntona||y dcnotcd as
V, wh|ch dcpcnds on thc rc|at|vc pos|t|ons 0 thc part|c|cs, | s
th0s a gcncraI|zat|on ot thc g0ant|ty that cnabIcd b0|Idcrs ot
mach|ncs to mcas0rc thc mot|on a mach|nc co0Id prod0cc as
thc rcs0|t ot a changc |n |ts spat|a| cong0rat|on (tor cxampIc,
thc changc |n thc hc|ght ot a mass m, wh|ch |s part ot thc
mach|nc, g|vcs |t a potcnt|a| cncrgy mh). Morcovcr, potcnt|aI
cncrgy a||ows 0s to ca|c0|atc thc sct ot torccs app||cd at cach
|nstant to thc d|ttcrcnt po|nts ot thc systcm to bc dcscr|bcd. At
cach po|nt thc dcr|vat|vc ot thc potcnt|aI w|th rcspcct to thc
spacc coord|natc g mcas0rcs thc torcc app||cd at th|s po|nt |n
thc d|rcct|on ot that coord|natc. Ncwton's Iaws ot mot|on th0s
can bc torm0Iatcd 0s|ng thc potcnt|aI t0nct|on |nstcad ot torcc
as thc ma|n g0ant|ty. thc var|at|on |n thc vc|oc|ty ot a po|nt
mass at cach |nstant (or thc momcnt0m p, thc prod0ct ot thc
mass and thc vc|oc|ty) |s mcas0rcd by thc dcr|vat|vc ot thc
potcnt|a| w|th rcspcct to thc coord|natc g ot thc mass.
ln thc n|nctccnth ccnt0ry th|s torm0|at|on was gcncraI|zcd
thro0gh thc |ntrod0ct|on ot a ncw t0nct|on, thc Ham||ton|an
(H. Th|s t0nct|on |s s|mpIy thc totaI cncrgy, thc s0m ot thc
systcm's potcnt|aI and k|nct|c cncrgy. Howcvcr, th|s cncrgy |s
no |ongcr cxprcsscd |n tcrms ot pos|t|ons and vc|oc|t|cs, con-
vcnt|ona||y dcnotcd by g and dgldl, b0t |n tcrms ot so-ca|Icd
cunon/cu/ var|ab|cs-coord|natcs and momcnta-tor wh|ch
thc standard notat|on |s g and p. ln s|mp|c cascs, s0ch as w|th
a trcc part|c|c, thcrc |s a stra|ghttorward rc|at|on bctwccn vc-
|oc|ty and momcnt0m (p m dgldl), b0t |n gcncraI thc rc|at|on
|s morc comp||catcd.
A s|ng|c t0nct|on, thc Ham||ton|an, H(p, g), dcscr|bcs thc
dynam|cs ot a systcm comp/clc/y. A|| o0r cmp|r|caI know|cdgc
|s p0t |nto thc torm ot H. Oncc th|s t0nct|on |s known, wc may
so|vc, at Icast |n pr|nc|p|c, a|| poss|b|c prob|cms. lor cxamp|c,
thc t|mc var|at|on ot thc coord|natc and ot thc momcnta |s
s|mp|y g|vcn by thc dcr|vat|vcs ot H |n rcspcct to p or g. Th|s
Ham||ton|an torm0Iat|on ot dynam|cs |s onc ot thc grcatcst
ach|cvcmcnts |n thc h|story ot sc|cncc. lt has bccn progrcs-
s|vc|y cxtcndcd to covcr thc thcory ot c|cctr|c|ty and magnc-
t|sm. lt has a|so bccn 0scd |n g0ant0m mcchan|cs. lt | s tr0c
that |n g0ant0m mcchan|cs, as wc sha|I scc |atcr, thc mcan|ng
ot thc Ham|Iton|an H had to bc gcncra||zcd. hcrc |t |s no
Iongcr a s|mp|c t0nct|on ot thc coord|natcs and momcnta, b0t
t UcOOmcS u ncw knd Ol cntty, un OpcrutOr. (Yc Shull rcturn
to th|s g0cst|on |n Chaptcr Vll.) ln any casc, thc Ham||ton|an
1 HL |LNl |||N | HL HbL
dcscrpt|ou |s st|II ot thc grcatcst |mportaucc today. Thc cg0a-
t|ous wh|ch, thro0gh thc dcr|vat|vcs ot thc Ham|Itou|au, g|vc
thc t|mc var|at|ou ot thc coord|natcs aud momcnta arc thc so-
caIIcd canon|caI cg0at|ous. Thcy conta|u thc gcncraI propcr-
t|cs ot aII dyuam|c changcs. Hcrc wc havc thc tr|0mph ot thc
mathcmat|zat|ou ot uat0rc. A|| dynam|c changc to wh|ch cIas-
s|caI dyuam|cs appI|cs cau bc rcduccd to thcsc s|mpIc mathc-
mat|caI cg0at|ous.
Us|ug thcsc cg0at|ous, wc cau vcr|ty thc abovc-mcut|oucd
gcncraI propcrt|cs |mp||cd by cIass|caI dynam|cs. Thc cauou|-
caI cg0at|ous arc rcvcrstb/c: t|mc |uvcrs|ou |s mathcmat|caIIy
thc cg0|vaIcut ot vcIoc|ty |uvcrs|ou. Thcy arc aIso c0nscrvJ-
ltvc: thc Ham|Itou|au, wh|ch cxprcsscd thc systcm's cucrgy |u
thc cauou|caI var|abIcs-coord|uatcs and momcuta-|s |tscIt
couscrvcd by thc chaugcs |t br|ugs abo0t |u thc co0rsc ot t|mc.
Wc havc aIrcady not|ccd that thcrc cx|st many po|uts ot v|cw
or "rcprcscutat|ous" | u wh|ch thc Ham||tou|au torm ot thc
cg0at|ous ot mot|ou |s ma|uta|ucd. Thcy corrcspoud to var|o0s
cho|ccs ot coord|uatcs aud momcuta. Ouc ot thc bas|c prob-
|cms ot dyuam|cs |s to cxam|uc prcc|scIy how wc cau scIcct
thc pa|r ot cauou|caI var|ab|cs g aud ] to obta|u as s|mpIc a
dcscr|pt|ou ot dyuam|cs as poss|b|c. lor cxampIc, wc co0Id
Iook tor cauou|caI var|abIcs by wh|ch thc Ham||ton|au |s rc-
d0ccd to k|uct|c cncrgy and dcpcnds on|y ou thc momcnta
(aud uot ou thc coord|uatcs). What |s rcmarkabIc |s that |n th|s
casc momcuta bccomc coustauts ot mot|ou. ludccd, as wc
havc sccu, thc t|mc var|at|ou ot thc momcnta dcpcnds, accord-
|ug to thc cauou|caI cg0at|ou, ou thc dcr|vat|vc ot thc Ham|Ito-
n|an | n rcspcct to thc coord|natcs. Whcu th|s dcr|vat|vc
vau|shcs, thc momcuta |udccd bccomc constants ot mot|ou.
Th|s |s s|m|Iar to what happcns |u a "trcc part|cIc" systcm.
What wc havc douc whcu wc go to a trcc part|cIc systcm |s
"c||m|uatc" thc |utcract|ou thro0gh a chaugc ot rcprcscuta-
t|ou. Wc w|II dcnc systcms tor wh|ch th|s |s poss|bIc as "|utc-
grabI c systcms. " Auy | utcgrabIc syst cm may th0s bc
mprcscutcd as a sct ot 0u|ts, cach chaug|ug | u |soIat|ou, g0|tc
|udcpcudcutIy ot aI| thc othcrs, |u that ctcrua| aud |mm0tabIc
mot|ou ArstotIc attr|b0tcd to thc hcavcuIy bod|cs (l|g0rc l).
Wc havc a|rcady uotcd that |u dyuam|cs "cvcryth|ug | s
@VCH. CC lH5 HC8H5 lH8l, DH lHC VC 5l H5l8Hl, lH0
va|0c ot thc var|o0s |uvar|auts ot thc mot|ou |s hxcd, uoth|u


|gU|B 1 . WD |B|BSBP8|DPS D 0B S8B 0yP8|C SySB` (8] 8S 8 SB D
|PBS, (D] 8S 8 SB W0B|B B8C0 D|P DB08VBS |P0BBP0BP|y |D 0B D0B|S.
0B DBP|8| BPB|gy DB|Pg B||| P8B0, 0B|| |BSBC|VB D|DPS 8|B PD BX-
||C||y 0BBP0BP DP 0B|| |B|8|VB DS||DPS.
may "happcn" or "takc p|acc. " Hcrc wc rcach onc ot thosc
dramat|c momcnts |n thc h|story ot sc|cncc whcn thc dcscr|p-
t|on ot nat0rc was ncar|y rcd0ccd to a stat|c p|ct0rc. lndccd,
thro0gh a c|cvcr changc ot var|ab|cs, a|| |ntcract|on co0|d bc
madc to d|sappcar. lt was bc||cvcd that |ntcgrab|c systcms,
rcd0c|b|c to trcc part|c|cs, wcrc thc prototypc ot dynam|c sys-
tcms. Gcncrat|ons ot phys|c|sts and mathcmat|c|ans tr|cd hard
to hnd tor cach k|nd ot systcms thc "r|ght" var|ab|cs that
wo0|d c||m|natc thc |ntcract|ons. Onc w|dc|y st0d|cd cxamp|c
was thc thrcc-body prob|cm, pcrhaps thc most |mportant
prob|cm |n thc h|story ot dynam|cs. Thc moon`s mot|on, |n00-
cnccd by both thc carth and thc s0n, |s onc |nstancc ot th|s
prob|cm. Co0nt|css attcmpts wcrc madc to cxprcss |t |n thc
torm ot an |ntcgrab|c systcm 0nt||, at thc cnd ot thc n|nctccnth
ccnt0ry, r0ns and lo|ncarc showcd that th|s was |mposs|b|c.
Th|s camc as a s0rpr|sc and, |n tact, anno0nccd thc cnd ot a||
s|mp|c cxtrapo|at|ons ot dynam|cs bascd on |ntcgrab|c sys-
tcms. Thc d|scovcry ot r0ns and lo|ncarc shows that dy-
nam|c systcms arc not |somorph|c. S|mp|c, |ntcgrab|c systcms
can |ndccd bc rcd0ccd to non|ntcract|ng 0n|ts, b0t |n gcncra|,
ntcract|ons cannot bc c||m|natcd. A|tho0gh th|s d|scovcry
was not c|car|y 0ndcrstood at thc tmc, t mp||cd thc dcm|sc ot
thc convcton that thc dynamc worId s homogcnco0s, rc-
d0cb|c to thc conccpt ot ntcgrab|c systcms. Nat0rc as au
d HL lLNl|lAlN | HL HLL
cvo|v|ng, |ntcract|vc m0|t|pl|c|ty th0s rcs|stcd |ts rcd0ct|on to
a t|mc|css and 0n|vcrsa| schcmc.
Thcrc wcrc othcr |nd|cat|ons po|nt|ng |n thc samc d|rcct|on.
Wc havc mcnt|oncd that trajcctor|cs corrcspond to dctcrm|n|s-
t|c |aws, oncc an |n|t|a| statc |s g|vcn, thc dynam|c |aws ot mo-
t|on pcrm|t thc calc0|at|on ot tra|cctor|cs at cach po|nt |n thc
t0t0rc or thc past. Howcvcr, a tra|cctory may bccomc |ntr|n-
s|ca||y |ndctcrm|natc at ccrta|n s|ng0|ar po|nts. lor |nstancc, a
t|g|d pcnd0|0m may d|sp|ay two g0a||tat|vc|y d|ttcrcnt typcs ot
bchav|or-|t may c|thcr osc|||atc or sw|ng aro0nd |ts po|nts ot
s0spcns|on. lt thc |n|t|a| p0sh |s |0st cno0gh to br|ng |t |nto a
vcrt|ca| pos|t|on w|th zcro vc|oc|ty, thc d|rcct|on |n wh|ch |t
w||| ta||, and thcrctorc thc nat0rc 0 |ts mot|on, arc |ndctcrm|-
uatc. An |nn|tcs|ma| pcrt0rbat|on wo0|d bc cno0gh to sct |t
mtat|ng or osc|||at|ng. (Th|s problcm ot thc "|nstab|||ty ot
mot|on w||| bc d|sc0sscd t0||y |n Chaptcr lX. )
lt |s s|gn|cant that Maxwc|| had a|rcady strcsscd thc |mpor-
tancc ot thcsc s|ng0|ar po|nts. Attcr dcscr|b|ng thc cxp|os|on
ot g0n cotton, hc gocs on to say.
ln a|| s0ch cascs thcrc |s onc common c|rc0mstancc~
thc systcm has a g0ant|ty ot potcnt|a| cncrgy, wh|ch |s
capab|c ol bc|ng transtormcd |nto mot|on, b0t wh|ch cau-
not bcg|n to bc so transtormcd t||| thc systcm has rcachcd
a ccrta|n cong0rat|on, to atta|n wh|ch rcg0|rcs an cxpcnd|-
t0rc O work, wh|ch |n ccrta|n cascs may D |nn|tcs|ma||y
sma||, and |n gcncra| bcars no dcn|tc proport|on to thc
cncrgy dcvc|opcd |n conscg0cncc thcrcot. lor cxamp|c,
thc rock |ooscd by trost and ba|anccd on a s|ng0|ar po|nt
ot thc mo0nta|n-s|dc, thc ||tt|c spark wh|ch k|nd|cs thc
grcat torcst, thc ||tt|c word wh|ch scts thc wor|d a ght-
|ng, thc ||tt|c scr0p|c wh|ch prcvcnts a man trom do|ng h|s
w|| | , thc ||tt|c sporc wh|ch b||ghts a|| thc potatocs, thc
||tt|c gcmm0|c wh|ch makcs 0s ph||osophcrs or |d|ots.
Evcry cx|stcncc abovc a ccrta|n rank has | ts s|ng0|ar
po|nts. thc h|ghcr thc rank, thc morc ot thcm. At thcsc
po|nts, |u00cnccs whosc phys|ca| magn|t0dc |s too sma||
0 bc takcn acco0ut ot by a n|tc bc|ng, may prod0cc
rcs0|ts ot thc grcatcst |mportancc. A|| grcat rcs0|ts pro-
d0ccd Dy h0mau cndcavo0r dcpcnd on taking advantagc
ot thcsc s|ng0|ar statcs whcn thcy occ0r. !
HLH | LH 4
Ths conccpt|on rccc|vcd no t0rthcr cIaborat|on ow|ng to thc
abscncc ot s0|tab|c mathcmat|ca| tcchn|g0cs tor |dcnt|ty|ng
systcms conta|n|ng s0ch s|ngu|ar po|nts and thc abscncc 0 thc
chcm|caI and b|o|og|caI know|cdgc that today attords, as wc
shaIl scc Iatcr, a dccpcr |ns|ght |nto thc tr0Iy csscnt|aI roIc
p|aycd by s0ch s|ng0|ar po|nts.
c that as |t may, lrom thc t|mc ot Lc|bn|z' monads (scc thc
conc|0s|on to scct|on 4) down to thc prcscnt day (tor cxampIc,
thc stat|onary statcs ot thc c|cctrons |n thc ohr modc|-scc
Chaptcr Vll), |ntcgrab|c systcms havc bccn thc modcI par cx-
ccIIcncc ot dynam|c systcms, and phys|c|sts havc attcmptcd to
cxtcnd thc propcrt|cs ot what |s act0a||y a vcry spcc|aI cIass 0
Ham|Iton|an cg0at|ons to covcr a|| nat0raI proccsscs. Th|s s
g0|tc 0ndcrstandab|c. Thc cIass ot |ntcgrabIc systcms |s thc
onIy onc that, 0nt|I rcccntIy, had bccn thoro0ghIy cxpIorcd.
Morcovcr, thcrc | s thc tasc|nat|on aIways assoc|atcd w|th d
c|oscd systcm capab|c ot pos|ng a|I prob|cms, prov|dcd |t docs
uot dcnc thcm as mcan|ng|css. Dynam|cs |s s0ch a Iang0agc,
bc|ng comp|ctc, |t |s by dcn|t|on cocxtcns|vc w|th thc worId
|t |s dcscr|b|ng. lt ass0mcs that a|| prob|cms, whcthcr s|mp|c
or compIcx, rcscmb|c onc anothcr s|ncc |t can aIways posc
thcm |n thc samc gcncraI torm. Th0s thc tcmptat|on to con-
cI0dc that a|| prob|cms rcscmb|c onc anothcr trom thc po|nt ot
v|cw ot thc|r so|0t|ons as wc|| , and that noth|ng ncw can ap-
pcar as a rcs0|t ot thc grcatcr or |csscr comp|cx|ty ot thc |ntc-
grat|on proccd0rc. lt |s th|s |ntr|ns|c homogcnc|ty that wc now
know to bc taIsc. Morcovcr, thc mcchan|ca| wor|d v|cw was
acccptabIc as Iong as aII obscrvab|cs rctcrrcd |n onc way or
BuO1hCt to mO1Ou. hS S uO 1ODgCt 1hC CBSC. tOt cXBmQ1
0nstabIc part|c|cs havc an cncrgy that can bc rcIatcd to mot|ou
b0t that a|so has a I|tct|mc that |s a g0|tc d|hcrcnt typc 0 ob-
scrvabIc, morc cIosc|y rcIatcd to |rrcvcrs|b|c proccsscs, as wc
shaI| dcscr|bc thcm |n Chaptcrs lV and V. Thc ncccss|ty ot
ntrod0c|ng ncw obscrvab|cs |nto thc thcorct|ca| sc|cnccs was,
and st||I |s today, onc ot thc dr|v|ng torccs that movc 0s bcyond
thc mcchan|ca| wor|d v|cw.
.3, 3C0S .000|
Extrapo|ations trom thc dynamic dcscription disc0sscd abovc
havc a symbo|-thc dcmon imagincd by Laplacc, capab|c at
any givcn instant ot obscrving thc position and vc|ocity ot
cach mass that torms part ot thc 0nivcrsc and ot intcrring its
cvo|0tion, both toward thc past and toward thc t0t0rc. Ot
co0rsc, no onc has cvcr drcamcd that a physicist might onc
day bcnct trom thc know|cdgc posscsscd by Lap|acc's dc-
mon. LapIacc himsc|t on|y 0scd this ction to dcmonstratc thc
cxtcnt ot o0r ignorancc and thc nccd tor a statisticaI dcscrip-
tion ot ccrtain proccsscs. Thc prob|cmatics ot Lap|acc's dc-
mon arc not rc|atcd to thc g0cstion ot whcthcr a dctcrministic
prcdiction ot thc co0rsc ot cvcnts is act0a||y possibIc, b0t
whcthcr it i s possib|c in principIc, dc )urc. This possibi|ity
sccms to bc imp|icd in mcchanistic dcscription, with i ts
charactcrstic d0a|ity bascd on dynamic Iaw and initiaI condi-
lndccd, thc tact that a dynamic systcm is govcrncd by a
dctcrministic /uu, cvcn tho0gh in practicc o0r ignorancc ot thc
nitia| statc prccI0dcs any possibility ot dctcrministic prcdic-
tions, a||ows thc "ob|cctivc tr0th ot thc systcm as it wo0|d bc
sccn by Lap|acc's dcmon to bc disting0ishcd trom cmpiricaI
Iimitations d0c to o0r ignorancc. ln thc contcxt ot c|assicaI
dynamics, a dctcrministic dcscription may bc 0nattainab|c in
practicc, ncvcrthc|css, it stands as a ltmtl that dcncs a scrics
ot incrcasing|y acc0ratc dcscriptions.
lt is prccisc|y thc consistcncy ot this d0a|ity tormcd by dy-
namic Iaw and initiaI conditions that is chaI|cngcd in thc rc-
vivaI O c|assica| mcchanics, which wc wi|| dcscribc in Chaptcr
lX. Wc sha|I scc that thc motion may bccomc so comp|cx, thc
tra|cctorics so varicd, that no obscrvation, whatcvcr its prcci-
sion, can |cad 0s to thc dctcrmination ot thc cxact initiaI condi-
tions. 0t at that point thc d0a|ity on which cIassica| mcchanics
was constr0ctcd brcaks down. Wc can prcdict onIy thc avcragc
bchavior ot b0nd|cs ot tra|cctorics.
Modcrn scicncc was born o0t ot thc brcakdown ot thc ani-
thc AristotcIian wor|d as both a Iiving and a knowing crcat0rc.
Thc worId was madc to h|s mcas0rc. Thc rst cxpcr|mcntaI
d|aIog0c rccc|vcd part ot |ts soc|aI and ph|Iosoph|c |0st|ca-
t|on trom anothcr a|||ancc, th|s t|mc w|th thc rat|onaI God ot
Chr|st|an|ty. To thc cxtcnt to wh|ch dynam|cs has bccomc and
st||| |s thc modcI ot sc|cncc, ccrta|n |mpI|cat|ons ot |h|s h|stor-
|ca| s|t0at|on havc pcrs|stcd to o0r day.
Sc|cncc |s st||| thc prophct|c anno0nccmcnt ot a dcscrpt|on
ot thc wor|d sccn trom a d|v|nc or dcmon|c po|nt ot v|cw. lt |s
thc sc|cncc ot Ncwton, thc ncw Moscs to whom thc tr0th ot
thc worId was 0nvc||cd, |t |s a rcvcu/cd sc|cncc that sccms
a||cn to any soc|aI and h|stor|ca| contcxt |dcnt|ty|ng |t as thc
rcs0It ot thc act|v|ty ot h0man soc|cty. Th|s typc ot |nsp|rcd
d|sco0rsc |s to0nd thro0gho0t thc h|story ot phys|cs. lt has ac-
compan|cd cach conccpt0aI | nnovat|on, cach occas|on at
wh|ch phys|cs sccmcd at thc po|nt ot 0n|cat|on and thc pr0-
dcnt mask ot pos|t|v|sm was droppcd. Each t|mc phys|c|sts
rcpcatcd what Ampcrc`s son statcd so cxp||c|tIy. th|s word~
0n|vcrsa| attract|on, cncrgy, c|d thcory, or c|cmcntary part|-
cIcs-|s thc word ot crcat|on. Each t|mc-|n LapIacc's t|mc,
at thc cnd ot thc n|nctccnth ccnt0ry, or cvcn today-phys|c|sts
anno0nccd that phys|cs wa a cIoscd book or abo0t to bccomc
so. Thcrc was on|y onc t|naI stronghoId whcrc nat0rc con-
t|n0cd to rcs|st, thc taI| ot wh|ch wo0|d |cavc |t dctcnsc|css,
conq0crcd, and s0bd0cd by our know|cdgc. Thcy wcrc th0s
0nw|tt|ng|y rcpcat|ng thc r|t0aI ot thc anc|cnt ta|th. Thcy wcrc
anno0nc|ng thc com|ng ot thc ncw Moscs, and w|th h|m a ncw
Mcss|an|c pcr|od |n sc|cncc.
Somc m|ght w|sh to d|srcgard th|s prophct|c c|a|m, th|s
SOmcWh1 uVc cu1hUSSm, uU 1 S Ccl1uj 1lUc 1h1 0-
a|og0c w|th nat0rc has gonc on a|| thc samc, togcthcr w|th d
scarch tor ncw thcorct|caI Iang0agcs, ncw g0cst|ons, and ncw
answcrs. 0t wc do not acccpt a r|g|d scparat|on bctwccn thc
sc|cnt|st's "act0a| work and thc way hc |0dgcs, |ntcrprcts,
and or|cntatcs th|s work. To acccpt |t wo0|d bc to rcd0cc sc|-
cncc to an ah|stor|caI acc0m0|at|on ot rcs0Its and to pay no
attcnt|on to what sc|cnt|sts arc Iook|ng tor, thc |dcaI knowI-
cdgc thcy try to atta|n, thc rcasons why thcy occas|onaIIy
g0arrc| or rcma|n 0nabIc to comm0n|catc w|th cach othcr. '
Oncc aga|n, |t was E|nstc|n who torm0Iatcd thc cn|gma pro-
d0ccd by thc myth ot modcrn sccncc. Hc has statcd that thc
m|rac|c, thc onIy tr0Iy aston|sh|ng tcat0rc, |s that sc|cncc cx-
sts at a|| , that wc nd a convcrgcncc bctwccn nat0rc and thc
h0man m|nd. S|m||ar|y, whcn, at thc cnd ot thc n|nctccnth
ccnt0ry, d0 o|s kcymond madc Lap|acc's dcmon thc vcry
|ncarnat|on ot thc |og|c ot modcrn sc|cncc, hc addcd, "lgno-
ram0s, |gnorab|m0s. wc sha|| a|ways bc tota||y |gnorant ot
thc rc|at|onsh|p bctwccn thc wor|d ot sc|cncc and thc m|nd
wh|ch knows, pcrcc|vcs, and crcatcs th|s sc|cncc. '
Nat0rc spcaks w|th a tho0sand vo|ccs, and wc havc on|y bc-
g0n to ||stcn. Ncvcrthclcss, tor ncar|y two ccnt0r|cs Lap|acc's
dcmon has p|ag0cd o0r |mag|nat|on, br|ng|ng a n|ghtmarc |n
wh|ch a|| th|ngs arc |ns|gn|cant. lt |t wcrc rca||y tr0c that thc
wor|d |s s0ch that a dcmon-a bc|ng that |s, attcr a||, ||kc 0s,
posscss|ng thc samc sc|cncc, b0t cndowcd w|th sharpcr
scnscs and grcatcr powcrs ot ca|c0|at|on-co0|d, start|ng trom
thc obscrvat|on ot an |nstantanco0s statc, ca|c0|atc |ts t0t0rc
and past, |t noth|ng g0a||tat|vc|y d|hcrcnt|atcs thc s|mp|c sys-
tcms wc can dcscr|bc trom thc morc comp|cx oncs tor wh|ch a
dcmon |s nccdcd, thcn thc wor|d |s noth|ng but an |mmcnsc
ta0to|ogy. Th|s |s thc cha||cngc ot thc sc|cncc wc havc |nhcr-
tcd trom o0r prcdcccssors, thc spc|| wc havc to cxorc|sc to-
.O00l d|O l0 .3C0d30 0l l0 Lv|_
ln h|s |utcrcst|ng book on thc h|story ot thc |dca ot progrcss,
N|sbct wr|tcs.
No s|nglc |dca has bccu morc |mportant thau, pcrhaps as
|mportant as, thc |dca 0 progrcss |n Wcstcrn c|v|||zat|on
tor ncar|y thrcc tho0sand ycars. '
Thcrc has bccn no strongcr s0pport tor thc |dca 0 progrcss
thau thc acc0m0Iat|on ot know|cdgc. Thc grand|osc spcctacIc
D th|s grad0aI |ncrcasc ot kuow|cdgc |s |ndccd a magn|ccut
cxamp|c ot a s0cccsst0I co||cct|vc h0man cndcavor.
Lct 0s mcaI| thc rcmarkabIc d|scovcr|cs ach|cvcd at thc cud
0 thc c|ghtccnth ccut0ry aud thc bcg|nu|ug 0 thc u|uctccnth
ccut0ry. thc thcor|cs 0 hcat, cIcctr|c|ty, maguct|sm, aud op-
t|cs. lt |s uot s0rpr|s|ng that thc |dca 0 sc|cnt|c progrcss,
a|rcady cIcarIy torm0Iatcd |u thc c|ghtccnth ccnt0ry, dom|-
uatcd thc u|uctccnth. bt|||, as wc havc po|ntcd o0t, thc pos|-
t|on ot sc|cncc |u Wcstcru c0It0rc rcma|ncd 0nstabIc. Th|s
Icuds a dramat|c aspcct to thc h|story ot |dcas trom thc h|gh
po|ut 0 thc En||ghtcnmcnt.
Wc havc a|rcady statcd thc aItcrnat|vc. to acccpt sc|cucc
w|th what appcars to bc |ts aI|cuat|ug coucI0s|ous or to t0ru to
au aut|sc|cut|c mctaphys|cs. Wc havc aIso cmphas|zcd thc
soI|t0dc tc|t by modcru mcu, thc IoncI|ncss dcscr|bcd by Ps-
caI , K|crkcgaard, or Monod. Wc havc mcnt|oncd thc aut|-
sc|cnt|c |mp||cat|ons ot Hc|dcggcr's mctaphys|cs. Now wc
w|sh to d|sc0ss morc t0I|y somc aspccts ot thc |ntc|lcct0a| h|s-
tory ot thc Wcst, trom D|dcrot, Kant, and HcgcI to Wh|tchcad
aud crgson, a|| ot thcm attcmptcd to aua|yzc and I|m|t thc
scopc ot modcrn sc|cncc as wcII as to opcn ncw pcrspcct|vcs
HLH U | LH b
sccn as radcaIIy aIcn to that sccncc. Today t s 0s0aI|y
agrccd that thosc attcmpts havc tor thc most part taIcd. lcw
wo0Id acccpt, tor cxampIc, Kant's dvson ot thc worId nto
phcnomcnaI and no0mcnaI sphcrcs, or crgson's "nt0ton"
as an aItcrnatvc path to a knowIcdgc whosc sgntcancc
wo0Id paraIIcI that ot sccncc. btII thcsc attcmpts arc part ot
o0r hcrtagc. Thc hstory ot dcas cannot bc 0ndcrstood wth-
o0t rctcrcncc to thcm.
Wc shaII aIso brc0y dsc0ss sccnthc postvsm, whch s
bascd on thc scparaton ot what s tr0c trom what s sccnt-
caIIy 0sct0I. At thc o0tsct ths postvstc vcw may sccm to op
psc cIcarIy thc mctaphyscaI vcws wc havc mcntoncd, vcws
that l . crIn dcscrbcd as thc "Co0ntcr-EnIghtcnmcnt. "
Howcvcr, thcr t0ndamcntaI concI0son s thc samc. wc m0st
rc|cct sccncc as a bass tor tr0c knowIcdgc cvcn t at thc samc
tmc wc rccognzc ts practcaI mportancc or wc dcny, as pos-
tvsts do, thc possbIty ot any othcr cogntvc cntcrprsc.
Wc m0st rcmcmbcr aII thcsc dcvcIopmcnts to 0ndcrstand
what s at stakc. To what cxtcnt s sccncc a bass tor thc ntc|-
IgbIty ot nat0rc, ncI0dng man7 What s thc mcanng ot thc
dca ot progrcss today7
Ddcrot, onc ot thc towcrng hg0rcs ot thc EnIghtcnmcnt, |s
ccrtanIy no rcprcscntatvc ot antsccnthc tho0ght. On thc
contrary, hs conhdcncc n sccncc, n thc possbItcs ot
knowIcdgc, was totaI. Yct ths s thc vcry rcason why sccncc
had, toIIowng Ddcrot, to 0ndcrstand Itc bctorc t co0Id hopc
to achcvc any cohcrcnt vson ot nat0rc.
Wc havc aIrcady mcntoncd that thc brth ot modcrn sccncc
was markcd by thc abandonmcnt ot vtaIst nspraton and, n
partc0Iar, ot ArstotcIan naI ca0scs. Howcvcr, thc ss0c ot
thc organzaton ot Ivng mattcr rcmancd and bccamc a chaI-
Icngc tor cIasscaI sccncc. Ddcrot, at thc hcght ot thc Ncwto-
nan tr0mph, cmphaszcs that ths probIcm was rcprcsscd by
physcs. Hc magncs t as ha0ntng thc drcams ot physcsts
who cannot conccvc ot t whIc thcy arc awakc. Thc physcst
d AIcmbcrt s drcamng.
`T Ivng pont . . . No, that's wrong. Nothng at aII to
bcgn wth, and thcn a Ivng pont. Ths Ivng pont s
ccssvc |onngs thcrc rcs0Its a 0nhcd bcng, tor l am U
u0ly, D lh8l 8m C0ll8u. . . . (PS h0 S80 lhS u0 0ll
hmS0l 8ll OV0l.l ul hDW 00 lhS uuly CDm0 DDul7
PDW lSl0u, %l. hlDSDh0l, C8u uu00lSl8u0 8u 8ggl0-
g8l0, 8 lSSu0 D luy S0uSlV0 DD00S, Dul 8u 8um8l! . . .
P WhDl0, 8 SySl0m lh8l S 8 uul, 8u u0V0u8l COuSCDuS
D lS DWu uuly! C8ul S00 l, uD, C8u`l S00 l. -
u 8u m8gu8ly CDuV0lS8lOu Wlh 0Tl0mD0ll, L00lOl S08KS
u lh0 lSl 0lSOu, 00mOuSll8lug lh0 u800qu8Cy D m0Ch8uS-
lC 08l8u8lOu.
ODK 8l lhS 0gg. Wlh l yOu C8u DV0llhlDW 8ll lh0 SChDDlS
O lh0DlOgy 8u0 8ll lh0 ChulCh0S u lh0 WOll0. Yh8l S lhS
0gg7 Pu uS0uSlV0 m8SS D0Ol0 lh0 g0lm S ul ulD
l . . . MDW 0O0S lhS m8SS 0VOlV0 ulD 8 u0W Dlg8uZ8-
lOu, ulO S0uSlVly, ulO l07 hlOugh h08l. Yh8l Wll
g0u0l8l0 h08l u l7 %OlDu. Yh8l Wll lh0 SuCC0SSV0
00ClS D mOlOu D07 uSl080 D 8uSW0lug m0, Sl 0OWu
8u0 l0l uS OllOW Dul lh0S0 00ClS Wlh Oul 0y0S lOm Ou0
mOm0ul lD lh0 u08l. tlSl lh0l0 S 8 S0CK WhCh mDV0S
8DOul, 8 lhl080 glOWug 8u0 l8Kug COlOul, l0Sh D0ug
Olm00, 8 D08K, Wug-lS, 0y0S, 00l CDmug ulD V0W, 8
yCllOWSh SuDSl8uCC WhCh uuWu0S 8u0 luluS ulO ulCS-
lu0S8u0 yOu h8V0 8 lVug Cl08lul0 .... PDW lh0 W8ll
lS Dl08Ch00 8u0 lh0 Dl0 0m0lg0S, W8lKS, 0S, 00lS 8u,
luuS 8W8y, CDm0S D8CK 8g8u, COml8uS, Su0lS, lOV0S,
00Sl0S, 0ujOyS, l c80l0uC0S 8ll yOul 80ClOuS 8u0
0O0S 8ll lh0 lhugS yOu 0O. Pu0 Wll yOu m8ul8u, Wlh
L0SC8ll0S, lh8l l S 8u ml8lug m8Chu0 ul0 8u0 Sm-
l07 Yhy, 0V0u llll0 Chl0l0u Wll l8ugh 8l yOu, 8u0 h-
lOSOh0lS Wll 8uSW0l lh8l l S 8 m8Chu0 yOu 8l0 Du0
lOD! , hOW0V0l, yOu 80ml lh8l lh0 Duly 00l0uC0 D0-
lW00u yOu 8u0 8u 8um8l 8 Ou0 O Olg8uZ8lOu, yOu Wll
D0 ShOWug S0uS0 8u0 l08SOu 8u0 D0 8Clug u gOD0 8lh
Dul lh0u l Wll D0 COuClu000, CDull8ly lD Wh8l yDu h80
S80, lh8l lOm 8u u0ll SuDSl8uC0 8ll8ugC0 u 8 C0ll8u
W8y 8u0 ml0gu8l00 Dy 8uOlh0l u0ll SuDSl8uC0, SuD-
j0Cl00 lD h08l 8u0 mOlOu, yOu Wll g0l S0uSlVly, l0,
m0mOIy, COuSCiOuSu0SS, 8SSlOuS, thOught . . . JuSt lS-
l0u lD yOul DWu 8lgum0ulS 8u0 yOu Wll 00l hOW lul
lh0y 8l0. YDu Wll CDm0 lD 00l lh8l Dy l0uSug lD 0ul0l-
l8u 8 Sml0 hyDlh0SS lh8l 08l8uS 0V0IylhugS0u-
SlVly 8S 8 lD0lly CDmmDu lD 8ll m8ll0l Dl 8S 8 l0Sull
D lh0 Dlg8uZ8lDu D m8ll0lyDu 8l0 yug u lh0 8C0 D
CDmmDu S0uS0 8u0 luugug ulD 8 Ch8Sm D mySl0l0S,
CDull80ClDuS 8u0 8DSul0l0S.'
u DDSlDu lD l8lDu8l m0Ch8uCS, lD lh0 Cl8m lh8l m8l0-
l8l u8lul0 S uDlhug Dul u0ll m8SS 8u0 mDlDu, L00lDl 8-
08lS lD Du0 D hySCS mDSl 8uC0ul SDulC0S D uSl8lDu,
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03| c

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luRIly 0I IcScRlIRg RcW I0DcmS, SuCh 8S lhc dISSI8lI0R 0
cRcIgy. WII8m h0mS0R, Wh0 h8d gIc8l IcScCl 0I t0uIIcI`S
W0IK, W8S quICK l0 gI8S lhc Im0Il8RCc 0 lhc I0Dcm, 8Rd
IR lb5Zhc W8S lhc HISl l0 0Imu8lc lhc ScC0Rd 8W 0 lhcIm0-
l W8S t0uIIcIS hc8l I08g8lI0R lh8l L8IR0l h8d IdcRlIHcd
8S 8 0SSIDc C8uSc 0I lhc 0WcI l0SScS IR 8 Bc8l cRgIRc. L8I-
R0l`S CyClc, R0 l0RgcI lhc Idc8l CyClc Dul lhc Ic8l CyClc, lhuS
DcC8mc lhc 0IRl 0 C0RVcIgcRCc 0 lhc Iwoanversu/IesdIS-
C0VcIcd IR lhc uIRclccRlh CcRluIy-cRcIgy C0RVcISI0u 8R0
hc8l H8g8lI0B. hc C0mDIR8lI0u 0 lhcSc lW0 dISC0VcIc8
cd h0mS0R l0 0Imu8lc hS RcW IRCpc: lhc ckSlcRCc u
R8luIc 0 8 anversu/Iendency l0W8Id lhc dcgI8d8lI0R 0 mc-
Ch8RIC8l cRcIgy. P0lc lhc W0Id uRIVcIS8, WhICh h8S 0D-
VI0uS C0Sm00gIC8l C0RR0l8lI0RS.
hc W0Ild 0 L8l8Cc W8S clcIR8, 8R Idc8 cIclu8-m0lI0R
m8ChIRc. bIRCc h0mS0RS C0Sm0l0gy S R0l mcIcly 8 IcHcC-
lI0R 0 lhc RcW Idc8l hc8l cRgIRc Dul 8lS0 IRC0I0I8lcS lhc C0R-
ScqucRCcS 0 lhc IIIcVcISIDc I08g8lI0R 0 hc8l IR 8 W0Id IR
WhICh cRcQy IS C0RScIVcd. hIS W0Ild IS dcSCIIDcd 8S 8R cRRc
IR WhICh hc8l IS C0RVcIlcd IRl0 m0lI0R 0Ry 8l lhc IICc O S0mc
IIcVcISIDc W8Slc 8Rd uSccSS dSSp8lI0R. cCl-I0duCIRg
u IlS dIHcIcRCcS 8S Il g0cS I0m 0Rc C0RVcISI0R l0 8R0lhcI
8Rd lcRdS l0W8Id 8 HR8l Sl8lc 0 |hcIm8l cquIlIDIIum, hc8l
dc8lh. R 8CC0Id8RCc WIlh t0uIIcI`S l8W, IR lhc cRd lhcIc WIll
R0 l0RgcI Dc 8Ry dIcIcRCcS 0 lcmcI8luIc l0 I0duCc 8 mc-
Ch8RIC8l ccCl.
h0mS0R lhuS m8dc 8 dIZZy lc8 I0m cRgIRc lcChR0l0gy l0
C0Sm00gy. M|S 0Imu8lI0R 0 lhc ScC0Rd l8W W8S C0uChcd IR
lhc SCIcRlIHC lcImIR00gy 0 hIS lImc. lhc C0RScIV8lI0R 0 cR-
cIgy, cRgIRcS, 8Rd t0uIIcIS l8W. l IS Cc8I, m0Ic0VcI, lh8l lhc
8Il 8ycd Oy lhc CuluI8 C0Rlc8l W8S Im0Il8Rl. l IS gcRcI-
8ly 8CCclcd lh8l lhc I0Dcm 0 lImc l00K 0R 8 RcW Im0I-
l8RCc duIIRg lhc RIRclccRlh CcRluIy. Rdccd, lhc cSScRlI8l I0lc
0 lImc Dcg8R l0 Dc R0lICcd IR 8ll HcdSIR gc0l0gy, IR DI0l0gy,
IR l8Rgu8gc, 8S Wcll 8S IR lhc Sludy 0 hum8R S0CIm cV0lulI0R
8Rd clhICS. ul Il IS IRlcIcSlIRg lh8l lhc ScCIHC 0Im IR WhICh
lImc W8S IRlI0duCcd IR hySICS, 8S 8 lcRdcRCy l0W8Id h0m0gc-
RcIly 8Rd dc8lh, IcmIRdS uS m0Ic 0 8RCIcRl mylh0l0gIC8l 8R0
IcIgI0uS 8IChclycS lh8R 0 lhc I0gIcSSIVc C0mlckIHC8lI0R
8Rd dIVcISIIC8lI0R dcSCIIDcd Dy DI00gy 8Rd lhc S0CI8l SCI-
cRCcS. hc IcluIR 0 lhcSc 8RCIcRl lhcmcS C8R Dc SccR 8S 8
CulluI8 IccICuSSI0R 0 lhc S0CI8l 8Rd C0R0mIC uhc8V8lS 0
lhc lImc. hc I8IC lI8RS0Im8lI0R 0 lhc lcChR00gIC8l m0dc
0 IRlcI8ClI0R WIlh R8luIc, lhc C0RSl8Rlly 8CCclcI8lIRg 8Cc 0
Ch8Rgc c8cIIcRCcd Dy lhc RIRclccRlh CcRluIy, I0duCcd 8
dcc 8R8Icly. hIS 8R8Icly IS SlIl WIlh uS 8Rd l8KcS V8II0uS
0ImS, I0m lhc Icc8lcd I00S8S 0I 8 `ZcI0 gI0Wlh S0-
CIcly 0I 0I 8 m0I8l0IIum 0R SCIcRlIIC IcSc8ICh l0 lhc
lCgIallng unlVCI5C. VIC5Cnl KnOWCdgC lD a5lIODy5lC5 l5 5ll
SC8Rly 8Rd VcIy I0Dcm8lIC, SIRCc IR lhIS Hcd gI8VIl8lI0R8
cClS l8y 8R cSScRlI8l I0c 8Rd I0OcmS Imly lhc SImul-
l8Rc0uS uSc 0 lhcIm0dyR8mICS 8Rd Icl8lIVIly. Ycl m0Sl lcklS
IR lhIS Hcd 8Ic uR8RIm0uS IR IcdIClIRg HR8l d00m. hc C0R-
CluSI0R 0 8 IcCcRl O00K Ic8dS.
hc uR88l8Dlc lIulh 8c8IS l0 Dc lh8l lhc IRck0I8Dc
dISIRlcgI8lI0R 0 lhc uRIVcISc 8S Wc KR0W Il SccmS 8S-
SuIcd, lhc 0Ig8RIZ8lI0R WhICh SuSl8IRS 8ll 0IdcIcd 8C-
lIVIly, IDm mcR l0 g888IcS, IS S0Wly bul IRcVIl8Dly
Il8lI0R8l C08Sc IRl0 0OlIVI0R."
LlhcIS 8Ic m0Ic 0lImISlIC. R 8R ckCccRl 8IlICc 0R lhc
cRcIgy 0 lhc uRIVcISc, tIccm8R LyS0R h8S WIIllcR.
l IS C0uCcIV8Dc h0WcVcI lh8l Ic m8y h8Vc 8 8IgcI I0c
l0 8y lh8R Wc h8Vc ycl Im8gIucd. LIc m8y SuCCccd
8g8IuSl 8 0 lhc 0ddS IR m0dIug lhc uuIVcISc l0 IlS 0WR
uI0Sc. Pud lhc dcSIgR 0 lhc IR8uIm8lc uuIVcISc m8y
R0l Dc 8S dcl8Uhcd I0m lhc 0lcRlI8IlIcS 0 Ic 8ud Iulc-
IgcuUc 8S SUIculISlS o lhc lWcRlIclh CcRluIy h8Vc lcudcd
l0 Su0Sc.`
u SIlc 0 lhc Im0Il8ul I0gIcSS m8dc Dy M8WKIug 8Rd 0lh-
cIS, 0uI KR0wcdgc 0 8Igc-SU8c lI8RS0Im8lI0uS IR 0uI uRI-
VcISc Icm8IRS Iu8dcqu8lc.
1|0 z|M' Dl c0'DQy
R lb5, Il W8S L8uSIuS luIR l0 m8Kc lhc c8 I0m lcChR0-
0gy lo C0Sm00gy. Pl lhc 0ulScl hc mcIcy Ic0Imu8lcd hIS
c8IIcI U0uUuSI0RS, Dul Iu d0Iug S0 hc IRlI0duCcd 8 RcW C0R-
Ccl, enlropy. MIS HISl g08 W8S l0 dISlIuguISh Cc8Iy DclWccR
lhc U0uCclS 0 U0uScIV8!I0R 8ud 0 DVcISIDI!I!y. \uIKc mcUh8R-
IC8 lI8RS0Im8!I0RS, WhcIc IcVcISIDII!y 8ud C0uScIV8lI0u
C0IRCIdc, 8 hySIC0UhcmIU8 lI8uS0Im8!I0u m8y C0RScIVc cu-
cIgy cVcR lh0ugh Il C8Ru0! Dc IcVcIScd. hIS IS lIuc, 0I Iu-
Sl8uCc, IR lhc C8Sc 0 IIClI0R, IR WhIUh m0lI0R IS C0RVcIlcd
IR!0 hc8l, 0I IR lhc C8Sc 0 hc8l U0RduU!I0R 8S Il W8S dcSUIIDcd
Dy t0uIIcI.
Wc 8Ic 8Ic8dy 8mII8I WI!h cRcIgy, WhIUh IS 8 uRClI0u 0l
lhc Sl8lc 0 8 SySlcmlh8l IS, 8 uuClI0R dccudcRl 0uy 0R
lhc V8uc 0 lhc 8I8mclcIS (IcSSuIc, V0umc, lcmcI8luIc)
Dy WhIUh lh8l Sl8!c m8y Dc dcHRcd. ul Wc muSl g0 Dcy0Rd
lhc IIRUIc 0 cucIgy C0uScIV8lI0R 8ud Hud 8 W8y l0 ckIcSS
lhc dISlIRUlI0R Dc!WccR `uScu ckUh8ugcS 0 cRcIgy Iu lhc
L8Iu0l CyUc 8Rd dISSI8lcd cRcIgy lh8l IS IIIcVcISIDy
hIS IS IcUIScy lhc I0c 0 L8uSIuS RcW uRUlI0u, cRlI0y,
gcucI8y 0cu0!c0 by .
P8IcRly L8uSIuS mcIcy WIShcd l0 ckIcSS IR 8 RcW 0Im
lhc 0DVI0uS IcquIIcmcul lh8l 8u cugIuc IcluIu l0 IlS IuIlI8l
Sl8lc 8l lhc cud 0 IlS CyC!c. hc HISl dcHuIlI0u 0 culI0y IS
CculcIcd 0u C0uScIV8lIou. 8l lhc cud 0 c8Ch CyC!c, WhclhcI
Idc8l 0I u0l, lhc uuClI0u 0 lhc SySlcmS Sl8lc, culI0y, IcluIuS
l0 IlS IuIlI8l V8luc. ul lhc 8I8!!cl DclWccu culI0y 8ud cu-
cIgy cudS 8S S00u 8S Wc 8D8ud0u Idc8!IZ8lI0uS.
Lcl uS C0uSIdcI lhc V8II8lI0u 0 lhc culI0y dS0VcI 8 ShoIl
lImc IulcIV8l dl. hc SIlu8lI0u IS quIlc dIcIcul 0I Idc8! 8ud
Ic8l cugIucS. u lhc HISl C8Sc, dSm8y Dc c8IcSScd C0m!c!c!y
Iu lcImS 0 lhc c8Ch8ugcS DclWccu lhc cugIuc 8ud IlS cuVII0u-
mcul. Wc C8u Scl u c8cIImculS Iu WhICh hc8l IS gIVcu u Dy
lhc SySlcm IuSlc8d 0 l0WIug Iul0 lhc SySlcm. hc C0IIc-
S0udIug Ch8ugc Iu culI0y W0u!d SIm!y h8V IlS SIgu
Ch8ugcd. hIS kIud 0 C0ulIIOulI0u l0 culI0y, WhICh Wc Sh8!l
C8!l dS, IS lhcIc0Ic reverstb/e Iu lhc ScuSc lh8l Il C8u h8Vc
cIlhcI 8 0SIlIVc 0I 8 ucg8lIVc SIgu. Jhc SI!u8!I0u IS dI8S!IU8!!y
dIcIcul Iu 8 Ic8l cugIuc. McIc, Iu 8ddI!I0u lo IcVcISIO!c c8-
Ch8ugcS, Wc h8Vc trreverstb/e I0CcSScS IuSIdc lhc SySlcm,
SuCh 8S hc8l !0SScS, IIClI0u, 8ud S0 0u. hcSc I0duCc 8u cu-
lI0y IuCIc8Sc 0I culI0y I0duU!I0u IuSIdc lhc SySlcm.
hIS IuCIc8Sc 0 culI0y, WhICh Wc Sh8!! C8ll dS, C8uu0l
Ch8ugc IlS SIgu !hI0ugh 8 IcVcIS8! 0 lhc hc8l c8Uh8ugc WI!h
lhc 0u!SI0c W0I!d. LIKc 8!! IIIcVcISIO!c ICCcSScS (SuCh 8S hc8l
C0uduClI0u), culICy I0duUlI0u 8!W8yS I0UccdS Iu lhc S8mc
dIIcClI0u. u 0lhcI W0IdS, dSC8u 0u!y Oc 0SIlIVc 0I V8uISh Iu
lhc 8DScuCc 0 IIIcVcISIO!c I0CcSScS. P0lc lh8l lhc 0SIlIVc
SIgu 0 dS IS Ch0Scu mcIc!y Dy C0uVculI0u, Il C0u!d ]uSl 8S
Wc!! h8Vc Dccu ucg8lIVc. hc 0Iul IS lh8l lhc V8II8lI0u IS m0-
u0!0u0uS, !h8! cu!I0y I0duU!I0u U8uu0! Uh8ugc IlS SIgu 8S
lImc g0cS 0u.
hc u0l8lI0uS dS 8ud dSh8Vc Dccu Ch0Scu l0 IcmIud lhc
Ic8dcI !h8l lhc HISl lcIm IccIS !0 exchunges(e) WI!h !hc 0u!-
SIuc W0I!d, WhI!c lhc ScC0ud IccIS l0 lhc IIIcVcISID!c I0-
CcSScS tnstde (t) lhc SySlcm. hc cu!I0y V8II8lI0u dS IS
lhcIc0Ic lhc Sum 0 lhc lW0 lcImS dS 8ud dS, WhIUh h8Vc
quIlc dIcIcul hySIC8! mc8uIugS.

0 gI8S lhc cCu!I8I c8luIc 0 lhIS dcU0m0SIlIou 0 cu-
lI0y V8II8lI0u Iul0 lW0 8IlS, Il IS uScu! l0 8!y 0uI 0Imu!8-
lI0u l0 cucIgy Lcl uS dcu0lc cucIgy Oy L8ud V8II8lI0u 0VcI 8
8DOt tDC d/ Dj dL. Lt COUSC, WC WOUU Slll WlC lDul dL S
cqu8l l0 lhc Sum 0 8 lcIm dLduc l0 lhc c8Ch8ugcS 0 cucIgy
8Rd 8 lcIm dLlIRKcd l0 lhc IRlcIR8l I0duUlI0R 0 cRcIgy.
M0WcVcI, lhc IIRUIlc 0 1hc U0RScIV8lI0R 0 cRcIgy Sl8lcS
lh8l cRcIgy IS RcVcI I0duUcd Dul 0Rly lI8RScIIcd I0m 0Rc
l8Uc l0 8R0lhcI. hc V8II8lI0R IR cRcIgy dLIS lhcR IcduUcd l0
dL.LR lhc 0lhcI h8Rd, I Wc l8Kc 8 R0RU0RScIVd qu8RlIly,
SuUh 8S lhc qu8RlIly 0 BydI0gcR m0cUucS U0Rl8IRcd IR 8 VcS-
Scl, lhIS qu8RlIly m8y V8Iy D0lh 8S lhc IcSul 0 8ddIRg hydI0-
gcR l0 lhc VcSScl 0I lhI0ugh UhcmIU8l Ic8UlI0RS 0UUuIIIRg
IRSIdc lhc VcSSc. ul IR lhIS C8Sc, lhc SIgR 0 lhc I0duClI0R
IS R0l dclcImIRcd. LccRdIRg 0R lhc UIIUumSl8RUcS, Wc C8R
I0duUc 0I dcSlI0y hydI0gcR m0lcUucS Dy lI8RScIIIRg hydI0-
gcR 8l0mS l0 0lhcI UhcmIU8 U0m0RcRlS. hc cUulI8I c8luIc
0 lhc ScU0Rd l8W IS lhc 8Ul lh8l lhc I0duUlI0R lcIm dS IS
u/wuyspostltve. hc I0duUlI0R 0 cRlI0y ckIcSScS lhc 0C-
UuIIcRUc 0 IIIcVcISIDc Uh8RgcS IRSIdc lhc SySlcm.
L8uSIuS W8S 8Dc l0 ckIcSS qu8RlIl8lIVcly lhc cRlI0y H0W
dSIR lcImS 0 lhc hc8l IcUcIVcd (0I gIVcR u) Oy lhc SySlcm.
R 8 W0Id d0mIR8lcd Dy lhc U0RUclS 0 IcYcISIDIlIly 8Rd U0R-
ScIV8lI0R, lhIS W8S hIS m8IR U0RUcIR. Hcg8IdIRg lhc IIIcVcIS-
IOc I0UcSScS IRV0Vcd IR cRlI0y I0duUlI0R, hc mcIcy Sl8lcd
lhc ckISlcRUc 0 lhc IRcqu8Ily dS/dl`0.LVcR S0, Im0Il8Rl
I0gIcSS h8d OccR m8dc, 0I, I Wc lc8Vc lhc L8IR0l UyUlc 8Rd
C0RSIdcI 0lhcI lhcIm0dyu8mIU SySlcmS, lhc dtsltnclton he-
lween enlrog]/ow undenlropyprodaclton cunslt//hemude.
t0I 8R IS08lcd SySlcm lh8l h8S R0 ckUh8RgcS WIlh IlS cRVII0R-
mcRl, lhc cRlI0y H0W IS, Dy dcHRIlI0R, ZcI0. LRly lhc I0-
duUlI0R lcIm Icm8IRS, 8Rd lhc SySlcmS cRlI0y U8R 0Rly
IRCIc8Sc 0I Icm8IR U0RSl8Rl. McIc, lhcR, Il IS R0 l0RgcI 8 qucS-
lI0R 0 IIIcVcISIOlc lI8RS0Im8lI0RS U0RSIdcIcd 8S 8I0kIm8lI0RS
0 IcVcISIDlc lI8RS0Im8lI0RS, IRUIc8SIRg cRlI0y U0IIcS0RdS
l0 lBc sponluneoas evo/alton 0 lhc SySlcm. LRlI0y lhuS Dc-
U0mcS 8R IRdIU8l0I 0 cV0ulI0R, 0I 8R 8II0W 0 lImc, 8S
LddIRgl0R 8lly U8lcd Il. t0I 8ll IS0l8lcd SySlcmS, lhc uluIc
IS lhc dIIcUlI0R 0 IRUIc8SIRg cRlI0y.
Wh8l SySlcm W0uld Dc DcllcI IS08lcd lh8R lhc uRIVcISc
8S 8 Wh0lc! hIS C0RUcl IS lhc D8SIS 0 lhc U0Sm0l0gIU8l 0I-
mul8lI0R 0 lhc lW0 l8WS 0 lhcIm0dyR8mIUS gIYcR Dy L8uSIuS
IR lb5:
Ote Lnergteder We/l tsl konslunl.
I|r Ln/rOpr drr Wr|/ o/rr/ r|nrm muA|mum u."
hc Sl8lcmcRl lh8l lhc cRlI0y 0 8R IS0l8lcd SySlcm R-
CIc8ScS l0 8 m8kImum g0cS 8I Dcy0Rd lhc lcChR0l0gIC8l I0D-
lcm lh8l g8Vc IISc l0 lhcIm0dyR8mICS. RCIc8SIRg cRlI0y IS
R0 l0RgcI SyR0Rym0uS WIlh l0SS Dul R0W IccIS l0 lhc nuluru/
processes WIlhIR lhc SySlcm. hcSc 8Ic lhc I0CcSScS lh8l ul-
lIm8lcly lc8d lhc SySlcm l0 lhcIm0dyR8mIC cquIlIDIIum
C0IIcS0RdIRg l0 lhc Sl8lc 0 m8kImum cRlI0y.
R L8lcI Wc cmh8SIZcd lhc clcmcRl 0 SuIIISc IR-
V0lVc0 IR lhc dISC0VcIy 0 PcWl0RS uRIVcIS8 l8WS 0 dyR8m-
ICS. McIc 8lS0 lhc clcmcRl 0 SuIIISc IS 88IcRl. WhcR b8dI
L8IR0l 0Imul8lcd lhc l8WS 0 Idc8 lhcIm8 cRgIRcS, hc W8S
8I I0m Im8gIRIRg lh8l hIS W0IK W0uld lc8d l0 8 C0RCclu8
IcV0ulI0R IR hySICS.
cVcISIDc lI8RS0Im8lI0RS Dcl0Rg l0 Cl8SSIC8l SCIcRCc IR lhc
ScRSc lh8l lhcy dcHRc lhc 0SSIDIlIly 0 8ClIRg 0R 8 SySlcm, 0
C0RlI0lIRg Il. hc dynumtcobjeclC0uld Dc C0RlI0llcd lhI0ugh
IlS IRI!I8 C0RdIlI0RS. bImIl8Iy, WhcR dcHRcd IR lcImS 0 IlS
IcVcISIDlc lI8RS0Im8lI0RS, lhc lhermodynumtcobjeclm8y Dc
C0RlI0llcd lhI0ugh IlS D0uRd8Iy C0RdIlI0RS. 8Ry SySlcm IR
lhcIm0dyR8mIC cquIIDIIum Wh0Sc lcmcI8luIc, V0lumc, 0I
IcSSuIc 8Ic gruduu//y Ch8Rgcd 8SScS lhI0ugh 8 ScIIcS 0
cquIlIDIIum Sl8lcS, 8Rd 8Ry IcVcIS8l 0 lhc m8RIu8lI0R lc8dS
l0 8 IcluIR l0 IlS IRIlI8 Sl8lc. hc IcVcISIDc R8luIc 0 SuCh
Ch8Rgc 8Rd C0RlI0llIRg lhc 0DJcCl lhI0ugh IlS D0uRd8Iy C0RdI-
lI0RS 8Ic IRlcIdccRdcRl I0CcSScS. R lhIS C0Rlckl IIIcVcIS-
IDIlIly IS Rcg8lIVc, Il 8c8IS IR lhc 0Im 0 uRC0RlI0llcd
Ch8RgcS lh8l 0CCuI 8S S00R 8S lhc SySlcm cudcS C0RlI0l. ul
IRVcIScly, IIIcVcISIDlc I0CcSScS m8y Dc C0RSIdcIcd 8S lhc l8Sl
IcmR8RlS 0 lhc S0Rl8Rc0uS 8Rd IRlIIRSIC ucltvtly dIS8ycd
Dy R8luIc WhcR cXcImcRlu dcVI0cS 8Ic cml0ycd l0 8IRcSS
huS lhc Rcg8lIVc I0cIly 0 dISSI8lI0R Sh0WS lh8l, uR-
lIKc dyR8mIC 0D]cClS, lhcIH0dyR8mIC 0DJcClS C8R 0Rly Dc pur-
ltu//y C0RlI0lcd. LCC8SI0R8ly lhcy DIc8K l00Sc IRl0
S0Rl8Rc0uS Ch8Rgc.
H chunges ure nol egutvu/enl/or u lhermodynumtc sys-
lem. IS IS lhc mc8RIRg 0 lhc ckIcSSI0R dS=dSdS.
b0Rl8Rc0uS Ch8Rgc l0W8Id cquIIDIIum dS IS dIcIcRl I0m
lhc Ch8Rgc dS, WhICh IS dclcImIRcd 8Rd C0RlI0cd Dy 8 m0d-
lcmcI8luIc). t0I 8R IS08lcd SySlcm, cquIDIIum 8c8IS 8S
8R ``8llI8Cl0I 0 R0RcquIlIDIIum Sl8lcS. LuI IRIlI8l 8SScIlI0R
m8y lhuS Dc gcRcI8IZcd Dy S8yIRg lh8l cV0ulI0R l0W8Id 8R
8llI8Cl0I Sl8lc dIHcIS I0m 8 0lhcI Uh8RgcS, cScUI8!y I0m
Ch8RgcS dclcImIRcd Dy D0uRd8Iy U0udIlI0RS.
m8k l8RUK 0cR cmh8SIZcd lhc UIcIcRUc DclWccR lhc
lW0 lycS 0 Uh8Rgc 0uRd IR R8luIc. P8luIc, WI0lc 8RUK,
Sc6mS l0 `8V0I CcIl8IR Sl8lcS. hc IIIcVcISIDc IRUIc8Sc IR
cRlI0y dS/dldcSUIIDcS 8 SySlcm`S 8I08Uh l0 8 Sl8lc WhIUh
8llI8UlS Il, WhIUh lhc SySlcm IccIS 8Rd I0m WhIUh Il WIll
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LH'0D H0O 'H'w'0
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l IS dIHUul l0 Scc h0W 0lZm8RRS 0IdcI IIRUIc C8R Dc
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0 U0mckI0RS, IR 8 Sl8lc 0 uRI0ImIly, WhcR lh dIcI-
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lBc RumDcI 0 U0mckI0RS WI Dc m8kImum. ul Il IS Im0S-
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0h0m08l l000SS0S l8y 8 uBd8m0Bl8l l0l0 B D0l0gy. h0
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lh0uS8BdS 0 0h0m08l l080l0BS l8K0 l800 Smull8B00uSly l0
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wlhB lh0 00ll, lhS 0h0m08l 80lYly S hghly 000ldB8l0d.
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l08Cll00 l0lP. B0 Cl8SSlC8 lh00ly 0 Ch0mlC8 Kl00llCS lS
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l00lll008 l0 lh0 C00C00ll8ll00S 0 lh0 l000ClS l8Kl0g 8ll
l0 ll. 00000, ll lS lhl0ugh C0llSl00S D0lW000 m0l0C00S lh8l 8
l08Cll00 l8K0S 8C0, 800 ll lS qull0 08lul8 l0 8SSum0 lh8l lB0
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t0l lB0 S8K0 0 088m0, 0l uS l8K0 8 Slm0 l08Cll00 SuCB
8S H hlS l08Cll00 0q08ll00 m080S lh8l Wh00-
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lB0l0 lS 8 C0ll8l0 I0D8Dllly lB8l 8 l08Cll00 Wll l8K0 8C0 800
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o lhc dctcnl QtoduCl8 nVolVcd.n a tcaClon. h8 knclC8 8
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m0l0Cul0 0 H 0lS808lS l00, 800 8 m00Cu0 0 800 000 0
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h D8SIC mCh8uISm lhI0ugh WhICh m0lCul8I DI0l0gy 8-
l8IuS lh lI8uSmISSI0u 8ud 8l0Il8lI0u 0 gulIC Iu0Im8lI0u
IS IlSl 8 dD8CK l00, 8 u0ulIu8I mCh8uISm. L08yII-
D0uuClIC 8CId (LPP), WhICh C0ul8IuS Iu SquulI8l 0Im 8ll
lh Iu0Im8lI0u IquIId 0I lh SyulhSIS 0 lh V8II0uS D8SIC
I0lIuS udd Iu Cll DuIldIug 8ud uuClI0uIug, 8IlICI8lS
Iu 8 SquuC 0 I8ClI0uS duIIug WhICh lhIS Iu0Im8lI0u IS l|u0S-
ulrJIul0 lh 0Im 0 dIIul I0lIu SquuCS. Pm0ug lh
I0lIuS SyulhSIZd, S0m uZymS 8Il 8 dD8CK 8ClI0u
lh8l 8ClIV8lS 0I C0ulHlS u0l 0uly lh dIIul lI8uS0Im8lI0u
Sl8gS Dul 8lS0 lh 8ul0C8l8lylIC mCh8uISm 0 LPP IlIC8-
lI0u, Dy WhICh gulIC Iu0Im8lI0u IS C0Id 8l lh S8m I8l
8S lh CllS mullIly.
MI W h8V 8 Im8IK8Dl C8S 0 lh C0uVIguC 0 lW0
SCIuCS. h uudISl8udIug 8ll8Iud hI IquIId C0ml-
mul8Iy dVl0mulS Iu hySICS 8ud DI0l0gy, 0u l0W8Id lh
C0ml8 8ud lh 0lhI l0W8Id lh lmul8Iy.
udd, I0m lh 0Iul 0 VIW 0 hySICS, W u0W luVSlIg8l
C0ml8 SIlu8lI0uS 8I Im0Vd I0m lh Id8l SIlu8lI0uS
lh8l C8u D dSCIIDd Iu lImS 0 quIlIDIIum lhIm0dyu8m-
ICS. Lu lh 0lhI h8ud, m0lCul8I DI0l0gy SuCCdd Iu Il8l-
Iug lIVIug SlIuCluIS l0 8 Il8lIVly Sm8ll uumDI 0 D8SIC
DI0m0lCulS. uVSlIg8lIug lh dIVISIly 0 ChmIC8l mCh8-
uISmS, Il dISC0VId lh IulIIC8Cy 0 lh ml8D0lIC I8ClI0u
Ch8IuS, lh SuDll, C0ml8 l0gIC 0 lh C0ulI0l, IuhIDIlI0u, 8ud
8ClIV8lI0u 0 lh C8l8lylIC uuClI0u 0 lh uZymS 8SS0I8ld
WIlh lh 0IIlIC8l Sl 0 8Ch 0 lh ml8D0lIC Ch8IuS. u lhIS
W8y m0lCul8I DI0l0gy I0VIdS lh mICI0SC0IC D8SIS 0I lh
IuSl8DIlIlIS lh8l m8y 0CCuI Iu 8I-I0m-quIlIDIIum C0udIlI0uS.
u 8 SuS, lIVIug SySlmS 88I 8S 8 Wll-0Ig8uIZd 8C-
l0Iy. 0u lh 0u h8ud, lhy 8I lh SIl 0 mullIl ChmIC8l
lI8uS0Im8lI0uS, 0u lh 0lhI, lhy NSul 8 Nm8IK8Dl S8-
lIm 0Ig8uIZ8lI0u WIlh hIghly u0uuuI0Im dISlIIDulI0u 0 DI0-
ChmIC8l m8lII8l. W C8u u0W lIuK uuClI0u 8ud SlIuCluI.
Ll uS DIIHy C0uSIdI lW0 88mlS lh8l h8V Du SludId
8luSIVly lu lh 8Sl W y8IS.
tIISl W Sh8ll C0uSIdI glyC0lySIS, lh Ch8Iu O ml8D0lIC
I8ClI0uS duIIug WhICh gluC0S IS DI0Ku d0Wu 8ud 8u uIgy-
fICh SuDSl8uC P (8du0SIu lIIh0Sh8l) IS SyulhlIZd,
I0VIdIug 8u SSulI8l S0uIC 0 uIgy C0mm0u l0 8ll lIVIug
CllS. 0I 8Ch gluC0S m0lCul lh8l IS DI0Ku d0Wu, lW0
m0lCulS 0 PL (8du0SIu dISh0Sh8l) 8I lI8uS0Imd
Iul0 lW0 m0lCulS 0 P LlyC0lySIS I0VIdS 8 Hu 88ml
0 h0W C0mlml8Iy lB 8u8lylIC8l 8I08Ch 0 DI0l0gy 8ud
lh IuVSlIg8lI0u 0 Sl8DIlIly Iu 8I-I0m-quIlIDIIum C0udIlI0uS
I0ChmIC8l 8IImulS h8V dISC0VId lh 8ISluC 0
lm0I8l 0SCIll8lI0uS Iu C0uCulI8lI0uS Il8l0 l0 lh glyC0-
lylIC CyCl. l h8S Du Sh0u lh8l lhS 0SCIll8lI0uS 8I dlI-
mIud Dy 8 Ky Sl Iu lh I8ClI0u SquuC, 8 Sl 8ClIV8ld
Dy PL 8ud IuhIDIld Dy P1 hIS IS 8 lyIC8l u0ulIu8I h-
u0mu0u Wll SuIld l0 Igul8l ml8D0lIC uuClI0uIug. u-
dd, 8Ch lIm lh Cll dI8WS 0u IlS uIgy ISIVS, Il I8
8l0IlIug lh h0Sh8lc D0udS, 8ud P IS C0uVIld Iul0
PL PL 8CCumul8lI0u IuSId lh Cll lhuS SIguIHS IuluSIV
uIgy C0uSumlI0u 8ud lh ud l0 IluISh Sl0CKS. P
8CCumul8lI0u, 0u lh 0lhI h8ud, m8uS lh8l gluC0S C8u D
DI0Ku d0Wu 8l 8 Sl0WI I8l.
h0IlIC8l IuVSlIg8lI0u o lhIS I0CSS h8S Sh0Wu lh8l lhIS
mCh8uISm IS Iudd lI8Dl l0 I0duC 8u 0SCIll8lI0u h-
u0mu0u, 8 ChmC8l C0CK. h lh0IlIC8y C8lCu8ld V8-
uS 0 lh ChmIC8l C0uCulI8lI0uS uCSS8Iy l0 I0duC
0SCIll8lI0u 8ud lh II0d 0 lh CyCl 8gI WIlh lh 8Il-
mul8l d8l8. LlyC0lylIC 0SCIll8lI0u I0duCS 8 m0dul8lI0u 0
all thC CCll's CnCr

y prOCCssCs WhCh afC dCpCDd<u 0u P

C0uCulIulI0u 8ud lhI0I IudIIClly 0u uumI0uS 0lhI ml-
8D0lIC Ch8IuS.
W m8y g0 8IlhI 8ud Sh0W lh8l Iu lh glyC0lylIC 8lhW8y
lh I8ClI0uS C0ulI0lld Dy S0m 0 lh Ky uZym5 8I Iu 8I-
I0m-quIlIDIIum C0udIlI0uS. buCh C8lCul8lI0uS h8V Du I-
0Ild Dy uu0 MSS 8ud h8V SIuC Du 8ludd l0 0lhI
SySlmS. LudI uSu8l C0udIlI0uS lh glyC0lylIC CyCl C0II-
S0udS l0 8 ChmIC8l Cl0CK, Dul Ch8ugIug lhS C0udIlI0uS C80
IuduC S8lI8l 8llIu 0Im8lI0uS Iu C0mll 8gImul WIlh
lh IdIClI0uS 0 XISlIug lh0IlIC8 m0dl5.
u8mIC 0Iul 0 VIW. LcIl8Iu I8ClI0uS 8I C0S l0 qul-
lDlum, 8nd 0lh0lS 8l0 n0l. 0l 0Y0lylhng n 8 lYng SySl0m
S 8lY0. h0 0n0lgy H0w lh8l 0l0SS0S l S0m0wh8l l0S0m-
Dl0S lh0 H0w 0 8 lY0l lh8l g0n0l8ly m0Y0S Sm00lhly Dul lh8l
l0m lm0 l0 lm0 lumD0S d0wn 8 w8l0l8ll, wh0h D0l8l0S
8ll 0 lh0 0n0lgy l 00nl8nS.
L0l uS 00nSd0l 8n0lh0l D00g08l l000SS lh8l 8S0 h8S
D00n Slud0d l0m lh0 0nl 0 Y0w 0 Sl8Dly. lh0 8gglcg8-
l0n 0 Sm0 m0ldS, lh0 P0l8S80S 8m00D8S (Uc|yos|clium
dscodcum). hS l000SS"" S 8n nl0l0Slng 08S0 0n lh0 D0l-
d0ln0 D0lw00n un00lul8l 8Bd lul00lu8l D0l0gy. Wh0n
R0 8@@f0@8l00 0 00llUl8f 8llR0 00l08 Uf0l8R08 8 Q8fl0Ul8fl f8
08fK8Dl0 0X80Ql0 0 8 80l0f@80lZ8l00 QR000m0000 l0 8 D0l0@08
8800 l0 WRl0R &0R00l08l 0l00K Ql88 80 08800l8l f0l0. 8lgUfBA.
$$ C

_ gI0Wlh

WPS0 000g 0u 0 80|S8 PS S0SDSS g|0N S0 u||y S8 u00S|u|Sf
0IgS088. P8 8uS00 S8S008 u0 000, |00S||y u|08PS0 Dy DS0S-
|S, DS00S8 80S|0S. PS0 PS S0SDSS 0SS8S 0 |S|00u0S S00 S0S| 00
S0 0S|PS8S PS S88 80S SgP P0u|8. P PS S00 0 P8 S|00 PS
S0SDSS DSg0 0 Sgg|SgSS S|0u00 0S||8 PS DSPSvS S8 Sgg|SgS00 0S0-
S|8. PS Sgg|SgS00 00u|8 0 |S8008S 0 0PS0S00 8g0S|8 SS0 Dy
!heCenIers.he BggregBIeIhusCrmeOmtgrBIes unIt| IheCCnOtItCnsCr Ihe
0|S00 0 S |u0g D00y S|S 8S8S0. PS0 PS S88 0 0S||8 0S|S0SS8
0 0| S 8S|K 8u|0u0S0 Dy S S88 0 80|S8.
0 U|c/yOs/a/'umJ|scO|Jaum,P6 8gg|6g800 |006608 0 8 6|000 80
06|. M0v68 0 8gg|6g800 |00688 8P0w P6 6886006 0 000060|0 w8v68
0 806D86 0v0g 0w8|0 P6 0606| wP 8 6|000y 0 86v6|8 0u68.
P6 08u|6 0 P6 0P60800 800| 8 800w0. 8 0y0|0 PM (0PM, 8
8uD88006 0v0|v60 0 0u6|0u8 D00P608 |0068868 8u0P 88 P0|008|
|6gu|8008. P6 8gg|6g800 0606|8 |6|6886 P6 8g088 0 0PM 0 8 6
|000 88P00. P6 0P6| 06|8 |68000 Dy 0v0g 0w8|0 P6 0606|8 800 Dy
|6|8y0g P6 8g08|8 0 P6 6|P6|y 0 P6 8gg|6g800 6||0|y. P6 688
6006 0 8 m60P808 0 |68y 0 P6 0P6080l0 8g08|8 8||0w8 680P 0606|
0 000|0| P6 8gg|6g800 0 806 T 806D86.
P6 808|y88 0 8 006 0 P6 |00688 0 8gg|6g800 |6v68|8 P6 688
6006 0 w0 y68 0 Du|08008. |8 P6 8gg|6g800 86| |6f68608 8
D|6880g 0 888| 8y6|y. P6 860000 Du|0800 D|6888 P6 60|8|
08|y P6 806D86 8|6 P00g6060u8|y 08|Du60. WP60 806 0 P6
D6g0 0 860|66 P6 0P60800 8g08|8, P6|6 868| |008| |u0u8008 0
P6 O0060|800 0 0PM 0| 8 0|08 v8u6 0 806 8|866| 0 P6
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008 8|6 S60. P6 P00g6060u8 08|Du00 D60068 u088D6 800 P6
806D86 6v0v6 0w8|0 80 0P00g6060u8 08|Du00 0 8806. P8 06w
08|Du00 00||680008 0 P6 80uu|800 0 806D86 8|0u00 8gg|6g8
00 0606|8.
0 u006|8800 P6 0|g0 0 P6 6|000y 0 P6 8gg|6g800 0 D. J|s
cO|J0um, 8 0606888|y 0 8u0y P6 60P808 0 8y0P688 0 P6 0P6
0800 8g08|. L0 P6 D888 0 686|608 0D86|v8008 006 080 0680|D6
P8 m60P808 Dy P6 80P66 0 gu|6 .

F|gum 0
L0 P6 Su|806 0 P6 06||, |6060|8 (0)D00 P6 060u|68 0 0PM P6
m060| 8068 P6 68|806|lu|8| 60u 800 l8 u00008||y |0860 0 80 60
Zy6, 8060y|86 0y0|886 [C), wP0P |8080|8 0|806||u8| P 00 0PMH
P6 0PM Pu8 8y0P68Z60 8 |8080|60 80|088 P6 6D|806 00 P6
68|806u8| 60u, wP6|6 8 06g|8060 Dy P08P00686|886, 80 60
Zy6 P8 8 860|660 Dy P6 806D86. P6 686|608 8P0w P8 D000g 0
omraColluIar CANP tC the memD|Bne |eCeQlOf 8Cv868 8060y86 0y0|886
(08v6 660D808 000860 Dy ).
L0 P6 D888 0 P8 8u0088|yl0 |6gu|800, 6 808|y8|5 0 8 006 0|
0AMF 8ynIh8l8 ha8 prmlIId unlflcaIlOn Of dlffrnI Iyp8 Of DhavlOr OD-
8tvd durlng aggrgaIlOn.
TwO ky paramIr8 Of Ih mOdI ar Ih 0On0nIraIlOn8 Of adnylaIs
0y0la8 (8) and Of phO8phOdl8Ira8 (k). Flgur C (rdrawn frOm . Ot0-
81H and L. SGL, 0|0etent|et|cn, VO|. 17[19B0j, pp. 127-3), 8Ow8 Ih
DhavlOr Of Ih mOd|lzd 8y8Im ln Ih 8pac fOrmd by 8 and k.
F|gu|s O


P050CI65T6IC56 _ K
Thr rglOn8 can b dl8Ilngul8hd fOr dlffrnI va|u8 Of k and 8. HglOn
A0Orr8pOnd8 IO a 8Iab|, nOnxclIab| 8IaIlOnary 8IaI, rglOn b IO a 8Ia-
IlOnary 8IaI 8Iab| buI xciIabl: Ih 8y8Im l8 capab| Of ampllfylng 8maII
prIurbaIlOn8 ln Ih cOncnIraIlOn Of cAMF ln a pul8aIOry mannr (and Ihu8
Of rlaylng cAMP 8lgnal8), rglOn C cOrr8pOnd8 IO a rglm Of 8u8Ialnd
O8cll|aIlOn8 arOund an un8Iab| 8IaIlOnary 8IaI.
Th arrOw lndlcaI8 a pO88lb| "dv|OpmnIa| paIh" cOrr8pOndlng IO a
rl8 ln phO8phOdl8Ira8 (k) and adny|aI cyc|a8 (8), a rl8 IhaI l8 OD
8rvd IO Occur afIr Ih Dglnnlng Of 8IarvaIlOn. Th crO88lng Of rglOn8 A,
dand C cOrr8pOnd8 IO Ih Ob8rvd chang Of DhavlOr: cl|8 ar aI flr8l
ln0apaDl Of r8pOndl ng IO xIrac|lular cAMP 8lgnal8, IhrafIr Ihy rlay
lh8 8lgnal8 and, flna||y, Ihy bcOm capaD| Of 8ynIhIlzlng Ihm p-
rlOdlca||y ln an auIOnOmOu8 way. Th aggrgaIiOn cnIr8 wOu|d Ihu8 Ihe
0||8 fOr whlch Ih paramIr8 8 and k hav rachd Ih mOr rapld|y a pOlnl
0Cl0O DS|U0 f0@I0D L ll0tSltYlOD S D0@UD.
lh uVII0umul Iu WhICh lhS 8m0D8S lIV 8ud mullIly 0-
C0mcS 00I Iu uulIIulS, lhy uudIg0 8 SCl8Cul8I lI8uS0I-
m8lI0u. (bc IguI P. ) bl8I\Iug 8S 8 0ul8lI0u N IS0l8lcd
CcllS, lhy j0u l0 0Im 8 m8SS C0m0Sd 0 SVI8l lcuS N
lh0uS8udS 0 CllS. hS Sud0l8Sm0dIum lhu uudIg0cS
dIul8l0u, 8ll lh Whl Ch8ugug Sh8. P 00l 0ImS,
C0uSSlug 0 8D0ul 0u lhId 0 lh CllS 8ud C0ul8uug 8Duu-
d8ul Ccllul0S. hS 00l Su0IlS 8 I0uud m8SS 0 S0IcS,
WhCh WIll dl8Ch lhmSlVS 8ud SI8d, mullIlyIug 8S S00u
8S lhy C0m Iu CDul8Cl WIlh 8 SuIl8Dl uulIIul mcdIum 8ud
lhuS 0Imug 8 uW C0l0uy 0 8m0D8S. hIS IS 8 SCl8Cul8I
88ml 0 8d8l8lI0u l0 lh uVII0umul. hc 0ul8lI0u
lIVS Iu 0u Ig0u uulIl Il h8S 8h8uSld lh 8V8Il8Dlc Ic-
S0uICS. l lhu g0S lhI0ugh 8 ml8m0Ih0SS Dy m8uS 0
WhCh l 8CquIS lh m0Dlly l0 IuV8d 0lhI uVII0umculS.
Pu IuVSlg8l0u 0 lh HISl Sl8g 0 lh 8ggIg8lI0u I0CSS
IV8lS lh8l Il DguS Wlh lh 0uSl 0 dSl8Cmul W8VcS Iu
lhc 8m0D8 0ul8lI0u, WIlh 8 ulS8lug m0lI0u 0 C0u-
VIguC 0 lh 8m0D8S l0W8Id 8 CulI 0 8llI8ClI0u,
WhCh 88IS l0 D I0duCd S0ul8u0uSly. t8cIImcul8l
IuVSlg8l0u 8ud m0dlZ8l0u h8V Sh0Wu lh8l lhIS mIgI8lI0u
IS 8 IS0uS Dy lh CllS l0 lh 8ISluC Iu lh cuVII0umcul
N 8 C0uCulI8l0u gI8dul Iu 8 Ky SuDSl8uC, CyClIC Pm)
WhCh IS I0dC8ly I0duCd Dy 8u 8m0D8 WhICh IS lhc 8l-
lI8Cl0I CulI 8ud l8lI Dy 0lhI CllS lhI0ugh 8 Icl8y mcCh8-
uSm. MI W 8g8u S lh Im8IK8Dl I0lc 0 ChcmC8l
Cl0CKS. hy I0Vd, 8S W h8V 8lI8dy SlISSd, ucW mc8uS
N C0mmuuIC8l0u. u lh ISul C8S, lh Sl-0Ig8uIZ8lI0u
mCh8uSm l8dS l0 C0mmuuC8l0u DlWu CllS.
hI S 8u0lhI 8SCl W WSh l0 mh8SIZ. blImc m0ld
8ggIg8l0u IS 8 lyC8l 88ml 0 Wh8l m8y D lImd 0IdcI
lhI0ugh HuClu8l0uS. lh Sllug u 0 lh 8llI8Cl0I CculcI
gVIug 0 lh Pm IudIC8lS lh8l lh ml8D0lIC IcgImc C0IIc-
S0udIug l0 8 u0Im8l uulIIlV uVII0umul h8S DcC0mc uu-
Sl8Dlclh8l IS, lh uulIIlIV uVII0umul h8S DcC0mc
c8h8uSld. h 8Cl lh8l uudI SuCh C0udl0uS 0 00d Sh0Il-
8gc 8uy gIVu 8m0D8 C8u D lh HISl l0 mIl CyClIC Pm 8ud
lhuS DC0m 8u 8llI8Cl0I CulI C0IIS0udS l0 lh I8ud0m
Dch8V0I 0 HuClu8lI0uS. hS HuClu8l0u IS lhu 8mlIHcd 8ud
utguzc5 thc mcdum.
c'lO|C3||DlS 30D cy3||yc|33|'|_
Ll uS l8K 8 Cl0SI l00K 8l lh mIguC 0 Sl-0Ig8uIZ8lI0u
8ud lh I0CSSS lh8l 0CCuI Whu W g0 Dy0ud lhIS lhISh-
0ld. Pl qulDIIum 0I u8I-quIlIDIIum, lhI IS 0uly 0u
Sl8dy Sl8l lh8l WIll dpud 0u lh V8luS 0 S0m C0ulI0l
8I8mlIS. W Sh8ll C8ll lh C0ulI0l 8I8mlI, WhICh, 0I
88ml, m8y D lh C0uCulI8lI0u 0 SuDSl8uC Iu lh
IuSSl8l0I 0SCIIDd Iu SClI0u 4. W u0W 0ll0W lh Ch8ug
Iu lh Sl8l 0 lh SySlm 8S lh V8lu 0 IuCI8SS. u lhIS
W8y lh SySlm IS uShd 8IlhI 8ud 8IlhI 8W8y I0m quI-
lIOIIum. Pl S0m 0Iul W I8Ch lh lhISh0ld 0 lh Sl8DIlIly
0 lh `lhIm0dyu8mIC DI8uCh. hu W I8Ch Wh8l IS guI-
8lly C8lld 8 `DIuIC8lI0u 0Iul. (hS 8I lh 0IulS Wh0S
Hl m8XWll mh8SIZd Iu hIS lh0ughlS 0u lh Il8lI0u D-
lWu dlImIuISm 8ud I Ch0IC [S Lh8lI , SClI0u

Flgur 10. bi!urcatlOn dlagram. Th dlagram plOt8 th 8tady-8tat vaIu8
O Xa8 !unctlOn O! a Dl!urcatlOn paramtr A. COntlnuOu8 lln8 ar 8taDl8
8tatlOnary 8tate8; DrOken llne8 ar un8taDle 8tatlOnary 8tate8. The Only way
tO get tO Dranch L l8 tO 8tart wlth 8Om cOncentratlOn X_ hlgh0r than th8
valu O! XcOrr8pOndlng tO Dranch E.
Ll uS C0uSIdI S0m lyIC8l DIuIC8lI0u dI8gI8mS. Pl DIuI-
C8lI0u 0Iul , lh lhIm0dyu8mIC DI8uCh DC0mS uuSl8Dl
Iu ISCl l0 HuClu8lI0uS. t0I lh V8lu _ 0 lh C0ulI0l 8-
I8mlI , lh SySlm m8y D Iu lhI dIIul Sl8dy Sl8lS.
L, L, L. 0 0 lhS Sl8lS 8f Sl8Dl, 0u uuSl8Dl. l IS VIy
Im0Il8ul l0 mh8SIZ lh8l lh Dh8VI0I 0 SuCh SySlmS d-
udS 0u lhII hISl0Iy. bu0S W Sl0Wly IuCI8S lh V8lu
0 lh C0ulI0l 8I8mlI W 8I lIKly l0 0ll0W lh 8lh A,
, L Iu tIguI . Lu lh C0ulI8Iy, I W Sl8Il WIlh 8 l8Ig
V8lu 0 lh C0uCulI8lI0u 8ud m8Iul8Iu lh V8lu 0 lh C0u-
lI0l 8I8mlI C0uSl8ul, W 8I lIKly l0 C0m l0 0Iul L. h
Sl8l W I8Ch dudS 0u lh IVI0uS hISl0Iy 0 lh SySlm.
LulIl u0W hISl0Iy h8S Du C0mm0uly uSd Iu lh IulIIl8-
lI0u 0 DI0l0gIC8l 8ud S0CI8l hu0mu8, Dul lh8l Il m8y l8y
8u Im0Il8ul I0l Iu SIml ChmIC8l HCSSS IS quIlc uuX-
L0uSIdI lh DIuIC8lI0u dI8gI8m IISuld Iu tIguI 11.
hIS dIIS I0m lh IVI0uS dI8gI8m Iu lh8l 8l lh DIuIC8-
lI0u 0Iul lwOuW Sl8Dl S0lulI0uS mIg. huS 8 uW quS-
lI0u. WhI WIll lh SySlm g0 Whu W I8Ch lh DIuIC8lI0u
0Iul7 W h8V hI 8 Ch0IC DlWu lW0 0SSIDIlIlIS

Flgur 11. SymmIrlcaI Dl!urcaIlOn dlagram. Xl8 pIOIId a8 a !uncIlOn OK.
FOr K<K Ihr l8 Only On 8IaIlOnary 8IaI, whlch l8 8IaDl. FOr K>K_Ihr
ar IwO 8Iabl 8IaIlOnary 8IaI8 fOr ach valu Of K(Ih fOrmrly 8IabI 8IaI8
DcOm8 un8IaDI).
lhy m8y IISul IlhI 0 lh lW0 u0uuuI0Im dISlIIDulI0uS
0 ChmIC8l Iu S8Cc, 8S IcISuld Iu IguIS I2 8ud I>.

F|gur88 1Zand 1.TwO p88|Dl8 8paIlal dl8Ir|DuI|On8 O! Ih8 ch8m|cal c0m-

pn8nI X, cOrr88pOndlng IO 8ach OIh8 WDranch88 | n F|gur8 11.F|gur8 12
0rr88pOnd8 IO 8 "l8!I" 8IrucIur8 a8 cOmpn8nI Xha8 a hlgh8r cOnc8nIraI|On
|n Ih8 l8!I parI, 8lmllarly, Flgur8 13cOrr88Ond8 IO a "rlghI" 8IrucIur8.
h lW0 SlIuCluIS 8I mIII0I Im8gS 0 0u 8u0lhI. u IguI
I2lh C0uCulI8lI0u 0 IS l8fgI 8l lh ll, Iu IguI I3Il IS
l8IgI 8l lhc IIghl. M0W WIll lh SySlm Ch00S DlWccu lH
8ud IIghl7 hcIc IS 8u III0uCIDl I8ud0m lmul, lhc m8C-
I0SC0IC qu8lI0u C8uu0l IdICl lh 8lh lh SySlm WIll
l8K. uIuIug l0 8 mICHSC0IC dSCIIlI0u WIll u0l hl. hI
5 u15O HO U5lHClOH OclwccH 1cll HU 1gDl. c u1c dCcU wth
Ch8uCc VculS VcIy SImIl8I l0 lhc 8ll 0 dIC.
W W0uld 8C! lh8 I W I8l lh 8IImul m8uy
lImS 8ud l8d lh SySlm Dy0ud lh DIuIC8lI0u 0Iul, h8l 0
lh SySlm WIll g0 Iul0 lh ll C0uIguI8lI0u, h8 Iul0 lhc
IIghl. MI 8u0lhI IulISlIug quSlI0u 8IISS. u lh W0Ild
8I0uud uS, S0m D8SIC SIml SymmlIIS Sm l0 U DI0-
Ku.' tVIyD0dy h8S 0DSIVd lh8l ShllS 0!u h8V 8 II-
ulI8l ChII8lIly. SluI Wul S0 8I 8S l0 S Iu dISSymmlIy, Iu
lh DI8KIug 0 SymmlIy, lh VIy Ch8I8ClIISlIC o lI. W
Ku0W l0d8y lh8l LPP, lh m0Sl D8SIC uuClIC 8CId, l8KS lh
0Im 0 8 l-h8udd hlI8. M0W dId lhIS dISSymmlIy 8IIS7
Lu C0mm0u 8uSWI IS lh8l Il C0mS I0m 8 uuIqu Vul lh8l
h8S Dy Ch8uC 8V0Id 0u 0 lh lW0 0SSIDl 0ulC0mS, lhu
8u 8ul0C8l8lylIC I0CSS SlS Iu, 8ud lh lH-h8udd SlIuCluI
I0duCS 0lhI ll-h8udd SlIuCluIS. LlhIS Im8gIu d
W8I DlWu l- 8ud IIghl-h8udd SlIuCluIS Iu WhICh 0u
0 lhm h8S 8uuIhIl8ld lh 0lhI. hS 8I I0DlmS 0I
WhICh W h8V u0l yl 0uud 8 S8lIS8Cl0Iy 8uSWI. 0 S8K 0
uuIqu VulS IS u0l S8lIS8Cl0Iy, W ud 8 m0I SySlm-
8lIC 8l8u8lI0u.
W h8V ICully dISC0VId 8 SlIIKIug 88ml 0 lh uu-
d8mul8l uW I0IlIS lh8l m8llI 8CquIIS Iu 8I-I0m-
quIlIDlIum C0udIlI0uS. 8lIu8l HldS, SuCh 8S lh gI8VIl8lI0u8l
Hld, C8u D ICIVd Dy lh SySlm, CI8lIug lh 0SSIDIl-
Ily 0 8llIu SlClI0u.
M0W W0uld 8u 8lIu8l Hld8 gI8VIl8lI0u8l Hld-Ch8ug
8u quIlIDIIum SIlu8lI0u7 h 8uSWI IS I0VIdd Dy 0llZ-
m8uuS 0IdI IIuCIl. lh D8SIC qu8ulIly IuV0lVd IS lh I8lI0
0 0lulI8l uIgylhIm8l uIgy. hIS IS 8 Sm8ll qu8ulIly 0I
lh gl8VIl8lI0u8l Hld U8Ilh; W W0uld h8V l0 ClImD 8 m0uu-
l8Iu l0 8ChIV 8u 8ICI8Dl Ch8ug Iu ISSuI 0I Iu lh
C0m0SIlI0u 0 lh 8lm0ShI. ul IC8ll lh 0u8Id Cll ,
I0m 8 mCh8uIC8l ISClIV, IlS IuSl8DIlIly IS lh I8ISIug o
IlS CulI 0 gI8VIly 8S lh ISull 0 lhIm8l dIl8l8lI0u. u 0lhI
W0IdS, gI8VIl8lI0u l8yS 8u SSulI8l I0l hI 8ud l8dS l0 8
uW SlIuCluI Iu SIl 0 lh 8Cl lh8l Ih 0u8Id Cl m8y h8V
8 lhICKuSS 0 0uly 8 W mIllImlIS. h HCl 0 gI8VIl8lI0u
0u SuCh 8 lhIu l8yI W0uld D uglIgIDl 8l quIlIDIIum, Dul
DC8uS 0 lh u0uquIlIDIIum IuduCd Dy lh dIHIuC Iu
lmI8luI, m8CI0SC0IC HClS du l0 gI8VIl8lI0u DC0mc
V1S1DC CVCH 1H 1D1S 1D1H uyC1. OHCQu11DtuH HugH1CS 1DC
HCl 0 gI8VIl8lI0u.'
Ll8Yl8l0n 0DY0uSly wl m0dy lh0 duS0n H0w n 8 R-
80l0n duS0n 0qu8l0n. 0l80d 080u8l0nS Sh0w lh8l lhS
08n D0 qul0 dl8m8l0 n08l 8 Dul08l0n 0nl 0 8n un0l-
lulD0d SySl0m. n 8ll0ul8l, w0 08n 00n0ud0 lh8l Y0ly Sm8ll
gl8Yl8l0n8 0dS 08n l08d l0 8ll0ln S000l0n.
L0l uS 8g8n 00nSd0l 8 SySl0m Wlh 8 Dul08l0n d8gl8m
Su0h 8S l0l0S0nl0d n tgul0 11. bu0S0 lh8l 0l n0 gl8Yl8-
l0n, g, w0 h8Y0, 8S n tgul0S 1 8nd 1J, 8n 8Symm0ll0
u/d0wn 8ll0ln 8S w0ll 8S lS mll0l m8g0, d0wn/u.
0lh 8l0 0qu8ly l0D8D0, Dul wh0n g 1S l8k0n nl0 8000unl,
lh0 Dul08l0n 0qu8l0nS 8l0 m0d0d D008uS0 lh0 duS0n
0w 00nl8nS 8 l0lm l00ll0n8l l0 g. PS 8 l0Sul, w0 n0w
0Dl8n lh0 Dul08l0n d8gl8m l0l0S0nl0d n tgul0 1+. h0
0lgn8 Dul08l0n h8S dS808I0dlhS S llu0 wh8l0Y0l lh0
Y8lu0 0 lh0 0ld. Ln0 Sllu0lul0 [8) n0w 0m0lg0S c0nl/nu0u/y
8S lh0 Dul08l0n 8l8m0l0l gl0wS, wh0 lh0 0lh0l [D) 08n D0
8ll8n0d 0nly lhl0ugh 8 nl0 0llulD8l0n.

=.. 4





9= 4 . 4. . 9
gulS 1* PS00S000 0 S888S0 Du|0S00 0 PS |S8S00S 0 80 S8S
0S| S|0. X8 |0lS0 S8 S u0000 0 S|SSS| . PS 8yS|0S Du|08
00 PS W0u|0 000u| 0 PS SD8S00S 0 PS S0 8 000SS0 Dy PS 00S0
0S. PS Du|0S00 vS|uS 8 A_PS 8SD|S D|S00P (D] 8 S 0S 0|8S00S |0m
D|S00P (S].
hI0I, I W 0ll0W lh 8lh (8), W XCl lh SySlm l0
0ll0W lh C0ulIuu0uS 8lh. hIS 8Cl8lI0u IS C0IICl 8S l0ug
8S lB dISl8uC S DlWu lh lW0 DI8uChS Im8IuS l8Ig Iu I-
SCl l0 lhIm8l HuClu8lI0uS Iu lh C0uCulI8lI0u 0 . hI
0CCuIS Wh8l W W0ul0 lIK I0 C8ll 8u `8SSISld DIuIC8lI0u.
PS D0I, 8l 8D0ul lh V8lu _ 8 Sl-0Ig8uIZ8lI0u I0CSS
m8y 0CCuI. ul u0W 0u 0 lh lW0 0SSIDl 8llIuS IS f-
IId 8ud WIll D SlCld.
h Im0Il8ul 0Iul IS lh8l, dudIug 0u lh ChmIC8l I0-
CSS IS0uSIDl 0I lh DIuIC8lI0u, lhIS mCh8uISm 8ISSS
8u 8lI80IdIu8Iy SuSIlIVIly. m8llI, 8S W mulI0ud 8IlII
Iu lhIS Ch8lI, ICIVS dIIuCS lh8l W0uld D IuSIguIH-
C8ul 8l quIlIDIIum. buCh 0SSIDIlIlIS l8d uS l0 lhIuK 0 lh
SImlSl 0Ig8uISmS, SuCh 8S D8ClII8, WhICh W Ku0W 8I 8Dl
l0 I8Cl l0 lClIIC 0I m8gulIC IldS. m0I guI8lly lhy
Sh0W lh8l 8I-I0m-QuIlIDIIum ChmISlIy l8dS l0 0SSIDl
8d8l8lI0u 0 ChmIC8l I0SSS l0 0ulSId C0udIlI0uS. hIS
C0ulI8SlS SlI0ugly WIlh quIlIDIIum SIlu8lI0uS, Iu WhICh l8Ig
IluID8lI0uS 0I m0dIHC8lI0uS 0 lh D0uud8Iy C0udIlI0uS 8I
uCSS8Iy l0 dlImIu 8 ShIH 0I 0u SlIuCluI l0 8u0lhI.
h SuSIlIVIly 0 8I-I0m-quIlIDIIum Sl8lS l0 8lDul HuC-
lu8lI0uS IS 8u0lhI 88ml 0 8 SySlmS Sul8u0uS `8d8l8-
lIV 0Ig8uIZ8lI0u l0 IlS uVII0umul. Ll uS gIV U 88ml'^
0 Sl-0Ig8uZ8l0u 8S 8 uuClI0u 0 HuClu8lIug 8lIu8l C0udI-
lI0uS. h SImlSl C0uCIV8Dl ChmIC8l I8ClI0u IS lh IS0m-
IIZ8lI0u I8ClI0u WhI A=. u 0uI m0d lh I0duCl HC8u
8lS0 ulI Iul0 8u0lhI I8ClI0u. H=1ghl= H"=H=hrul. H
8DS0IDS lIghl 8ud gIVS Il D8CK 8S h8l WhIl l8VIug IlS 8CIld
5llC H". L0u5dCf lDC5C lWO gIOCC55C5 5 luKUg puCC u u
Cl0Sd SySlm. 0uly lIghl 8ud h8l C8u D 8Ch8ugd WIlh lh
0ulSId. P0ulIu8IIly 8ISlS Iu lh SySlm DC3S lh lI8uS0I-
m8lI0u I0m l0 H8DS0IDS h8l. lh hIghI lh lmI8luI,
lh 8SlI lh 0Im8lI0u 0 H. ul 8lS0 lh hIghI lh C0uCulI8-
lI0u 0 H, lh hIghI lh 8DS0IlI0u 0 lIghl Dy H8ud IlS lI8uS-
0Im8lI0u Iul0 h8l, 8ud lh hIghI lh lmI8luI. H
C8l8lyZS IlS 0Wu 0Im8lI0u.
W 8Cl l0 Hud lh8l lh C0uCulI8lI0u 0 HC0IISQ0udIug
l0 lh Sl8lI0u8Iy Sl8l IuCI8SS WIlh lh lIghl IuluSIly. hIS IS
Iudd lh C8S. ul Sl8IlIug I0m 8 CIIlIC8l 0Iul, lhI 8-
8IS 0u 0l IB SI8ud8Id l8I-lI0W-qu\\DI\um Bu0muu.
lh C08ISluC 0 mullIpl Sl8lI0u8Iy Sl8lS. 0I lh S8m Vul-
uS 0 lIghl IuluSIly 8ud lmI8luI, lh SySlm C8u bc
0uud Iu lW0 dIIul Sl8Dl Sl8lI0u8Iy Sl8lS WIlh dIIul
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0ld DlWu lh HISl lW0. buCh 8 C08ISluC 0 Sl8lI0u8Iy
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SIS. ul lhIS IS u0l lh Wh0l Sl0Iy. lh lIghl IuluSIly, Iu-
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SIlu8lI0u IS 8llId I00uudly. h Z0u 0 C08ISluC D-
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Sl8Dl Sl8lS DC0mS 0SSIDl.
u SuCh 8 C8S, 8 I8ud0m HuClu8lI0u Iu lh 8lIu8l HuX,
0lu lImd u0IS, 8I I0m DIug 8 uuIS8uC, I0duC8
uW lyS 0 Dh8VI0I, WhICh W0uld Imly, uudI dlImIuISlIC
Hu8S, muCh m0I C0ml8 I8ClI0u SChmS. l IS ImIl8ul
l0 ImmDI lh8l I8ud0m u0IS Iu lh Hu8S m8y D C0uSId-



! 2

Flgur8 1.Thl8 !lgur8 8hOw8 hOw a "hy8tere8l8" phenOmenOn Occur8 ll W
hav8 th8 valu8 Oth8 Dl!urcatlOn parameter
!lr8t grOwlng and then dlmlnl8h
lng. |! th8 8y8tem l8 lnltlally ln a 8tatlOnary 8tate DelOnglng t0 th8 lOw8r
Dranch, lt wlll 8tay ther8 whlle
grOw8. but at
g, ther8 wlll D8 a dl8c0-
tlnulty: Th8 8y8tem ump8 !rOm OtO O', On the hlgher Dranch. |nv8r8ely,
8tartlng !rOm 8 8tate On the hlgher branch, the 8y8tem wlll remaln ther8 tlll
, when lt wlll ump dOwn tO. Such type8 O! bl8tabl e behavlOr ar8
Ob8erved ln many !leld8, 8uch a8 la8er8, chemlcal reactl0n8 0r DlOlOglcaI
Id 8S uu8V0d8Dl u 8uy u8luI8l SySlm. 0I 88ml, u
D0l0gC8l 0I C0l0gC8l SySlmS lh 8I8mlIS dHuug ull-
8Cl0u Wlh lh uVI0umul C8uu0l guI8lly D C0uSdId 8S
C0uSl8ulS. 0lh lh Cll 8ud lh C0l0gC8l uCh dI8W lhI
SuSlu8uC I0m lhI uVI0umul , 8ud humdly, M, S8ll
C0uCulI8l0u, lghl, 8ud uulIulS 0Im 8 Im8uully HuC-
lu8lug uVI0umul. h SuSlVly 0 u0uqulDIum Sl8lS,
u0l 0uly l0 HuClu8l0uS I0duCd Dy lhI ulIu8l 8ClVly Dul
8lS0 l0 lh0S C0mug I0m lhI uVI0umul, SuggSlS uW
ISClVS 0I D0l0gC8l uquI].
'3SC3D'l_ c|lO|C3||DlS
3lD |03 1|30S'|'DlS |D '03DS
h ICdug 8I8gI8Qh d8ll 0uly Wlh lh HISl DuIC8l0u
0I, 8S m8lhm8lC8uS ul l, lh Im8Iy DuIC8l0u, WhCh
0CCuIS Whu W uSh 8 SySlm Dy0ud lh lhISh0ld 0 Sl8-
Dlly. 8I I0m 8h8uSlug lh uW S0lul0uS lh8l m8y 88I,
lhS Im8Iy DuIC8l0u ulI0duCS 0uly 8 Sugl Ch8I8ClISlC
lm (lh I0d 0 lh lml CyCl) 0I 8 Sugl Ch8I8ClISlC
luglh. 0 guI8l lh C0ml8 S8l8l lm0I8l 8ClVly 0D-
SIVd u ChmC8l 0I D0l0gC8l SySlmS, W h8V l0 0ll0W lh
DuIC8l0u d8gI8m 8IlhI.
W h8V 8lI8dy 8lludd l0 hu0mu8 8ISug I0m lh
C0ml8 ulIl8y 0 8 mulllud 0 IquuCS u hydI0dy-
u8mC8l 0I ChmC8l SySlmS. Ll uS C0uSdI 0u8Id SlIuC-
8IlhI 8W8y I0m lhIm8l qulDIum lh C0uVCl0u H0W
DguS l0 0SCll8l u lm, 8S lh dSl8uC I0m qulDIum S
uCI8Sd Slll 8IlhI, m0I 8ud m0I 0SCll8l0u IquuCS
88I, 8ud Vulu8lly lh lI8uSl0u l0 qulDIum S C0m-
ll.' h ulIl8yS 8m0ug lh IquuCS I0duC 0S-
SDllS 0 l8Ig HuClu8l0uS, lh Ig0u u lh DuIC8l0u
d8gI8m dud Dy SuCh V8luS 0 lh 8I8mlIS S 0lu
C8lld Ch80lC. u C8SS SuCh 8S lh 0u8Id uSl8Dlly, 0IuI
0I C0hIuC S S8udWChd DlWu lhIm8l Ch80S 8ud u0u-
qulDIum luIDulul Ch80S. udd, W C0uluu l0 u-
IcSc lDc gIU|cHl O lcH[cIlUlc, lDc COHVCClOH [llclH5
DC0m m0I C0ml8, 0SCll8l0uS Sl u, 8ud lh 0IdId 8S-

c U Ltb J
N0O0g00005 bK0] bKt
bl 0US0l00 S6!0l005

L0O0X tIl00l6 b0M
bUD00IO00|6 DlUI60l00}
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PSD0|08K| |SSC00. PS gu|S |S|S8S08 S 8uCCS8800 0 |Sg|008 C0||S-
8000|0g 0 uS|SvS 0|S|S0CS8. P8 |8 S 8CPSSC |S|S8S0S00. PS
080|00S 0SS |00CSS PS 08|800CS 0 uCP 0|0 C0CSS0 8S-
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0quDlum lulDu0nl 0h80S. n lh0lm8l 0h80S 8S l08lZ0d n
0qulDlum, 8l 0h8l80l0lSl0 S800 8nd lm0 S080S 8l0 0 m0-
l00u8l l8ng0, wh0 n lulDul0nl 0h80S w0 h8Y0 Su0h 8n 8Dun-
d8n00 0 m80l0S000 lm0 8nd l0nglh S08l0S lh8l lh0 SySl0m
80MS 0h80l0. n 0h0mSlly lh0 l08l0n D0lw00n 0ld0l 8nd
0h80S 808lS hghly 00m08! Su000SSY0 l0gm0S 0 0ld0l0d
[0S08l0ly) Slu8l0nS 00w l0gm0S 0 0h80l0 Dch8Y0l.
JhiS h8S, 0l nSl8B00, U00n 0US0lYcd 8S 8 uB0li0n 0 lh0 H0w
l8l0 n lh0 0l0uS0Y-Zh8D0lnSky lc80l0n.
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W0IdS SuCh 8S 0IdI 8ud Ch80S. S 8 lI0IC8l 0ISl 8u
0IdId 0I 8 Ch80lIC SySlm7 h hISl0Iy 0 8uy 8IlICul8I
8uIm8l SCIS WIll 88I VIy C0ulIugul, dudul 0u
0lhI SCIS 8ud 0u uVIICumul8l 8CCIdulS. PVIlhlSS,
Ih lIug ISISlS lh8l, 8S SuCh, lh 0VI8l 8llIu 0 8 lI0I-
C8l 0ISl, 8S IISuld, 0I 1uSl8uC, Dy lh dIVISIly 0 S-
CIS, C0IIS0udS l0 lh VIy 8IChly 0 0IdI. Wh8lVI lh
ICIS m8uIug W WIll Vulu8lly gIV l0 lhIS lImIu0l0gy, Il
IS Cl8I lh8l Iu S0m C8SS lh SuCCSSI0u 0 DIuIC8lI0uS 0ImS
8u IIIVISIDl V0lulI0u WhI lh dlImIuISm 0 Ch8I8C-
lIISlIC IquuCIS I0duCS 8u IuCI8SIug I8ud0muSS Slm-
mIug I0m lh mullIlICIly 0 lh0S IquuCIS.
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lI V8luS lh SySlmS Dh8VI0I IS II0dIC, WIlh 8 II0d ,
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uIC8lI0uS, Wlh SuCCSSIV II0d d0uDlIug. hIS C0uSlIlulS 8
lyIC8l I0ul g0Iug I0m SIml II0dIC Dh8VI0I l0 lB C0m-
l8 8II0dIC Dh8VI0I 0CCuIIIug Whu lh II0d h8S d0u-
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CB8I8ClIIZd Dy un!vcr&0! numcr!c0! 8luIS Iududul 0
lh mCh8uISm IuV0lVd 8S l0ug 8S lh SySlm 0SSSSS lh
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SuI8Dl I0IlIS 0 0Dy SuCh SySlm Iu lhIS 8II0dIC lImIl
u0W C8u D dlImIud Iu 8 W8y lh8l SSulI8lly Dy8SSS lh
dl8IlS 0 lh qu8lI0uS g0VIuIug 8Ch SCIHC SySlm . 4 4 4 '"
u 0lhI C8SS, SuCh 8S lh0S IISuld Iu IguI b, D0lh
dlImIuISlIC 8ud Sl0Ch8SlIC lmulS Ch8I8ClIIZ lh hISl0Iy
0 lh SySlm.
W C0uSIdI IguI 8ud 8 V8lu 0 lh C0ulI0l 8I8m-
ClI 0 lh 0IdI 0
, W S lh8l lh SySlm 8lI8dy h8S 8
W8llh 0 0SSIDl Sl8Dl 8ud uuSl8Dl Dh8VI0IS. h hISl0II-
C8l 8lh 8l0ug WhICh lh SySlm V0lVS 8S lh C0ulI0l 8I8m-
lI gI0WS IS Ch8I8ClIIZd Dy 8 SuCCSSI0u 0 Sl8Dl IgI0BS,
WhI dlImIuISlIC l8WS d0mIu8l, 8ud 0 IuSl8Dl 0uS, uc8I
lh DIuIC8lI0u 0IulS, WhI lh SySlm C8u Ch00S D-
lWu 0I 8m0ug m0I lh8u 0u 0SSDl uluI. 0lh lhc dlI-
muSlU Ch8I8ClI 0 lh KulC qu8l0uS WhIDy lhc Sl N
0SSDl Sl8lS 8ud lhI ISClV Sl8Dlly C8u D C8lCul8lc0,
8ud lh I8ud0m HuClu8l0uS Ch00Sug DlWu 0I 8m0ug
lh Sl8lS 8I0uud DuIC8l0u 0ulS 8I u8lIC8Dly C0u-
uCld. hS m8luI 0 uCSSly 8ud Ch8uC C0uSllulcS lhc
hSl0Iy 0 lh SySlm.
- .
e ~



Flgur 17. bl!urcatlOn dlagram. Stady8tat 8OlutlOn8 ar plOttd agaln8I
valu O! k, thl8 8t O! 8tat8 !Orm8 th Dranch a. FOr k =K twO Othr 8t8 Ol
8tatlOnary 8tat8 DcOm pO88lDl (Dranch8 D and D').
Th 8tat8 O! D' ar un8taDl Dut DcOm 8taDl at K=Kgwhll Ih 8tat8
0f 0ranch a DcOm un8taDl. FOr K=Kgth 0ranch D |8 un8taDl8 aga|n, and
IwO Othr 8taDl Dranch8 appar.
FOr K= K_th un8taDl Dranch a atIaln8 a nw Dl!urcatlOn pOlnt whr twO
nw Dranch8 DcOm pO88iDl, whlch will D un8taDl up tO K=K_ and
'|D COC|'D |D l|'S|D||3
Lu 0 lh m0Sl IulISlIug 8SClS 0 dISSI8lIV SlIuCluIS I8
lhII C0hIuC. h SySlm Dh8VS 8S 8 Wh0l, 8S I Il WI
lh SIl 0 l0ug-I8ug 0ICS. u SIl 0 lh 8Cl lh8l IulI8C-
lI0uS 8m0ug m0lCulS d0 u0l 8Cd 8 I8ug o S0m
Cm, lh SySlm IS SlIuCluId 8S lh0ugh 8Ch m0lCul WI
Iu0Imd 8D0ul lh 0VI8ll Sl8l 0 lh SySlm.
l h8S 0lu Du S8Id-8ud W h8V 8lI8dy I8ld Il
lh8l m0dIu SCIuC W8S D0Iu Whu PIISl0llI8u S8C, 0I
WhICh 0u S0uIC 0 IuSII8lI0u W8S lh 0Ig8uIZ8lI0u 8ud S0lI-
d8IIly 0 DI0l0gIC8l uuClI0uS, W8S Il8Cd Dy lh h0m0g-
u0uS 8ud IS0lI0IC S8C 0 tuClId. M0WVI, lh lh0Iy N
dISSI8lIV SlIuCluIS m0VS uS Cl0SI l0 PIISl0llS C0uC-
lI0u. WhlhI W 8I d8lIug WIlh 8 ChmIC8l Cl0CK, C0uCu-
lI8lI0u W8VS, 0I lh Iuh0m0gu0uS dISlIIDulI0u 0 ChmIC8l
I0duClS, IuSl8DIlIly h8S lh HCl 0 DI8KIug SymmlIy, D0lh
lm0I8l 8ud S8lI8l. u 8 lImIl CyCl, u0 lW0 IuSl8ulS 8I
quIV8lul, lh ChmIC8l I8ClI0u 8CquIIS 8 ph0&c SImIl8I l0
lh8l Ch8I8ClIIZIug 8 lIghl W8V, 0I 88ml. Pg8Iu, Whu 8
8V0Id dIIClI0u ISullS I0m 8u IuSl8DIlIly, S8C C8SS l0 D
IS0lI0IC. W m0V I0m tuClIdI8u l0 PIISl0llI8u S8C!
l IS lmlug l0 SCul8l lh8l lh OI8KIug 0 S8C 8ud
lIm SymmlIy l8yS 8u m0Il8ul 8Il Iu lh 8SCIu8lIug h-
u0mu8 0 m0Ih0guSIS. hS hu0mu8 h8V 0Hu ld
l0 lh C0uVIClI0u lh8l S0m IulIu8l uI0S muSl D IuV0lVd,
8 l8u I8lIZd Oy lh mDIy0 Whu IlS gI0Wlh IS C0mlcl. Pl
lh DgIuuIug 0 lhIS CuluIy, LIm8u mOIy0l0gISl M8uS
LIISCh DlVd lh8l S0m Imm8lII8l ullChy W8S I-
S0uSIDl 0I lh mDIy0S dVl0mul. M h8d dISC0VId
lh8l lh mDIy0 8l 8u 8Ily Sl8g W8S C88Dl 0 WIlhSl8udIug
lh SVISl IluID8lI0uS 8ud, Iu SIl 0 lhm, 0 dVl0Iug
Iul0 8 u0Im8l, uuCl0u8l 0Ig8uSm. Lu lh 0lhI h8ud, Whu
W 0DSIV mDIy0l0gIC8l dVl0mul 0u Ilm, W S
jumS C0IIS0udIug l0 I8dIC8l I0Ig8uIZ8lI0uS 0ll0Wd Dy
II0dS 0 m0I 8CIHC qu8ulIl8lIV gI0Wlh. hI 8I, 0I-
luu8lly, W mISl8KS. h jumS 8I I0Imd Iu 8 I-
[IOUUCO1c SDOH. c H_Dl S[cCU1lc lDl lDc OSC
mCh8uISm 0 V0!ulI0u IS D8Sd 0u lh !8y DlWu DIuIC8-
HcH U Lt T7Z
l0nS 8S mc0h8nSmS 0 08l0l8l0n 8nd lh0 S0l00l0u 0 0h0ml-
08l nl0l80l0nS Sl8DlZng 8 8ll0ul8I ll8j00lOly. b0m0 0lly
y08lS 8g0, lh0 D00gSl W8ddngl0n nll0du00d Su0h 8n d08.
h0 00n00l 0 0hl00d lh8l h0 nll00u00d l0 d0S0lD0 lh0
Sl8DZ0d 8lhS 0 d0Y00m0nl w0ud 00ll0S0nd l0 0SSDl0
n0S 0 d0Y00m0nl l0du00d 8S 8 l0Sul 0 lh0 d0uD0 m0l-
8lY0 0 08Dlly 8nd S00ully. ' LDY0uSly lh0 l0D0m S
Y0ly 00ml08 8nd 08n D0 d08ll wlh 0nly Dl0y h0l0.
%8ny y08lS 8g0 0mDly0l0gSlS nlHdu00d lh0 00n00l 0 8
m0lh0g0n0l0 0ld 8nd ul 0lw8ld lh0 hy0lh0SS lh8l lh0
d0l0nl8l0n 0 8 00l d00ndS 0n lS pos|on n lh8l 0d.
ul h0w d00S 8 00 l000gnZ0 lS 0Sl0n7 Ln0 C08 lh8l S
00n d0D8lcd S lh8l 0 8 gl8d0nl 0 8 0h8l80l0lSl0 SuD-
Sl8n00, o0n0 0l m0l0 m0lh0g0nS. bu
h gl8dl0nlS 00ud
80lu8lly D0 l0du00d Dy Symm0lly-Dl08kng nSl8Dl0S n
8l-l0m-0quDlum 00ndl0nS. Ln00 l h8S D00n l0du00d, 8
0h0m08l gl8d0nl 08n l0Yd0 080h 00l wlh 8 d0l0nl 0h0m-
08l 0nYl0nm0nl 8nd lhuS ndu00 080h 0 lh0m l0 Synlh0SZ0 8
S000 S0l 0 l0l0nS. hS m0d0l, whCh S n0w wd0ly uS0d,
S00mS l0 D0 n 8gl00m0nl wlh 080lm0nl8l 0Y00n00. n 8l-
l0u8l, w0 m8y l00l l0 b8um8nS w0lk' 0n dHS0hl8. P
l080l0n-duS0n SySl0m S l8k0n 8S l0S0nSDl0 0l lh0 C0m-
mlm0nl l0 8lcln8lY0 d0Y00m0nl l0gl8mS lh8l 808l l0
gu|S T. 0PSS0 |S|S8S0S|00 0 PS 8|u0u|S 0 PS 0f080PS SR-
D|y0 S8 |S8u|8 |0 8u00S88|vS D0S|y 0P00S8. SS S8 0l 0|S 0SS|.
C0m8Ilmul W0uld D SCDd Dy 8 uuIqu C0mDIu8lI0u 0
DIu8Iy Ch0ICS, 8Ch 0 lhS Ch0ICS OIug lh ISull 0 8 S8-
lI8l SymmlIy-DI8KIug DIuIC8lI0u. h m0dl l8dS l0 SuC-
CSSul IdICl0uS 8D0ul lh ISull 0 lI8uSl8ul8l0uS 8S 8
uuClI0u 0 lh dISl8uC OlWu lh 0IIgu8l 8ud Du8l I-
gI0uSlh8l IS, 0 lh uumOI 0 dIIuCS 8m0ug lh Sl8lS
0 lh DIu8Iy Ch0ICS 0I SWIlChS lh8l SCy 8Ch 0 lhm.
buCh Id8S 8ud m0dlS 8I SCI8lly Im0Il8ul Iu D0l0g-
IC8l SySlmS WhI lh mOIy0 OgIuS l0 dVl0 Iu 8u 88I-
ully SymmlIIC8l Sl8l (0I 88ml, uCuS, PCl8Dul8II8).
W m8y 8SK I lh mDIy0 IS I8lly h0m0gu0uS 8l lh DgIu-
uIug. Pud Vu I Sm8ll Iuh0m0gulIS 8I QISul Iu lh IuI-
lI8l uVII0umul, d0 lhy C8uS 0I Ch8uul V
lulI0u l0W8Id 8
gIVu SlIuCluI7 ICIS 8uSWIS l0 SuCh quSlI0uS 8I u0l
8V8Il8Dl 8l ISul. M0WVI, 0u lhIug SmS Sl8DlIShd.
lh IuSl8DIlIly C0uuCld WIlh ChmIC8l I8Cl0uS 8ud lI8uS-
0Il 88IS 8S lh 0uly guI8l mCh8uISm C88Ol 0 OI8K-
Iug lh SymmlIy 0 8u IuIlI8lly h0m0gu0uS SIlu8lI0u.
h VIy 0SSOIlIly 0 SuCh 8 S0lulI0u l8KS uS 8I Dy0ud
lh 8g-0ld C0uICl DlWu IduClI0uSlS 8ud 8ulIIduC-
lI0uISlS. tVI SIuC PISl0ll (8ud W h8V CIld bl8hl, Mgl,
IgS0u, 8ud 0lhI 8ulIIduClI0uISlS), lh S8m C0uVIClI0u
h8S Du 8ISSd. 8 C0uCl 0 C0ml8 0Ig8uIZ8l0u IS I-
quIId l0 C0uuCl lh V8I0uS lVlS 0 dSCIIlI0u 8ud 8CC0uul
0I lh Il8lI0uSh DlWu lh Wh0l 8ud lh Oh8VI0I 0 lh
8IlS. u 8uSWI l0 lh IduClI0uISlS, 0I Wh0m lh S0l
C8uS 0I 0Ig8uIZ8lI0u C8u lI 0uly u lh 8Il, PISl0ll WIlh
hIS 0Im8l C8uS, Mgl WIlh hS mIguC 0 bIIIl Iu P8-
luI, 8ud UIgS0u Wlh hS Sm, IIISSOl, 0Ig8uZ8l0u-
CI8lIug 8Cl, 8SSIl lh8l lh Wh0l IS Id0mIu8ul. 0 CIl
u guI8l, Whu lh0 S8m 0OjCl 88IS Iu 0u 8SCl
8S SIml 8ud Iu 8u0lhI 8S IuHully C0ml8, lh lW0
8SClS h8V Dy u0 m8uS lh S8m Im0Il8uC, 0I I8lhI
lh S8m dgI 0 I8lly. u SuCh C8SS, lh SImlICIly
Dl0ugS l0 lh 0DjCl IlSl, 8ud lh IuHul C0ml8Ily l0
lh VIWS W l8K Iu luIuug 8I0uud Il, l0 lh SymD0lS Dy
WhICh 0uI SuSS 0I IulllCl IISul Il l0 uS, 0I, m0I
@C HC 111}, 1OC 1C HC H1S of U Jqfrrnt orJrr W11U WD1CD WC
lIy l0 mIl8l Il 8IlIHC8lly, Dul WIlh WhCh Il Im8uS Iu-
C0mmuSuI8Dl, Dug 0 H dHIul u8luI. Pu 8IlSl 0
guuS h8S 8uld 8 HguI 0u hS C8uV8S. W C8u ml8l
hIS CluI Wlh m8uy-C0l0uId Squ8IS 0 m0S8C. Pud
W Sh8l II0duC lh CuIVS 8ud Sh8dS 0 lh m0dl S0
muCh lh DllI 8S 0uI Squ8IS 8I Sm8llI, m0I uumI-
0uS 8ud m0I V8Id u l0u. ul 8u uHuly 0 lmulS
uHully Sm8ll, ISulug 8u uHuly 0 Sh8dS, W0uld
D uCSS8Iy l0 0Dl8u lh 88Cl quV8lul 0 lh DguI
lh8l lh 8IlSl h8S C0uCVd 8S 8 Sml lhug, WhCh h
h8S WShd l0 lI8uS0Il 8S 8 Wh0l l0 lh C8uV8S, 8ud
WhCh S lh m0I C0mll lh m0I l SlIKS uS 8S lh
I0jCl0u 0 8u udVSDl ulul0u. '
u D0l0gy, lh C0uHICl DlWu IduCl0uSlS 8ud 8ulIduC-
l0uSlS h8S 0lu 88Id 8S 8 C0uHCl DlWu lh 8SSIl0u
0 8u 8lIu8l 8ud 8u ulIu8l uI0S. h d8 0 8u mm8-
uul 0Ig8uZug ullguC S lhuS 0lu 00Sd Dy 8u 0Ig8-
uZ8l0u8l m0dl D0II0Wd I0m lh lChu0l0gy 0 lh lm
(mCh8uC8l , h8l, CyDIulC m8ChuS), WhCh mmd8lly
lClS lh Il0Il. Wh0 Dull lh m8Chu, lh 8ul0m8l0u
lh8l 0DyS 8lIu8l uI0S7
PS IgS0u mh8SZd 8l lh Dguuug 0 lhS CuluIy,
D0lh lh lChu0l0gC8l m0dl 8ud lh Vl8lSl d8 0 8u ulI-
u8l 0Ig8uZug 0WI 8I 8ISS0uS 0 8u u8Dlly l0 C0u-
CV VululV 0Ig8uZ8l0u Wlh0ul mmd8lly IIIug l
l0 S0m I8Slug g08l. 0d8y, u Sl 0 lh SCl8Cu!8I SuC-
CSS 0 m0lCul8I D0l0gy, lh C0uCluul Slu8l0u Im8uS
8D0ul lh S8m. IgS0uS 8Igumul C0uld D 8ld l0 C0u-
lm0I8Iy ml8h0IS SuCh 8S `0Ig8uZI, `Igul8l0I, 8ud
gulC I0gI8m. Lu0Ilh0d08 D0l0gSlS SuCh 8S ul WSS
8ud L0uI8d W8ddugl0u ' h8V Ighlly CIlCZd lh W8y lhS
Kud 0 qu8lC8l0u 8llIDulS l0 udVdu8l m0lCulS lh
0WI l0 I0duC lh gl0D8l 0IdI D0l0gy 8mS l0 uudISl8ud,
8ud, Dy S0 d0ug, mSl8KS lh 10Imul8l0u 0 lh I0Dlm 0I
lS S0lul0u.
l muSl D IC0guZd lh8l lChu0l0gC8l 8u8l0gS u D0l-
0gy 8I u0l Wlh0ul ulISl. M0WVI, lh guI8l V8ldly 0
SuCh 8u8l0gS W0uld mly lh8l, 8S u 8u lClI0uC CICul, 0I
88ml, lhI S 8 D8SC h0m0guly DlWu lh dSCIl0u
0 m0lCul8I ulI8Cl0u 8ud lh8l 0 gl0D8l Dh8V0I. h uuC-
l0uug 0 8 CICul m8y D dduCd I0m lh u8luI 8ud 0S-
lI0u 0 IlS Icl8yS D0lh IccI l0 lhc S8mc SC8lc, SIuCc lc Icl8yS
WcIc dcSIgucd 8ud IuSl8llcd Dy lhc S8mc ugIuccI Wh0 DuIl
lc Wh0lc m8ChIuc. hIS C8uu0l b lhc Iulc Iu DI0l0gy.
l IS lIuc lh8l Whcu Wc C0mc l0 8 DI0l0gIC8l SySlcm SuCh 8S
lhc D8ClcII8l Chcm0l88IS, Il IS h8Id u0l l0 Sc8K 0 8 m0lcCul8I
m8ChIuc C0uSISlIug 0 IcCcl0IS, ScuS0Iy 8ud Icgu8l0Iy I0-
CcSSIug SySlcmS, 8ud m0l0I IcS0uSc. Wc Ku0W 0 8I08-
Im8lcy lWculy 0I lhIIly IcCcl0IS lh8l C8u dclcCl hIghly
ScCIHC C8SScS 0 C0m0uudS 8ud m8Kc 8 D8ClcIIum SWIm u
S8lI8 gI8dIculS o 8llI8Cl8ulS 0I d0Wu gI8dIculS o IccculS.
hIS Dch8VI0I IS dclcImIucd Dy lhc 0ulul 0 lhc I0CcSSIug
SySlcmlh8l IS, lhc SWIlChIug 0u 0I 0 o 8 lumDlc lh8l gcucI-
8lcS 8 Ch8ugc Iu lhc D8ClcIIumS dIIcClI0u.'*
ul SuCh C8ScS, 8SCIu8lIug 8S lhcy 8Ic, d0 u0l lcl lhc Wh0lc
Sl0Iy. u 8Cl Il IS lcmlIug l0 Scc lhcm 8S lImIlIug C8ScS, 8S lhc
cud I0duClS 0 8 ScCIHC KIud o SccClIVc cV0ulI0u, cmh8-
SIZIug Sl8DIIly 8ud IcI0duCIDc Dch8VI0I 8g8IuSl 0cuucSS
8ud 8d8l8DIIly. u SuCh 8 cIScClIVc, lhc IccV8uCc 0 lhc
lcChu00gIC8 mcl8h0I IS u0l 8 m8llcI 0 IIuCIc Dul o 0-
hc I0Dlcm 0 DI00gIC8l 0IdcI IuV0VcS lhc lI8uSIlI0u I0m
lhc m0cCul8I 8ClIVIly l0 lhc SucIm0lcCul8I 0IdcI 0 lhc C0.
hIS I0Dcm IS 8I I0m DcIug S0lVcd.
LHcu DI00gIC8l 0IdcI IS SImly IcSculcd 8S 8u ImI0D8Dc
hySIC8 Sl8lc CIc8lcd 8ud m8Iul8Iucd Dy cuZymcS IcScmDIug
m88WcS dcm0u, cuZymcS lh8l m8Iul8Iu ChcmIC8 dIcI-
cuCcS Iu lhc SySlcm Iu lhc S8mc W8y 8S lhc dcm0u m8Iul8IuS
lcmcI8luIc 8ud IcSSuIc dIHcIcuCcS. Wc 8CCcl lhIS, DI0-
0gy W0ud Dc Iu lhc 0SIlI0u dcSCIIDcd Dy bl8h. hc BWS 0
u8luIc 80W 0uy dc8lh. bl8hS u0lI0u o lhc 0Ig8uIZIug 8ClI0u
0 lhc S0ul IS Icl8Ccd Dy lhc gcuclIC Iu0Im8lI0u C0ul8Iucd Iu
lhc uuClcIC 8CIdS 8ud c8IcSScd Iu lhc 0Im8lI0u o cuZymcS
lh8l cImIl lIc l0 Dc cIclu8lcd. tuZymcS 0Sl0uc dc8lh
8ud lhc dIS8c8I8uCc o Ic.
u lhc C0ulc8l 0 lhc hySICS o IIIcVcISIDlc I0CcSScS, lhc
IcSullS 0 DI0l0gy 0DVI0uSy h8Vc 8 dIHcIcul mc8uIug 8ud dI-
cIcul ImIC8lI0uS. Wc Ku0W l0d8y lh8l D0l lhc DI0ShcIc 8S
8 Wh0lc 8S Wcll 8S IlS C0m0uculS, lIVIug 0I dc8d, c8ISl Iu 8I-
I0m-cquIlIDIIum C0udIlI0uS. u lhIS C0ulc8l Ic, 8I I0m
OcHg OUlSUc lDc HlUI OIUcI, [[cI5 5 lDc 5U[IcHc cA~
IcSSI0u 0 lhc Scl-0Ig8uIZIug I0CcSScS lh8l 0CCuI.
LL L Ltb 1b
W0 8l0 l0ml0d l0 g0 S0 8l 8S l0 S8y lh8l 0n00 lh0 00nd-
l0nS 0l S0l-0lg8nZ8l0n 8l0 S8lS0d, l0 D000m0S 8S l0d0-
l8Dl0 8S lh0 cn8ld nSl8Dlly 0l 8 8llng Sl0n0. l S
l0m8lk8Dl0 80l lh8l l000nlly dS00Y0l0d 0SSl 0lmS N l0
808l n08lly Smull8n00uSly wlh lh0 lSl l00K 0lm8l0nS
[lh0 0ld0Sl m0l00SSlS kn0wn l0d8y d8l0 D80k J.
1* y08lS,
whl0 lh0 8g0 0 lh0 08llh S Su0S0d l0 D0 +. 0*1* y08lS lh0
0lm8l0n 0 lh0 lSl l00kS S 8lS0 d8l0d D80k l0 J.
1* y08lS).
h0 08lly 808l8n00 Nl0 S 00ll8nly 8n 8Igum0nl n 8Y0l N
lh0 d08 lh8l l0 S lh0 RSull M Snl8n00uS S0-0lg8nZ8l0n
lh8l 000ulS wh0n0Y0l 00ndl0nS 0l l 0lml. M0w0Y0l, w0
muSl 8dml lh8l w0 l0m8n 8l l0m 8ny qu8nll8lY0 lh00ly.
0 l0luln l0 0ul und0lSl8ndng 0 l0 8nd 0Y0lul0n, w0 8l0
n0w n 8 D0ll0l 0Sl0n l0 8Y0d lh0 lSkS ml0d Dy 8ny d0-
nun08l0n NRdu0l0nSm. P SySl0m 8l Rm 0qullDlum m8y
D0 d0S0lU0d 8S 0lg8nZ0d n0l D008uS0 l l08lZ0S 8 l8n 8l0n
l0 0l0m0nl8ly 80lYl0S, 0l ll8nS00ndng lh0m, Dul, 0n lh0
00nll8ly, D008uS0 lh0 8ml08l0n M 8 m0l0S000 u0lu8l0B
00ullng 8l lh0 lghl m0m0nl l0Sull0d n 8Y0lng 0n0 R80l0n
8lh 0Y0l 8 numD0l M 0lh0l 0qu8lly 0SSDl0 8lhS. Lnd0l 00l
l8n 0l0umSl8n00S, lh0l00l0, lh0 l0l0 l8y0d Uy ndYdu8l D0-
h8Y0l 08n D0 d00SY0. %0l0 g0n0l8lly, lh0 0Y0l8ll D0h8Y0l
08nn0l n g0n0l8l D0 l8k0n 8S d0mn8lng n 8ny w8y lh0 0l0-
m0nl8ly l000SS0S 00nSllulng l. b0l-0lg8nZ8l0B l00SS0S
n 8l-l0m-0qulDlum 00ndl0nS 00ll0S0nd l0 8 d0l08l0 n-
l0l8y D0lw00n 0h8n00 8nd n000SSly, D0lw00n u0lu8l0nS
8nd d0l0lmnSl0 l8wS. W0 0800l lh8l n08l 8 Dul08l0n, u0-
lu8l0nS 0l l8nd0m 0l0m0nlS w0uld l8y 8n m0ll8nl l0l0,
whl0 U0lw00n Dul08l0nS lh0 d0l0lmnSl0 8S00lS w0uld
D000m0 d0mn8nl. h0S0 8l0 lh0 qu0Sl0nS w0 n0w n00d l0
lnY0Slg8l0 n m0l0 d0l8l.
''l=1z V
'|OC|O3|'DlS 3lD ''3'S|
u 0uI ulI0duClI0u W u0ld lh8l 8 IC0uClu8lIZ8lI0u 0 lh
hySIC8l SCIuCS IS 0CCuIIIug l0d8y. hy 8I m0VIug I0m
IDl 0uS. hIS Ch8ug 0 ISClIV 8ClS ChmISlIy Iu 8
SlIIKIug W8y. PS W h8V Su u Lh8lI V, ChmIC8l I0-
CSSS, Iu C0ulI8Sl l0 lh lI8jCl0IIS 0 Cl8SSIC8l dyu8mICS,
C0IIS0ud l0 IIIVISIDl I0CSSS. LhmIC8l I8ClI0uS l8d
l0 ulI0y I0duClI0u. Lu lh 0lhI h8ud, Cl8SSIC8l ChmISlIy
C0ulIuuS l0 Ily 0u 8 dlImIuISlIC dSCIIlI0u 0 ChmIC8l
V0lulI0u. PS W h8V Su Iu Lh8lI V, Il IS uCSS8Iy l0
pl0duC dIIulI8l qu8lIouS IuV0lVIug lh C0uCulI8lI0u %
lh V8II0uS ChmIC8l C0m0uulS. LuC W Ku0W lhS C0u-
CulI8lI0uS 8l SDm IuIlI8l lIm (8S Wll 8S 8l 8I0II8l
D0uud8Iy C0udIlI0uS Whu S8C-dudul hu0mu8 SuCh Ub
dIuSI0u 8I IuV0lVd), W m8y C8lCul8l Wh8l lh C0uCuk8lI0u
WIll D 8l 8 l8lI lIm. l IS IulISlIug l0 u0l lh8l lh dlI-
mIuISlIC VIW 0 ChmISlIy 8IlS Whu 8I-I0m-quIlIDIIum
I0CSSS 8I IuV0lVd.
W h8V I8ldly mh8SIZd lh I0l 0 HuClu8lI0uS. Ll
uS Summ8IIZ hI S0m 0 lh m0I SlIIKIug 8luIS. Whu-
VI W I8Ch 8 DIuIC8lI0u 0Iul, dlImIuISlIC dSCIIlI0u
DI8KS d0Wu. h ly 0 HuClu8lI0u ISul Iu lh SySlm
WIll l8d l0 lh Ch0IC 0 lh DI8uCh Il WIll 0ll0W. LI0SSIug 8
DIuIC8lI0u IS 8 Sl0Ch8SlIC I0CSS, SuCh 8S lh l0SSIug 0 8
C0Iu. LhmIC8l Ch80S I0VIdS 8u0lhI X8ml (S Lh8lI
V). MI W C8u u0 l0ugI 0ll0W 8u IudIVIdu8l ChmIC8l lI8-
]CI0Iy. W C8uu0I QIdCI IB dI8lS 0l Im0I8l V0uI0u.
LuC 8g8Iu, 0uly 8 Sl8lISlIC8l dSCIIpll0u IS p0SSIDl. h 8lS-
luC 0 8u IuSl8DIlIly m8y D VIWd 8S lh ISull 0 8 HuClu8-
lI0u lh8l IS HISl l0C8lIZd Iu 8 Sm8ll p8Il 0 lh SySlm 8ud lhu
SpI8dS 8ud l8dS l0 8 uW m8CI0SC0pIC Sl8l.
hIS 8Ilu8lI0u 8llIS lh lI8dIlI0u8l VIW 0 lh Il8lI0u D-
lWu lh mICI0SC0pIC lVl 8S dSCIIDd Dy m0lCulS 0I
8l0mS 8ud lh m8CI0SC0pIC lVl dSCIlDd Iu lImS 0 gl0D8l
V8II8DlS SuCh 8S C0uCulI8lI0u. u m8uy SIlu8lI0uS HuClu8-
ll0uS C0IISp0ud 0uly l0 Sm8ll C0IIClI0uS. PS 8u 88mpl, ll
uS l8K 8 g8S C0mp0Sd 0 Nm0lCulS uCl0Sd Iu 8 VSSl 0
V0lum . Ll uS dIVld lhIS V0lum lul0 lW0 qu8l p8IlS.
Wh8l lS lh uumDI 0 p8IlIClS X Iu 0u 0 lhS lW0 p8IlS7
MI lh V8II8Dl X lS 8 I8ud0m V8II8Dl, 8ud W W0uld
6XpCl Il l0 h8V 8 V8lu Iu lh uIghD0Ih00d 0 Nl2.
P D8SIC lh0Im Iu pI0D8DllIly lh0Iy, lh l8W 0 l8Ig uum-
DIS, pI0VIdS 8u SlIm8l 0 lh II0I du l0 HuClu8lI0uS.
u SSuC, Il Sl8lS lh8l I W m8SuI X W h8V l0 8pCl d
V8lu 0 lh 0IdI Nl2: . NIS l8Ig, lh dIHIuC
lulI0duCd Dy luClu8lI0uS \ m8y 8lS0 D l8Ig (I
N= ^", Y=l0); h0WVI, lh I!8lIV II0I IulI0duCd
Dy HuClu8lI0uS IS 0 lh 0IdI 0 (Y)l(Nl2) 0I |l\ 8ud
lhuS ludS l0W8Id ZI0 0I 8 SuHCIully l8Ig V8lu 0 N. PS
S00u 8S lh SySlm DC0mS l8Ig u0ugh, lh l8W 0 l8Ig
uumDIS u8DlS uS l0 m8K 8 Cl8I dISlIuClI0u DlWu m8u
V8luS 8ud HuClu8lI0uS, 8ud lh l8llI m8y D uglCld.
MDWVI, Iu u0uquI!IDIIum pI0CSSS W m8y Hud ]uSl lh
0pp0SIl SIlu8lI0u. luClu8lI0uS dlImIu lh gl0D8l 0ul-
C0m. W C0uld S8y lh8l IuSl8d 0 DIug C0IIClI0uS Iu lh
8VI8g V8luS, HuClu8lI0uS u0W m0dIy lh0S 8VI8gS. hIS
lS 8 uW SIlu8lI0u. 0I lhIS I8S0u W W0uld lIK l0 IulI0duC 8
u0l0gISm 8ud C8ll SIlu8lI0uS ISullIug I0m HuClu8lI0u 0IdI
lhI0ugh uClu8lI0u. 0I gIVIug 88mplS, ll uS m8K
S0m guI8l Im8IKS l0 IlluSlI8l lh C0uCplu8l u0Vlly 0
lhlS SIlu8lI0u.
K8dIS m8y D 8mIlI8I WIlh lh MISuDIg uuCIl8Iuly
Il8lI0uS, WhICh 8pISS Iu 8 SlIIKIug W8y lh pI0D8DIlISlIC 8S-
pClS 0 qu8ulum lh0Iy. bIuC W C8u u0 l0ugI SImull8u-
0uSly m8SuI p0SIlI0u 8ud C00IdIu8lS lu qu8ulum lh0Iy,
Cl8SSIC8l dlImIuISm IS DI8KIug d0Wu. hIS W8S DlIVd l0
D 0 u0 lmp0Il8uC 0I lh dSCIIplI0u 0 m8CI0SC0pIC 0DjClS
SuCh 8S lIVIug SySlmS. ul lh I0l 0 HuClu8lI0uS Iu u0uquI-
lIDIIum SySlmS Sh0WS lh8l lhIS IS u0l lh C8S. K8ud0muSS
Im8IuS cSSulI8l 0u lhc m8CI0SC0IC lVl 8S Wll. l IS IulI-
cSlIug l0 u0l 8u0lhI 8u8l0gy WIlh qu8ulum lh0Iy, WhICh
8SSIguS 8 W8Vc Dh8VI0I l0 8ll lmul8Iy 8IlIClS. PS Wc
h8V Su, ChmIC8l SySlmS 8I I0m quIlIDIIum m8y 8lS0
l8d l0 C0hIul W8V Dh8VI0I. lhS 8I lh ChmIC8l Cl0CKS
dISCuSSd Iu Lh8lI V LuCc 8g8Iu, S0m 0 lh I0IlIS
qu8ulum mCh8uICS dISC0VId 0u lh mCI0SC0IC lVl u0W
88I 0u lh m8CI0SC0IC lVl.
LhmISlIy IS 8ClIVly IuV0lVd Iu lh IC0uClu8lIZ8lI0u 0
SCIuC. W 8I I0D8Dly 0uly 8l lh DgIuuIug 0 uW dIIC-
lI0uS 0 IS8ICh. l m8y Wll D, 8S S0m ICul C8lCul8lI0uS
SuggSl, lh8l lh Id8 0 I8ClI0u I8lc h8S l0 D Il8Cd Iu
S0m C8SS Dy 8 Sl8lISlIC8l lh0Iy IuV0lVIug 8 dISlIDulI0u 0
I8Cl0u I0D8DllIS.~
|OC|O3||D0S 30O 'D||3l3||D0S
Ll uS g0 D8CK l0 lh lyS 0 ChmIC8l I8ClI0u dISCuSSd Iu
Lh8lI V 0 l8K 8 SCHC 88ml, C0uSIdI 8 Ch8Iu 0
I8ClI0uS SuCh 8S A=X= h KIulIC qu8lI0uS Iu Lh8lI V
II l0 lh 8VI8g C0uCulI8l0uS. 0 mh8SZ lhS W Sh8l
u0W WIIl <X~ IuSl8d 0 X. W C8u lhu 8SK Wh8l IS lh
I0D8Dlly 8l 8 gVu lm 0 Hudug 8 uumDI X 0I lh C0u-
CulI8lI0u 0 lhIS C0m0uul. LDVI0uSly lhIS I0D8DIlIly WIll
HuClu8l, 8S d0 lh uumDI 0 C0llS0uS 8m0ug lh V8II0uS
m0lCulS uV0lVd. l S 8Sy l0 WIl 8u qu8lI0u lh8l d-
SCIDS lh Ch8ug Iu lhS I0D8DIlly dSlIDul0u [X,I) 8S 8
ISull 0 I0CSSS lh8l I0duC m0lCul X 8ud 0 I0CSSS
lh8l dSlI0y lh8l m0lCul. W m8y I0Im lh C8lCul8lI0u 0I
quIlDIIum SySlmS 0I 0I Slc8dy-Sl8lc SySlmS. Ll uS HISl
mul0u lh NSullS 0Dl8Iud 0I quIlDIIum SySlmS.
Pl quIlDIIum W VIIlu8lly IC0VI 8 Cl8SSIC8l I0D8DIlISlIC
dISlIDulI0u, lh 0ISS0u dSlIDulI0u, WhCh IS dSCIIDd Iu
VIy l8lD00K 0u I0D8DllIS, SIuC Il IS V8ld Iu 8 V8IIly 0
SIlu8lI0uS, SuCh 8S lh dISlIDulI0u 0 lleph0uc C8llS, W8IlIug
lHc5 H lc5lUlHl5 Ol lDc UClUlOH O lDc COHCcHlflOH O
8IlIClS Iu 8 g8S 0I 8 lIquId. h m8lhm8lIC8l 0IH 0 lhIS
dISlIIDulI0u IS 0 u0 Im0Il8uC hI. W mIly W8ul l0 m-
h8SIZ lW0 0 IlS 8SClS. IISl, Il l8dS l0 lh l8W 0 l8Ig
uumDIS 8S 0Imul8ld Iu lh HISl SClI0u 0 lhIS Ch8lI. huS
HuClu8lI0uS IBdd DC0m uglIgIDl Iu 8 l8Ig SySlm. %0I-
0VI, lhIS l8W u8DlS uS l0 C8lCul8l lh C0IIl8lI0u DlWu
lh uumDI 0 8IlIClS X 8l lW0 dIIul 0IulS Iu S8C S8-
I8ld Dy S0m dISl8uC r. h C8lCul8lI0u dm0uSlI8lS lh8l 8l
quIlIDIIum lhI IS n0 SuCh C0IIl8lI0u. h HD8DIlIly 0
HudIug lW0 m0lCulS X 8ud X' 8l lW0 dIIul 0IulS r8ud r
lS lh I0duCl 0 HudIug X 8l r8ud X' 8l r (W C0uS IdI dIS-
l8uCS lh8l 8I l8Ig Iu ISCl l0 lh I8ug 0 IulIm0lCul8I
Lu 0 lh m0Sl uu8Cld ISullS 0 ICul IS8ICh IS lh8l
lhIS SIlu8lI0u Ch8ugS dI8SlIC8lly Whu Wc m0V l0 u0uquIlID-
IIum SIlu8lI0uS. IISl, Whu W C0m 010S l0 DIuIC8lI0u
0IulS lh HuClu8lI0uS DC0m 8DU0Im8ly hIgh 8ud lh l8W 0
l8Ig uumDIS IS VI0l8ld. hIS IS l0 D 8Cld, SIuC lh
SySlm m8y lhu `Ch00S 8m0ug V8II0uS IgImS. luClu8-
lI0uS C8u Vu I8Ch lh S8m 0IdI 0 m8guIlud 8S lh m8u
m8CI0SC0IC V8luS. hu lh dISlIuClI0u DlWu HuClu8lI0uS
8ud m8u V8luS DI8KS d0Wu. m0I0VI, Iu lh C8S 0 8 u0u-
lIu8I ly 0 ChmIC8l I8ClI0u dISCuSSd Iu Lh8lI V, l0ug-
I8ug C0IIl8lI0uS 8pp8I. 8IlICS Sp8I8ld Dy m8CI0SC0pIC
dISl8uCS DC0m lIuKd. L0C8l VulS h8V IICuSSI0uS
lhI0ugh0ul lh Wh0l SySlm. l IS IulISlIug l0 u0l lh8l
SuCh l0Ug-I8ug C0IIl8lI0uS 88I 8l lD ICIS 0IUl 0
lI8uSIlI0u I0m quIlIDIIum l0 u0uquIlIDIIum. I0m lhIS 0Iul
0 VIW lh lI8uSIlI0U ISmD!S 8 h8S lI8uSIlI0u. M0WVI,
lhc 8mlIludS 0 lhS l0ug-I8ug C0IIl8lI0uS 8I 8l IISl
8m8ll Dul IuCI8S WIlh dISl8uC I0m quIlIDIIum 8ud m8y D-
C0m IuHuIl 8l lh DIuIC8lI0u 0IulS.
W DlIV lh8l lhIS ly 0 Dh8VI0I IS quIl IulISlIug,
SIuC Il gIVS 8 m0lCul8I D8SIS l0 lh HDlm 0 C0mmuuIC8-
lI0u mulI0ud Iu 0uI dISCuSSI0u 0 lh ChmIC8l Cl0CK. tVu
D0I lh m8CI0SC0IC DIuIC8lI0u, lh SySlm IS 0Ig8uIZd
lhI0ugh lhS l0ug-I8ug C0IIl8lI0uS. W C0m D8CK l0 0u 0
lh m8Iu Id8S 0 lhIS D00K. u0uquIlIDIIum 8S 8 S0uIC 0 0I-
dI. MI lh SIlu8lI0u IS SCI8lly Cl8I. Pl quIlIDIIum m0l-
CuS DB8V 8S SSul8y ududul cullS, lBy lgu0I
0u 8u0lhI. W W0uld lIK l0 C8ll lhm `hyU0US, `Sl-
W8lKIS. h0ugh 8Ch 0 lhm m8y D 8S C0ml8 8S W lK,
lhy Igu0I 0u 8u0lhI. M0WVI, u0uquIlDIum W8KS lhm
0Q 8ud ulI0duCS 8 C0hIuC quIl 0IIgu l0 quIlIDIIum.
h mICI0SC0C lh0Iy o IIIVISDl6 I0SSS lh8l W Sh8ll
dVl0Q Iu Lh8lI 7 WIll ISul 8 Sml8I CluI 0 m8llI.
N8llI`S 8ClIVly IS Il8ld l0 lh u0uquIlDIum C0udlI0uS
lh8l l IlSl m8y guI8l. JuSl 8S Iu m8CI0SC0C Dh8VI0I, lh
l8WS 0 HuClu8l0uS 8ud C0IIl8lI0uS 8I uuVIS8l 8l quI-
lIDIIum (Whu W Hud lh 0SS0u ly 0 dSlIDul0u), lhy
DC0m hIghly SCIHC dudug 0u lh ly 0 u0ulu8IIly
IuV0lVd Whu W CI0SS lh D0uud8Iy DlWu qulDIum
8ud u0uqulDIIum.
1'3 lQl'|'C3|'D| D| '|OC|O3|'DlS
l uS HISl l8K lW0 88mlS WhIIu lh gI0Wlh 0 8 HuClu8-
lI0u ICdIug lh 0Im8l0u o 8 uW SlIuCluI C8u D 0l-
l0Wd Iu dl8l. h HISl IS lh 8ggIg8l0u 0 SlIm m0ldS,
WhCh Whu lhI8lud Wlh Sl8IV8l0u C08lSC Iul0 8 SIugl
SuI8Cllul8I m8SS. W h8V 8lI8dy mulI0ud lhS Iu Lh8-
lI V. Pu0lhI IlluSlI8l0u 0 lh I0l 0 HuClu8lI0uS IS lh HISl
Sl8g u lh C0uSlIuCl0u 0 8 lImlS uSl. hS W8S HISl
Sl8ud0ul lh8l ulISlS uS hI."
5l!-AggrgatlOn PrOc88 |n an |n8ct POpulatlOn
Larva O! a cOlOptra (0enJtcctcnos m|cens j5ccl]). ar lnltlally dl8
IrlDutd at randOm Dtwn twO hOrlzOntal 8ht8 Ogla88, Zmm apart. Th
DOrdr8 ar Opn and th 8udac l8 qual tO cm.
Th aggrgatlOn prOc88 appar8 tO r8ult !rOm th cOmptltlOn Dtwn
IwO !actOr8: th randOm mOv8 O! th larva, and thlr ractlOn tO a chmlcal
prOduct, a "phrOmOn" thy 8ynthtiz !rOm trp0n8 cOntalnd ln th tr
On whlch thy !d and that ach O! thm mlt8 at rat dpndlng On lt8
nutrltlOn 8tat. Th phrOmOn dl!!u88 |n spac, and th larva mOv |n th8
dl rcIlOn O! lt8 cOncntratlOn gradlnt. Such ractlOn prOvld8 an autO
catalytlc mchanl8m 8lnc, a8 thy gathr ln a clu8tr, th larva cOntrlDut
tO nhanc th attractlvn88 Oth cOrr8pOndlng rglOn. Th hlghr th8
lOcal dn8lty O! larva ln thl8 rglOn, th 8trOngr th gradlnt and th mOr8
| ntn8 th tndny tO mOv tOward th crOwdd pOlnt.
DO OxOf|mOH 8how8 that the den8lty O! th larva DODulatlOn dtr
mln8 nOt Only th rat O! th aggrgatlOn prO88 Dut lt8 !!ctlvn88 a8
wllthat l8, th numDr O! larva that wlll !lna|ly part O th clu8tr. At
0lgh 0n8lIy (Flgur A) a cIu8Ir appar8 an0 rapl0Iy grOw8 aI Ih cnIr 0f
lh xprlmnIaI 8Iu. AI vry IOw 0n8lIy (Flgur b), nO 8IaDl clu8Ir a
M0rOvr, OIhr xrlmnI8 hav xpIOr0 Ih pO88lDlllty fOr a cIu8Ir l0
dvIOp 8IarIlng frOm a "nucIu8" artl!lclally craI0 ln a prlphraI rglOn Of
l0 8y8Im. Ul!!rnI 8OIuIlOn8 appar 0n0lng On Ih num0r Of Iarva ln
l0l8 lnlIl aI nucIu8.
|f Ih|8 numDr |8 8malI cOmpard w|Ih Ih IOIaI numDr Of Iarva, Ih8 clu8
Ir fall8 IO dvlOp (Flgur D). |f lI l8 larg, Ih clu8Ir grOw8 (Flgur8 E). FOr
|nIrmdlaI valu8 Of Ih ln|Ilal nuclu8, nw Iyp8 Of 8IrucIur8 may d
vIOp: TwO, Ihr Or fOur OIhr clu8Ir8 appar and cOxl8I, w|Ih a I|m Ollf8
aI la8I graIr Ihan Ih Ilm Of OD8rvaI|On (Flgur8 F and ).
NO 8uch mulI|clu8Ir 8IrucIur wa8 vr OD8rvd |n xpr|mnI8 wlIh 0
mOgnOu8 |nlI|aI cOndlI|On8. |I wOuld 8m Ihy cOrr8pOnd, |n a D|furcaI|On





||gur U. SII-aggrgatOn BlUW UBDS|l. RBl|RBS BlB U RIDUl0S8m ZZ
dl agram, tO 8taDI 8tat8 cOmpat|DI wlth th vaIu Ol th paramtr8
charactrlzlng th 8y8tm Dut that cannOt D attalnd Dy thl8 8y8tm 8tartlng
frOm hOmOgnOu8 cOndltlOn8. Th nuclu8 wOuld pIay th part Ol a llnlt
prturDatlOn nc88ary tO xclt th 8y8tm and dpOrt lt |n a rglOn Ol th
DlfurcatlOn dlagram cOrr8pOndlng tO 8uch famlll8 Ol muIt|clu8tr 8OIutlOn8 .




,,,,, - '


4 k
Flgur C. Prcnt Ol th tOtaI numDr Ol Iarva |n th cntraI cIu8t8r R
funOtlOn Of tlm at thr dlffrnt dn8ltl8.
OTlL MLLVb Wm M eMrw wlW nwtW
elel pWtw m m WNtW
J mm
F|gure L FaI| Of |nltlaI cIu8tr8 Of 10Iarva. TOtaI pOpulatlOn, 0Iarva. N:
numDr Of Iarva |n cIu8tr8.
u'1IttNut|u> gW M< WW WtNW W 4--v)
gW M 3WvWm mm l o
eW puWtm Wnm MM
Flgur E. GrOwIh Ol lnlIlaI cIu8Ir8 Ol Z0and 30Iarva. TOIaI pOpulaIlOn,

k 0
Flgur MuIIlcIu8Ir 8OluIlO8. |nlIlaI valu OI Ih cIu8Ir, 1 larva. 1OIaI
pulaIlOn, Iarva.

4 e
d O

Q f



m 1






Fgure G. G|Owth Oa clu8tr (| ) lntrO0d prlphral ly, wh|ch |nd08 0B

krmat|on O a SOO ||tt|e c| uster (||).
h C0uSlIuCl0u 0 8 lImlS uSl S 0u 0 lh0S C0hIul
8ClVlS lh8l h8V ld S0m SCulSlS l0 SpCu8l 8D0ul d
C0ClV mud u uSCl C0mmuulS. Uul CuI0uSly, l 8p-
8IS lh8l u 8Cl lh lImlS ud VIy llll u0Im8l0u l0
p8IlCp8l u lh C0uSlIuCl0u 0 SuCh 8 hug 8ud C0mplX
dDC 8S lh uSl. h HISl Sl8g u lhS 8ClVly, lh C0u-
SlIuCl0u 0 lh D8S, h8S Du Sh0Wu Dy LI8SS0 l0 D lh
ISul 0 Wh8l 8pp8IS l0 D dS0IdId Dh8V0I 8m0ug lI-
mlS. l lhS Sl8g, lhy lI8uSp0Il 8ud dI0p umpS 0 8Ilh u
8 I8ud0m 8Sh0u, Dul u d0ug S0 lhy mpIgu8l lh lumpS
Wlh 8 h0Im0u lh8l 8llI8ClS 0lhI lImlS. h Slu8l0u
C0ud lhuS D IpISuld 8S 00WS. lh ul8l HuClu8l0u
W0uld D lh Slghly l8IgI C0uCulI8l0u 0 lumpS 0 8Ilh,
WhChucvtDly OCCut8 t OuctmcOt uOthct t8OmcOut
u lh 8I8. h 8mpHC8l0u 0 lhS Vul S pI0duCd Dy lh
luCI8Sd duSIly 0 lImIlS lu lh IgI0u, 8llI8Cld Dy lh
SlIghlly hIghI h0Im0u C0uCulI8lI0u. PS lImIlS DC0m
m0I uumI0uS Iu 8 IgI0u, lh I0D8DIlIly 0 lhII dI0Iug
lumS 0 8Ilh lhI IuCI8SS, l8dIug Iu luIu l0 8 SlIll hIghI
C0uCulI8lI0u 0 lh h0Im0u. u lhIS W8y Ill8IS 8I
0Imd, S8I8ld Dy 8 dISl8uC I8ld l0 lh I8ug 0VI
WhICh lh h0Im0u SI8dS. bImIl8I 88mlS h8V ICully
Pllh0ugh 0llZm8uuS 0IdI IIuCIl u8DlS uS l0 d-
8I lVld 0ul 8ud IuIlI8l C0udIlI0uS 0Ig0llu, Il C8uu0l X-
l8Iu SIlu8lI0uS SuCh 8S lhS, WhI 8 W dCISI0uS Iu 8u
uuSl8Dl SIlu8lI0u m8y Ch8uul 8 SySlm 0Imd Dy 8 l8Ig
uumDI 0 IulI8ClIV ulIlIS l0W8Id 8 gl0D8l SlIuCluI.
hu d uW SlIuCluI ISullS I0m 8 HuIl IluID8lI0u, lh
HuClu8lI0u lh8l l8dS I0m 0u IgIm l0 lh 0lhI C8uu0l 08-
SIDly 0VIIuu lh IuIlI8l Sl8l Iu 8 SIugl m0V. l muSl HISl Sl8b
lISh IlSl Iu 8 lImIld IgI0u 8ud lhu IuV8d lh Wh0l S8C.
lhI lS 8 0kC rullO0 mCh8uISm. LudIug 0u WhlhI lh
SIZ 0 lh IuIlI8l HuClu8lIug IgI0u lIS Dl0W 0I 8D0V S0m
CIIlIC8l V8lu (Iu lh C8S 0 ChmIC8l dISSI8lIV SlIuCluIS,
lhIS lhISh0ld dudS lu 8IlICul8I 0u lh KIulIC C0uSl8ulS
8ud dIHuSI0u C0HCIulS), lh HuClu8lI0u IlhI IgISSS 0I
lS SI8dS l0 lh Wh0l SySlm. 8I 8mIlI8I WIlh uuCl8-
lI0u hu0mu8 Iu lh Cl8SSIC8l lh0Iy 0 h8S Ch8ug. Iu 8
g8S, 0I 88ml, C0uduS8lI0u dI0llS IuCSS8ully 0Im 8ud
V80I8l. h8l lmI8luI 8ud NSSuI N8Ch 8 0Iul WhI
lh lIquId Sl8l DC0mS Sl8Dl m8uS lh8l 8 CIIllC8l dI0ll
SIZ C8u D d0Hud (WhICh IS Sm8llI lh loI lhc lcmQmluN
8ud lh hIghI lh ISSuIc). lh SIZ %8 dI0ll XCdS
lhIS uuCl8lI0u lhISh0ld, lhc g8S 8lm0Sl IuSl8ul8u0uSly
lI8uS0ImS Iul0 8 lIquId.
m0I0VI, lh0IlIC8l SludIS 8ud uumIIC8l SImul8lI0uS
Sh0W lh8l lh CIIlIC8l uuCluS SIZ IuCI8SS WIlh lh HC8Cy
0 lh dIHuSI0u mCh8uISmS lh8l lIuK 8ll lh IgI0uS 0 SyS-
lmS. u 0lhI W0IdS, lh 8SlI C0mmuuIC8lI0u l8KS l8C
WIlhIu 8 SySlm, lh gI8lI lh ICul8g 0 uuSuCCSSul
HuClu8lI0uS 8ud lhuS lh m0I Sl8Dl lh SySlm. hIS 8SCl
%lhc CIIlIC8l-SIZ I0Dlm m8uS lh8l lu SuCh SIlu8lI0uS lh
8lW8yS ludS l0 d8m HuClu8lI0uS. hS WIll D dSlI0yd 0I
| 0
| 0
F|gu| 19. Nuclat|0n 0f a l|qu|d d|0plt |n a 8up|8a!u|atd va0|. (a)
d|0plt 8mall| than th c|ltlcaI 8lz, (D) dr0plt la|g| than th c||tlcal 8|z8.
Th xl8tnc 0f th th|8h0ld ha8 Dn xp|lmntally v||f|d K| dl88la-
t|v St|uctur8.
8mlIHd 8C00IdIug l0 lh HClIVuSS 0 lh C0mmuuIC8lI00
DlWu lh HuClu8lIug I0gI0u 8ud lh 0ulSId W0Ild. h CIll-
IC8l SIZ IS lhuS dlImIud Dy lh C0mlIlI0u DlWu lh
SySlmS IulgI8lIV 0WI 8ud lh ChmIC8l mCh8uISmS
8mlIyIug lh HuClu8lI0u.
hIS m0dl 8lIS l0 lh ISullS 0Dl8Iud ICully I0 n
P!lr0 8IImul8l SludIS 0 lh 0uSl 0 C8uCI l0m0IS.` 0
IudIVIdu8 lum0I C IS Su 8S 8 HuClu8lI0u, uuC0ulI0lmDly
8ud 0Im8uully 8Dl l0 88I 8ud l0 dVl0 lhI0ugh I-
lIC8lI0u. l IS lhu C0uI0uld WIlh lh 0ul8lI0u 0 Cyl0l08IC
CllS lh8l IlhI SuCCdS Iu dSlI0yIug Il 0I 8IlS. 0ll0WIug
lh V8uS 0 lh dIHIul 8I8mlIS Ch8I8ClISlIC 0 lh I-
lIC8lI0u 8ud dSlIuClI0u I0CSSS, W C8u IdICl 8 IgISSI00
0I 8u 8mlHC8lI0u 0 lh lum0I. hIS KIud 0 KIulIC Sludy h8S
ld l0 lh IC0guIlI0u 0 uu8Cld 8luIS Iu lh IulI8ClI00
DlWu Cyl0l08IC CllS 8ud lh lum0I. l SmS lh8l Cyl0l08IC
CllS C8u C0uuS d8d lum0I CllS WIlh lIVIug 0uS. S 8 I-
Sull, lh dSlIuClI0u 0 lh C8uCI CllS DC0mS IuCI8SIugly
h quSlI0u 0 lh lImIlS 0 C0ml8Ily h8S 0l0 D0
I8ISd. udd, lh m0I C0ml8 8 SySlm IS, lh m0I u0-
mI0uS 8I lh lyS 0 HuClu8lI0u8 lh8l lhI8lu Il8 Sl8DIlIly.
Mow thcn, t hus occn uskcd, cun systcmsus complcx uscco
l0gIC8l 0I hum8u 0Ig8uIZ8lI0uS 0SSIDy 8ISl7 M0W d0 lhy
m8u8g l0 8V0d Im8uul Ch80S7 h Sl8DIlIZug cHCl 0
C0mmuuIC8lI0u, 0 dIHuSI0u I0CcSSS, C0uld D 8 8IlI8l 8u-
SWI l0 lhS quSlI0uS. u C0mlX SySlmS, Whf SCIS
8ud IudIVIdu8lS IulI8Cl Iu m8uy dIIul W8yS, dIuSI0u 8ud
C0mmuuIC8lI0u 8m0ug V8II0uS 8IlS 0 lh SySlm 8Ic lIKly
l0 D ICIul . hI IS C0mlIlI0u DlWu Sl8DIlIZ8lI0u
lhI0ugh C0mmuuIC8lI0u 8ud IuSl8DIlIly lhI0ugh HuClu8lI0uS.
h 0ulC0m 0 lh8l C0mlIlI0u dlImIuS lh lhIcSh0ld 0
clJ.|J3 c|3J ly
Whu C8u W DgIu l0 S8K 8D0ul `V0lulI0u Iu IlS I0I
SuS7 S W h8V Su, dISSI8lIV SlIuCluIS IquII 8I-Hm-
quIlIDIIum C0udIlI0uS. Yl lh I8ClI0u dHuSI0u qu8lI0uS C0u-
l8Iu 8I8mlIS lh8l C8u D ShIHd D8CK l0 u8I-quIlIDIum
C0udIlI0uS. h SySlm C8u 8l0I lh DIuIC8lI0u dI8gI8m Iu
D0lh dIIClI0uS. bImIl8Ily, 8 lIquId C8u ShIH I0m l8mIu8I H0W
l0 luIDuluC 8ud D8CK. hI IS u0 d0HuIl V0lulI0u8Iy 8l-
lIu IuV0lVd.
h SIlu8lI0u 0I m0dlS IuV0lVIug lh SIZ 0 lh SySlm 8S
8 DIuIC8lI0u p8I8mlI IS quIl dIIul. MI, I0Wlh 0CCuI-
IIug IIIVISIDly Iu lIm I0duCS 8u III0VISIDl V0lulI0u.
ul lhIS Im8IuS 8 SCI8l C8S, Vu I Il C8u D fclV8ul 0I
m0Ih0gulIC dVl0mul.
Il Iu DI0l0gIC8l, C0l0gIC8l, 0I S0CI8l V0lulI0u, W C8uu0l
lKC 5 gIVCD CIlhCt dCHUIlC SCl 0 IDlCIClIDg uUIlS, 0I dCH-
uIl Sl 0 lI8uS0Im8lI0uS 0 lhS uuIlS. h dHuIlI0u 0 lh
SySlm IS lhuS lI8Dl l0 D m0dIHd Dy IlS V0lulI0u. h SIm-
lSl 88ml 0 lhIS KIud 0 V0lulI0u IS 8SS0CI8ld WIlh lh
C0uCl 0 SlIuCluI8l Sl8DIIly. l C0uCIuS lh f8ClI0u 0 8
gIVu SySlm l0 lh IulI0duClI0u 0 uW uuIlS 8Dl l0 mullIly
Dy l8KIug 8Il Iu lh SySlmS I0CSSS.
h I0Dlm 0 lh Sl8DIlIly 0 8 SySlm VIS-3-VIS lhIS KIud 0
Ch8ug m8y D 0Imul8ld 8S 0ll0WS. lh uW C0uSlIluulS, Iu-
lI0duCd Iu Sm8ll qu8ulIlIS, l8d l0 8 uW Sl o I8ClI0uS 8m0ug
lh SySlmS C0m0uulS. hIS uW Sl 0 I8ClI0uS lhu u-
IIS luI0 C0mIlIl0u WlIB IB SySImS IVl0uS m0d 0 uuC-
lI0UIug. lh SySlm IS `SlIuCluI8lly Sl8Dl 8S 8I 8S lhIS
IHlI0SI0u I8 C0uCcIud, lh uW m0d 0 uuClI0uIug WIll D
uu8Ulc l0 cSl8DlISh IlSl 8ud lh Iuu0V8l0IS WIll u0l SuIVIV.
, h0WcVcI, lh SlIuCluI8l HuClu8lI0u SuCCSSully Im0SS Il-
SlI, 0I 88ml, lh KIulICS WhIUy lh Iuu0V8l0IS
mullIly IS 8Sl u0ugh 0I lh l8llI l0 IuV8d lh SySlm Iu-
Slc8d 0 UIug dSlI0yd-lh Wh0l SySlm WIll 8d0l 8 uW
m0d 0 uuClI0uIug. IlS 8ClIVIly WIll D g0VIud Uy 8 uW
h SImlSl c88ml 0 lhIS SIlu8lI0u IS 8 0ul8lI0u 0
m8CI0m0lCulcS IQI0duCd Dy 0lymIIZ8lI0u IuSId 8 SyS-
lcm DIug cd WIlh lh m0u0mIS A 8ud . Ll uS 8SSum lhc
0lymIIZ8lI0u I0CSS l0 D 8ul0C8l8lylIClh8l IS, 8u 8lf8dy
SyulhSIZd 0lymI IS uSd 8S 8 m0dl l0 0Im 8 Ch8Iu h8VIug
lhc S8m SquuC. hIS KIud 0 SyulhSIS IS muCh 8SlI lh8u
8 SyulhSIS Iu WhICh lhI IS u0 m0dl l0 C0y. t8Ch ly 0
0ymI, Ch8I8ClIIZd Dy 8 8IlICu8I SquuC 0 H 8ud ,
C8u U dSCIIDd Dy 8 Sl 0 8I8mlIS m8SuIIug lh Sd
0 lh SyulhSIS 0 lh C0y Il C8l8lyZS, lh 8CCuI8Cy 0 lhc
C0yIug I0CcSS, 8ud lh m8u lI 0 lh m8CI0m0lCul Il-
Scl. l m8y Uc Sh0Wu lh8l, uudI CIl8Iu C0udIlI0uS, 8 SIuglc
ly 0 0lymI h8VIug 8 SquuC, Sh8ll W S8y, AAAA . . .
d0mIu8lS lhc 0ul8lI0u, lh 0lhI 0lymIS UIug IduC0
l0 mIc HuClu8lI0uS WIlh ISCl l0 lh HISl. h I0Ulm
0 SlIuCluI8l Sl8DIlIly 8IISS 8Ch lIm lh8l, 8S 8 ISull 0 8
C0yIug cII0I, 8 uW ly 0 0lymI Ch8I8ClIIZd Uy d
hIlhIl0 uuKu0Wu SquuC 8ud Dy 8 uW Sl 0 8I8mlIS
88IS Iu lhc SySlcm 8ud DgIuS l0 mullIly, C0mlIug WIlh
lhc 00mIu8ul ScCIcS 0I lh 8V8Il8Dl H 8ud m0u0mIS.
Mfc W uC0uulcI 8u lmul8Iy C8S 0 lh Cl8SSIC L8IWIu-
I8u Idc8 0 lhc SuIVIV8l 0 lh HllSl.
buCh Id8S 0Im lh D8SIS 0I lh m0dl 0 IDI0lIC V0lu-
lI0u dVcl0d Dy tIgcu 8ud hIS C0W0IKIS. h dl8IlS 0
tIguS 8Igumul 8I 8SIly 8CCSSIDl lSWhI. Ll uS
DIIHy Sl8lc lh8l Il SmS l0 Sh0W lh8l lhI IS 0uly 0u ly 0
SySlm lh8l C8u ISISl lh II0IS lh8l 8ul0C8l8lylIC 0ul8-
lI0uS C0ulIuu8lly m8K8 0lymI SySlm SlIuCluI8lly Sl8Dl
0I 8uy 0SSIDl mul8ul 0lymI. hIS SySlm IS C0m0Sd
0 lW0 SlS 0 0lymI m0lCulS. h m0lCulS 0 lh HISl
Sl 8Ic 0 lhc uuClIC 8CId ly, c8Ch m0Cul IS C88Dl 0
ICIOUuCH 115C 8HU 8C1 5 85 8 C818}51 1H 1DC 5}H1DC515 0
8 m0lcCulc 0 lhc ScC0ud Scl, WhICh IS 0 lhc I0lcIC lyc. c8C
m0lcCulc 0 lhIS ScC0ud Scl C8l8lyZcS lhc Scl-IcI0duClI0u 0 8
m0lcCulc 0 lhc HISl Scl. hIS lI8uSC8l8lylIC 8SS0CI8lI0u Dc-
lWccU m0lcCucS 0 lhc lW0 SclS m8y luIu Iul0 8 CyClc (c8Ch
`uuClcIC 8CId IcI0duCcS IlScl WIlh lhc hcl 0 8 `I0lcIu).
l IS lhcu C88Dlc 0 Sl8Dlc SuIVIV8l, ShcllcIcd I0m lhc C0u-
lIuu8l cmcIgcuCc 0 ucW 0ymcIS WIlh hIghcI IcI0duClIVc
cHCIcuCy. IUdccd, u0lhug C8u IulIudc Iul0 lh0 Scl-IclIC8lIug
CyClc 0Imcd Dy `I0lcIuS 8ud `uuClcIC 8CIdS. ucW KIud
0 cV0lulI0u m8y lhuS DcgIu l0 gI0W 0u lhIS Sl8Dlc 0uUd8lI0u,
hcI8l0Iug lhc gcuclIC C0dc.
LIgcu S 8I08Ch IS CcIl8Iuly 0 gIc8l IulcI0Sl. L8IWIuI8u
SclcClI0u 0I 8Ilhul Scl-IcI0duClI0U IS CcIl8IUly Im0Il8ul
Iu 8u cuVII0umcul WIlh 8 lImIlcd C88CIly. ul Wc lcud l0 Dc-
lIcVc lh8l lhIS IS u0l lhc 0uly 8ScCl IuV0lVcd Iu Ic DI0lIC cV0lu-
lI0u. hc `8I-I0m-cquIlIDIIum C0UdIlI0uS Icl8lcd l0 CIIlIC8l
8m0uulS 0 H0W 0 cucIgy 8ud m8llcI 8Ic 8lS0 Im0Il8ul. l
SccmS Ic8S0U8Dlc l0 8SSumc lh8l S0mc 0 lhc HISl Sl8gcS m0V-
Iug l0W8Id lIc WcIc 8SS0CI8lcd WIlh lhc 0Im8lI0u 0 mcCh8-
uISmS C88Dlc 0 8DS0IDIug 8Ud lI8uS0ImIug ChcmIC8l cucIgy,
S0 8S l0 uSh lhc SySlcm Iul0 `8I-I0m-cquIlIDIIum C0udI-
lI0uS. l lhIS Sl8gc lIc, 0I `IclIc, I0D8Dly W8S S0 dIlulcd
lh8l L8IWIuI8u SclcClI0u dId u0l l8y lhc cSSculI8l I0lc Il dId Iu
l8lct Sl8gcS.
muCh 0 lhIS D00K h8S CculcIcd 8I0uHd lhc Icl8lI0u DclWccu
lhc mICI0SC0IC 8ud lhc m8CI0SC0IC. Luc 0 lhc m0Sl Im0I-
l8ul I0DlcmS Iu cV0lulI0u8Iy lhc0Iy IS lhc cVculu8l ccdD8CK
DclWccu m8CI0SC0IC SlIuCluIcS 8ud mICI0SC0IC cVculS. m8C-
I0SC0IC SlIuCluIcS cmcIgIHg I0m mICI0SC0IC cVculS W0uld
Iu luIu lc8d l0 8 m0dIHC8lI0u 0 lhc mICI0SC0IC mcCh8UISmS.
LuII0uSly, 8l IcScul, lhc DcllcI uudcISl00d C8ScS C0uCcIu S0-
CI8l SIlu8lI0uS. Whcu Wc DuIld 8 I08d 0I 8 DIIdgc, Wc C8u Ic-
dICl h0W lhIS WIll 8cCl lhc Dch8VI0I 0 lhc 0ul8lI0u, 8ud
lhIS WIll IU luIu dclcImIUc 0lhcI m0dIHC8lI0US 0 lhc m00cS 0
C0mmuUIC8lI0u Iu lhc IcgI0U. buCh IulcIIcl8lcd I0CcSScS gcu-
cI8lc VcIy C0mlc8 SIlu8lI0US, lhc uudcISl8UdIUg 0 WhICh IS
uccdcd Dc0Ic 8By KIud 0 m0dclIZ8lI0u. hIS IS Why Wh8l Wc
WIll u0W dcSCIIDc 8Ic 0uly VcIy SImlc C8ScS.
u S0CI8l C8SS, lh I0Dlm DSlIuCluI8l Sl8DIlIly h8S 8 l8Ig
uumDI 0 8lIC8lI0uS. ul Il muSl D mh8SIZd lh8l SuCh
8IC8lI0uS Imly 8 dI8SlIC SImlIHC8lI0u D d SIlu8lI0u d-
Hud SImly Iu lImS 0 C0mlIlI0u DlWu Sl-IlIC8lIug
I0CSSS Iu 8u uVII0umul WhI 0uly 8 lImIld 8m0uul 0
lh udd IS0uICS 8ISlS.
u C0l0gy lh Cl8SSIC qu8lI0u 0I SuCh 8 I0Dlm IS C8ld
lh `l0gISlIC qu8lI0u. hIS qu8lI0u dSCIIDS lh V0lulI0u
0 8 0ul8lI0u C0ul8IuIug NIudIVIdu8lS, l8KIug Iul0 8CC0uul
lh DIIlhI8l, lh d8lh I8l, 8ud lh 8m0uul 0 IS0uICS 8V8Il-
8Dl l0 l 0u8lI0u. h l0gISlIC qu8lI0u C8u D WIIllu
0Al0l " rN(K- N) - mN, WhI r8ud m 8I Ch8I8ClIISlIC
DIlh 8ud d8lh C0uSl8ulS 8ud lh `C8IIyug C88Cly 0 lh
uVII0umul. Wh8lVI lh IuIlI8l V8lu 0 N,8S lIm g0S 0u
Il WIll I8Ch lh Sl8dy-Sl8l V8u NK- m/rdlImIud Dy
lh dIHIuCS 0 lh C8IIyIug C88CIly 8ud lh I8lI0 0 d8lh
8ud DIIlh C0uSl8ulS. Whu lhIS V8lu IS I8Chd, lh uVII0u-


the logi8tlc curve. The 8tatlonary 8tate M|8 un8table whlle the 8tatlonary
8tate M h0l |s 8table wlth re8pect tO !luctuatlons O! M.
0ul lS S8luI8l0, 8u0 8l 8Ch IuSl8ul 8S m8uy IudIVIdu8lS 0I
8S 8I D0Iu.
h 88Iul SImlICIly 0 lh l0gISlIC qu8lI0u C0uC8lS l0
S0m 8lul lh C0ml8Ily 0 lh mCh8uISmS IuV0lVd. W
h8V 8lI8dy mulI0ud lh HCl 0 8lIu8l u0IS, 0I 88m-
l. MI Il h8S 8u SCI8lly SIml m8uIug. LDVI0uSly, I
0uly DC8uS 0 ClIm8lIC HuClu8lI0uS, lh C0HCIulS K, D,
8ud rC8uu0l D l8Ku 8S C0uSl8ul. W Ku0W lh8l SuCh HuClu8-
lI0uS C8u C0mllly uSl lh C0l0gIC8l quIl|DIIum 8u0
Vu dIIV lh 0ul8lI0u l0 8lIuClI0u. L C0uIS, 8S 8 ISull,
uW I0CSSS, SuCh 8S lh Sl0I8g 0 00d 8ud lh 0Im8lI0u
0 uW C0l0uIS, WIll DgIu 8ud Vulu8ly V0lV S0 lh8l S0m
HClS 0 8lIu8l HuClu8lI0u m8y D 8V0Idd.
ul lhI IS m0I. uSl8d 0 WlIlIug lh l0gISlIC qu8lI0u 8S
C0ulIuu0uS Iu lIm, ll uS C0m8I lh 0ul8lI0u 8l H8d lIm
ulIV8lS (0I 88ml, S8I8ld Dy 8 y8I). hS `dISCIl
l0gISlIC qu8lI0u C8u D WIIllu Iu lh 0Im N, , g " N,( | =f
[ I - N/K), WhI N, 8ud N, , g 8I lh 0ul8lI0uS S8I8ld
0y 8 0u-y8I IulIV8l (W uglCl hI lh d8lh lIm). h
Im8IK8Dl 8luI, u0ld Dy H. %8y, IS lh8l SuCh qu8lI0uS,
Iu SIl 0 lhII SImlICIly, 8dmIl 8 DWIldIIug uumDI 0 S0lu
lI0uS. 0I V8luS 0 lh 8I8ml0I Ozrz2, W h8V, 8S Iu lh
C0ulIuu0uS C8S, 8 uuI0Im 8I08Ch l0 quIlIDIIum. 0I V8l-
uS 0 f l0WI lh8u 2.444,8 lImIl CyCl SlS Iu. W u0W h8V d
II0dIC Dh8VI0I WIlh 8 lW0-y8I I0d. hIS IS 0ll0Wd Dy
0uI-, Ighl-, lC. , y8I CyClS, uulIl lh Dh8V0I C8u 0uly D
0SCIIDd 8S Ch80lIC (I rIS l8IgI lh8u 2. 57). MI W h8V d
lI8uSIlI0u l0 Ch80S 8S dSCIIUd Iu Lh8lI Y. L0S lhIS Ch80S
8IIS u u8luI7 HCul SludS" Sm l0 udC8l lh8l lh 8-
I8mlIS Ch8I8ClIIZIug u8luI8l 0ul8l0uS K lhm I0m
lh Ch80lIC IgI0u. Why IS lhIS S07 MI W h8V 0u 0 lh
YIy IulISlIug I0DlmS CI8ld Dy lh C0uHuuC 0 V0lu-
lI0B8Iy I0DlmS WIlh lh m8lhm8lICS HduCd Dy C0mulI
\ l0 u0W W h8V l8Ku 8 Sl8lIC 0ul 0 VIW. Ll uS u0W
m0V l0 mCh8uISmS, WhIDy lh 8I8mlIS K, r, 8ud U
m8y V8Iy 0uIIug DI0l0gIC8l 0I C0l0gIC8l V0lulI0u.
W h8V l0 8Cl lh8l duIIug V0lulI0u lh V8luS 0 lh
C0l0gIC8l 8I8mlIS K, r, 8ud U WIll V8Iy (8S Wll 8S m8uy
0lBI 8I8mlIS 8ud V8I8DS, WB0IBI IBy 8I qu8uIlH8D
0I u0l). LIVIug S0ClIS C0ulIuu8lly IulI0duC uW W8yS 0 8-
l0lug 83lug IS0uICS 0I 0 dSC0VIug uW 0uS (l8l S,
KuCI8SS) 8ud C0uluu8lly dSC0VI uW W8yS 0 8ludug
lhI lVS 0I 0 mullyug m0I quCKy. t8C C0l0gC8l
quDIum dHUd Dy lh l0gSlC qu8l0u S lhuS 0Uly lm-
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statc |s qu|tc homocncous, thc modcI shows that thc mcrc
pIay ofchanccfactors-factorsuncontroI|cd by thc modcI,
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start-|s sumc|cnt to producc symmctry brcak|ns. thc ap-
pcaranccoh|hIyconccntratcd zoncsofact|v|tywh|Icothcrs
suhcra rcduct|on |n cconom|c act|v|ty andarcdcpopu|atcd.
Thc d|crcnt computcr s|mu|at|ons show rowth and dccay,
dcvcIopmcnts foI|owcd by soI|d|hcat|on othc cx|st|n dom|-
nat|on structurcs.
Whcrcas Chr|staI|cr`s symmctr|caI d|str|but|on |norcs h|s-
maI scnsc, as an |ntcrp|ay bctwccn ''Iaws, |n th|scascofa
purcIy cconom|c naturc, and thc ''chancc ovcrn|nthc sc-
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qu|tcunant|c|patcd|obaIchancs. AsWadd|ntoncmpha-
s|zcd, at prcscnt wc havc vcry I|ttIc undcrstand|n ofhow a
comp|cx systcm |s I|kc|yto rcspond toa|vcn chanc. Oftcn
th|srcsponscruns countcrtoour|ntu|t|on. Thc tcrm ''coun-
''Thcdamnth|n|ustdocs notdowhat|tshouIddo| To takc
thc cIass|c cxamp|c c|tcd by Wadd|nton, a proram ofs|um
arc not cnouh|obs Ior thcm, thcy rcma|n poor, and thc|r
dwcI||nsbccomccvcnmorcovcrcrowdcd.Wc arctra|ncdto
th|nk |ntcrms oI|ncarcausa||ty, but wc nccd ncw "too|s ot
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its own cxpcricnccs and thc traditions ofthc pop0|ations in
which hc Iivcs.
Wc a|sondthat,withinanthropo|ogyitsc|f,basicchoiccs
m0stbc madcbctwccnvario0sapproachcs toco|Icctivcphc-
nomcna. lt is wcI| known, for cxamp|c, that str0cturaI an-
of|ogicand nitc mathcmatics can bc 0scd, aspccts s0chas
whosc transformationsarc oftcn comparcd tocrysta||inc
rowth. Discrctc c|cmcnts arc co0ntcd and combincd. This
contrasts with approachcsthatana|yzc cvo|0tion in tcrms of
proccsscs invoIving Iargc, partiaI|y chaotic pop0|ations. Wc
arc dca|inwithtwodiffcrcnto0tIooksandtwotypcsof mod-
cIs: lcvi-Stra0ss dcncs thcm rcspcctivc|y as mcchanicaI
and statisticaI. lnthcmcchanicaImodc| thc c|cmcnts arc
ofthc samc scaIc asthc phcnomcna andindivid0aIbchavior
isbascdonprcscriptionsrcfcrringto thc str0ct0ra| organiza-
tionofsocicty. Thcanthropo|ogistmakcs thc |ogicofthis bc-
statisticaI modc|s for Iargc pop0|ations anddcncs avcracs
and thrcsho|ds.'
A socicty dcncd cntircIy in tcrmsofa f0nctionaI modcI
andordcr. EachomciaIwouIdpcrlormthcd0ticsforwhichhc
hasbccnappointcd. Thcscd0ticswo0Idtrans|atcatcachlcvcI
thc diffcrcnt aspccts ofthc organization ofthc socicty as d
whoIc.Thckinggivcsordcrs tothcarchitcct,thcarchitcctto
thc contractor, thc contractor to thc workcrs. Evcrywhcrc a
mastcrmind is at work. On thc contrary, tcrmitcs and othcr
socia|inscctssccmtoapproachthcstatisticaImodc| .Aswc
havcsccn, thcrc sccms tobc nomastcrmind bchind thccon-
str0ctionofthc tcrmitcs' ncst, whcn intcractionsamon indi-
vid0a|s prod0cc ccrtain typcs ofcoIIcctivc bchaviorin somc
circ0mstanccs, b0t nonc ofthcsc intcractions rcfcr to any
gIobaI task, bcinga|| p0rcIy IocaI. S0ch a dcscription ncccs-
sari|y imp|ics avcragcs and rcintrod0ccs thc q0cstionofsta-
bi|ity and bif0rcations.
hch cvcnl8 wll rcgrc88, und whCh uIO lkclj lo mIcCl lhc
thc rc|mcs ofstab|||ty? S|ncc s|zc or thc systcm`s dcns|ty
may p|ay thcro|c ofab|furcat|onparamctcr, how may purcIy
quani|tat|vc rowth |cad to qua||tatvc|y ncw cho|ccs? Qucs-
t|onssuchasthcsc caI| foranamb|t|ousproram |ndccd. As
ofa "ood modc|forsoc|a|bchav|orand h|story. Howdocs
|caI ?Th|s qucst|on sccms para||cI to qucst|ons wc havc aI-
rcady mct|nb|o|oy. How, torcxamp|c,docsthc sc|cct|on N
thccnct|c |nformat|onovcrn|nthcratcsandrcu|at|onsof
mctaboI|c rcact|onstavorccrta|n pathstosuch an cxtcntthat
dcvc|opmcnt sccms tobc purpos|vc orappcar as thctransIa-
t|on ofa "mcssac?
Wc bc||cvc that modc|s |nsp|rcd bythc conccpt of "ordcr
throuh uctuat|ons w||| hc|p us w|th thcsc qucst|ons and
cvcn pcrm|t us |nsomcc|rcumstanccs to|vcamorcprcc|sc
formu|at|on to thc comp|cx |ntcrp|ay bctwccn |nd|v|dua| and
coIIcct|vc aspccts ofbchav|or. lrom thc phys|c|st`s po|nt of
v|cw, th|s |nvo|vcs a d|st|nct|on bctwccnstatcsofthcsystcm
|nd|v|dua| , an |dca, or a ncw bchav|or can upsct thc |obaI
statc.Evcn|nthoscrc|ons, amp||cat|onobv|ous|ydocsnot
occurw|thjustany|nd|v|dua|,|dca,orbchav|or, buton|yw|th
thoscthatarc"dancrous-that |s,thoscthatcancxp|o|tto
thc|radvantac thc non||ncar rc|at|ons uarantcc|n thc sta-
b|||ty ofthc prcccd|n rc|mc. Thus wc arc Icd to concIudc
that thc aumc non||ncar|t|csmayproduccanordcroutNthc
chaos ofcIcmcntary proccsscs and st|||, undcrd|ftcrcnt c|r-
cumstanccs, bc rcspons|bIc for thc dcstruct|on otth|s samc
ordcr, cvcntua|Iy produc|na ncw cohcrcncc bcyondanothcr
|snotarb|trary. Onthccontrary,thcrcasonsfor thcamp||ca-
lIuctuat|onsdonotcauscthctransformat|onofasystc `sac-
t|v|ty. Obv|ousIy, to usc an |mac |nsp|rcd by Maxwc|I, thc
match |s rcspons|b|c for thc forcst f|rc, but rcfcrcncc to d
match docs not sumcc to undcrstand thc rc. Morcovcr, thc
factthat a uctuat|on cvadcs controI docs not mcan that wc
cannot Iocatc thc rcasons for thc |nstab|||ty |ts amp||cat|on
0 \J|D
lnv|cwofthccomp|cx|tyofthcqucst|onsra|scd hcrc,wccan
hard|yavo|dstat|nthatthcway|nwh|ch b|o|o|ca|andsoc|aI
cvo|ut|on has trad|t|ona||y bccn |ntcrprctcd rcprcscnts a par-
t|cu|ar|yuntortunatc uscofthcconccptsandmcthodsbor-
rowcd from phys| cs
-unfortunatc bccausc thc arca of
phys|cswhcrcthcscconccptsandmcthodsarc va||dwasvcry
rcstr|ctcd, and thusthcana|o|csbctwccnthcmandsocaIor
cconom|c phcnomcnaarccomp|ctc|y unjust|cd.
Thc forcmostcxamp|cofth|s |sthc parad|m oopt|m|za-
t|on. lt|s obv|ous that thc manacmcnt ofhuman so|cty as
wc|I as thc act|on of sc|cct|vc prcssurcs tcnds to opt|m|zc
s|dcr opt|m|zat|on as thc kcy to undcrstand|n how popu|a-
t|ons and |nd|v|dua|s surv|vc |s to r|sk contus|ncauscs w|th
Opt|m|zat|onmodc| sthus|norcboththcposs|b|||tyorad|-
caI transtormat|ons-that |s,transformat|ons thatchanc thc
dcn|t|onotaprob|cm andthus thck|ndotso|ut|on souht~
|nto a d|sastrous way oftunct|on|n. L|kc doctr|ncs such as
tcrms o max|m|zat|on or m|n|m|zat|on cr|tcr|a, th|s |vcs &
rcassur|n rcprcscntat|on ofnaturc as an a||-powcrtu| and ra-
t|ona| ca|cu|ator, and of a cohcrcnt h|story charactcr|zcd by
|oba| prorcss. To rcstorc both |ncrt|aandthcposs|b|||tyD
unant|c|patcd cvcnts-that |s, rcstorc thc opcn charactcr D
cou|d uscas a symbo| thc apparcnt|y acc|dcnta|charactcrD
thc rcat crctaccous cxt|nct|on that cIcarcd thc path for thc
dcvc|opmcntofmamma|s, asma||roupotrat||kccrcaturcs.
Th|shasbccnacncra|prcscntat|on, ak|ndo"b|rd`s-cyc
v|cw, andthus hasom|ttcd many top|cs ofrcat |ntcrcst:
BD5, QB5DB5, BDU B5cl5, 1Ol c8BDQc, Qlc6cD DODcQUHD-
Evcrywhcrc wc Iook, wcndanaturcthat|sr|ch|nd|vcrs|ty
and|nnovat|ons.ThcconccptuaIcvoIut|onwc havcdcscr|bcd
|s |tsc|fcmbcddcd |n a w|dcrh|story, thatofthc prorcss|vc
Wc havcsccnncwaspcctsoft|mcbc|nprorcss|vcIy|ncor-
poratcd |nto phys|cs, wh|Ic thc amb|t|ons to omn|sc|cncc |n-
hcrcnt |n c|ass|caIsc|cnccwcrcprorcss|vcIyrcjcctcd. lnth|s
chaptcrwc havc movcd from phys|cs throuhb|oIoy and
|nvcrscordcr. lndccd,h|storybcanbyconccntrat|n ma|nIy
onhumansoc|ct|cs, acrwh|chattcnt|onwas |vcn tothc
oft|mc |nto phys|cs thus appcars as thc Iaststac ofa pm-
rcss|vcrc|nscrt|onofh|story |nto thc naturaIand soc|aIsc|-
hctcrocnc|ty. S|ncc thc Rcna|ssancc, Wcstcrn soc|cty has
ccntury b|o|oy andco|oyIcarncdtod|scovcrandcIass|fy
foss||s and torccon|zc |n |andscapcs thc mcmor|csofapast
w|thwh|chwccocx|st,na||y,twcnt|cth-ccnturyphys|cs has
wh|chtc||susaboutthc bc|nn|nsofthcun|vcrsc.Todaywc
and thcfoss||sofmany pasts cocx|st.
Wc must now procccd to anothcr qucst|on. Wc havc sa|d
thatI|fc|sstart|ntosccmasnaturaIasafa|I|nbody. What
body?Whatposs|bIcI|nkcanthcrcbcbctwccndynam|cs, thc
sc|cnccofforcc andtrajcctor|cs, andthc sc|cnccofcomp|cx-
|ty and bccom|n, thc sc|cncc of||v|nproccsscs andofthc
natura| cvo|ut|on ofwh|ch thcy arc part? At thc cnd ofthc
thcor||nofcncry|osscsandwastc. Atthatt|mc|twasst|II
a rcsu|t ofour |ncpt|tudc, ofour 0nsoph|st|catcd mach|ncs,
proccsscspIay aconstruct|vc and |nd|spcnsabIc roIc.
5owccomc to a qucst|on that canbcavo|dcd no Ioncr.
What |s thc rcIat|on bctwccn th|s ncw sc|cncc otcomp|cx|ty
and thc sc|cnccots|mpIc, cIcmcntary bchav|or?What |s thc
rcIat|on bctwccn thcsc two oppos|n v|cws otnaturc? Arc
lna ccrta|n scnsc, wc havc comcbacktothcbc|nn|not
modcrn sc|cncc. Now, as at Ncwton's t|mc, two sc|cnccs
an atcmporaI naturc subjcctto Iaws, and thc sc|cnccotrc,
chcm|stry. Wc now undcrstand why|twas|mposs|b|ctorthc
|cs cannot cxpIa|n thc compIcxand|rrcvcrs|bIcbchav|orot
mattcr. gnta mutdt rca. Accord|n to th|s ancicnt say|n,
and bccom|n-two conccpts |n conict, yctboth ncccssary
lorcachacohcrcntdcscr|pt|onotth|s strancwor|d|nwh|ch
wc I|vc?

HL|VbH|N lMb
Wh|tchcadwrotcthatac|ashotdoctr|ncs |snotad|sastcr, |t
|sanopportun|ty. ' ltth|sstatcmcnt|struc,tcwopportun|t|cs
|nthc h|storyotsc|cncc havc bccn so prom|s|n. twoworIds
Ncwton|an sc|cncc was thc outcomc, thc crown|n syn-
I|ncsotthcorct|caI rcscarch. Thc samc |s truc tor thcrmo-
dynam|cs. Thc rowth otsc|cncc |s qu|tc d|ttcrcnt trom thc
|ntoan |ncrcas|nnumbcrotwatcrt|htcompartmcnts. Qu|tc
otv|cwmaybrcak opcn thc compartmcntsand st|rupsc|cn-
t|ccuIturc. Thcsc turn|npo|nts havc conscqucnccs thato
bcyond thc|r sc|cnt|c contcxt and |nucncc thc |ntc||cctuaI
sccncasawhoIc. lnvcrsc|y,|obaIprob|cmsocnhavc bccn
sourccsot|nsp|rat|onto sc|cncc.
Thc c|ashotdoctr|ncs, thccon|ctbctwccnbc|nandbc-
com|n, |nd|catcsthatancwturn|npo|nthasbccnrcachcd,
that a ncw synthcs|s |s nccdcd. Such a synthcs|s |s tak|n
shapctoday, cvcry b|t as uncxpcctcd as thc prcccd|n oncs.
Wc aa|n nd a rcmarkab|c convcrcncc ot rcscarch, a|| O
wh|ch contr|butcsto|dcnt|ty|nthcd|mcuIt|cs|nhcrcnt|nthc
Thcamb|t|onotNcwton|an sc|cnccwasto prcscntavs|on
otnaturcthatwou|dbcun|vcrsaI ,dctcrm|n|st|c,andobjcct|vc
inasmuch as it atta|ns a |cvc|ofdcscriptionthat cscapcs thc
cIutchcs ott|mc.
Wc havc rcachcdthccorcofthcprob|cm. "What |st|mc?``
Must wc acccptthcoppos|t|on, trad|t|ona|s|ncc Kant, bc-
twccn thc stat|c t|mcofc|ass|ca| phys|csand thc cx|stcnt|aI
t|mcwccxpcr|cncc |n our||vcs? Accord|ntoCarnap.
Oncc E|nstc|n sa|d that thc prob|cmofthc Now wor-
r|cd h|m scr|ous|y. Hc cxp|a|ncd that thc cxpcr|cncc of
thc Now mcans somcth|n spcc|aI for man, somcth|n
csscnt|a||y d|||crcnt |rom thc past and thc futurc, but
that th|s |mportantd|ffcrcnccdocsnotandcannotoccur
w|th|n phys|cs. That th|s cxpcr|cncc cannot bc raspcd
bysc|cnccsccmcd to h|mamattcrofpa|nfuIbut|ncv|ta-
b|c rcs|nat|on. l rcmarkcd that a|| that occurs ob|cc-
t|vc|ycan bc dcscr|bcd |n sc|cncc, on thconchandthc
onthcothcrhand, thcpccu||ar|t|csofman`scxpcr|cnccs
w|th rcspcct to t|mc, |ncIud|n h|s d|ffcrcnt att|tudc to-
wards past, prcscntandfuturc, can bc dcscr|bcdand (|n
pr|nc|p|c) cxpIa|ncd|npsycho|oy. ut E|nstc|n thouht
that thcsc sc|cnt|l|c dcscr|pt|ons cannot poss|b|y sat|sfy
ourhumannccds, thatthcrc |s somcth|ncsscnt|a|about
thc Nowwh|ch|s|ust outs|dc ofthc rca|mofsc|cncc.
l S nl0l0Slng tonotcthatcrson,|nascnscfo||ow|nan
tcrlll). l|kcE|nstc|n, crsonstartcdw|thasub|cct|vct|mc
|cs. Howcvcr, forh|mth|sob|cct|v|zat|on|cdtoadcbascmcnt
oflm0. nl0ln3 08Sl0nl3 lm0 h3S Qu3l3lV0 |03lul0S lh3l
arc |ost|nthc proccss. lt |sforth|srcason thatcrson|ntro-
duccd thc d|st|nct|on bctwccn phys|ca| t|mc and durat|on, a
conccpt rcfcrr|n to cx|stcnt|a| t|mc.
utwccannot stophcrc. AsJ T. lrascrsays,Thcrcsu|t-
mark of sc|cnt|c-|ndustr|a| c|v|||zat|on, a sort ofco||cct|vc
sch|zophrcn|a." Aswchavca|rcadycmphas|zcd,whcrcc|as-
s|caI sc|cncc uscd to cmphas|zc pcrmancncc, wc now f|nd
tor|csthat||cd Kant`shcartw|ththcsamcadm|rat|onasthc
morallawrcsidinin him. Wc now scc stranc ob|ccts: qua-
sars,pu|sars, a|ax|cs cxp|od|n and bc|n torn apart, stars
that,wcarctoId, co||apsc|nto "bIackhoIcs |rrcvcrs|bIydc-
vour|ncvcryth|nthcy manac tocnsnam.
T|mchas pcnctratcd not onIyb|oIoy, co| oy, andthcso-
c|aI sc|cnccs but aIso thc two IcvcIs from wh|ch |t has bccn
trad|t|onaIIy cxcIudcd, thc m|croscop|c and thc cosm|c. Not
onIy I|fc, butaIso thcun|vcrscasa whoIc hasa h|story; th|s
hasprofound |mpI|cat|ons.
Thc f|rst thcorct|caI papcr dcaI|n w|th a cosmoIo|caI
modcI from thc po|nt ofv|cwofcncraI rcIat|v|ty was pub-
I|shcd by E|nstc|n |n I 9I7. ltprcscntcdastat|c, t|mcIcssv|cw
ofthc un|vcrsc, Sp|noza`s v|s|on transIatcd |nto phys|cs. ut
thcn comcs thc uncxpcctcd. lt bccamc |mmcd|atcIy cv|dcnt
moIo|caIcquat|ons.Wc owcth|sd|scovcrytothcKuss|anastro-
phys|c|st A. lr|cdmann and thc cI|anU. lcmaitrc. At thc
samc t|mc HubbIcand h|s coworkcrs wcrc study|n thc mo-
t|ons ofaIax|cs, and thcy dcmonstratcd that thc vcIoc|ty of
d|stant aIax|cs |s proport|onaI to thc|r d|stancc from carth.
mann and lcmaitrc was obv|ous. Yct for many ycars phys|-
c|sts rcma|ncd rcIuctant to acccpt such an "h|stor|caI
dcscr|pt|onofcosm|ccvoIut|on. E|nstc|nh|mscIfwas waryO
|t.lcmaitrcoftcnsa|dthat whcn hctr|cdtod|scussw|th E|n-
m|c rays, E|nstc|n showcdno |ntcrcst.
Today thcrc |s ncw cv|dcncc, thcfamous rcs|duaI bIack-
body rad|at|on, thc I|htthat|IIum|natcd thccxpIos|onofthc
hyQ0ld0nS0 l0O3 Wlh Wh0h Oul unV0lS0 O0g3n. h0 WhO0
story appcarsasanothcr |ronyofh|story. lnascnsc,E|nstc|n
has, aa|nst h|s w|II, bccomc thc Darw|nolphys|cs. Darw|n
tauht us that man |s cmbcddcd |nb|oIo|caI cvoIut|on, E|n-
nSl0nS |dcasIcd h|mtoancwcont|ncnt,asuncxpcctcdto
h|maswasAmcr|catoCoIumbus. E|nstc|n, I|kcmanyphys|-
c|stsofh|scncrat|on,wasu|dcdby a dccp conv|ct|on that
thcrcwasafundamcntaI ,s|mpIcIcvcI|nnaturc. Ycttodayth|s
IcvcI |sbccom|nIcssandIcssacccss|bIctocxpcr|mcnt. Thc
world,atthcmacroscopiclcvc!. Classica!scicncccarclu!!y
chosc |ts ob|ccts from th|s |ntcrmcd|atc ranc. Thc hrst ob-
|ccts s|ngIcd out by Ncwton-faI|ng bod|cs, thc pcnduIum,
pIanctary mot|on-wcrc s|mpIc. Wc know now, howcvcr, that
th|s s|mpI|c|ty|snotthchaIImarkothcfundamcntaI.|tcannot
bc attr|butcd to thc rcstothc worId.
Docsth|ssufcc?Wc nowknowthatstab|I|tyands|mpl|c|ty
arccxccpt|ons. ShouIdwc mcrcIyd|srcgard thctotaI|z|ngto-
taI|tar|an cIa|ms ofa conccptuaI|zat|on that, |n fact, appI|cs
onIy to s|mpIc and stabIc objccts? Why worry about thc |n-
Wc mustnotforgct thc wordsofWh|tchcad, words con-
stantIy conrmcd by thc h|story ofsc|cncc: a cIashofdoc-
tr|ncs |s an opportun|ty, not a d|sastcr. lt has oftcn bccn
suggcstcd that wc s|mpIy |gnorc ccrtan |ssucs forpractical
rcasons on thc grounds that thcy arc bascd on |dcaI|zat|ons
thatarc d|fcuIt to |mpIcmcnt. At thc bcg|nn|ngofth|s ccn-
tury, scvcraI phys|c|stssuggcstcdabandon|ngdctcrm|n|smon
thc grounds that |t was |nacccss|bIc |n rcaI cxpcr|cncc.
dccd, aswchavc aIrcady cmphas|zcd,wcncvcrknow thccx-
poss|bIc. Morc rcccntIy, r|hou|n hopcd to dcstroy dctcrm|-
n|smby appcaI|ngto thc commonscnsc truth that accuratc
lOnS 3nd lh3l lhS knowlcdgcmuSl O0 3m |Ol, lh0 0830l l0-
"|nn|tc pr|cc bc pa|d.
Thcsc objcct|ons, wh|IcrcasonabIc, donot affcct thc con-
ccptuaIworIdofdynam|cs. ThcyshcdnoncwI|ghtonrcaI|ty.
Morcovcr, thc | mprovcmcnts |n tcchnoIogy couId br|ng us
cIoscrand cIoscrtothc|dcaI|zat|on |mpI|cd by cIass|caI dy-
ln contrast, dcmonstrat|onsof"|mposs|b|I|ty havc a fun-
damcntaI |mportancc. Thcy |mpIy thc d|scovcry ofan uoez-
pected iotrioaic atructure o] reality thatdoomsan |ntcIIcctuaI
cntcrpr|sc to fa|Iurc. Such d|scovcr|cs w|II cxcIudc thc pos-
SOly ofanopcrat|onthatprcv|ousIycouId havc bccn|mag-
|ncd asfcas|bIc,at Icast|npr|nc|pIc. "No cng|nc canhavcan
cff|c|cncygrcatcrthanonc, "no hcatcng|nc can producc
conccptua| |nnovat|ons.
pIorat|onthathadrcachcd|ts I|m|ts.utwccannowsccthcsc
sc|cnt|hc|nnovat|ons |n a d|ffcrcnt ||ght, notasan cnd but &
bcg|nn|ng, as thc opcn|ng up ofncw opportun|t|cs. Wc sha|I
|ng po|nt forthc cmcrgcnccofncw conccpts.
'UJ| .|v'3d||y
5c|cnt|c dcscr|pt|on must bc cons|stcnt w|th thc rcsourccs
worId "from thc outs|dc. Th|s|soncofthcfundamcnta|rc-
qu|rcmcnts ofrcIat|v|ty thcory. ln conncct|on w|th thc prop-
agat|onofs|gnaIsa ||m|tappcars that cannot bc transgrcsscd
by any obscrvcr. lndccd, C, thc vc|oc|ty of||ght |n vacuum
(cJ,U km/scc), |sthc ||m|t|ngvc|oc|tyfor thc propaga-
lOn O| 3 Sgn3S. huS lhS mlng V0O0|y Q3yS 3 |und3-
mcnIa|ro|c.H I|m|tsthcrcg|on|nspaccthatmay|nucnccthc
po|nt whcrc an obscrvcr|sIocatcd.
atoms,pIancts, and stars arc govcrncdbya s|ngIc |aw.
Thc d|scovcry of un|vcrsa| constants s|gn|f|cd a rad|caI
changc. Us|ng thc vcIoc|ty of||ght as thc comparison stan-
dard, phys|cs has cstab||shcd a d|st|nct|on bctwccn Iow and
h|ghvc|oc|t|cs, thosc approach|ng thc spccdof||ght.
l|kcw|sc,l|anck'sconstant, h, scts upa natura| sca|cac-
cord|ng to thc objcct's mass. Thc atom can no Iongcr bc rc-
gardcd as a t|ny p|anctary systcm. E|cctrons bc|ong to K
d|ffcrcntscaIc than p|ancts and aIIothcrhcavy, s|ow-mov|n,
macroscop|c objccts, |ncIud|nourscIvcs.
HLH U1 | LHP 1
Ousbchav|orsbccomcqua| |tat|vc|yd|llcrcnt,thcyaIsoIcadtO
ancwconccpt|onofob|cctv|ty. Noobscrvcrcantransm|ts|-
naIsatavc|oc|tyh|hcrthan thatof||ht|navacuum. Hcncc
absoIutc s|muItanc|tyoftwod|stant cvcnts; s|mu|tanc|tycan
thcory. lct us mcrcIy po|nt out that Ncwton`s Iaws d|d not
assumc that thc obscrvcr was a "phys|caI bc|n. Ob|cct|vc
dcscr|pt|onwas dcncdprcc|sc|yasthcabscnccofanyrclcr-
cncc to |tsauthor. lor "nonphys|ca| |ntc|I|cntbc|nscapa-
bIc ofcommun|cat|n at an |nl|n|tc vcIoc|ty, thc Iaws of
rcIat|v|tywou|dbc|rrc|cvant. Thcfactthatrc|at|v|ty|sbascd
on a constra|nt that app||cs on|y to phys|ca|Iy Ioca||zcd ob-
scrvcrs, tobc|nswhocanbc|nonIyoncp|accatat|mcand
thcrcsu|tofourprcfcrcnccsandconv|ct|ons;|trcma|ns sub-
obscrvcrs|tuatcd w|th|n thcobscrvcd worId. Ourd|aIouc
w|th naturc w||| bc succcssluI on|y |f|t |s carr|cd on from
w|th|n naturc.
100 |30 0l'UB0lU0 V000B0|03
KcIat|v|tya|tcrcd thc cIass|caIconccptofob|cct|v|ty. How-
cvcr, |tIctt unchancd anothcrlundamcntaI charactcr|st|c 0
cIass|caI phys|cs, namcIy, thc amb|t|onto ach|cvc a "com-
pIctcdcscr|pt|onolnaturc. Acrrc|at|v|ty, phys|c|stscouId
cmat|c|an who, as E|nstc|ncIa|mcd, nc|thcrchcats norp|ays
d|cc. Th|s mathcmat|c|an wouId posscss thc formuIa ofthc
un|vcrsc, wh|ch wou|d |nc|udc a compIctc dcscr|pt|onofna-
lurc. lnth|s scnsc,rc|at|v|tyrcma|nsacont|nuat|onofcIass-
caI phys|cs.
lhCOly llUly lO hVC DIOKCD Wllh lhC Q3l. _UDlUD DCChD-
|csnot onIy s|tuatcsus|nnaturc, |taIsoIabcIsusas "hcavy"
1 Hb!LVbH|N 1|Mb
bcinscomposcdofamacroscopicnumbcrofatoms. lnordcr
to visuaIizc morc cIcarIy thc conscqucnccsofthc vcIocity o
IihtasaunivcrsaIconstant, EinstcinimaincdhimscIfridin
a photon. utquantummcchanicsdiscovcrcdthatwcarctoo
hcavytoridcphotonsorcIcctrons. Wc cannotpossibIyrcpIacc
such airy bcins, idcntify ourscIvcs with thcm, and dcscribc
what thcy wouId think, ifthcy wcrc abIc to think, and what
thcy wouId cxpcricncc, ifthcywcrcabIc to fccl anythin.
Thc history ofquantum mcchanics, Iikc that ofaII con-
acr itwas conccivcd in thc urcncyofcxpcrimcnt and ina
dimcuItpoIiticaIandcuIturaI cnvironmcnt.This historycan-
notbcrcIatcd hcrc, wc onIy wishtocmphasizc itsroIc inthc
construction ofthc bridc from bcin to bccomin, which is
ourmain subjcct.
Thc birth ofquantum mcchanics was in itscIfpart D thc
qucstforthisbridc. lIanckwas intcrcstcdinthcintcraction
bctwccn mattcr and radiation. UndcrIyin his work was thc
ambition to accompIish for thc mattcr-Iiht intcraction what
oItzmann had achicvcd for thc mattcr-mattcrintcraction,
namcIy, todiscovcrakincticmodcIforirrcvcrsibIcproccsscs
Icadinto cquiIibrium. To hissurprisc,hcwasforccd, inor-
dcrto rcachcxpcrimcntaIrcsuItsvaIidatthcrmaIcquiIibrium,
toassumcthatB cxchangcofcncrybctwccnmattcrandra-
saIconstant.ThisunivcrsaIconstanth" mcasurcsthc"sizc"
0cach stcp.
ityIcd to dccisivc progrcssin physics.
This discovcry rcmaincd isoIatcd untiI Einstcin prcscntcd
thc rst cncraI intcrprctation of lIanck's constant. Hc un-
Iiht. Hc i ntroduccd a rcvoIutionary conccpt: thc wavc-
particIc duaIityofIight.
5incc thc bcinnin ofthc ninctccnth ccntury, Iiht had
bccnassociatcd withwavc propcrticsmanifcstinphcnomcna
suchasdihractionorintcrfcrcncc.Howcvcr, atthccndotthc
thc photoclcCttC cHcCtthut 8, thc cxpul8on oclcClron8 u8
thcrcsuIt ofthcabsorption ofIight. Thcsc ncw cxpcrimcntaI
||htmaybchoth wavcandpart|c|candthatthcsctwoaspccts
arcrc|atcdthrouhl|anck's constant. Morcprcc|sc|y, a||ht
wavc |scharactcr|zcdby|ts!rcqucncyu and |tswavc|cnth k,
h pcrm|tsustootromtrcqucncyandwavc|cnthtomcchan|-
ca|quant|t|cssuchascncryE andmomcntum. Thcrc|at|ons
bctwccnT and konthconc s|dcand E and onthcothcrarc
vcrys|mp|c. Ehu, h|k, and both |nvo|vch. Tcntyycars
|atcr, Lou|s dc ro||c cxtcndcd th|s wavc-part|c|c dua||ty
from ||htto mattcr, thus thc start|n po|nt tor thc modcrn
formu|at|on oquantum mcchan|cs.
ln IIJ N|c|sohrhad||nkcdthcncwquantumphys|csto
thcstructurcofatoms(and|atcrofmo|ccu|cs). Asarcsu|tof
thc wavc-part|c|c dua||ty, hc showcd that thcrc cx|st d|scrctc
scqucnccs ot c|cctron orb|ts. Whcn an atom |s cxc|tcd, thc
c|cctron|umpsfromoncorb|ttoanothcr. Atth|svcry |nstant
thc atom cm|ts orabsorbs a photon thc trcqucncy ofwh|ch
tcr|z|n thc c|cctron`s mot|on |n cach ofthc two orb|ts. Th|s
Thuswcrcachthcdcc|s|vcycarsI 9!-!7,a"o|dcnacof
hyS0S. ulng lhS ShOll 0lOd, 0S0nO0lg, HOln, JOld3n,
Schrd|ncr, and D|rac madc quantumphys|cs |nto a cons|s-
tcnt ncw thcory. Th|s thcory |ncorporatcs E|nstc|n`s and dc
cra||zcdtormotdynam|cs. quantummcchan|cs. lorourpur-
poscs hcrc, thc conccptua| novc|tyotquantum mcchan|cs |s
phys|cs,hadtobc |ntroduccdtoa||owquant|t|zat|on tobc
|ncorporatcd |nto thc thcorct|ca| |anguac. Thc csscnt|a| tact
|s that an atom can bc tound on|y |n d|scrctc cncry |cvc|s
corrcspond|ntothcvar|ousc|cctronorb|ts. lnpart|cu|ar,th|s
mcans that cncry (or thc Ham||ton|an) can no |oncr bc
mcrc|y atunct|ono|thcpos|t|onandthcmomcnt, as |t|s|n
c|ass|ca| mcchan|cs. Othcrw|sc, by |v|nthc pos|t|onsand
momcnts s||ht|y d|ttcrcnt va|ucs, cncry cou|d bc madc to
vary contnuous|y. But as obscrvaton rcvcaIs, on|y dscrctc
|cvc|s cx|st.
Wcthcrctorc havctorcp!accthcconvcnt|onaI|dcathatthc
th|n ncw; thc bas|c |dcaotq0ant0m mcchan|cs |s that thc
Ham|Iton|an as wc|I as thc othcrq0ant|t|cs otc|ass|caI mc-
chan|cs, s0ch as coord|natcs q or momcntap now bccomc
opcrdtors. Th|s |s oncotthc bo|dcst|dcascvcr|ntrod0ccd|n
lt |s a s|mpIc |dca, cvcn |tat rst |t sccms somcwhat ab-
stract. Wc havc to d|st|ng0|sh thc opcrator-a mathcmat|caI
opcrat|on-and thc ob|cct on wh|ch |t opcratcs-a f0nct|on.
Asan cxampIc,takcas thc mathcmat|ca| "opcrator" thc dc-
r|vat|vc rcprcscntcd by d|dz and s0pposc |t acts on a f0nc-
t|on-say, z, thcrcs0Itotth|sopcrat|on|sancw f0nct|on,th|s
t|mc "Zz." Howcvcr, ccrta|nf0nct|ons bchavc |nd pcc0||ar
wayw|thrcspccttodcr|vat|on. lorcxampIc,thcdcr|vat|vcO
"c" |s "Je":hcrcwcrct0rntothcor|g|na|f0nct|ons|mpIy
m0It|pI|cd by somc n0mbcr-hcrc, J. l0nct|ons that arc
"c|cnf0nct|ons"otth|s opcrator, andthcn0mbcrsbywh|ch
cratorarc thc "c|gcnvaI0cs" ofthc opcrator.
To cachopratorthcn th0scorrcspndsancnscmbIc,a"rcs-
crvo|r" ot n0mcr|caI vaI0cs; th|s cnscmb|c torms |ts "spcc-
tr0m. " Th|sspcctr0m|s"d|scrctc"whcnthcc|gcnva|0csform
ad|scrctc scr|cs. Thcrc cx|sts,for|nstancc, anopcratorw|th
aII thc |ntccrs , l , Z . # . as c|cnva|0cs. A spcctr0mmay
aIso bc cont|n0o0s-tor cxampIc, whcn |t cons|sts OaII thc
n0mbcrsbctwccn and l .
Thc O3SC COnC0Ql O| Qu3nlum m0Ch3nCS m3y lhuS D cx-
prcsscd as foIIows: to aII phys|caIq0ant|t|cs |n c|ass|caI mc-
and thc n0mcr|caI vaI0cs that may bc takcn by th|s phys|caI
q0ant|tyarcthc c|gcnvaI0cs otth|s opcrator. Thccsscnt|aI
po|nt |s that thc conccptOphys|caIq0antity(rcprcscntcdby
anopcrator) | snow d|st|nctfrom that O|ts n0mcr|ca| vaI0cs
(rcprcscntcdbythcc|gcnva|0csOthcopcrator). lnpart|c0|ar,
cncryw||Inow bc rcprcscntcd by thc Ham||ton|anopcrator,
and thc cncry |cvc|s-thc obscrvcd va|0cs Othc cncry~
w|II bc |dcnt|cd w|th thc c|cnvaI0cs corrcspond|n to th|s
scop|c wor!d O0ns0spcctcd r|chncss, and wc rcrct that wc
cannotdcvotc morc spacctoth|stasc|nat|ns0b|cct, |nwh|ch
crcat|vc|ma|nat|onandcxpcr|mcnta!obscrvat|onarc sos0c-
ccsst0!!y comb|ncd. Hcrcwc w|sh mcrc!y to strcss that thc
|n a s|n!c conccpt0a! schcmc common to a!! !cvc!s ot dc-
ncw mathcmat|ca! !an0ac |nvcntcd to dca! w|th a ccr-
ta|n s|t0at|on may act0a!!y opcn 0p c!ds O|nq0|ry that arc
t0!! Os0rpr|scs,o|nfarbcyondthccxpcctat|ons O|tsor|-
|nators. Th|s was tr0c tor d|crcnt|a! ca!c0!0s, wh|ch !|cs at
thc rotOthc torm0!at|onOc!ass|ca! dynam|cs. lt|s tr0c as
wc!! tor opcrator ca!c0!0s. Q0ant0m thcory, |n|t|atcd as dc-
was q0|cktorcvca! |tsc!tasprcnant w|th ncw contcnt.
Toay, morcthanyycarsacrthc|ntrod0ct|onOopcra-
tors|ntoq0ant0mmcchan|cs, thc|rs|n|canccrcma|nsas0b-
cctO!|vc!yd|sc0ss|on. lromthch|stor|ca!po|ntOv|cw, thc
|ntrod0ct|onOopcrators |s!|nkcd to thccx|stcnccOcncry
!cvc!s, b0ttodayopcratorshavcapp!|cat|onscvcn |nc!ass|ca!
phys|cs. Th|s|mp!|csthatthc|rs|n|cancchasbccncxtcndcd
|cs. Opcratorsnowcomc|ntop!ayas son as, toronc rcason
oranothcr, thc not|on Oa dynam|c tra|cctory has to bc d|s-
C|SC0O|_S L|CC|l3|lly rC|8.|Ol
Wc havc sccn that |n q0ant0m mcchan|cs to cach phys|ca!
q0ant|ty corrcsponds an opcrator that acts on t0nct|ons. Ot
spcc|a! |mportanccarcthcc|cnt0nct|onsandthcc|cnva!0cs
ca! q0ant|ty can now takc. lct 0s takc a c!oscr!okat thc
opcrators q0ant0m mcchan|cs assoc|atcs w|th coord|natcs q
and momcntap; |hc|r coord|natcs arc, as wc havc sccn | n
LHdQlCI , lHC CdDODlCdl VdIldUC5.
lnc!ass|ca! mcchan|cs cord|natcs and momcntaarc |ndc-
cc4 b|LbH|N 1|Mb
pcndcnt |n thc scnsc that wc can ascr|bc to a cordnatc d
n0mcrcaI va!0c q0|tc |ndcpcndcnt D thc va!0c wc havc as-
cr|bcd to thc momcnt0m. Howcvcr, thc cxstcnccotl|anck`s
varab!cs. Wcco0|d havc 0csscd th|s rht away trom thc
Enstcn-dc ro|c rc|aton k=h|p, whch, aswc havc sccn,
connccts wavc|cnth to momcnt0m. l|anck`s constant h cx-
prcsscsarc|atonbctwccn|cnths(c|osc|yrc|atcdto thc con-
ccpt o|coordnatcs) and momcnta. Thcrctorc, postons and
ca!mcchan|cs. Thcopcratorscorrcspondntopostonsand
|n tcrms D thc momcnt0m, somcthn cxp|ancd |n a|! tcxt-
books dca|n w|th q0ant0m mcchancs.
Thc mportant pont sthat | na!! cascs, on!y onc typc N
q0anttyappcars(cthcrcoordnatc ormomcnt0m), b0t not
both. ln ths scnsc wcmaysay that thc q0ant0m mcchancs
Onct0ndamcnta!propcrty rcs0|tstromthcrc!atonbctwccn
opcrators |n q0ant0m mcchancs. thc two opcrators g_

do not commute-that s, thc rcs0|ts ot g___
and ot
app!cdtothc samct0nctonarcdllcrcnt.Thshaspro-
to0ndmp|catons, sncc on|y commutn opcrators adm|t
common ccnl0nctons. Th0s wc cannot dcntty a t0ncton
statc in which thc physicaI q0anttcs, cordinatc q and mo-
mcnt0mp, bothhavcawcI!-dcncdva!0c. Thss|t0aton,0n-
known |n cIass|caI mcchancs, |scxprcsscd by Hc|scnbcr'
tamo0s 0nccrta|nty rc!at|ons. Wc can mcas0rc a cordnalc
andamomcnt0m, b0tthcd|sprs|onsotthcmspcctvcposs|-
bIc prcd|ct|ons as cxprcsscd by Lg,L p arc rc!atcd by thc
Hc|scnbcr|ncq0a!tyLgL p h. Wc canmakcLgassma|!as
wcwant, b0tthcnL p ocs tonnty, andv|ccvcrsa.
t|ons,ando0rdsc0ssonsadm|ttcd!yovcrs|mp|cd. 0twc
ca0sa||ty. lt |sposs|b|ctodctcrm|ncthccoord|natc prccsc|y.
0t thc momcntwc Joso,thc momcnt0m w|||acq0|rcan ar-
b|trary va|0c, pos|t|vc or ncat|vc. ln othcr words, |n an |n-
Thc mcan|n of loca||zat|on bccomcs b|0rrcd. thc conccpts
thatform thc bas|sofc|ass|ca| mcchan|cs arc profo0nd|y aI-
Thcsc conscq0cnccs ofq0ant0m mcchan|cs wcrc 0nac-
pcr|mcnts wcrc dcv|scdto dcmonstratc thc|rabs0rd|ty. An
vo|vcd. ln part|c0| ar, |t was s0cstcdthat thc fo0ndat|onof
q0ant0m mcchan|cs |s |n somc way rc|atcd to pcrt0rbat|ons
rcs0|t|n from thc proccssofobscrvat|on. A systcm was
tho0ht to posscss |ntr|ns|ca||y wc||-dcncd mcchan|ca| pa-
ramctcrs s0chascoord|natcsandmomcnta,b0tsomcofthcm
wo0|dbcmadcf0zzybymcas0rcmcnt,andHc|scnbcr`s 0n-
ma|n |ntact on thc f0ndamcnta| |cvc|, and wc wo0|d s|mp|y
havc to add a pos|t|v|st|c q0a||f|cat|on. Th|s |ntcrprctat|on
sccmstoonarrow. lt|snotthcq0ant0mmcas0rcmcntproccss
thatd|st0rbsthcrcs0|ts. larfrom|t. l|anck`sconstantforccs
0s to rcv|sc o0rconccptsofcoord|natcs and momcnta. Th|s
conc|0s|on has bccn conl|rmcd by rcccntcxpcr|mcnts dc-
s|ncd to tcst thc ass0mpt|on of|oca| h|ddcn var|ab|cs that
wcrc|ntrod0ccdtorcstorcc|ass|ca|dctcrm|n|sm." Thcrcs0|ts
ofthosc cxpcr|mcnts conf|rm thc str|k|nconscq0cnccsO
quant0m mcchan|cs.
cmphas|zcd, that wc m0st |vc 0p thc rca||smofc|ass|caI
phys|cs. lor ohr, l|anck`s constant dcncs thc |ntcract|on
bctwccn a q0ant0m systcm and thc mcas0rcmcnt dcv|cc as
cr|bc n0mcr|ca| va|0cs. A|| dcscr|pt|on th0s |mp||cs a cho|cc
ofthcmcas0rcmcntdcv|cc,acho|ccofthcq0cst|onaskcd. ln
s0rcmcntwcarco|nto pcnormandwh|chq0cst|ono0rcx-
pcr|mcnts w||| askthc systcm. Th0s thcrc |s an |rrcd0c|b|c
m0|t|p||c|ty ofrcprcscntat|ons for a systcm, cach conncctcd
w|tha dctcrm|ncd sctofopcrators.
Th|s |mp||cs a dcpart0rc from thc c|ass|ca|not|onofob-
|cct|v|ty, s|ncc |nthc c|ass|ca| v|cw thcon|y "ob|cct|vc dc-
scr|pt|on |s thc comp|ctc dcscr|pt|on ofthe ayatem ua it ia,
|ndcpcndcntofthccho|ccofhow |t|sobscrvcd.
ohra|wayscmphas|zcd thcnovc|tyofthcpoaitive cho|cc
tar|ty," wh|ch may bc cons|dcrcd as an cxtcns|on ofHc|scn-
bcrg`s 0nccrta|nty rc|at|ons. Wc can mcas0rc coord|natcs or
momcnta, b0t notboth. No s|ng|cthcorct|ca||ang0agc art|c-
0|at|ngthc var|ab|csto wh|ch a wc||-dcncd va|0c can bcat-
tr|b0tcdcancxha0stthc phys|ca|con(cntofasystcm.Var|o0s
poss|b|c |ang0agcs andpo|ntsofv|cw abo0t thc systcm may
bccomp|cmcntary. Thcya|| dca|w|ththcsamcrca||ty,b0t|t|s
|mposs|b|ctorcd0ccthcmtooncs|ng|cdcscr|pt|on. Thc|rrc-
thc |mposs|b|||tyofa d|v|nc po|nt ofv|cw from wh|ch thc
say that thc s|gn|l|canccofq0ant0m mcchan|csa|ways madc
thc comfortab|c ro0tinc ofcommon scnsc.
Thcrca| |cssontobc |carncdfromthcpr|nc|p|cofcomp|c-
mcntar|ty, a |csson that can pcrhaps bc transfcrrcd to othcr
c|dsofknow|cdgc, consists|ncmphas|z|ngthcwca|thofrc-
a||ty, wh|ch ovcrows any s|ng|c |ang0agc, any sing|c |og|ca|
str0ct0rc. Each|ang0agccancxprcsson|ypartofrca||ty. M0-
t|ons, by any sty|cofcompos|t|on, from ach to Schnbcrg.
Wc havc cmphas|zcd thc |mportanccofopcrators bcca0sc
thcydcmonstratc that thc rca||ty st0d|cd byphys|cs|sa|soa
mcnta| constr0ct, |t |snotmcrc|yg|vcn. Wc m0st d|st|ng0|sh
rca||zat|on, wh|ch can bc rcachcd thro0gh cxpcr|mcnts. Onc
o|thc rcasons |crthc oppositionbctwccn thc ``twoc0lt0rcs
mayhavc bccnthcbc|icfthat||tcrat0rccorrcspondstod con-
ccpt0a|zaton ofrca|ty, to "cton, "wh|c sccncc sccmsto
cxprcssob|cctvcrca|ty. " Q0ant0mmcchancstcachcs0s
thatthcst0atonsnotsosmp|c.Ona|||cvc| srca|tymp|cs
an csscnta| c|cmcntofconccpt0aIzaton.
1TC 1C|QO3| vOOl|OD O 'O3l|O| CySlC|S
Wc sha|| now movc on to dsc0ss thc tcmpora| cvoI0ton of
q0ant0m systcms.Asnc|assca| mcchancs, thcHam|tonan
p|ays a f0ndamcnta| ro|c. As wc havc sccn, n q0ant0m mc-
chancs t s rcp|accd by thc Ham|tonan opcrator M__. Ths
cncry opcrator p| ays a ccntra| ro| c. on thc onc hand, ts
ccnva|0cs corrcspond to thc cncrgy |cvc|s; on thc othcr
hand,asnc|assca|mcchancs,thc Ham|tonanopcratordc-
tcrmncs thc tcmpora| cvo| 0ton of thc systcm. ln q0ant0m
mcchancsthc ro|cp|aycd bythccanonca|cq0atonofc|ass-
ca| mcchancs s takcn by thc Schrdngcr cq0aton, whch
cxprcsscsthctmccvo| 0tonofthcf0nctoncharactcrznthc
q0ant0m statcas thc rcs0|tofthc app|caton of thc opcrator
M__ on thc wavc f0ncton (thcrc arc, ofco0rsc, othcr for-
m0|atons, whch wc cannot dcscrbc hcrc). Thc tcrm "wavc
functonhasbccnchoscnto cmphaszconccaainthcwavc-
partc|cd0a|tysof0ndamcnta|na||ofq0antum physcs.ia
u nuvc umplitudc thatcvo|vcsaccordng to apartc|c typcof
cq0atondctcrmncd by thcHam|tonan. Schrdngcr`scq0a-
ton, |kc thc canonca| cq0aton of c| assca| physcs, cx-
pcsscs reversiIe and Jeterministic cvo|ut on. Thc
moton a|onga tra|cctory. Ifthc wavc f0ncton at avcn n-
forany prcvo0sor s0bscq0cntnstant. lrom ths vcwpont,
thcst0aton sstrct|y sm|arto thatnc|assca| mcchancs.
Thssbcca0sc thc0nccrtantyrc|atonsofq0ant0mmcchan-
Cu55Cul ucChuuC5. P5 u tc5ult, Clu55Cul dcIcruu5u Uc-
Hb|LVbH|N 1|Mb
crat|onspIayaccntraIro| c. lt |sthrouh thcwavc |ntcns|ty
(thc squarcofthcampI|t0dc)thatwc makccontact w|th stat|s-
t|ca| cons|dcrat|ons.
Thc standard stat|st|ca! |ntcrprctat|on oquantum mcchan-
tor-say, thc cncry opcratorH
-and thccorrcspond|n
c|cnvaIucs. ln cncraI thc wavc funct|on w|II not bc thc
c|cnfunct|on othc cncrgy opcrator, but|tcanbccxprcsscd
as thc s0pcrpos|t|ono thcsc c|cn!0nct|ons. Thc rcspcct|vc
|mportanccofcachc|gcnfunct|on|nth|s s0pcrpos|t|onaIIows
0sto ca|cuIatc thc probab|I|tyforthcappcaranccOthc var-
o0s poss|bIc corrcspond|ngc|cnvaIucs.
Hcrcaa|nwcnot|cc& fundamcntaIdcpart0rcfromcIass|-
caI thcory. OnIy probab|I|t|cs can bc prcd|ctcd, not s|nIc
probab|I|t|cs wcrc uscd to cxpIa|n somc bas|c fcaturcs ona-
t0rc. Thc rst t|mc was |n o|tzmann`s |ntcrprctat|on ocn-
tropy. Thcrc, howcvcr, a subjcct|vc po|ntofv|cw rcma|ncd
poss|bIc,|nth|sv|cw, "onIyour|gnorancc |nthcfaccofthc
compIcx|tyo thcsystcmscons|dcrcdprcvcntcd usfromach|cv-
|nacomp|ctcdcscr|pt|on.(WcshaII sccthattoay|t|spss|bIc
toovcrcomcth|satt|t0dc. )Hcrc, as bcforc, thc0scofproba-
b|I|t|cs was 0nacccptabIc to many phys|c|sts~|ncI0d|n E|n-
stc|n-who w| shcd to ach|cvc a "compIctc" dctcrm|n|st|c
rcspons|bIcforstat|st|caI bchav|or|nthcquant0mworId,|ust
as |tmakcs usrcspons|bIcfor |rrcvcrs|b|I|ty.
Ln0c gn Wc 0Omc lO lhc lOOcm O| h000n VlO0S.
Howcvcr,aswc havc sa|d,thcrchasbccnnocxpcr|mcntaIcv|-
Oprobab|I|t|cs sccms|rrcd0c|bIc.
Thcrc |s onIy onc casc |n wh|ch thc 5chrd|ngcrcq0at|on
!cadstoadctcrm|n|st|cprcd|ct|on. that |s whcn , |nstcadof
bc|naauperpoaition oc|cnfunct|ons,|sreduced toas|nIc
onc. lnpart|c0Iar, |nan|dcaImcasurcmcntproccss,a systcm
maybcprcparcd |nsuchaway thatthcrcs0Itofa|vcnmca-
s0rcmcnt maybc prcd|ctcd. Wc thcn knowthat thc systcm|s
dcscr|bcdbythccorrcspond|nc|cnfunct|on. lrom thcnon,
lHC 5y5ICH Hdy UC UC5CIDCU WlID CCIIdDIy d5 DCD in thc
c|cnstatc |nd|catcd by thcmcas0rcmcntrcs0It.
c|aI s|n|canccthat |sattract|ncons|dcrab|c |ntcrcsttoday
5upposcwc startw|thawavc funct|on, wh|ch |s |ndccda su-
pcrpos|t|onofc|cnfunct|ons. As arcs0|tofthc mcas0rcmcnt
proccss, th|s s|nIc coIIcct|on of systcms a|I rcprcscntcd by
thc samc wavc f0nct|on |s rcpIaccd by a co||cct|on ofwavc
funct|ons corrcspond|n to thc var|ous c|cnva|0cs that may
bcmcas0rcd. 5tatcd tcchn|ca|Iy, amcasurcmcnt Icads from a
s|nIc wavc f0nct|on(a"p0rc statc)toa m|xt0rc
As ohr and KoscnfcId'" rcpcatcd|y po|ntcd o0t, cvcry
mcasurcmcntconta|nsan c|cmcntofirreveraihility, anappcaI
madc to|rrcvcrs|bIcphcnomcna, s0ch as chcm|caI proccsscs
corrcspond|ntothcrccord|nofthc"data. Kccord|n|sac-
compan|cd by an amp||cat|on whcrcbya m|croscop|c cvcnt
prod0ccs an chcctona macroscop|cIcvc|-that|s,a IcvcI at
wh|chwc canrcad thc mcasur|n|nstr0mcnts. Thc mcasurc-
mcnt thus prcs0pposcs |rrcvcrs|b|||ty.
Th|s was |n a scnsca|rcadytr0c|nc|ass|caIphys|cs. How-
|s morc0rcnt|nq0ant0m mcchan|cs bcca0sc|tra|scsq0cs-
t|ons atthcIcvc|of|tsform0|at|on.
m0t0a|Iy|rrcd0c|b|cproccsscs, thc rcvcrsib|candcontin0o0s
cvo|0t|on dcscribcd by 5chrd|ncr`s cq0at|on and thc |rrc-
vcrs|b|c and d|scont|nuo0s rcd0ct|on ofthc wavc f0nct|on to
paradox. thc rcvcrs|b|c5chrd|ncrcq0at|on canbctcstcd
on|ybyirrcvcrsib|cmcas0rcmcntsthatthccq0ationisby JcJ-
nition 0nab|c to dcscr|bc. lt |s th0s |mposs|b|c for q0ant0m
mcchan|cs to sct 0pa c|oscd str0ct0rc.
ln thcfacc ofthcscd|mc0|t|cs, somc phys|c|stshavc oncc
morctakcnrcf0c |n sub|cctiv|sm, stat|nthat ne-our mca-
s0rcmcntandcvcn,forsomc,our mind-dctcrmincthccvo|0-
t|onofthc systcmthatbrcaks thc|awofnat0raI, "ob|cct|vc
| |
|mprobab|c "so|0t|ons" havc aIso bccn proposcd, s0ch as
Evcrcttsmany-wor|dhypothcsIs(sccd'Tspanat,rcf. 8). For
us, howcvcr, thccocx|stcncc|nq0ant0mmcchan|csofrcvcrs-
ibiIity and irrcvcrsibi|ity shows that thc cIassica| idca|ization
cannot bc scparatcd from thc macroscopic conccpts that dc-
scribcthcf0nctioning Oo0r mcas0rcmcnt instr0mcnts. 5chr-
dingcr`scq0ationdocsnotdcscribcascparatc |cvc|ofrca|ity;
rathcritprcsupposcsthc macroscopicwor|d to whichwcbc-
aspcctofonc ofthc prob|cms to which this book is dc-
HamiItoniantrajcctorics and 5chrdingcr`scq0ation,and thc
compIcxmacroscopicwor|dofirrcvcrsib|c proccsscs.
q0ant0m mcchanics is s0sccptib|c tothc samc typc O soI0-
ton. lndccd, thc wavc f0nctionrcprcscntsthc maxim0m
tion cq0ation. ln both cascs, irrcvcrsibi|ity cntcrs whcn thc
idcaIobjcct corrcsponding to maxim0m know|cdgchastobc
rcp|accdby Icss idcaIizcdconccpts.B0twhcndocs this hap-
pcn? This is thcq0cstionofthcphysicaImcchanismsofirrc-
s0mmarizc somc othcrfcat0rcs ofthc rcncwaI ofcontcmpo-
rary scicncc.
/ J|Cd'''O''d| .|v3
asattcmpts toincorporatc 0nivcrsaI constants, c and h, into
conscq0cnccs, somcofwhichwchavc dcscribcdhcrc.lrom
oftimc. lnq0ant0mmcchan|cs,onccthcwavc f0nctionattimc
HbH U1 LHP 3
zcro is known, its va|0c (t) both forf0t0rc and pastisdctcr-
mncd. likcwisc,inrc|ativitythcorythcatutic gcomctriccharac-
tcr of timc is oftcn cmphasizcd by thc 0sc offo0r-dimcnsionaI
prcsscdconcisc|y by Minkowskiin I 9O8, "spacc by itscIfand
onIy a kind of 0nion ofthc two wi|I prcscrvc an indcpcndcnt
rca|ty . . . on|y awor|dinitsc|fwi|I s0bsist.'"
0tovcr thc past vc dccadcs this sit0ation has radica||y
changcd. Q0ant0m mcchanics has bccomc thc main tooI for
so0tsidcthcscopcofthisbook to dcscribcthcbcwi|dcrin
varictyofcIcmcntary partic|cs that havc appcarcd d0rinthc
past fcw ycars.
Wc wanton|yto rcca|| that,0singboth q0ant0mmcchanics
andrc|ativity,Di rac dcmonstratcdthatwchavctoassociatcto
cach partic|c ofmass m and chargc e an antipartic|c ofthc
samcmass b0tofoppositcchargc. Positrons,thcantipartic|cs
ofc|cctrons, as wc|| as antiprotons, arc c0rrcnt|y bcing pro-
d0ccd in high-cncrgy accc|crators. Antimattcr has bccomc a
commons0bjcct ofst0dy in partic|c physics.ParticIcsand
coIIidc, prod0cinphotons, mass|css partic|cscorrcsponding
to Iight. Thc cq0ations ofq0ant0m thcory arc symmctric in
rcspcct to thccxchangc partic|c-antipartic|c, or morc prc-
ciscIy, thcyarcsymmctric inrcspccttoawcakcrrcq0ircmcnt
knownasthcCP symmctry. lnspitcofthis symmctry, thcrc
cxists a rcmarkab|c Jiaaymmetry bctwccn particlcs and anti-
partic|cs in thc wor|d aro0nd 0s. Wc arc madc of partic|cs
prod0cts. lf particIcs and antipartic|cs cocxistcd in cq0aI
amo0nt, aII mattcrwo0|dbc annihi|atcd. Thcrc is strongcv-
cIcs and antipartic|cs, hidcs antipartic|cs somcwhcrc. How-
cvcr, itsccmsmorc |ikc|ythatwc |ivc ina "nonsymmctrica|"
0nivcrscwhcrc mattcrcomp|ctc|y dominatcsantimattcr.
How is this possib|c?A modc| cxp|aining thc sit0ation was
QIC3CDlCO Dj cuKDuIOV lD l 966, uDO lOOuj DUCD VOIK l3 DClD@
donca|onthcsc|incs. 'Onccsscntia|c|cmcntofthcmodc|is
bcinnoneguilihrium conditiona, foratcq0i| ibri0mthc|awo
amo0nts o mattcrand antimattcr.
now acq0ircd a ncw, cosmo|ogica| dimcnsion. Witho0t non-
thc univcrsc wo0|d havc a comp|ctc|y diffcrcnt str0ct0rc.
Thcrcwo0|d bc no apprcciab|c amo0ntofmattcr, on|y somc
0ct0atin |oca| cxccsscs ofmattcr ovcr antimattcr, or vicc
thccxistcnccofthc0nivcrsa|constanth, q0ant0mthcory has
cvo|vcdintoathcoryofm0t0a| transformationso c|cmcntary
partic|cs.lnrcccntattcmptstoform0|atca "0nicdthcoryo
c|cmcntarypartic|csithascvcnbccns0ggcstcdthatall parti-
c|csofmattcr,inc|0dingthcproton, arc0nstab|c(howcvcr,thc
|ifctimcofthcprotonwo0|dbccnormo0s, ofthcordcro l U
ycars). Mcchanics, thc scicnccofmotion, instcadofcorrc-
sponding to thcf0ndamcnta| |cvc| of dcscription, bccomcs a
mcrc approximation, 0scf0| on|y bcca0scofthc |ong |ifctimc
o c|cmcntary partic|cs s0chas protons.
tions. Aswc mcntioncd, itstartcdasagcomctricthcorythat
strong|y cmphasizcd timc|css fcat0rcs. Today it is thc main
too| for invcstigating thc thcrma| history of thc 0nivcrsc,for
providing c|0cs to thc mcchani sms that |cd to thc prcscnt
ity, has thcrcforc acq0ircd a ncw 0rgcncy. From thc c|d O
cnginccring, of app|icd chcmistry, whcrc it was rst form0-
Iatcd, ithas sprcad to thc who|cofphysics,fromc|cmcntary
partic|cs to cosmo|ogy.
lromthcpcrspcctivcofthisbook,thcimportancco q0an-
t0mmcchanics|ics initsintrod0ctionofprobabi|ityinto micro-
scopicphysics. This sho0|dnotbcconf0scd with thc stohastic
proccsscsthat dcscribc chcmica| rcactions as disc0sscd in
ChaptcrV. lnq0ant0mmcchanics,thcwavc f0nctioncvo|vcs
Wc havc sccnthatinthcttyycars sinccthcform0|ationo
hasrcvca|cdthat00ct0ations,stochasticc|cmcnts,arc impor-
tantcvcnonthc microscopicscaIc. Wc havcrcpcatcdIystatcd
inthis bookthatthc rcconccpt0aIizationofphysics goingon
tic andirrcvcrsib|concs. Wc bc|icvc thatq0ant0mmcchanics
probabiIityappcars, b0tnotirrcvcrsibi|ity.Wc cxpcct, andwc
shaII givc somc rcasons for this in ChaptcrlX, that thc ncxt
stcp wiIIbc thc introd0ctionoff0ndamcntaIirrcvcrsibi|ityon
cIassicaIorthodoxythro0gh hiddcnvariab|csorothcrmcans,
wc shaI| arg0c thati t i sncccssaryto movccvcnfarthcraway
caI, stochastic dcscription.
C1 V '
1Hl N
'|OO3O|||ly 3lO ' ||CvC|S|O||ly
Y B0B|| B 0B 0B||y v|yW0| 0 Q0yB|C|B 0BB
QU|QO |O0 0|B BC|0C 0 UB O O0WBy |0, BB
0OUQ0 BWB| 0B 0|B |OB |0|OOUCB B0 B0|OQO
0O|Q0|C |00I B||0 O 0 |OB|B O Q0yB|CB ||
0|BB, |0 Bv|B| | 0QO|B0 CBBB U0| O| |C|O0B| |0
B0O U0| O| |C|O0B| CBUBB||y 0Bv O0 |0vOKO, OU B|
B|B OOC||0
10 |BW 0B 0|OQy B|WyB | 0C|BBB0 BCO0O
|BW O 0|0OOy0B0|CB0O|OB, | 0|0K, I0 BUQ|0
QOB||O0 B0O0Q 0 |BWB O |BU| | BO0O0 QO|0B
OU O yOU 0B yOU| Q 0O|y O 0 U0|v|B |B |H
O| BBQ|00 W| 0 NBXW| | B QUB| O0B00 BO
0UC0 0 WO|B O| MBXW||S QUB|O0B ' | |B OU0O O
O CO0|BO|CO Oy OOB|vB|O0W| | , 0B XQ
||00B| |BB OO OU0Q| H|0QB BO0|0B CU | yOU|
0O|y |B OU0O O O BQB|0B 0 BCO0O |BW O 0|
0OOy0B0|CB | CB0 Q|v yOU 0O 0OQ, 0|O |B 0O0|0Q
O| | OU O CO||BQB |0 OQB 0U0|| |B|O0
PC. c00'XUTO
cs, thc conct bctwccn thcrmodynamcs and dynamcs bc-
CBDC DDVlDU3. hClC 3 hlUly & 3lD@lC QUC3llDD lD QH5lC5 lHdt
HbH 1 | LHA 3
tion bctwccn thcrmodynamics and dynamics. Evcn now,
h0ndrcd and fifty ycars aftcrCIa0si0s , thc q0cstion stiII
ict, which invoIvcs thc mcanin ofrcaIity and timc. M0st
dynamics, thc mothcrofmodcrnscicncc, bc abandoncd in
thc "cncrcticists, "whocxcrtcdrcatinfI0cnccd0rinthc
ninctccnthccnt0ry. lsthcrcd way to "savc" dynamics,to rc-
co0p thc sccond Iaw witho0tivin 0p thc formidabIc str0c-
t0rc b0iIt by Ncwton and hi s s0cccssors? What roI ccan
cntropy p|ay ina worId dcscribcdbydynamics?
Wc havc aIrcadymcntioncdthcanswcrproposcd byoItz-
mann. oItzmann`s famo0s cq0ation 5 k log rcIatcs cn-
tropyandpmbabi|ity: cntropyrosbcca0scpmbabiIityros.
nof0ndamcntaIsinicancc.ln his cxccIIcntbook 1he Amhi-
dexlroua Univerae, MartinGardncrwritcs: "Ccrtaincvcntso
onIyoncwaynotbcca0scthcycan`tothc othcrwayb0tbc-

y im-
provino0rabiIiticstomcas0rc Icss and Icss 0nIikcIycvcnts,
as smaII a roIc as wc want. This is thc point ofvicw that i s
oftcn takcn today. Howcvcr, thi swas notPIanck`s pointot
ltwo0Idbcabs0rdtoass0mcthatthcvaIidityo thcscc-
ondIawdcpcndsinanyway onthcskiIIOthcphysicist
orchcmistinobscrvinorcxpcrimcntin.Thcisto thc
sccondIawhas nothinto do with cxpcrimcnt, thc Iaw
asscrtsbricythatlhere exiala in ndlure d gudnlily nhich
chdnyea dlndya in lhe adme aenae in dll ndlurdl pro-
ceaaea. Thc proposition statcd in thiscncraIform may
bc corrcct or incorrcct, b0twhichcvcr it may bc, i twiII
rcmain so, irrcspcctivcofwhcthcrthinkinandmcas0r-
inbcinscxiston thccarthornot, and whcthcrornot,
ass0minthcy docxist,thcyarcabIctomcas0rcthcdc-
taiIsofphysicaI orchcmicaI proccsscs morc acc0ratcIy
by onc, two, ora h0ndrcd dccimaI pIaccs than wc can.
HC lHllOD lO lHC lW, D, Hu5l lC D lDC 5HC
Zb 1Hb LLH L1H|Nbb
is, in fact, our on|y way of arrivin at a knowIcdc of
natura| |aw."
Howcvcr, lIanck`s vicws rcmaincd isoIatcd. As wc notcd,
"lrrcvcrsibiIity i sthc chcct of thc introduction of inorancc
into thc basic Iawsofphysics.
lnthcprcscntchaptcrwc wishtodcscribcsomcofthcbasic
stcps in thc dcvc|opmcnt ofthc intcrprctation ofthc sccond
Iaw. Wc m0st rst 0ndcrstand why this prob|cm appcarcd to
bcsodimcu|t. lnChaptcrlXwc sha|| oontoprcscntancw
approach that, wc hopc, wiII cIcarIy cxprcss boththc radcaI
oriinaIityand thcob|cctivc mcaninofthc sccond Iaw. Our
concIusionwiIIarcc with l|anck`svicw. Wc shaII showthat,
lirst wc wish to c|arify o|tzmann`s association ofproba-
biIity and cntropy. Wc sha|I bcin by dcscribin thc "urn
modc| " proposcdby andT. Ehrcnfcst. ConsidcrA ob|ccts
. AtrcuIartimcintcrvaIs(forcxampIc,cvcrysccond)abaII
hee n _ _
A b

. _

k b
QUf0Z. LDf0n0SS Ufn RO0|. MDR||S Rf0 O|S!f|DU0O De!ween!wOCOn-
|0S|S 800 B. l|mS 0 lhS|S |S KD||S |0 P00 MKD||S |0 B. |Sgd||
|0S |0S|V|S D|| |S 8S0 |0000 |00 00 u | 0 B.
HbH U1 | LHA b
choscn at random and movcd from onc contancrto thc
othcr. 50pposcthatattimcn thcrc arc k ba|Isin Aand Dk
baIIs in . Thcn at tmc n + l thcrccan bc nActhcrk l or
k+ l baII s. Wc havcthctranstionprobabiIiticsk/A forkk l
and l klA for kk+ l . 50pposc wc contin0c thc gamc. Wc
bIcdistrb0tionino|tzmann`s scnsc wi||bcnachcd. Whcnthc
n0mbcrA ofba||ssIargc,thisdstrb0toncorrcspondstoan
cq0aIn0mbcrAlZ ofba||sincach0rn.Thscanbcvcricdby
cIcmcntary caIc0|atons orbypcrformingthccxpcrimcnt.
|gu|0 Z4. |OCP lO 0qu|||D||u0 {K N} |P Lh|0P0SS U|P 0000
(8chemat|c reresentat|On).
ThcEhrcnfcstmodc| sasmp|ccxampIcofa"Markovpro-
ccss" (or Markov "chain"), namcdaftcrthcgrcat K0ssan
mathcmatician Markov, who was onc ofthcrstto dcscrbc
s0chproccsscs(Poincarc wasanothcr). lnbricf, thcrcharac-
tcrsticfcat0rc s thc cxistcnccofwc||-dcncdtranstionprob-
ab|itics independent o] thc previoua hiato o] the ayatem.
scrbcdintcrmsofcntropy.lct0sca|I(k) thcprobabiIityof
ndingk ba||s n A. Wc may thcnassocatc to t an Jq0an-
tty, which hasthcprcciscpropcrticsofcntropythatwcds-
c0sscd n Chaptcr lV. lig0rc 3 givcs an cxamp|c of its
thccntropyofan iso|atcd istr0cthatJdecreuaca
Wlh lD, Whll h DlIOQy lDCIB55, DU hB l5 B DBl of
dcnition. Jp|ays thc ro|c of .
|gd|0 2. |00 0VD|d|D0 D h0 Jqd0|y [06!|060 |0 h0 6X] CD||0-
SD00|0g D h0 Lh|60!6S 0D00|. h|S qd0|y 06C|0S0S 0D0DD0DdS|y
00 V0|Sh0S D| |D0g |06S.
Thc mathcmatica| mcaningofthis J q0antity is worth
considcringinmorcdctai| . itmcas0rcsthcdiffcrcnccbctwccn
thc probabi|itics at a givcn timc and thosc that cxist at thc
cq0i|ibri0m statc (whcrc thc n0mbcr ofba||s in cach 0rn is
AlZ). Thc arg0mcnt 0scd in thc Ehrcnfcst 0rn modc| can bc
wc s0bdividc thcsq0arc into a n0mbcrof disjointcd rcgions
(scclig0rcZ). Thcnwcconsidcrthcdistributionofpartic|cs
inthcsq0arcandca||F(k, t)thcprobabi|ityofndingapartic|c
in thc rcgionk. 5imi|ar|y, wc ca|| ]__(k) this q0antity whcn
0niformity is rcachcd. Wc ass0mc that, as in thc 0rn modc| ,
ofthcJq0antity is
J 2 (k, t) log
Notcthcratio(k, t)/[__(k) thatappcarsinthisformu|a. 5up-
po8c !hcrc urc cgh! UoXc8 uud !hu! f__(k) /o. tor cXuuplc,
wcmaystartwitha||thcpartic|csinthcrstbox. Thccorrc-
HbH U1 | LHP
spnd|nva|0csofF(k, t)wo0Idbc( l ,t) =l , a||othcrszcro. As
thcrcs0|twcnd.!|=/og ( I /j I l8J) =/og 8. Ast|mcgocsby,thc
part|cIcsbccomccq0a||yd|str|b0tcdand(k,l) =[__(k) =I |B.
accordanccw|thl|g0rcZ, thcdccrcasc|nthcva|0cof.hpro-
cccds |n a0n|lormlash|on. (Thc dcmonstrat|on |s g|vcn|na||
tcxtbooksdca||ngw|th thc thcoryofstochast|cproccsscs. )
Th|s| swhyJpIaysthcroIcof 5, cntropy. Thc0n|formdc-
crcascOJhas d vcry s|mp|c mcan|ng. |t mcas0rcs thc pro-
rcss|vc0n|form|zat|onofthc systcm. Thc |n|t|aI |nlormat|on
|s |ost, and thc systcmcvo|vcs from "ordcr to "d|sordcr. "
Notc thata Markov proccss |mpI|cs0ct0at|ons,asc|carIy
|nd|catcd|nl|g0rcZ4. lfwcwo0|dwa|t|ongcno0ghwcwo0Id
rccovcr thc |n|t|a| statc. Howcvcr, wc arc dca||ng w|th avcr-
acs.Thc1_q0ant|tythatdccrcascs 0n|formIy |scxprcsscd
|ntcrms Oprohuhi/ity diatrihutiona and not |n tcrmsof|nd|-
v|d0aIcvcnts. lt|sthcprobab|||tyd|str|b0t|onthatcvo|vcs|r-
mvcrs|bIy (|n thc Ehrcnfcst modcI, thc d|str|b0t|on f0nct|on
tcndsun|form|ytoa b|nom|a| d|str|b0t|on).Thcrcforc, onthc
Icvc| od|str|b0t|on f0nct|ons, Markov cha|ns Icad to a one-
nuyneaa in time.
Th|s arrow o t|mc marks thcd|hcrcncc bctwccn Markov
cha|ns and tcmporaI cvo|0t|on |n q0ant0m mcchan|cs, whcrc
thcwavc f0nct|on, tho0ghrc|atcdtoprobab|I|t|cs,cvo|vcsre-
veraih/y. lt aIso|II0stratcs thcc|oscrc|at|on bctwccn stochas-
t|c proccsscs, s0ch as Markov cha|ns, and |rrcvcrs|b|||ty.
Howcvcr, thc|ncrcas|ngofcntropy(ordccrcas|ngofJ|snot
o0rdcc|s|onto 0sc prcscnt know|cdgc toprcd|ctf0t0rc (and
not past) bchav|or. G|bbs statcs |t|n h|s 0s0a| Iap|dary man-
worId. lt sho0|d not bc forgottcn, whcn o0r cnscmb|cs
arcchoscnto |||0stratc thcprobab|||t|csofcvcnts |nthc
rcaI worId, that wh||c thc probab|||t|csofs0bscq0cnt
cvcntsmay oftcnbcdctcrm|ncdfromthcprobab|||t|csot
priorCYCDl5, l 5 llCl] lHC C5C lHl QIOUUlllC5 O QIOI
cvcnts can bc dctcrm|ncd from thosc osubscqucnt
cvcnts,forwcarc rarcIy|0st|cd|ncxcI0d|nthccons|d-
lt|san|mportant po|nt,wh|ch hasIcdtoarcatdcaIofd|sc0s-
s|on. lrobab|I|ty caIc0I0s |s |ndccd t|mc-or|cntcd. Thc prc-
d|ct|onofthc f0t0rc |s d|hcrcntfromrctrod|ct|on. lfth|swas
thcwhoIcstory, wcwouIdhavctoconcI0dcthatwcarcforccd
d|st|nct|onbctwccnfuturcand past wo0IddcpcndonIyon0s.
|ty (f0rthcr rc|nforccd by thcamb|0ous anaIoy w|th |nfor-
mat|on thcory), thc obscrvcr |s rcspons|bIc for thc tcmporaI
asymmctrycharactcr|z|nthcsystcm`sdcvcIopmcnt. 5|ncc
and vcIoc|t|csofaII thc part|cIcs compos|n a compIcx sys-
tcm, hc cannot know thc| nstantancous statc that s|muI-
fromonc momcnt to thcncxt. Nc|thcrcanhcman|p0Iatc thc
fast- and sIow-mov|n part|cIcs and |mposc on a systcm an
ant|thcrmoynam|ccvoI0t|ontoward an|ncrcas|nIyIcss un|-
form tcmpcrat0rc d|strb0t|on."
Thcrmodynam|cs rcma|nsthcsc|cnccofcompIcx systcms,
systcms|s that ourknowIcdcofthcm|s I|m|tcdandthatour
vcrs|bI|tysomcth|nthatI|nksnat0rctothcobscrvcr, thc sc|-
cnt|st |s compcIIcdtoadm|t thatnat0rcmcrcIy m|rrors h|s
|norancc. Nat0rc |ss|Icnt, |rrcvcrs|b|I|ty, farfromroot|nus
|nthcphys|caI worId, |smcrcIythccchoofh0mancndcavor
andof|ts I|m|ts.
to such |ntcrprctat|ons, thcrmodynam|cs o0ht tobc as un|-
vcrsaI as our |norancc. Thcrc sho0Id cx|st only |rrcvcrs|bIc
proccsscs. Th|s |s thc stumbI|n bIockforaII un|vcrsaI|ntcr-
t|aI(orbo0ndary)cond|t|ons. rreversihility is not d universdl
rOrrI). 1U Utdct tU llUK dyUumlC8 uUd thctmUdyUumlC8, u
HbH U1 | LHP 4J
phys|caIcrtcron |srcq0|rcdtod|st|ng0|shbctwccnrcvcrs|bIc
anJ |rrcvcrs|bIc proccsscs.
Wc shaIItakc 0p th|s q0cst|on |n Chaptcr lX. Hcrc Ict 0s
rct0rn to thc h|storyofsc|cncc and oItzmann's p|onccr|ng
cO||Z13003 cC3'||OO_
oItzmann`sf0ndamcntaIcontr|b0t|ondatcsfrom l BTZ, abo0t
th|rtyycarsbcforc thcd|scovcryofMarkovcha|ns. H|samb|-
t|onwastodcr|vca"mcchan|ca||ntcrprctat|onofcntropy. ln
othcrwords,wh||c|nMarkov cha|nsthctrans|t|onprobab|||-
t|cs arcg|vcn from o0ts|dc as, for cxampIc, |nthc Ehrcnfcst
hc dcvotcd mostofh|s sc|cnt|c I |fc to |t. ln h|sopulJrc
5chrtcn'" hc wrotc. "lf somconc askcd mc what namc wc
sho0|dg|vctoth|sccnt0ry,l wo0Idanswcrw|tho0thcs|tat|on
thatth|s |sthcccnt0ryofDarw| n. oItzmannwasdccpIyat-
tractcd by thc |dcaofcvoI0t|on, and h|samb|t|onwas tobc-
comcthc "Darw|nofthccvo|0t|onofmattcr.
Thc rst stcp toward thc mcchan|st|c |ntcrprctat|onofcn-
thcposs|b|I|tyofa stat|st|ca| dcscr|pt|on. Th|s stcphad bccn
takcn by CIa0s|0sand MaxwcII. 5|ncc co|||s|onsarcd|scrctc
cvcnts, wc may co0ntthcm and cst|matc thc|ravcragc frc-
q0cncy. Wc may aIsocIass|fy co|I|s|ons-forcxamp| c, d|s-
t|ng0|sh bctwccnco|||s|onsprod0c|nga part|cIcw|thag|vcn
prod0c|ngmoIcc0|csw|thad|ffcrcntvcIoc|ty(thc "d|rcct
and "|nvcrsc co|I|s|ons)
l l
Thcq0cst|onMaxwcII askcdwaswhcthcr|twasposs|b|cto
dcncastatcoagas s0chthatthcco|||s|onsthat|nccssantIy
mod|fy thc vc|oc|t|cs ofthc mo|cc0|cs no Iongcr dctcrm|nc
anycvo|0t|on|nthcdiatrihution othcscvcIoc|t|cs-that|s, |n
thcvc|oc|ty d|str|b0t|ons0chthat thc cccts mthcd|ffcrcnt
co|||s|onscompcnsatc cach othcr onthc pop0|at|on scaIc?
Maxwc|| dcmonstratcd that th|s part|c0|ar statc, wh|ch | s
|tyd|strib0tionbccomcsthcwc|I-known"bc||-shapcdc0rvc, "
thc"ga0ss|an, "whichQ0ctc|ct, thclo0ndcrol"soc|a|phys-
|cs, hadcons|dcrcdtobcthcvcrycxprcssionolrandomncss.
somc olthc basic |aws dcscribing thc bchav|or olgascs. An
ncrcasc |n tcmpcrat0rc corrcsponds to an |ncrcasc in thc
atcdw|th thcir motion. Expcr|mcnts havc vcr|cd MaxwcI|'s
Iaw w|th grcat acc0racy, and |t sti|| providcs a bas|s lor thc
so|0t|onoln0mcro0s prob|cms |n physica| chcmistry (lorcx-
amp|c,thcca|c0|at|onolthc n0mbcrolco||isions|narcact|vc
o|tzmanu, howcvcr, wantcd to go larthcr. Hc wantcd to
dcscr|bc not on|y thc atute O cq0i|ibr|0m b0t a|so evolution
toward cq0i|ibri0m-thatis, cvoI0tion toward thcMaxwc|||an
that corrcsponds to thc |ncrcasc O cntropy, thc mcchan|sm
toward cq0|||br|0m.
atthc|cvc|olapopulution Omo|cc0|cs.Th|s,o|tzmannlc|t,
tion-nat0ra|sc|cction-cannotbc dcncd loroncindivid0aI
b0ton|yloraIargcpop0|ation. ltisthcrclorcastat|st|caIcon-
o|tzmann's rcs0|tmay bc dcscribcd |n rc|at|vc|y s|mp|c
tcrms.Thccvo|0t|onolthcd|strib0t|onl0nct|on/(v, t) olthc
vc|oc|t|cs v in somc rcg|on olspacc andatt|mcl appcarsas
thc s0moltwo chccts, thcn0mbcrO part|c|cs at anygivcn
t|mc t havingavc|oc|ty v varicsbothasthc rcs0|tolthclrcc
mot|onolthcpart|cIcs and as thcrcs0|tOco||is|onsbctwccn
olc|ass|ca| dynamics. lt |s inthc invcstigation Othc sccond
rcs0|t, d0c to co|||sions, that thc or|ginu|ity ol o|tzmann's
mcthod||cs. lnthclaccOthcdimc0|tics|nvo|vcdinlo||ow|ng
lhc ltu]cClotc8 (nCludng lhc nlctuClon5), UollZmunn Cumc
HbH U1 | LHP Z4Z
ncct|onw|thchcm|caIrcact|ons)and toca|c0|atc thcuvcrugc
n0mbcrofco|||s|onscrcat|ng ordcstroy|nga mo|cc0|c corrc-
spond|ng to a vc|oc|ty v.
Hcrc oncc aga|n thcrc arc two proccsscs w|th oppos|tc
cccts-"d|rcct co|||s|ons,thoscprod0c|ngamo|cc0|c w|th
vcIoc|ty V start|ngfrom two mo|cc0|cs w|th vc|oc|t|cs V
V |s dcstroycd by co|||s|on w|th a mo|cc0|c w|th vc|oc|ty V
Asw|th chcm|caI rcact|ons(sccChaptcrV,scct|on I ),thcfrc-
q0cncyofs0chcvcnts |scva|0atcdasbc|ngproport|onaItothc
prod0ctofthc n0mbcrofmo|cc0Ics tak|ng part |n thcsc pro-
ccsscs.(Ofco0rsc,h|stor|ca|| yspcak|ng,o|tzmann'smcthod
[ I 872] prcccdcd that ofchcm|ca| k|nct|cs.)
obta|ncd |n Markov cha|ns. Aga|n wc sha|| |ntrod0cc an J
q0ant|ty, th|s t|mc rclcrr|ng to thc vc|oc|ty d|str|b0t|on/ lt
maybcwr|ttcnJl= ] ]log ] dv. Onccaga|n,th|sq0ant|tycan
onIy dccrcasc|nt|mc 0nt|| cq0|||br|0m|srcachcdandthcvc-
Ioc|ty d|str|b0t|on bccomcs thc cq0|||br|0m Maxwc|||an d|s-
ln rcccnt ycars thcrc havc bccn n0mcro0s n0mcr|ca| vcr-
|cat|onsofthc0n|lormdccrcascofJw|tht|mc. A||ofthcm
conrmo|tzmann`sprcd|ct|on. Evcntoday, h|sk|nct|ccq0a-
t|on pIays an|mportantroIc|nthcphys|csofgascs. transport
cocmc|cnts s0ch as thosc charactcr|z|nghcatcond0ct|v|tyor
taI data.
Howcvcr, |t |s from thc conccpt0aI standpo|nt that oItz-
mann`sach|cvcmcnt |s grcatcst. thc d| st|nct|on bctwccnrc-
vcrs|bIc and|rrcvcrs|b|cphcnomcna,wh|ch,aswchavcsccn,
0ndcr||csthc sccond |aw, |s now transposcd ontothc m|cro-
scop|c Icvc|. Thc changc of thc vc|oc|ty d|str|b0t|on d0c to
t|on ofcntropy. A pr|nc|p|c of mo|cc0|ar cvoI0t|on had bccn
prod0ccd| lt|scasyto0ndcrstandthcfasc|nat|onth|sd|scov-
n lIanck, E|nstc|n, and 5chrd|ngcr. '
Uoltzmunn's brcukthrough wus u docisivo stop intho diroc-
4 1Hb LLH | LH|Nb
ton ofthc physcs ofproceaaea. What dctcrmncs tcmporaI
cvo|0t|on n oItzmann's cq0at|on |s no |ongcr thc Ham||to-
nan, dcpcnd|ng on thc typc offorccs, now, on thc contrary,
f0nct|ons assoc|atcd w|th thc proccsscsfor cxamplc, thc
cI0dc that thc prob|cmof|rrcvcrs|b|l|tyhas bccn so|vcd,that
o|tzmann's thcory hasrcd0ccdcntropytodynam|cs?Thc
'O0Sl|OD'D_ cO'lZ|3DD3 ' 0l0Q0l3l|OD
As soon aso|tzmann'sf0ndamcntaIpapcrappcarcd|n I 872,
vcrsb|Ity from dynam|cs?How co0|d thc rcvcrsbIc Iaws O
trajcctor|cs Icad to rrcvcrs|b|c cvo|0ton? ls oItzmann's k-
nctccq0at|on n any way compatb|c wth dynam|cs? lt s
casytoscc that thc symmctry prcscnt n o|tzmann's cq0a-
ton s n contrad|ctonw|th thc symmctryofc|asscaI mc-
Wc havc a|rcady sccn that vc|oc|ty nvcrson (vv) pro-
d0ccsn c|ass|caI dynamcs thc samc cffcctas t|mc nvcrson
(tt). Th|s |s a bas|c symmctry ofc|ass|ca| dynam|cs, and
scrbcs thc tmcchangc ofthc d|str|b0t|onf0ncton, wo0Id
sharc ths symmctry. 0t ths |s not so. Thc coI||son tcrm
caIc0Iatcdbyo|tzmannrcma|nsinvuriunt with respect to ve-
locity inveraion. Thcrc s a smp|c physcaI rcason for ths.
Noth|ng n o|tzmann's pct0rc d|stng0|shcsa co|I|son that
thc past. Ths | s thc bass o Po|ncarc`s objcct|on to o|tz-
mann's dcrvat|on. A corrcct caIc0Iaton can ncvcr Icad to
conc|0sonsthatcontradct|tsprcmscs. ' Aswchavcsccn,
thc symmctry propcrtcs ofthc knct|c cq0at|on obta|ncd by
namcs. o|tzmanncannot, thcrcforc, havc "dcd0ccd" cn-
tropy from dynam|cs. Hc m0st havc ntrod0ccd somcth|n
uoW, 6Ouohu@ 1Olo@u O UyuuC3. hU3 h3 lc3Ul3 CBDrcg-
rcscnt at bcst onIy a phcnomcnoIog|caI modcI that, howcvcr
uscf0I,hasnod|rcctrcIat|onw|thdynam|cs. Th|swasaIsothc
ob|cct|onthatZcrmcIo(l8) bro0ghtaga|nsto|tzmann.
to dctcrm|nc thc ltmtla o] vultdtty of oItzmann`s k|nct|c
modcI.lnfact, loschm|dtobscrvcd( l 8T) thatth|smodcIcan
|ngto thctransformat|on vv.
lct 0scxpIa|n th|s by mcans ofa tho0ghtcxpcr|mcnt. Wc
. Wc thcn|nvcrtthc vcIoc|t|cs. Thc systcmrcvcrtsto|ts
past statc. As a conscq0cncc, oItzmann`s cntropy |s thc
samcatt =0 andatt =Zt
Wc may m0|t|pIy s0chtho0ghtcxpcr|mcnts. 5tartw|tha
m|xt0rc ofhydrogcn and oxygcn,atcrsomc t|mc watcrw|II
appcar. lfwc |nvcrt thc vcIoc|t|cs, wc sho0Id go back to an
|n|t|aI statc w|thhydrogcnandoxygcnandnowatcr.
lt |s|ntcrcst|ngthat|n |aboratoryorcomp0tcrcxpcr|mcnts,
wcact0aIIycanpcrformavcIoc|ty|nvcrs|on. lorcxamp|c, |n
l|g0rcs Z and ZT, o|tzmann`s Jq0ant|ty has bccn caIcu-
Iatcdfor two-d|mcns|onaI hard sphcrcs (hard d|sks), start|n
f5l UI50D
V k 1IML M
|gu|0 2. LV0|u|0P 0 JW|P |00 0| N P|0 SP0|0S Dy C00u0f
S|0u||0P, {) C0||0S0P0S 0 N=1 0, {D) 0 N=4b4, {C} 0 N=1 Z.
Hb LLH | L1H|Nb
w|th d|sks onIatt|cc s|tcs w|th an |sotrop|c vc|oc|ty d|str|bu-
t|on. Thc rcs0|tsfo|Iow o|tzmann's prcd|ct|ons.
scc|nad||0tcgas, thcvcIoc|t|csarc|nvcrtcd,ancwcn-
mann'sJq0ant|ty |ncrcascs |nstcadofdccrcas|ng.


N= l0



o o



f f e
W f




|gu|0 Z7. LV0|u|0P 0 JWP0P V0|0||0S |0 |PV0|00 0| 0| 1 0
O|||S|0PS. |0u||0P W|P 1 0P|0 SP0|0S.
A s|m|Iarstuaton can bc produccd |n sp|ncchocxpcr-
m0nlS OI QSm 00hO 0XQ0Im0nlS. h0I0 SO, OV0I ml00
pcr|ods ott|mc, an "ant|thcrmodynam|c" bchav|or |n oItz-
mann`s scnscmay bcobscrvcd.
vaI l
acrwh|chthc|nvcrs|on occ0rs |s|ncrcascd.
To bcabIctorctracc|tspast,thcgasm0strcmcmbcrcvcry-
th|ngthathappcncdto |td0r|ngthc t|mc|ntcrva|from tot.
Thcrc mustbc "storagc" ot|nformat|on. Wc can cxprcssth|s
storagc ntcrmsotcorrc|at|ons bctwccn part|c|cs. Wc shaIl
comcbacktothc q0cst|onofcorrcIat|ons|nChaptcrlX. Lct
corrc|at|ons and co||s|ons that |s thc c|cmcnt m|ss|ng from
HbH OT | LMPLo b
wasdoncprcv|o0sIy,andthcsystcmhastorcvcrtto |ts|n|tiaI
statc. Thcrcforc, thc f0nct|onJm0staIso|ncrcasc 0nt|I |t
aa|nrcachcs|ts|n|t|aIvaI0c. Vc|oc|ty|nvcrsonth0scaIIsfor
d d|st|nct|onbctwccnthcs|t0at|onstowhichoItzmann'srca-
son|nappI|cs and thosc to wh|ch |tdocs not.
OnccthcprobIcmwasstatcd( I 894), |twascasyto |dcnt|fy
thcnat0rc of th|s I|m|tat|on. ''1hc vaI|d|ty of oItzmann's
stat|st|caI proccd0rc dcpcnds on thc ass0mpt|on that he]orc
thcy coII|dc, thc moIcc0|cs bchavc independently of onc an-
othcr. Th|sconst|t0tcs an ass0mpt|on abo0t thc |n|t|aIcond|-
t|ons, caIIcd thc "moIcc0Iar chaos ass0mpt|on. Thc |n|t|aI
condt|ons crcatcd bya vcIoc|ty |nvcrs|on do notconform to
th|s ass0mpt|on. lfthc systcm |s madc "to o backward |n
t|mc, a ncw "anoma|o0s s|t0at|on |s crcatcd |n thc scnsc
thatccrta|n moIcc0Ics arc thcn "dcst|ncd to mcct ata prc-
dctcrm|nabIc |nstantandto0ndcroa prcdctcrm|ncd chanc
ofvcIoc|ty at th|s t|mc, howcvcrfarapartthcy may bcat thc
|nstantofvcIoc|ty |nvcrs|on.
VcIoc|ty |nvcrs|on th0s crcatcs a h|hIyoran|zcd systcm,
and th0s thc moIcc0Iarchaos ass0mpt|on fa|Is. Thc var|o0s
co|||s|ons prod0cc, as |fbya prccstab||shcd harmony, an ap-
parcnt|y p0rposcf0I bchav|or.
0t thcrc |s morc. What docs thc trans|t|on from ordcr to
thc systcmw|IIcvoIvct||I0n|form|ty|srcachcd. 0tothcrs|t-
0lOnS l0 nOl SO 00l, wcmy 0O 0Omul0l cxclm0nls n
wh|ch|ntcract|npart|cIcsarc |n|t|aI|yd|str|b0tcdatrandom.
ln t|mc a Iatt|cc |s formcd. Do wc st|II movc from ordcr to
d|sordcr?Thcanswcr|snotobv|o0s. To 0ndcrstandordcrand
d|sordcrwcrsthavc todcncthcobccts|ntcrmsofwh|ch
thcscconccptsarc 0scd. Mov|nfrom dynam|ctothcrmody-
thcworkofoItzmann. Howcvcr, |t|snot socasy|nthccasc
ofdcnsc systcms whosc moIcc0Ics |ntcract.
cca0sc of s0ch d|mc0It|cs, oItzmann's crcat|vc and p|-
onccr|nworkrcma|ncd |ncompIctc.
Z4 1Hb LLH | L1H|Nb
Ly03 |CS 30O 1 C||OOy03||CS
1WO CCQ3|3lC 1O||OS
Wc aIrcady notcd that tra|cctorcs arc ncompatbIc wth thc
dcaofrrcvcrsbIty. Howcvcr, thcst0dyoftra|cctorcssnot
thconIyway nwhchwccanvcaform0Iatonofdynamcs.
whchsofspccaI utcrcstnthccascofsystcms
formcd by a Iarc n0mbcr ofmoIcc0Ics. Thc csscntaI ncw
cIcmcntn thc Gbbs-EnstcncnscmbIcthcory s thatwc can
form0|atc thc dynamc thcory ndcpcndcntIy of any prccsc
Thc thcory ofcnscmbIcs rcprcscntsdynamc systcms u
"phasc spacc. Thcdynamcstatcofapontpart|cIc sspcc-
mcnt0m (aIso a vcctor wth thrcc componcnts). Wc may
by thc coordnatcs and momcnta. Ths s thc phasc spacc.
systcmformcdbynpartcIcs. Wc thcnnccdnxbn0mbcrsto
ths systcm by a sngIc pont n thc bn-dmcnsonaI phasc
spacc. Thc cvo|0t|on | nt|mc ofs0ch a systcm w||| thcn bc
dcscr|bcd by a trajcctory nthc phasc spacc.
lthasa|rcady bccnstatcdthatthccxact|n|ta|cond|t|onsof
U macroscop|csystcmarc ncvcrknown.cvcrthclcss,noth|ng
prcvcnts 0strom rcprcacnting ths systcm byan "cnscmbIc
namc statcscompatb|c wth thc |ntormat|on wc havc con-
ccrnngthc systcm. Eachrcgon Ophascspacc maycontanan
nntc n0mbcrofrcprcscntatvcponts, thc dcnstyofwhch
rcgon. lnstcadofntrod0cngan nntyofdscrctc po|nts, |t
scntatvcpontsnthcphascspacc.Wc sha||ca|I(g
& B B g

pj B & B p_) thsdcnstynphascspaccwhcrcg, ,g B # # garc
thccoord|natcsofthc npo|nts,sm||ar| y,p ,p # B u p
_ arcthc
momcnta (cach po|nt has thrcc coord|natcs and thrcc mo-
m0Bl8). hS d0BSly m08SuI0S lh0 HU8Dlly 0 BdBg 8 dy-
B8m0 SySl0m 8I0uBd lh0 0Bl q qg_, # 9 & ]g_B h8S0
l0S0Bl0d B Su0h 8 w8y, lh0 d0BSly uB0l0B pm8y 808l
8S 8B d08Z8l0B, 8B 8Il08 00BSlIu0l, wh0I08S lh0 ll8j00-
l0Iy 0 8 0Bl B h8S0 S800 w0ud 00II0S0Bd dl00lly l0
lh0 d0S0ll0B 0 B8luI8l U0h8Y0f. ul B 80l l S lh0
0Bl, B0l lh0 d0BSly, lh8l 00II0S0BdS l0 8B d08lZ8l0B. B-
d00d, w0 B0Y0l kB0w 8B Bl8 Sl8l0 wlh lh0 BBl0 d0gI00 D
l00S0B lh8l w0ud I0du00 8 I0g0B B h8S0 S800 l0 8 SBgl0
0Bl, w0 08B 0By d0l0ImB0 8B 0BS0mU0 0 lI8j00l0l0S Sl8Il-
Bg I0m lh0 0BS0mUl0 0 I0I0S0Bl8lY0 0BlS 00Il0S0BdBg
l0 wh8l w0 kB0w 8U0ul lh0 Bl8 Sl8l0 0 lh0 SySl0m. h0
C0BSly uB0l0B p I0I0S0BlS kB0wl0dg0 8U0ul 8 SySl0m, 8Bd
lh0 m0I0 800uI8l0 lhS kB0w0dg0, lh0 Sm8l0I lh0 l0g0B B lh0
h8S0 S800 wh0I0 lh0 d0BSly uB0l0B S d0l0Bl l0m Z0l0
8Bd wh0I0 lh0 SySl0m m8y U0 0uBd. bh0ud lh0 d0BSly uB0-
l0B 0Y0Iywh0I0 h8Y0 8 uB0Im Y8u0, w0 w0uld kB0w B0lhBg
8D0ul lh0 Sl8l0 0 lh0 SySl0m. l mghl U0 B 8By 0 lh0 0SSUl0
Sl8l0S 00m8lU0 wlh lS dyB8m0 SlIu0luI0.
tl0m lhS 0lS00lY0, 8 0Bl lhuS I0I0S0BlS lh0 muxmum
knoulcdgc w0 08B h8Y0 8D0ul 8 SySl0m. l S lh0 l0Sull 0 8
lmlBg l000SS, lh0 l0Sull 0 lh0 0Y0I-gI0wBg I00S0B 0 0ul
KB0wl0dg0. PS w0 Sh8ll S00 B Lh8l0l 7, 8 uBd8m0Bl8l
l0U0m wl U0 l0 d0l0ImB0 wh0B Su0h 8 lmlBg l000SS S
l08lly 0SSUl0. hl0ugh B0I08S0d I00S0B, lhS l000SS
m08BS w0 g0 I0m 8 l0g0B wh0I0 lh0 d0BSly uB0l0B p S
00l0Bl l0m Z0l0 l0 8B0lh0l, Sm8l0l f0g0B BSd0 lh0 lSl.
W0 08B 00BlBu0 lhS uBl lh0 l0g0B 00Bl8BBg lh0 SySl0m
U000m0S 8IUlf8Ily Sm8. ul 8S w0 Sh8l S00, w0 muSl U0
08ul0uS. 8IUlI8Iy Sm8ll d00S B0l m08B Z0H, 8Bd l S B0l
00Il8B 8 I0I lh8l lhS lmlBg I000SS wl l08d l0 lh0 0S-
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0nu yOu musl h0Vc lhc p0sslOn lO OOnucmn mc, wc 0rc
DOlh cqu0IIy lOOIlsh, DOlh lOys ln lhc h0nus o ucsllny.
lsh l n splc OlyOu.
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lOnlshcu lOulsOOVcrlhcqu0Ill0llVculVcrsllyprcscnlcuDyn0-
1l ls nOl surprlsln lh0l pcOpIc h0Vc V0OlII0lcu Dclwccn lhc
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lunOllOn O0n Dc uchncu 0s 0 rcsuIl Ollhc -VlOI0llOn.
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lhc urOppln Olthc slOnc.
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mclry-Drc0kln sOIullOns 0ppc0r ln p0lrs.
uO nOl p:cscnl DllurO0llOns 0n0 lh0l lhcrclOrc O0nnOl Drc0k
sp0ll0I symmclry. 1hc Drc0klnOlsp0ll0I symmclry rcqulrcs
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sl0nuln lcmpOr0I symmclry-Drc0kln, ln whlOh wc 0rc prl
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ncw OruncXpcOtcu ts IlkcIy tO OOOur.
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0Y0Y0 l0 0quDIum, 0B0Igy muSl D0 lh0 0By qu8Blly 00B-
S0IY0d duIBg lS 0Y0ul0B. l muSl D0 lh0 0By `BY8I8Bl.
Wh8l0Y0I lh0 Bl8 00Bdl0BS, lh0 0Y0ul0B M lh0 SySlcm
muSl 80w l l0 I080h 8 oBlS 0B lh0 SuI800 M gY0B cB0Igy.
ul 0I 8B Bl0gI8D0 SySl0m, 0B0Igy S 8I I0m D0Bg lh0 0By
BY8I8Bl. B 80l, lh0I0 8I0 8S m8By BY8I8BlS 8S d0gIc0S 0
I00d0m, SB00 080h g0B0I8Z0d m0m0Blum I0m8BS 00BSl8Bl.
h0I00I0 w0 h8Y0 l0 0800l lh8l Su0h 8 SySl0m S `mIS-
0B0d B 8 Y0Iy Sm8 `I80l0B 0 lh0 00BS!8Bl-0B0Igy [S00
guI0 JZ) SuI800 0Im0d Dy lh0 Bl0IS00!0B 0 8 lh0S0 BY8I-
18Bl SuI800S.

~ =


l l
I _

\ _

_ ,

|@UI Z. RI8 vDUDD D 8 C D D8S S8C , Q. D vDUR
1O 0VOlu lhcsc ulmOuIllcs, M0XwcII 0nu bOIlZm0nn lnlrO-
syslcmscncrywOuIuDclhcOnIylnV0rl0nt. buObsyslcms0rc
O0IIcu "crOulO` syslcms (scc llurc 33).
rc0t OOntrlDullOns lO lhc lhcOry Ol crOulO syslcms b0Vc
bccn m0uc by blrOhO, VOn Ncum0nn, HOpl, KOImOOrO,
0nu bln0l, tO mcnllOn OnIy 0 lcw.

1Ou0y wc knOw lh0t

tbcrc 0rc I0rc OI0sscs Ol uyn0mlO (lhOuh nOn-H0mlIlOnl0n)
syslcms lh0l 0rc crOulO. Wc 0sO knOw lh0l cVcn rcI0llVcIy
slmpIc syslcmsm0y h0Vc prOpcrllcs slrOncrlh0n crOulOlly.
OllO (whlc 0Iw0ys prcscrVln 0 VOumc lh0l 0rccs wllh lhc
LlOuVlIIc cqu0llOn mcnllOncu ln Lh0plcr Y).

||g0|0 33. yp|0| 0v0|0||0D |D ph8 8p0 0| 0|| 00rr8p0D0|Dg |0 D

0|g00|0 8y8|0m. T|m0 g0|Dg 0D, |h "v0|0m" D0 |h |0rm r0 00D80|v00
buppOsclh8lOur knOwIcucOlnl8I OOnulOns pcrmls us
lOIOO8IZc8syslcmn8 sm8IIOcIIOllhc ph8scsp8Oc. Ourn
ls cVOIul

n, wc sh8II scc lhs nl8I OcII lwsl 8nu lurn 8nu,

kc 8n 8mOcD8, scnu Oul "pscuuOpOus tn 8II urcOlOns,
sprc8un Oul n nOrc8snIy lhnncr 8nu cVcr mOrc lwslcu
hI8mcnls unlI l hn8IIy nV8ucs lhc whOIc sp8Oc. NO skclOh
O8n uO]uslOc lO lhc OOmpIcXly Ollhc 8Olu8I slu8lOn. n-
uccu, uurln lhc uyn8mO cVOIulOn Ol8 mXn syslcm, lwO
pOnls8s OIOsc lOclhcrnph8scsp8Oc8swc mhl wshm8y
hc8u n ullcrcnl urcOlOns. LVcn lwc pOsscss 8 IOl o nlOr-
m8lOn 8DOul lhc syslcm sO lh8l lhc nl8I OcII lOrmcu Dy ls
rcprcscnl8lVc pOnls s Vcry sm8II, uyn8mO cVOIulOn lurns
lhs OcII nlO 8 lruc cOmclrO "mOnslcr` slrclOhn ls ncl-
wOrkOlhI8mcnls lhrOuh ph8sc sp8Oc.

HbH U1 | Hb M
Wc wOuIu Ikc lO lIIuslr0lc lhc dlsllROllOR bclwccR sl0blc
0nu uRsl0DIc syslcmswllh0lcw slmpIccX0mpIcs. LOnslucr8
ph0sc sp0Oc wllh lwO ulmcRslORs. Al rcuI0r llmc lRlcrV0Is,
On lhc hOrlZOnl0I 0Xls ls p-q, lhc ncw Oruln0!c p. llurc 3J
shOws wh0l h0ppcRs whcR wc 0ppIy lhls Opcr0llORlO0 squ0m.
gUI0 35. IRS0IRl0R 0 V0UR0 R DS0 SC0 g0R0Il00 Dy B
0|SCIBlB lISHS0IRSl0D lDB DSCSS p DBC0R0S pq, lD0 0I0|Rl0 q
C0RBS p DB lISRS0IRl0D S CC|C. ll0I S|X lR0S lD0 |Rl C0 |S I8
1hc squ0rc ls uclOrmcu, Dul 0Hcr slX lr0RslOrm0llORs wc rc-
lurn lOlhc Orlln0I squ0rc. 1hc syslcm ls sl0DIc. nclhDOrln
pOlnls 0rc lr0nslOrmcu lnlO RclhDOrln pOlnls. MOrcOVcr, lt
OOrrcspOnus lO 0 OyOIlO lr0RslOrm0llOR (0Hcr sX Opcr0llOR8
lhc Orlln0I squ0rc rc0ppc0rs).
cl u5 uOW COu5dcI lWO c8dDQc5 O hgh uu5ldD 55-
lcmslhc rslm0lhcm0llO0I, lhc scOOndo ObVlOusphyslO0
tcIcV0nOc. 1hc hrst syslcm OOnslstsOl0 tr0nslOrm0llOn th0t,
lOr ODVlOus rc0sOnS, m0lhcm0llOl0ns O0IIlhc D0kcrlr0nslOr

" Wc t0kc 0 squ0rc 0nu 0llcn lt lnlO 0 rcOl0nIc,

thcnwclOIuh0IlOlthcrcOt0nIcOVcrlhcOlhcrh0Ill OlOrma
squ0rc00ln. 1hls sclOlOpcr0llOns ls shOwn lnllurc3 anu
m0y Dcrcpc0lcu 0s m0nytlmcs0sOnc Ilkcs.





||g0|0 3. H00||20||0D 0| |h0 D0k0| ||0D8|0|m0||0D () 0D0 0| l|8 lDv0|80
(). Th0 p0|h 0| |h0 |w0 8p0|8 g|v08 0D |000 0| |h0 ||0n8|0|m0||0D8.
L0Oh tlmc thc surl0Oc Ol thc squ0rc ls DrOkcn up 0nu rc-
ulslrlDutcu.1hcsqu0rc OOrrcspOnus hcrc tOthcph0sc sp0Oc.
1hc D0kct tr0nslOrm0tlOn tr0nslOrms c0Oh pOlnt lnlO 0 wcII-
ucncu ncw pOlnl. AIlhOuh lhc scrlcs OlpOlnls ODl0lncu ln
thls w0y ls "uctcrmlnlsllO,` thc syslcm ulspI0ys ln 0uulllOn
tcm ucsOrlDcu Dy0nlnlll0IOOnulllOn suOh lh0l 0 rclOn A Ol
thc squ0rc ls lnlll0IIyIIcu ln 0unllOrm w0y wlth rcprcscnt0-
tlVc pOlnls. t m0y Dc shOwnlh0l 0llcr0 sulhOlcnlnumDcrO
tcpcllllOns Ol thc tr0nslOrm0tlOn, lhls OcII, uhatever its sie
unJ loculizurion, will bc brokcn up into picccs (scc Figurc 37).
1hc csscntl0I pOlnt ls th0t 0ny rclOn, wh0lcVcr lts slZc, lhus
HbH U1 | Hb 7
||g0|0 37. T|m0 0v0|0I|0D 0| 0D 0D8I0D|0 8y8I0m. T|m0 g0|Dg 0D, |0g|0D A
8p||I8 |DI0 |0g|0D8 A' 0D0 A', wh|0h |D I0|D w||| D0 0|v|000.
0Iw0ys OOnl0ns ucrcnl lr0cOlOrcs uVcrn 0l c0Oh lr0-
mcnl0lOn. AIlhOuh lhccVOIulOn Ol0pOnl s rcVcrsDIc0nu
uclcrmnslO, lhc ucsOrplOn Ol0 rcOn, hOwcVcr sm0II, 8
b0sO0IIy sl0lslO0I.
A smI0r cX0mpIc nVOIVcs lhc sO0llcrnOlh0ru sphcrcs.
Wc m0y OOnsucr0sm0II sphcrc rcDOununOn0OOIIcOlOnOl
I0rc, r0nuOmIy uslrDulcu sphcrcs. 1hc I0llcr 0rc suppOscu
lO Dc lXcu. 1hs s lhc mOucI physOsls O0II lhc LOrcnlZ
mOucI, ` 0llcr lhc n0mc Ol0 rc0l OulOh physOsl, Hcnurk
AnlOOn LOrcnlZ.
1hc lr0cOlOry Ol lhc sm0II mODIc sphcrc s wcII uchncu.
HOwcVcr, whcncVcr wc nlrOuuOc lhc sm0Icsl unOcrl0nly n
lhcnl0IOOnulOns, lhs unOcrl0nly s0mpIlcu lhrOuh
suOOcssVcOOIIsOns. Aslmc p0sscs, lhc prOD0DIlyOlhnu-
n lhc sm0II sphcrc n 0 Vcn VOIumc DcOOmcs unlOrm.
Wh0lcVcr lhcnumDcr Ol lr0nslOrm0lOns, wcncVcr rclurn lO
lhcOrn0I sl0tc.
nlhcI0sllwO cX0mpIcs wch0Vc slrOnIyunstab/e uyn0mO
syslcms. 1hc slu0lOn s rcmnsOcnl Olnsl0DIlcs 0s lhcy
0ppc0r n lhcrmOuyn0mO syslcms (scc Lh0plcr Y). ArDlr0r-
6u0 UotoDCo5 D D!a CODUtODS ato augeU. #S 0
rcsuIlwcO0nnO IOncrpcrlOrmlhclr0nslOnlrOmcnscmDIcs



' m
` ~




||gu|0 3. 50h0m0||0 |0p|080n|0||0n 0| |h0 |n8|0D||||y 0| |h0 ||0[00|0|y 0| 8

8m0|| 8ph0|0 |0D0un0|ng 0n |0rg0 0n08. 1h0 |008| |mpr00|8|0n 0D0u| |h0
8|||0n 0| |h0 8m0|| 8ph0|0 m0k08 || |mp088|D|0 |0 pr00|0| wh|0h |0|g0
8ph0|0 || w||| h|| 0||0| |h0 |||8| 00|||8|0n.
tn ph0sc sp0Oc tO lnulVluu0I tr8cOtOrlcs. 1hc ucsOrlptlOn ln
tcrmsOlcnscmDIcsh8stODct8kcn0sthcst0rtln pOlnt. bt0-
ttstlO0I OOnOcpts 0rc nO IOncr mcrcIy 0n 8pprOXlm8tlOn wlth
rcspcOttOsOmc ODjcctlVctruth. `Whcnt8ccdwththcscun-
st0DIc systcms, L0pI8Oc`s ucmOn lsust 8s pOwcrIcss 8s wc.
Llnstcln`ss0yln, LOuuOcsnOtpI8yulOc,`lswcII knOwn.
n thc s0mc splrlt OlnO8rc st0tcu th8tlOr 0 suprcmc m8thc-
m8tlOl0n thcrc lsnOpI8OclOrprOD0DIIltlcs. HOwcVcr, OlnO8rc
hlmscIlm8ppcu thc p8th Ic0uln tO thc 8nswcr tO thls prOD-
Icm.Mc nOtlOcuth0t whcnwcthrOwulcc0nuusc prOD8bllty
O0IOuIus, tt uOcs nOt mc0n th0t wc suppOsc uyn8mlOs tO Oc
wrOn. tmc0nssOmcthlnqultculcrcnt.Wc 0ppIythcprOO-
0OlIlty OOnOcpt DcO8usc ln c0Oh lntcrV0I Ol lnltl0I OOnultlOns,
hOwcVcr sm8I, thcrc 0rc 0s m8ny` tr8cctOrlcs th8t Ic8d tO
0uCh O lhc uCc5 O lhC dlCc. hl5 5 QIcCl5cy Whl hQQcu5
wlth unst8DIc dyn8mlO systcms. LOu OOuIu, llhc wlshcu tO,
HEH U1 | H
O8IOuI8tc thc tr8cOtOtlcs ln 8n unst8DIc uyn8mlO wOrIu. MC
wOuIu ODt8ln thc s8mc rcsuIt 8s prOD8Dllty O8IOuIus pcrmlts
ustOrc8Oh. lOOursc, llhcm8uc uscOlhls8DsOIutc knOwI-
cuc, thcn hcOOuIu cI rlu o 8II r8nuOmncss.
lty8nuprOD8DlIlty. 1hlsls8nlmpOrt8ntpOlnt, 8nuwcw8nttO
ulsOuss lt nOw.
||0 0lO0033 l0 ll0v0|3'O'|ly
LOnslucr8suOOcsslOno squ8rcstOwhlOhwc 8ppIythcD8kct
tr8nslOrm8tlOn. 1hls suOOcsslOnls rcprcscntcu lnllurc3. A
sh8ucu rclOn m8y Dc lm8lncu tO Dc hIIcu wlth lnk, 8n un-
sh8ucurclOnDyw8tcr. AttlmcZcrOwc h8Vc wh8tlsO8IIcu8
cncr8tln p8rtltlOn. utOl thls p8rtltlOn wc lOrm 8 scrlcs Ol
clthcrhOrlZOnt8I p8rtltlOns whcn wcO lntO thcuturc OrVct-
tlO8I p8rtltlOnsOln lntO thc p8st. 1hcsc 8rc thc D8slO p8rtl-
tlOns. An 8rDltr8ry ulstrlDutlOn Ol lnk ln thc squ8rc O8n Dc
wrlttcn lOrm8IIy8s8 supcrpOsltlOnOthcD8slO p8rtltlOns. 1O
c8OhD8slOp8rtltlOnwc m8y 8ssOOl8tc8n lntcrn8I` tlmcth8t
ls slmpIythcnumDcro D8kcrtr8nslOrm8tlOnswch8VctOpct-
sdcr8ton.Wc thcrctorc sccth8tthstypcotsystcm8dmtsa
klnu Ol lntcrn8I 8c."
1hclntcrn8I tlmc lsqultculcrcntlrOmthcusu8I mcOh8n-
O8I tlmc, slnOc lt ucpcnus On thc IOD8I tOpOIOy Olthc sys-
tcm.Wc m8ycVcnspc8kOlthctlmlnOlsp8Oc, `thusOOmln
Olosctodc8srcccntIyputtorw8rd bycor8phcrs,whoh8Vc n-
trOuOcuthcOOnOcpto OhmnOcOr8phy. `Whcnwc Iok8t
thc struOturc Ol 8 tOwn, Or Ol 8 I8nusO8pc, wc scc tcmpOr8I
cIcmcntslntcr8Otln8nuOOcXlstln. br8sBl8OrOmpcllwOuIu
OOrrcspOnu tO 8 wcII-uchncu lntcrn8I8c, sOmcwh8tIlkc Onc
o thcD8slcp8rttOns |nthcD8kcrtr8nslOrm8tlOn.nthcOOn-
tr8ry, mOucrn KOmc, whOsc bulIulns Orlln8tcu ln qultc ull-
"1l m8y b B0ll6c0 lh8l lhl8 lBlcIB8 llmc. Whl60 Wc 8h8 0cB0lc Dy ! 8 0
l86l 8B 0cI8l0I lkc lh08c lBlI00u6c0 lB qu8Blum mc6h8Bl68 (8cc Lh8lcl
Y11). 1B0cc0. 8B 8IDllI8Iy 8Illll0B 0l lhc 8qu8Ic 00c8 B0l h8vc 8 Wcl-
0cBc0 lmc Dul 0Bly 8B 8vcI8gc lImc 60IIc80B0IB l0 lhc 8ucI08lll00
o lhc D88l6 8Illll0B8 0ul O whl6h ll l8 l0Imc0.

^J 9
8R0g p0lM
||gu|0 39. 5I|IlDg wlIh Ih0 "g0D0|IlDg p|IlIl0D" (800 I0I) I I|m0 0, W
|0p08I00|y pp|y Ih0 Dk0| I|D8|0|mIl0D. W0 g0D0|I0 h0|lt0DI| 8I|lp08 |D
Ihl8 wy lml|||y g0|Dg |DI0 Ih0 p8I w0 0DIlD v0|Il0| 8I|lp0s.
8n 8rDltr8ry p8rtltlOn m8y DcucOOmpOscu lntO cIcmcnts OOr-
rcspOnuln tO ulllcrcn! lntcrn8I tlmcs.
Lctus88ln IOOk8tllurc 3. Wh8t h8ppcnsllwc O lntO
thc l8r ulst8nt luturc?1hc hOrlZOnt8I D8nus Ollnk wlII ct
OIOscr8nu OIOscr. Wh8tcVcrthcprcOlslOnD Ourmc8surcmcnts,
0Hcr sOmc tlmc wc sh8II OOnOIuuc th8t thc lnk ls unllOrmIy
ulstrlDutcuOVcrthcVOIumc. tlsthcrclOtc nOtsurprlslnth8t
thls klnu Ol8pprO8Oh tOcqulIlDrlum` m8y Dcm8ppcu lntO 0
slOOh8stlOprOOcss, suOh 8sthcM8rkOV Oh8ln wc ucsOrlDcu ln
Lh8ptcr Y. KcOcntIy thls h8s Dccn shOwn wlth luII m8lhc-
m8tlO8I rlOr, Dut thc rcsuIt sccms tO us qultc n8tur8I. As
tlmc p8sscs, thc ustrlDutlOn Ollnk rc8Ohcs cqulIlDrlum, cX-
8OtIy Ilkc thc ulstrlDutlOn Ol D8IIs ln thc urn cXpcrlmcnt uls-
OussculnLh8ptcrY. HOwcVcr, whcnwcIOOklntOthcp8st,
88lnDclnnlnlrOmthccncr8tlnp8rtltlOn 8ttlmcZcrO,wc
sccthc s8mcphcnOmcnOn. NOwlnklsulstrlDutcu8IOnshrlnk-
ln VcrtlO8I scOtlOns8nu,88ln, sulhOlcntIyl8r ln thc p8st wc
OIuucth8twcO8n8IsOmOucIthlsprOO0sslntcrmsD 8M8rkOV
Oh8ln,nOw,hOwcVcr,OrlcntcutOw8ruthcp8st. Wc sccth8tOut
Olthc unst8DIc uyn8mlO prOOcsscs wc ODt8ln twO M8rkOV
Oh8lns, Oncrc8OhlncqulIlDrlumnthcluturc,Onclnthcp8st.
Wc DcIlcVcth8tltls8 Vcry lntcrcstlnrcsuIt,8nu wc wOuIu

lt. ntcrn8ItlmcprOVlucsuswlth8ncw'nOn-
IOO8I` ucsOrlptlOn.
WhcR wc knOw thc '8c` Olthc systcm, (th8t ls, thc OOrrc-
spond!n p8rt!t!On) , wc O8n stII nOt 8ssOO8tc tO t 8 wcII-dc-
hncu IOO8I tr8cOtOry.
Wc knOwOnIyth8t thc systcmls ln 8 sh8ucurclOn(llurc
3). blmlI8ry, llwc knOw sOmc prcOlsc lnltl8I OOnultlOns OOr-
rcspOnuln tO 8 pOlnt ln thc systcm, wc uOn`tknOw thcp8rtl-
tlOn tOwhlOh lt DcIOns, nOr thc 8cOlthc systcm. lOr suOh
systcms wc knOwthcrclOrc twOOOmpIcmcnt8ry ucsOrlptlOns,
8nu thc sltu8tlOn DcOOmcs sOmcwh8t rcmlnlsOcnt Ol thc Onc
t ls bcO8usc Olthc cXlstcnOc Olthls ncw 8Itcrn8tlVc, nOn-
IOO8I ucsOrlptlOn, th8t wc O8n m8kc thc tr8nsltlOn lrOm uy
n8mlOs tO prOD8DlIltlcs. Wc O8II thc systcms lOr whlOhthl l
pOsslDIc lntrlnslO8IIy r8nuOm systcms`.
n OI8sslO8I uctcrmlnlstlO systcms, wc m8y usc tr8nsltlOn
cr8tc scnsc. 1hls tr8nsltlOn prOD8DlIlty wlII Dccqu8ItOOnc ll
thc twO pOlnts Ilc On thc s8mc uyn8mlO tr8cOtOry, OrZcrO ll
thcy 8rc nOt.
n OOntr8st, ln cnulnc prOD8DlIlty thcOry, wc nccu tr8nsl-
tlOnprOD8DlIltlcswhlOh8rc pOsltlVc numDcrsDctwccnZcrO
0nu Onc. HOw ls thls pOsslDIc? Hcrc wc scc ln luII Ilht thc
OOnlOtDctwccnsuDcOtlVlstlOVlcws 8nuODcOtlVclntcrprct0
tlOnsOlprOD8DlIlty. 1hc suDcOtlVclntcrprct8tlOnOOrrcspOnu
tO thc sltu8tlOn whcrc lnulVluu8I tr8cOtOrlcs 8rc nOt knOwn.
rOD8DlIlty (8nu, cVcntu8IIy, lrrcVcrslDlIlty, OIOscIy rcI8tcu tO
lt) wOuIuOrlln8tc lrOmOurlnOr8nOc. butlOrtun8tcIy, thcrc
ls 8nOthcr ODcOtlVc lntcrprct8tlOn. prOD8DlIlty arlscs 8s 0 rc
suItOl8n 8Itcrn8tlVc ucsOrlptlOnOluyn8mlOs, 8nOn-IOO8Iuc-
Hcrc, pmD8DlIltyDcOOmcs8nODcOtlVc prOpcrtycncr8tcu
lrOm thclnslucOluyn8mlOs,sOtOspc8k,8nuwhlOhcXprcsscs
8 D8slO struOturc Olthc uyn8mlO8I systcm. Wc h8Vc strcsscu
thc lmpOrt8nOc OlbOItZm8nn`s D8slO ulsOOVcry. thc OOnncO-
tlOn Dctwccn cntrOpy 8nu prOD8DlIlty. lOr lntrlnslO r8nuOm
systcms, thc OOnOcpt Ol prOD8DlIlty 8Oqulrcs 0 uyn8mlO8I
mc8nln. Wc h8Vc nOwtO m8kc thc tr8nsltlOn lrOm lntrlnslO
r8nuOmsystcmstOlrrcVcrslDIcsystcms.Wc h8Vcsccnth8tOut
Ol unst8DIc uyn8mlO8I prOOcsscs , wc ODt8ln twO M8rkOV
Wc m8y scc thls uu8Ilty ln8 ulllcrcnt w8y. 18kc 8 ulstrlDu-
lOD CODCoDlt0loU OD 0 lDo {D5lo0U O DoD@ U5ltDuloU OD 0
surl8Oc). 1hlsIlncm8yDcVcrtlO8IOrhOrlZOnt8I. LctusIOOk8t
Wh8 Wll B8B 0 h5 lB whB W 8ly h D8Kl l8B5l0I
m80B g0Bg 0 h luul. h l5ul 5 Dl5B0 B tgul
40. B l08l lB 5 0u 5u0055ly B0 05 8B0 wll
l0u0 0 8 0B B h l8l 058B luul. h h0lZ0B8l lB,
0B h 00Bl8ly, 5 0ul080 8B0 wll uBl0lmly 00l h
5ull80 B B l8l 058B luul. LD0u5ly, ]u5 B 005
h8B5 l w g0 0 h 85. t0l l850B5 h8 8l 85y 0 uB-
0l58B0, h l 08l lB 5 08ll0 8 00Bl80Bg HDl, h
0lIZ0B8l lB 8 0l8Bg hbf
W 5 B0w h 00ml 8B8l0gy Wh Dlul080B h0ly. A
00Bl80Bg HDl 8B0 8 0l8Bg HDl 00ll50B0 0 w0 l8lZ8-
0B5 N 0yB8m05, 8h BV0lBg 5ymmlyDR8KBg 8B0 8M-
Bg B 8l5. h 00Bl80Bg HDl 00ll50B05 0 qulDlum B
h l8l 058B 85, h 0l8Bg HDl 0 h luul. W hll0m
h8 W0 %8lK0 0h8B5 0lB0 B 005 m 0l00B5-
P0w W h8 0 m8K h l8B550B ll0m BlB508ly mB-
00m 0 BlIB508lly lll5Dl 5m5. 0 00 50 W mu5l
0B0l58B0 m0l l05ly h 0lllB0 DwB 00Bl80Bg
8B0 0l8Bg HDl5. W h8 5B h8 8B0hl 5y5m 85 0B58-
||g0|0 40. O0D||||Dg 0D0 0||0||Dg |||8 |D |h0 D0k0| ||0D8|0|m0||0D, lIm
g|Dg 0D, |h0 00D||00||Dg ||D0| A |8 8h0||0D00 (80q0000 A, 6, C
), wh||0
lh0 0||0||Dg ||D0|8 0|0 00p||00|0d (80q00D008 A, 6, C).
D0 BS lh0 DBK0t ltBHSOtDBlOH CBH UCCtDC lhC CBllCtH@ m
h8l0 5hl5. Ml 00Nl80Bg 8B0 0l8Bg HDl5 h8 8 5m-
HLH UT l H5 b
0OOIIcOllOnOlh8rusphcrcswhOscVcIOOllcs8rc r8nuOmIyuls-
lrlDulcu ln lhc l8r ulsl8nl p8sl, 8nu 8II DcOOmc p8r8IIcI ln lhc
l8rulsl8nllulurc. A ulI8lln hDcrOOrrcspOnus lOlhc lnVcrsc
sllu8llOn,lnwhlOhwc sl8rlwllhp8r8IIcIVcIOOlllcs8nuOlO0
t8nuOm ulslrlbullOn Ol VcIOOlllcs. JhcrclOrc lhc ulllcrcnOc ls
Vcry slmlI8rlOlhcOncDclwccnlnOomlnw8Vcs8nu OulOln
w8Vcs ln lhc cX8mpIc lVcn by Oppcr. 1hc cXOIuslOn Ollhc
OOnlr8Olln hDcrs OOrrcspOnus lO lhc cXpcrlmcnl8I l8Ol lh8t
wh8lcVcr lhc lncnully Ol lhc cXpcrlmcnlcr, hc wlII ncVc: Dc
8DIc lO OOnlrOI lhc syslcm lO prOuuOc p8r8IIcI VcIOOlllcs 8Hcr
8n 8rD1lr8ry numDcrOlOOIIlslOns. nOc wc cXOIuuc OOn-
lt8Olln hDcrs wc 8rc Icll wllh OnIy Onc Ol lhc lwO pOsslDIc
M8rkOV Oh8lns wc h8Vc lnlrOuuOcu. n OlhcrwOrus, lhc scO
Onu I8w DcOOmcs8 scIc0llOn prlnOlpIcOllnlll8I OOnulllOns.
nIylnlll8I OOnulllOnslh8lOlO cqulIlDrlumlnlhc]uture arc
DVlOusIy lhc V8Ilully Ollhls scIcOllOn prlnOlpIc ls m8ln-
t8lncuDyuyn8mlOs.lO8nc8slIyDcsccnlnlhccX8mpIco lhc
D8kcrlr8nslOrm8llOnlh8llhcOOnlr8OllnhDcrrcm8lnsU OOn-
lr8OllnhDcrlOr8IIllmcs,8nu Ilkcwlsc lOr8ulI8llnhDcr. by
supprcssln Onc Ol lhc lwO M8rkOV Oh8lns wc O lrOm 8n
t nlrlnslO8IIyr8nuOmsyslcmlO8nlnlrlnslO8IIylrrcVcrslDIcsys-
lcm. Wc hnu lhrcc D8slO cIcmcnls ln lhc ucsOrlpllOn Ol lrrc-
nlIn8C t0ndOmnC88
lnlrlnslO lrrcVcrslDlIlly
nlrlnslO lrrcVcrslDlIlly ls lhc slrOncsl prOpcrly. ll lmpIlcs
HOw ls lhls OOnOIuslOn OOmp8llDIc wllh uyn8mlOs? As wc
h8Vc sccn, ln uyn8mlOs lnlOrm8llOn` ls OOnscrVcu, whlIc ln
M8rkOV Oh8lns lnlOrm8llOn ls IOsl (8nu cnlrOpy lhcrclOrc ln-
Orc8scs, scc Lh8plcr Y). 1hcrc ls, hOwcVcI , nO OOnlr8dlO-
llOn, whcn wc O lrOm lhc uyn8mlO ucsOrlpllOn Ollhc D8kcr
IIuu5OIuulOu IO lhC lhCIDOdyuduC dc5CIQ!Ou, Wc hdVc lO
mOdll] OurulslrlbullOnlunOllOn,lhc OD]cOls` ln lcrm8 Ol
whlOh cnlrOpy lnOrc8scs 8rc ulllcrcnl lrom lhc Oncs OOnsld-
crcu ln dyn8mlOs. 1hc ncw ulslrlDullon lunOllOn, p, Oorrc-
spOnus lO 8n l nlrlnslO8IIy llmc-Orlcnlcd ucsOtpllon O lhc
uyn8mlO syslcm. nlhlsDOOk wc O8nnOl uwcIIonlhcm8lhc-
m8llO8I 8spcOlsOllhls lr8nslorm8llon. lclus OnIy cmph88lZc
lh8!llh8slODcnonO8nonlO8I(sccLh8plcr). Wc musl8b8n-
uOn lhc usu8I lOrmuI8llOns Ol uyn8mlOs lO rc8Oh lhc lhcr-
mOuyn8mlO ucsOrlpllOn.
llsqullcrcm8rk8DIclh8lsuOh8lr8nslOrmulloncXl8l8 8nu
lOs,lhcphyslOsOlDcln8nulhcphyslOsolDcOOmln.Wc sh8I
OOmc b8Ok lo lhcsc ncw lhcrmOuyn8mlO ODcOls I8lcr lnlhl8
Oh8plcr8swcII8slnOurOOnOIuulnOh8plcr. Lclus

OnIy lh8l 8l cqulIlDrlum, whcncVcr cnlrOpy rc8Ohcs ll8 m8X-
lmum, lhcsc ODcOls muslDch8Vc r8nuomIy.
l8sO sccmsqullcrcm8rk8DIclh8llrrcVcrslDlIllycmcrcs,m
Omlc8lurcs lnlOOurucsOrlpllOn.nuccu,wh8l OOuIu8n8rrOw
Olllmcmc8nln8uclcrmlnlsllOwOrIu lnwhlOhDOlhlulurc8nu
8st 0rc OOnl8lncu ln lhc prcscnl? U ls DcO8usc lhc lulurc l8
lhclulutclh8llhc8trow N llmcls8ssol8lcuwllhlhclr8nslllon
OmpnscnllOmlurc.1hlsOOnslruOllOnN lrrcVcrslDlIllyOulN
r8nuOmncss h8s, wc bcIlcVc, m8ny OOnscqucnOcs lh8l O
bcyOnusOlcnOcprOpcr8nulOwhlOhwc sh8IIOOmcD8OklnOur
OOnOIuulnOh8plcr. LclusOI8rlly lhc ulllcrcnOcDclwccnlhc
sl8lcspcrmlllcuDy lhc scOOnuI8w8nulhOsc llprOhlDlls.
10 cll0Qy c0ll 0l
1lmc ows ln8 slnIc ulrcOllOn,lrOmp8sllOlulurc. Wc O8n-
nOlm8nlpuI8lcllmc,wcO8nnollr8VcID8OklOlhcp8sl. 1r8Vc
lhrOuh llmc h8s prcOOOuplcu wrllcrs, lrOm !he !housnd
and Une Nights lO M. L. WcIIs` !he |me Machine. n Out
llmc, N8DOkOV`s shorl nOVcI, Look at the Har/eguinsl, '" uc-
sOrlbcslhclOrmcnlOl8 n8rr8lOrwhOhnus hlmscl8sun8DIc
lO WllCh IOD OHC Qll UlICCllOH lO lhC OlhCI WC IC lO
HLH U1 | H
twlrItlmc. `nthchHhVOIumc Ol5cience and Livi/iation in
Lhina, Nccuh0m ucsOrlDcs thc urc0m Ol thc Lhlncsc 0IOhc
mlsts. thclrsuprcmc0lmw0snOttO0OhlcVcthctr0nsmut0tlOn
Olmct0Is lntO OIu Dut tO m0nlpuI0tc tlmc, tO rc0Oh lmmOt-
t0Ilty thrOuh 0 r0ulO0I sIOwuOwn Ol n0tur0I ucO0yln prO
Ocsscs.' Wc 0rcnOwDcl!cr0DIctOunucrst0nuwhywcO0nnOt
twlrI tlmc,` tO usc N0DOkOV`s cXprcsslOn.
An lnhnltc cntrOpy D0rrlcr scp0r0tcs pOsslDIc lnltl0I OOnul-
tlOns ltOmprOhlDltcuOncs. bcO0uscthls D0rrlcr ls lnhnltc,
tcOhnOIOlO0I prOrcss ncVcr wlII Dc 0DIc tO OVcrOOmc lt. Wc
b0Ok lntOOurp0st.1hcsltu0tlOnls sOmcwh0t0n0IOOustOthc
b0rrlcrprcscntcu Dy thc VcIOOltyOlIlht. 1cOhnOIOlO0IprO
ssO0nDrlnus OIOscrtOthc VcIOOltyOlIlht,Dut lnthcprcs-
cnt Vlcws OlphyslOs wc wlII ncVcr OrOss lt.
10 undcrst0ndthc OrllnOlthlsb0rrlcr, lctusrcturntO thc
cXprcsslOn Ol thc J qu0ntlty 0s lt 0ppc0rs ln thc thcOry N
M0rkOVOh0lns (sccLh0ptcrY).1O c0OhulstrlDutlOnwcO0n
0sSoOl0tc 0 numDcrthc OOrrcspOnuln V0Iuc Ol J Wc O0n
s0y th0ttOc0OhulstrlDutlOnOOrrcspOnus0wcII-uchnculnlOt
m0tlOnOOntcnt. 1hc hlhcrthc lnlOrm0tlOnOOntcnt, thc mO
ulmOuItltwlIIDctOrc0llZcth0OOrrcspOnulnst0tc. Wh0twc
wlshtOshOwhcrc lsth0t thclnltl0IulstrlDutlOnprOhlDltcu Dy
thc scOOnu I0w wOulu h0Vc 0nlnlnltc l nlOrm0tlOn OOntcnt.
1h0t ls thc rc0sOn why wc O0n nclthcrtc0IlZc thcm nOr hnu
thcm ln n0turc.
Lct ushrst OOmc D0Ok tOthc mc0nlnOl.J0s prcscntcu ln
Lh0ptcr Y. Wc h0Vc tO suDulVluc thc rcIcV0nt ph0sc sp0Oc
lntOscOtOrsOrDOXcs.Wlthc0OhDOXk, wc0ssOOl0tc0nprOD0-
DlIltyF___(k) 0t cqulIlDrlum0swcII 0s0nOn-cqulIlDrlumprOD
0DlIlty F(k,r).
1hc J ls 0 mc0surc Ol thc ulcrcnOc Dctwccn F(k,l) 0nu
F___(k), 0nu V0nlshcs0t cqulIlDrlum whcn thls ulcrcnOculs-
ln OhOlOc OlDOXcs. buppOsc wc OOnslucr0 systcm0t tlmc Z
(scc llurc 3), 0nu suppOsc th0t thls s]stcm Orlln0tcu 0t
tlmc t. 1hcn, 0 rcsuIt Ol Our uyn0mlO0I thcOry ls th0t thc
DOXcsOOrrcspOnutO0IIpOsslDIc lntcrscOtlOns0mOnthcp0r-
ttons between tme and =2. f we Consder now gurC 39,
wcsccth0twhcnl_ lsrcOcdlntOw0rusthcp0st,thcboXcswlll
bcOOmc slc0uly lblnncr0s wc b0Vc lO lnlrOuuOc mOrc 8nd
mOrc VcrllO0I subulVlslOns.1blslscXprcssculn llurc41, sc-
qucnOc b, wbcrc, OlnlrOm lOplO DOllOm, wchaVc l_* 1, 0,
, 0nu lln0Iy l * Z. Wc scc lnuccu lb0l lbc numDcr Ol
bOXc lnOrc8cs ln lbls way lrOm 4 lO 3Z.
nOc wc b0Vc lbc bOXcs, wc O0n OOmparc lhc nOn-cqul-
IlDrlum ullrlDullOn wllb lhc cqul!lDrlumulslrlDullOnlOrc0Oh
bOX. n lhc prcscnl O0sc, lbc nOn-cqulIlDrlum ulslrlDullOn l8
cllbcr8 ul0llnDcr(scqucnOc A) Or 0OOnlr0OllnllDcr(8c
qucnOc L). 1bc lmpOrl0nl pOlnl lO nOllOc ls lbal whcn l ts
rcOculn lO lbc p0sl, lbc ulI0lDDcrOOOuplcs 0n lnOrc8lng
0rc numDcr Ol DOXcs. lOr l * Z ll OOOuplcs 4 DOXc, lOr
l " Z ll OOOuplcs DOXcs, 0nu sO On.
A 8 rcsuIl, whcn wc 0ppIy lhc lOrmuI0 lVcn ln Lh0plcr
Y, wc ODl0ln 0 nllc rcsuIl, cVcn ll lhc numDcr OlDOXc8
Oc lO lnnlly lOr l *4
n OOnlr0l, lhc OOnlraOlln ltDcrrcmalns 0Iw0y IOO0IlZcd
tn4 DOXc wh0lcVcrl. A0rcsuIl,J, whcn 0ppIlcu lOd OOn-
k L
|lgu|0 41. Dl|||ng (80qu0n00 A) n0 0On||0|lng (80qu0n00 O) |lD8|s
0|O88 v|lOu8 numD0|8 O| |00 DOx08 w0l00 8uD0lvl00 k0| ||n8|O|m|lOn
p080 8p00. A|| "8qu|08" On glv0n 80qu0n00 |0|0| |O |00 8m0 |lm8, l=Z,
||m0 O| |00 8y8|0m l.
lr0OllnDcr, uVcrcs lOlnnlly whcn t rc0cucslOlhc p0sl.
n summ0ry, lhc ulllcrcnOc Dclwccn 0 uyn0mlO0I syslcm 0nu
n0uyn0mlO0Isyslcmslnhnllc. llslhlsl0Ollh0l Ic0uslO0
scIcOllOn prln0lpIc. OnIy mc0surcs OrprOD0DlIl!lcs, whl0h ln
lhc IlmllOlnnllc numDcrOlDOXcslVc 0nllcnlOrm0llOn
Or0nllc J qu0nllly, O0n Dcprcp0rcu OrODscrVcu. 1hls cX
OIuucsOOnlr0OllnDcrs. ^ lOrlhc s0mc rc0sOnwc musl0Iso
cXOIuuculslrlDullOnsOOnOcnlr0lcu On 0 slnIcpOlnl. nl0
wOuIu00ln OOrrcspOnu lOlnnllclnlOrm0llOn0nu0rclhcrc-
lOrc lmpOsslDIc lO rc0IlZc Or ODscrVc. A0ln wc scc lh0l lhc
scOOnuI0w0ppc0rs 0s 0 scIcOllOnprlnOlpIc.
n lhcOI0sslO0I sOhcmc, l nlll0IOOnulllOnswcrc0rDllr0ry.
1hls lsnOIOncrsOlOrunsl0UIcsyslcms. HcrcwcO0n0ssOO
0lc 0n nlOrm0llOn OOnlcnl lO c0Oh lnlll0I OOnulllOn, 0nu lhls
lcm (0s ln lhc D0kcr lr0nslOrm0llOn wc uscu lhc suOOcsslVc
lr0mcnl0llOn Ollhc OcIIslOO0IOuI0lc lhc nlOrm0llOn OOn
lcnl). nlll0I OOnulllOns0nu uyn0mlOs0rcnO IOncr lnucpcn
ucnl. 1hc scOOnu I0w 0s 0 scIcOllOn ruIc sccms lO us sO
Onlhc uyn0mlOsOlOOrrcI0llOns.
10 .y0` CS 0l C0ll00|' 0S
n Lh0plcr V!!! wc ulsOusscd Drcy lhc Vc!OOly nVcrsOn
cXpcrlmcnl. Wc m0yOOnslucr0ulIulcs0nulOIIOwllscVOIu-
llOn ln llmc. Al llmc t_ wc prOOccu lO 0 VcIOOlly lnVcrslOnOl
c0Oh mOIcOuIc. 1hc 0s lhcn rclurns lO lls lnlll0I sl0lc. Wc
h0Vc 0Irc0uy nOlcu lh0l lOr lhc 0s lO rclr0Oc lls p0sl lhcrc
musl Dc sOmc slOr0cOllnlOrm0llOn. 1hls slOr0cO0n Dcuc
sOrlDcu ln lcrms OlOOrrcI0llOns` Dclwccn p0rllOIcs. "
hc0Vy, mO!lOnIcssp0rllOIc). 1hls slu0lOn lsucsOrlDculnll-
urc 4Z. n lhc l0r ulsl0nl p0sl, lhcrc wcrc nOOOrrcI0llOns Dc-
lwccn p0rllOIcs. NOw, sO0llcrln h0s lwO cllcO! s, 0Irc0uy
mcnIOncdnCh0pIcrV!ll. lt dspcrscsIhcp0rlOlcs(Im0kcs
lhcVcIOOllyulslrlDullOnmOrc symmclrlO0I)0nu,ln0uulllOn,tl
prOduccs OOrrcI0lOns bclwccn lbc sO0llcrcu p0rlOIcs0nulbc
sO0llcrcr. 1bcOOrrcI0lOnsO0nbcm0uccXpI0lbypcrlOrmn
urc 43 rcprcscnls lbs slu0lOn (!bc w0Vy Incs rcprcscnl
lbc OOrrcI0lOns). 1bcrclOrc, lbc rOIc OlsO0l!crn s 0s lOI-
Ows. n lbcurcOlprOOcss, lm0kcs lbc VcIOOlyuslrbulOn
ccss,lbc VcIOOly uslrbulon bcOOmcs Icss symmclrO0I 0nu
OOrrcI0lOns us0ppc0r. Wc scc lb0l lbc OOnsucr0lOn OlOOI
||gu|0 4Z. 500II0||Dg 0| p0rI|0|08. |D|I|0||y 0|| p0|I|0|08 00v0 I00 80m0 v0-
|00|Iy. A|I0| I00 00|||8|0D, I00 v0|00|I|08 0r0 D0 m0r0 |00DI|00|, 0D0 I00 800I
|0r00 p0rI|0|08 0|0 00r|0|0I00 wlI0 I00 800II0|0| (00rr0|0I|0D8 0|0 0|w0y8
|0|080DI00 Dy w0vy ||D08).
rcI0lOnsnlrOuuOcs 0b0sOuslnOlOnbclwccnlbcurcOl0nu
lbc nVcrsc proOcsscs.
Wc O0n0ppIyOurOOnOIusOnslOm0ny-bOuysyslcms.Hcrc
IsOwcm0yOOnsuctlwO!ypcsOls!ua!Ons: nOnc, unOOttc-
Ia!cdpat!O!cscn!ct,atcsOa!!ctcd, andOOttc!a!cdpat!O!csatc
prOuuOcu (scc urc44). n!bcOppOslcs!u0!On,OOrrcI0lcu

||gu|0 43. L||00I 0| 0 v0|00|Iy |Dv0|8|0D 0|I0r 8 00|||8|0D: 0|I0| I00 D0w
|nv0|I0d 00|||8|0D, I00 00||0|0I|0D8 0r0 8uppr08800 0D0 0|| p0rI|0|08 00v0
|00 80m0 v0|00|Iy
p0rllOIcs cnlcr, lbc OOrrcI0llOns 0rc ucslrOycu lbrOub OOIIl-
slOns, 0nu unOOrrcI0lcu p0rllOIcs rcsuIl (scc llurc 45).
1bclwOsllu0IlOns ulllcrln lbcIcmpOr0IOrucrOlOOIIlslOns
0nu OOrrcI0IlOns. n lbc hrsl O0sc, wc b0vc pOsIOOIIlslOn0I`
OOrrcl 0llOns. WlIb lblsulsIlnOllOnDclwccn prc- 0nupOsIOOIIl-
slOn0IOOrrc|0llOns ln mlnu, Icl us rclurn lOlbc VcIOOlIy lnVcr-
sl On cXpcrlmcnl. Wc sl0rl 0l t * 0, wl lb 0n lnl ll0I sl0lc
OOrrcspOnulnlOnOOOrrcI0llOns Dclwccnp0rllOIcs. Ourln
lbcllmc0t_ wc b0Vc 0 nOrm0I`cVOIullOn. LOIIlslOns Drln
|bc VcIOOlly ulsIrlDullOn OIOscrlOlbc M0XwcI|l0ncqulIlDrlum
ulslrlDullOn. 1bcy 0IsO Orc0Ic pOslOOIIlslOn0I OOrrcI0llOns Dc-
00!0|0 0!!0|
|lgur 44. O|!l0n 0| p08!00||l8l0n| 00rr|!l0n8 |pr8n!0 Dy w0vy
|ln8, |0| 0!l|8 8 !!.
lwccnlbc p0rlOIcs. Al _ 0llcrlbc VcIOOlly lnVcrslOn,8 OOm-
pIclcIy ncw sllu0llOn0rlscs. OslOOIIlslOn0IOOrrcI0llOns8rc
nOw lr0nslOrmcu lnlO prcOOIIlslOn0I OOrrcI0llOns. n lhc llmc
lnlcrV0I Dclwccn t_ 0nu Zt_, lbcsc prcOOIIlslOn0I OOrrcI0llOns
uls0ppc0r, lbcVcIOOllyulslrlDullOnDcOOmcsIcsssymmcl1lO0I,
8nu 0l llmc Zt_ wc0rc D0Ok lnlbc nOnOOrrcI0llOn0I sl0lc. 1hc
hlslOry Ol lbls syslcm lbcrclOrc b0s lwO sl0cs. Ourln lhc

F|gur 45. D8!|u0!l0n 0| pr00||l8l0n| 00rr|!l0n8 (wvy |ln8) !hr0ugh
hrst, OOIIlslOns 0rc tr0nslOrmcu lnlO OOrrcI0llOns, ln thc scO-
Onu, OOrrcI0llOnslurnD0Ok lnlOOOIIlslOns. bOlh lypcsOlprO-
Ocsscs0rcOOmp0llDI0wllh lhc I0wsOluyn0mlOs.MOrcOVcr,08
wc h0Vc mcnllOncu ln Lh0plcr Y, lhc tOl0I lnlOrm0llOn`
ucsOrlDcu Dy uyn0mlOs rcm0lnsOOnsl0nt. Wc h0Vc 0IsO sccn
tb0llnbOIlZm0nn`sucsOrlpllOnthccVOIullOnlrOmtlmc0 tlIItg
OOrrcspOnustOthcusu0IucOrc0scOlJ, wblIclrOmtg tOZtg wc
h0Vc0n0DnOrm0Isllu0tlOn.J wOuId lnOrc0sc0nucnlrOpydc-
0rc0sc. Wc wOuId thcn bc 0bIc tO dcVlsc cXpcrlmcnt8 ln thc
I0DOr0tOryOrOnOOmpulcrslnwhlOhlhc scOOnu 0wwOuIubc
VlOI0lcu|1hclrrcVcrslDlIltyuurlnllmc0t_ wOuIu DcOOm-
pcns0lcu` by 0nll-lrrcVcrslDlIlty` uurln llmc t_ ~Ztg.
1hls ls qullc uns0llsl0OlOry. AII lhcsc ulmOuIllcs uls0ppc0r
llwc O, 0slnlbcD0kcrlr0nslOrm0llOn, lOlhcncwlhcrmOuy-
n0mlO Uprcscnl0llOn` ln lcrms OlwhlOh uyn0mlOs DcOOmcs 0
prOD0DlIlsllO prOOcss Ilkc 0 M0rkOV Oh0ln. Wc must 0IsO t0kc
ltrcqulrcs lh0t lnlOrm0llOn` DclVcn lO mOIcOuIcslrOmlhc
Oulsluc lOr lhcm lO lnVcrl lhclr VcIOOlly. Wc nccu 0 klDu Ol
M0XwcIIl0n ucmOn lO pcrlOrm thc VcIOOlly lnVcrslOns, 0nd
M0XwcII`s ucmOn h0s0prlOc. lclusrcprcscnllhcJ qu0nllly
(lOr lhc prOD0DlIlsllO prOOcss) 0s 0 lunOllOn Ol llmc. 1hls ls
dOnc ln llurc 4. n lhls 0pprO0Oh, ln OOnlr0sl wllh bOIlZ-
m0nn`s, lhc ccOlOlOOrrcI0llOns ls rcl0lncu lnlhcncwuchnl-
tlOn OlJ. 1hcrclOrc 0t lhc VcIOOlly lnVcrslOn pOlnl t_ lhc J
slOn0I OOrrcI0llOns lh0l wlII h0Vc lO Dc ucslrOycu I0lcr. 1hls
lo QB.
NOw wc h0Vc 0l0llhluIrcprcscnl0llOno lhc scOOnuI0w. 0t
cvc moment lhc J qu0nllly ucOrc0scs (Ot lhc cnlrOpy ln-
Orc0scs). 1hcrc lsOnccXOcpllOn0lllmc t_. J umps upw0ru,
Dut lh0tOOrrcspOnuslOlhc Vcry mOmcnl0t whlOhlhc syslcm
ts Opcn. Wc O0n lnVcrtlhc VcIOOlllcs OnIy Dy0Olln lrOm thc
1hcrcls0nOlhcrcsscnll0IpOlnt.0lllmct_ lhcncwJ qu0n-
tlly h0s twO ulllcrcnt V0Iucs, Onc lOr lhc syslcm DclOrc Vc-
IOOllylnVcrslOn0nulhcOlhcr0llcr0VcIOOlly lnVcrslOn. 1hcsc
twOsllu0llOns h0Vc ulllcrcnl cnlrOplcs. 1hls rcscmDIcs wh0t
ULLUl5 n thc bakcrtransfOrm0tOn whcn thc OOntr0Otn 0nd
ulI0llnhDcrs 0rc VcIOOlly lnVcrslOnsOlc0Oh Olhcr.
HLH U1 | HA d
buppOsc wc w0ll 0 suHOlcnl llmc bclOrc m0kln lhc Vc-
IOOlly lnVcrslOn. 1hc pOslOOIIlslOn0I OOrrcI0llOns wOu h0Vc
wOuIu bcOOmc lOo hlh. 1hc VcIOOlly lnVcrslOn wOuIu lhcn
lslcnl IOn-r0nc prcOOIIlslOn0I OOrrcI0llOns.
I0w ls slrlkln. lrOm lhc pOlnl OlVlcwOlcncryOOnscrV0llOn
(scc Lh0plcrs Y 0nu Y), hc0l 0nu wOrkpI0y lhc s0mc rOIc,

||gu|0 4. T|m0 v0||0I|0D 0| Ih0 .

-|uD0I|0D |D Ih0 v0|00|Iy |Dv0|8|0D 0x

||m0DI. 0I I|m0 lg, Ih0 v0|O|I|08 0|0 |Dv0|800 0D0 J p|080DI8 0 0|800D-
l|DuiIy. AI Iim0 2tg Ih0 8y8I0m |8 iD Ih0 80m0 8I0I0 08 0I I|m0 0, 0D0 .

|000v0|8 Ih0 v0|u0 |I h00 |D|I|0||y. AI 0|| I|m08 (0x00pI 0I lg), J |8 000|008|Dg.
Th0 |mp0|I0DI |00I |8 Ih0I 0I I|m0 lg Ih0
qu0DI|Iy I0k08 Iw0 0|||0|0DI v0|u08
(800 I0xI).
bul nOIOncrlrOmlhcpOlnlOlVlcwOllhc scOOnuI0w. brlcy
spc0kln,wOrkls0mOrcOOhcrcnllOrmOlcncry8nu 0Iw0ys
O0nbcOOnVcrlculnlO hc0l,bullhclnvcrsclsnOllruc.1hcrcls
On lhc mlOrOsOOplO IcVcI 0 slmlI0r ulsllnOllOn bclwccn OOIIl-
slOns0nuOOrrcI0llOns.lrOmlhcpOlnlD VlcwD uyn0mlOs,OOIIt-
slOns 0nu OOrrcI0lOns pI0y cquV8Icnl rOIcs. COIIsOns Vc
rsc lOOOrrcI0lOns,0ndOOrrcI0lOnsm8y dcslrOy lhc ccOlOl
OOIlslOns. bullhcrc ls0ncsscnll0IulcrcnOc. Wc O0nOOnlrOI
rcI0llOns ln 0w0y lh0l wlI ucslrOy lhc ccOls OOIlslOns h0Vc
DrOuhl lnlO lhc syslcm. l ls lhls csscnll0 ulcrcnOc lh0l ls
n0mlOs. NOlclh0llhcrmOyn0mlOs uOcs nOlcnlcrlnlOOOnlOl
wllh uyn0mlOs 0l 0ny pOlnl. l 0uus 0n 0uulllOn0I, csscnll0
cIcmcnl lO Ourunucrsl0nulnOllhc physlO0I wOrIu.
cll0Qy 03 0 c0 0Cl' 0 l'CQ 0
l ls 0m0ZlnhOwOIOscIylhc mlOrOsOOplO lhcOry N lrrcVcrs-
lDIcprOOcsscsrcscmDcslr0ul!lOn0m0OrOsOOplOlhcOry. nblh
O0scscnlrOpylnlll0IIyh0s0nc0llVcmc0nln. nllsm8rOsOOplO
0spcOl ll prOhlDlls sOmc prOOcsscs, suOh 0s hc0lOwlnlrOm
OOu lO hOl . n lls mlOrOsOOplO 0spcOl ll prOhlDlls Ocrl0n
OI0sscs Ollnl!l0I OOnulllOns. 1hculsllnOllOn Dclwccn wh0l ls
pcrmlllcu 0nu wh0l lsprOhlDllcu lsm0lnl0lncu lnllmcDylhc
I0wsOluyn0mlOs. llslrOmlhc nc0llVc 0spcOllh0llhcpOsl-
llVc0spcOlcmcrcs. lhccXlslcnOcOlcnlropylOclhcrwllhlls
pmD0Dlllylnlcrprcl0llOn. rrcVcrslDlllynOOncrcmcrcs0s
llDy 0 mlr0OIc 0l sOmc m0OrOsOOplO IcVcI . M0OrOsOOplO lrrc-
n0lurc Ollhc unlVcrsc ln whlOh wc IlVc.
OllnlcrcsllO us, lnOuuln0IIOhcmlO0syslcms0nu!hcrclOrc
0II DlOIOlO0I syslcms, 0rc llmc-Orlcnlcu On lhc m0OrOsOOplO
IcVc. l0r lrOm Dcln 0n lIuslOn, ` lhls cXprcsscs 0 DrOkcn
llmc-symmclry On lhc mlOrOsOOplO IcVcI. rrcVcrslDllly ls cl-
lhcrlruc Ona// IcVcIs OrOn nOnc. lO0nnOlcmcrc 0sllDy0
mlr0Oc, Dy Oln lrOm Onc cVcI lO 0nO!hcr.
AIsO wc h0Vc 0rc0uy nOllOcu, lrrcVcrslDlIlly ls lhc sl0rlln
pOlnl OlOlhcr symmclry Drc0klns. lOrcX0mpc, ll ls cncr-
0Iy 0OOcplcu lh0l lhc ulllcrcnOc Dclwccn p0rllOcs 0nu 0nll-
p0rllOcsOOuIu0rlscOnIyln0nOncqullDrlumwOru.1hls m0y
bc cXtcudcd tu muuy uIhcI sItu0tIOns. 1l sIkcIylh3l rrcVcrs-
lDlIlly0IsO pI0ycu0rOc lnlhc0ppc0r0nOc OlOhlr0symmclry
HLH U1 | HA d
lhrOUh lhc scIcO!lOn Ol !hc 0pprOprl0!c DllurO0!lOn. nc o
!hc mOs! 0O!lVc suDcO!s Oltcsc0rOh nOw ls !hc w0y ln whlOh
lrrcVcrslDlIl!y O0n Dc lnsOrlDcu` ln!O!hc s!ruO!urcOlm0!!cr.
1hcrc0ucrm0yh0VcnO!lOcu!h0l ln!hcucrlV0!lOnOlmlOrO-
sOOplO lrrcVcrslDlIl!y wc h0Vc Dccn OOnOcnlr0!ln On O!0sslO0l
uyn0mlOs. HOwcVcr, lhc luc0s OlOOrrcI0!lOns0nu lhculs!lnO-
llOn Dclwccn prc- 0nu pOslOOIIlslOn0I OOrrcI0!lOns0ppIy lO
qu0nlum syslcms 0s wcII . 1hc sluuyOlqu0nlum syslcms l s
0 rc0sOn lOr lhls. lhculcrcnOc Dc!wccn OI0sslO0I 0nu qu0n-
lum mcOh0nlOs. LVcn sm0II OI0sslO0I syslcms, suOh 0s lhOsc
lOrmcu Dy0lcw h0ru sphcrcs, m0y prcscn! ln!rlnslOlrrcVcrs-
lDlIl!y. HOwcVcr, lO rc0Oh lrrcVcrslDlIl!y ln qu0n!um sys!cms wc
nccu I0rcsys!cms,suOh0slhOscrc0IlZculnIlqulus,0scs, Or
lncIu lhcOry. 1hc sluuyOlI0rc syslcms lsODVlOusIy mOrc
ulmOuI!m0!hcm0!lO0IIy,0nu!h0l lswhywc wlIInO!Oln!O!hc
m0llcr hcrc. HOwcVcr, lhc sllu0llOnrcm0lnscsscnll0IIy!hc
s0mc ln qu0nlum lhcOry. 1hcrc 0IsO lrrcVcrslDlIl!y Dclns 0s
lhcrcsuI! OllhcIlml!0!lOnOl!hcOOnOcp! O w0VclunOllOnuuc
lO 0 lOrmOlqu0nlum lns!0DlIl!y.
MOrcOVcr, lhc luc0OlOOI|lslOns0nuOOrrcI0llOnsm0y0IsODc
usculn qu0nlumlhcOry. 1hcrclOrc, 0s lnOI0sslO0I!hcOry, lhc
scOOnu I0w prOhlDlls IOn-r0nc prcOOIIlslOn0I OOrrcI0llOns.
1hc lr0nsl!lOn lO 0 prOD0DlIl!y prOOcss ln!rOuuOcs ncw cn-
llllcs, 0null ls lnlcrmsOlthese neu entities that the second
/au can be understood as an evo/ution ]rom order to disorder.
1hls ls 0n lmpOrl0nl OOnOIuslOn. 1hc scOOnu I0w Ic0us lO 0
ncwOOnOcplOlm0!!cr. Wc wOuIu IlkclOucsOrlDclhlsOOnOcpl
/Cl| v0 0ll0l
nOc wc 0ssOOl0lc cn!rOpy wl!h0 uyn0mlO syslcm, wc OOmc
D0OklObOI!Zm0nn`sOOnOcpllOn. !hc prOD0DlIl!y wlIIDcm0X-
lmum 0l cqulIlDrlum. 1hc unl!s wc usc lO ucsOrlDc lhcrmO
uyn0mlO cVOIu!lOn wlII lhcrclOrc Dch0Vc ln 0 Oh0OllO w0y 0t
cqulIlDrlum. n OOnlr0s! , ln nc0r-cqulIlDrlum OOnul!lOns OOr-
rcI0!lOns0nu OOhcrcnOc wlII0ppc0r.
c COuc tO Ouc O OuI Ddu COuCu5Ou5. ml d cVc5, Dc I
lhc IcVcI Olm0OrOsOOplO physlOs, lhc IcVcI OluOlu0llOns, Or
lhc mlOrOsOOplO IcVcI , noncgui/ibrium is thc sourcc o]ordcr.
Noncgui/ibrium brings ordcr out o] chaos. ` bul 0s wc 0I-
rc0uy mcnllOncu, lhc OOnOcpl Ol Orucr (Or ulsorucr) ls mOrc
OOmpIcX lh0n w0s lhOuhl. l ls OnIy ln sOmc Ilmllln sllu0-
n ln0rccmcnl wllh bOIlZm0nn`s plOnccrln wOrk.
Lcl us OnOc mOrc OOnlr0sl lhc dyn0mlO ucsOrlpllOn N |hc
physO0IwOrIu lnlcrmsN lOrOcs0ndhcIuswllh lhc lhcrmO
dyn0mlO ucsOrlpllOn. As wc mcnllOncu, wc O0n OOnslruOt
OOmpulcr cXpcrlmcnls ln whlOh lnlcr0Olln p0rllOIcs lnlll0IIy
ulslrlDulcu0l r0nuOmlOrm0 I0lllOc. 1hcuyn0mlOlnlcrprcl0-
llOn WOuIu Dc lhc 0ppc0r0nOc Ol Orucr lhrOuh lnlcrp0rllOIc
lOrOcs.1hc lhcrmOuyn0mlO lnlcrprcl0llOnls,OnlhcOOnlr0ry,
lhc 0pprO0OhlOdisordcr (whcnlhc syslcm s lsOI0lcu), bullO
ulsOrucr cXprcsscu ln qullc ulcrcnl unlls, whl0h 0rc ln lhls
O0scOOIIcOllVcmOucslnVOIVln0I0rcnumDcrOlp0rllOIcs. l
nLh0plcr Y lO uchnc lhc ncw unlls ln lcrms OlwhlOh lhc
sIccpw0Ikcrs, slnOc lhcy lnOrc c0OhOlhcr0lcqulIlDrlum.
L0Oh Ol lhcm m0y Dc0s OOmpIcX 0s yOu wlsh (lhlnk 0DOul
lhclrOOmpIcXllylslurncdnw0ru. `A0ln, lnsluc0mOIcOuIc
lhcrcls0n lnlcnslVccIcOlrlOhcIu, DullhlshcIuln0ulIulc0s
sncItlDIc0sl0r 0sOlhcrmOIcOuIcs0rcOOnOcrncu.
cm N cIcmcnl
ry p0rllOIcs. HOwcVcr, wc knOw lh0l cIcmcn-
l0ryp0rllOIcs0tcl0rlrOmclcmcnl0ry. NcwI0ycrsN slruOlurc
0rculsOIOscu0lhlhcr0nuhlhcrcncrlcs. bulwh0l, 0Hcr0I,
ls 0n cIcmcnl0ry p0rllOIc? slhc pI0nclc0rlh0n cIcmcnl0ry
p0rllOIc? Lcrl0lnIy nOl, DcO0usc p0rl Ol lhls cncry ls ln lls
OOnOcplOlcIcmcnl0ry p0rllOIcsrcqulrcs 0n 0ulOnOmy` lh0l
ls Vcry ulmOuIl lO ucsOrlDc ln lcrms Ol lhc usu0 OOnOcpls.
kc lhc O0sc OlcIcOlrOns 0nu phOlOns. Wc 0rc l0Ocd wllh 8
dlIcmm0. cllhcr lhcrc 0rc nO wcII-uchncu p0rllOIcs (bcO0usc
lhc cncry ls p0rlIy Dclwccn lhc cIcOlrOns 0nu prOlOns), Or
lhcrc0rc nOnlnlcr0Ollnp0rllOIcs llwcO0ncIlmln0lclhclnlcr-
uOton. Lvcn t wc kncw how to do thut, t 8ccm8 too rudUul a
HLH U1 | HA d
prOcuu. LcOtrOns 0DsOrD phOtOns Or cmlt phOtOns. A w0y
Out m0y Dc tO O tO thc physlOs OlprOOcsscs. 1hc unlts, thc
ccmcnt0ry p0rtlOcs, wOuIu thcn Dc ucncu 0s bypnOns, 0s
thccntl!lcsth0tcVOIVclnucpcnucn!Iy0tcqulIlDrlum. Wc hOpc
th0t thcrc sOOn wlII Dc cXpcrlmcnts 0V0lI0DIc tO tcs! tbls hy-
pOthcsl s, ltwOuuDcqultc0ppc0lnll0tOms lntcr0Otln wlth
0rrOw Oltlmcth0t cXprcsscsthcIOD0 cVOu!lOn Oln0turc.
A suD]cOtwlucy ulsOusscu!Ou0y ls thc prODIcm OlOOsmlO
cVOutlOn. HOw OOuu tbc wOru nc0r thc mOmcnt O thc bl
b0nDcsO Orucrcu`?YctthlsOrucrlsncOcss0ry llwcwlsh
OrucrtO ulsOrucr.
1O lVc 0 s0tlsl0OtOry 0nswcIwc nccu !O knOw wh0t hyp-
nOns` OOuu h0Vc Dccn 0pprOprl0tc tOthccXtrc0c OOnultlOns
Ol!cmpcr0turc 0nu ucnsl!y th0! Oh0r0OtcrlZcu thc c0ry unl-
Vcrsc.1hcrmOuyn0mlOs0OncwlIInOt,OlOOursc, sOVc thcsc
prODIcms,ncl!hcrwlIuyn0mlOs, cVcnlnltsmOstrcnculOrm
cuthcOry. 1h0tlswhythcunlO0!lOnOluyn0mlOs0nu!hcr-
mOuyn0mlOs Opcns ncw pcrspcOtlVcs.
n0nyO0sc,l!ls strlklnhOw thc sl!u0!lOnh0sOh0ncu slnOc
urcuHyyc0rs0O. Atrstl! sccmcutb0tthc0tOmlstlOVlcw
OOntr0ulOtcu thc OOnOcptOlcn!rOpy. bOItZm0nn 0ttcmptcu tO
s0V0 thc mcOh0nlstlO wOru Vlcw 0t thc OOst OlrcuuOln thc
scOOnu 0w tO 0 st0!cmcntOlprOD0DlIl!y wl!h rc0t pr0O!lO0
lmpOrt0nOcDutnOlunu0mcn!0IslnlO0nOc. WcuOnOtknOw
wh0tthc ucnltlVc sOutlOn wlII Dc, DuttOu0ythc sltu0tlOn l s
lth0stODcOOnstruOtcuOutOl0mOrclunu0mcn!0 OOnOcptl n
tcrms Olqu0ntumcus. nthlsOOnstruOtlOn Ol m0ttcr, thcr-
mOuyn0mlO OOnOcpts (lrrcVcrslDlIlty, cntrOpy) h0Vc 0 rOIc tO
lctussumm0rlZcwh0th0sDccn0OhlcVcuhcrc. 1hc Ocn!r0
rOc Olthc scOOnu I0w (0nu Olthc OOrrcI0IlVc OOnOcptOl lrrc-
VcrslDllty)0t tbccVc Olm0OrOsOOplO sys!cms h0s0rc0uy
Dccn cmph0slZcu ln bOOks nc 0nu 1O.
Wh0twc h0Vc trlcu tO shOw ln bOOk1hrcc lsth0twc nOw
O0n O DcyOnu thc m0OrOsOOplOIcVcI, 0nu dlsOOVcrthc mlOrO-
sOOplO mc0nln OllrrcVcrslblIl!y.
HOwcVcr,thlsrcqulrcs D0slO Oh0ncs lnthcw0ylnwhlOhwc
OOnOclVc lbc lunu0mcnl0II0wsOlpbyslOs. lls OnIy wbcn lbc
unsl0DIc syslcmslh0l wc O0n spc0kOl' l nlrtnslO r8nuOm-
ncss` 0nu 'lnlrlnstO lrrcVcrstDlItly. `
ucsOrtpllOnOlltmc lnlcrmsOllbc Opcr0lOrllmc 1 Aswcb0Vc
sbOwnln lbccX0mpIcOllbc b0kcrlr0nslOrm0llOn(Lb0plcrX
lrOm r0nuOmncss lOlrrcVcrslDlIlly`), !blsOpcr0lOrb0s8s
ctcnlunOltOns p0rllltOns Ol lbc pb0sc sp0Oc (scc lturc 3).
Wc OOmclbcrclOrclO0stlu0ltOnqullcrcmlntsOcnlOllb0lOl
qu0nlum mcOb0ntOs. Wc b0Vc lnucculwO pOsstDIc ucsOrlp-
llOns. Lllbcr wc lVc OurscIVcs 0 pOtnl tn pb0sc sp0Oc, 0nu
lbcn wc 0On`lknOw lOwblOb p0rllltOn llDcIOns, 0nu lbcrc-
lOrc wc uOn`l knOw lls lnlcrn0I 0c, Or wc knOw lls lnlcrn0I
0c, Dul lbcn wc knOw OnIy lbc p0rllltOn, Dul nOl lbc cX0Ol
IOO0IlZ0ltOn Ollbc pOtnl.
nOc wc b0Vc tnlrOuuOcu lhc lnlcrn0I ltmc ! wc O0n usc
cnlrOpy 0s 0 scIcOllOnprlnOlpIclOOlrOmlbclntlt0IucsOrtp-
llOn ln lcrms Ol lbc ulslrtDultOn lunOltOn lO 0 ncw Onc, p
ln lbc scOOnu I0w O lbcrmOuyn0mtOs. 1bc D0stO dtllcrcnOc
Dclwccn 0nup0ppc0rswbcn lbcsclunOltOns0rccXp0nucut n
lcrmsOllbcclcnlunOllOnOllbcOpcr0lOrltmc ! (sccLb0plcr
V , 1bcrlscOlqu0nlummcOb0ntOs`). n, 0IItnlcrn0I0cs,
DclbcylrOmp0slOrlulurc,0ppc0rsymmclrtO0IIy. nOOnlr0sl,
ln p, p0sl0nululurcpI0yutllcrcnlrOIcs.1bcp0sllslnOIuucu,
Dul lbc lulurc rcm0lns unOcrl0tn. 1b0l ls lbc mc0ntn Ol lbc
0ICl8lOn bClWCCn nl8l COnOlOn8 8nO lhC l8W8 O Ch8ngC. A
sl0lcwtlb0n0rrOwOlltmc cmcrcslrOmd I0w, wbtObb0s0IsO
0n 0rrOwOlllmc, 0nu wblOblr0nslOrms lbc sl0lc, bOwcVcr
kccptn lbls 0rrOw Olllmc.
Wc b0Vc OOnOcnlr0lcu mOslIy On lbc OI0sslO0I sllu0llOn.
HOwcVcr, Our0n0Iysls 0ppIlcs0swcII lOqu0nlum mcOb0ntOs,
wbcrc lbc sllu0ltOn ls mOrc OOmpItO0lcu, 0slbccXtslcnOc N
I0nOk`s OOnsl0nl ucslrOys0Irc0uylbc OOnOcplOl0lr0)cOlOry,
0nu Ic0us lbcrclOrc 0IsO lO 0 klnu Ol ucIOO0ItZ0llOn tn pb0sc
sp0Oc. nqu0nlummcOb0nlOswc b0Vc lbcrclOrc lOsupcrpOsc
lbcqu0nlumucIOO0IlZ0llOnwllbuc IOO0ItZ0llOnuuclOlrrcVcrs-
As cmph0stZcu ln Lb0plcrY,lbclwO rc0l rcVOIullOnsln
HLH U1 | H Z
lbc pbysOsOlOurOcn!uryOOrrcspOnu !O!hc lnOOrpOr0!lOn,n
lbclun00mcn!0I s!ruO!urcOlphyslOs,OllmpOsslDlIlIlcslOrcn
lOOI0sslO0ImcOh0nlOs. !hc lmpOsslDlIl!yOlsln0Is prOp00!ln
w!b0VcIOOl!yI0rcr!h0n!hcVcIOOl!yOll lh! ,0nu!hc lmpOs-
sDlIlyOlmc0surn slmuI!0ncOusIy OOOrul00!cs0nu mOmcn-
lsnOl0s!Onshln!h0! !hcscOOnuprnOpIc,wblOh0swcII
Imls Our 0DI! y !O m0nlpuI0!c m0!!cr, 0IsO Ic0us lO uccp
Ob0ncs n! bc s!ruO!urc Ol!hcD0slO I0ws Ol physOs.
lcl usOOnOIuuc!hlsp0r! OlOurmOnOr0ph w! b0 wOru Ol
O0u!On. 1hc phcnOmcnO|OlO0I !hcOry Ol lrrcVcrslDIc prO-
Ocsscss0! prcscn! wcIIcs!0DIlshcu. nOOn!r0s! , !hc D0slOm-
OrOsOOpO !hcOryOllrrcVcrslDIc prOOcsscs s qul!c ncw. A!!hc
lmc OlOOrrcO!ln!hc prOOls Ol!his DOOk, cXpcrlmcn!s 0rc n
prcp0r0!On!O!csl!hcscVlcws.AsIOn0s!hcy h0Vc nO! Dccn
pcrlOrmcu, 0 spcOuI0!lVc cIcmcn! ls un0VOlu0DIc.
'`'..c `
| 0 B0 BOQ lO O||OQO |O OOB|0B O OQO||O0CO OO|O0Q|0Q
P C. cLL|N1LN'
/ Q0 cC 0C0
bOlcnOc Ocrl0lnIy lnVOIVcs m0nlpuI0lln n0lurc, Dul ll ls 0IsO
0n0llcmpl lO unucrsl0nu ll, lO ul uccpcr lnlO qucsllOns lb0l
h0Vc Dccn0skcucncr0llOn0llcrcncr0llOn. ncOllbcscqucs-
llOns runs Ilkc0 IcllmOllV, 0ImOsl 0s 0n ODscsslOn,lbrOublbls
1hlsls lhcqucsllOnOllbc rcI0llOn Dclwccn Dcln0nuDcOOm-
ln, Dclwccn pcrm0ncnOc 0nu Ob0nc.
Wc b0VcmcnllOncuprc-bOOr0llO spcOuI0llOns: sOb0nc,
whcrcDylblns0rcDOrn0nuulc,lmpOsculrOm lbcOulslucOn
sOmc klnu Ollncrl m0llcr? rlslllhcrcsuIlOllbclnlrlnslO0nd
tnucpcnucnl 0OllVlly Ol m0llcr? s 0n cXlcrn0I urlVln lOrOc
ncOcss0ry, Or ls DcOOmlnlnbcrcnlln m0llcr? bcVcnlccnlb-
bullw0sOOnlrOnlcdwllh 0nOlhcrlunu0mcnl0I0Ilcrn0llVc. s
n0lurc lnlrlnslO0IIy r0nuOm? s Orucrcu Dcb0VlOr mcrcIy lhc
lr0nslcnlrcsuIlOllbc Ob0nOc OOIIlslOnsOl0lOms0nuOllbclr
unsl0DIc 0ssOOl0llOns?
LHc O lhc DuH 5OuICc5 O u5CHulOH H DOUcIH 5CcHCc
w0sprcOlscIy lbc lccIlnlh0lllh0u ulsOOVcrcuclcrn0II0ws0l

lhc OOrc Ol n8lurc`s lr8nsOrm8llOns 8nu lhus h8u cXOrOlscu
llmc8nuDcOOmlng. 1hls ulsOOVcryOl8nOrucrlnn8lurc prO-
uuOcu lhc lccIlnOllnlcIIcOlu8I scOurllydcsOrlDcu Dy lrcnOh
sOOlOIOlsl lcVy-bruhI.
urlccIlnOllnlcIIcOlu8I scOurllylssOuccpIy8nOhOrcu
ln us lh8l wc cVcn uO nOl scc hOw ll OOuIu Dc sh8kcn.
cnOn sccmlnIy qullc myslcrlOus, wc sllII wOuIu rcm8ln
phcnOmcnOn musl sllsly lhc cn0r8I I8wsOlO8us8Illy,
8nu lh8l lhc rc8sOns Or whlOh ll h8s 8ppc8rcu wlII Dc
uclcrmlncu sOOncr Or I8lcr. Nature around us is order
and reason, exact/y as is the human mind. urcVcryu8y
lhc I8ws Oln8lurc.
1hls lccIln OlOOnltdcnOc ln lhc "rc8sOn` Oln8lurc h8s
Dccn sh8llcrcu, p8rlIy 8s lhc rcsuIlOllhc lumuIluOusrOwlh
OlsOlcnOc lnOurllmc. Aswc sl8lcu lnlhcrcl8Oc, OurVlslOn
Oln8lurc lsunucrOln 8 r8ulO8I Oh8nc lOw8ru lhc muIllpIc,
lhclcmpOr8I , 8nu lhcOOmpIcX. bOmc Ol lhcsc Oh8ncs h8Vc
Dccn ucsOrlDcu ln lhls DOOk.
Wc wcrcsccklnyycncr8I , 8II-cmDr8OlnysOhcmcslh8lOOuIu
cVcnls, cVOIVln p8rllOIcs. Wc wcrc 8IsO sc8rOhln lOr sym-
mclry, anu hcrc 8IsO wc wcrc surprlscu, slnOc wc ulsOOVcrcu
symmclry-Drc8kln prOOcsscs On 8II IcVcIs, lrOm cIcmcnl8ry
p8rllOIcsuplO DlOIOy 8nucOOIOy. Wc h8VcucsOrlDculnlhls
DOOklhcOI8shDclwccnuyn8mlOs,wllhlhclcmpOr8I symmc-
lrylllmpIlcs,8nulhc scOOnuI8wOllhcrmOuyn8mlOs,wllhlls
ulrcOlcu llmc.
A ncwunlly lscmcrln. lrrcVcrslDlIlly ls8 sOurOcOlOrucr
8l 8II IcVcIs. rrcVcrslDlIlly lslhcmcOh8nlsmlh8lDrlns Orucr
OulOlOh8Os. HOw OOuIu suOh d r8ulO8I lr8nslOrm8llOnOlOur
VlcwsOnn8lurc OOOurln lhc rcI8llVcIy shOrlllmc sp8nOllhc
p8sllcw ucO8ucs?Wc DcIlcVc lh8l llshOws lhclmpOrl8nlrOIc
lnlcIIcOlu8I OOnslruOllOn p8ys ln OurOOnOcpl Olrc8Illy. 1hls
scnbcr On thc OOO8sIOnOf8 VIsIt 8t KrOnbcr C8stIc.
sn`t tt str0nc hOw thts O0stIc Oh0ncs 0s sOOn 0s Onc
th0t0O0stIcOOnslstsOnIyo stOncs, 0nu 0umlrc thc w0y
thc 0rOhttcOtputthcmtOcthcr. 1hc stOncs, thcrccn
m wtthttsp0!tn0, thcwOO0rVlns tnthcOhurOh, OOn-
stttutcthcwhOIcO0stIc. NOnco thls shOuIuD 0h0ncuDy
pIctcIy. buuucnIythcw0IIs0nuthcr0mp0rtsspc0kB ull-
lcrcntI0nu0c. . . . Yct0IIwcrc0IIyknOw0DOutH0mIct
ts th0t hls n0mc 0ppc0rs ln 0 thtrtccnth-Ocntury OhrOnt-
OIc. . . . butcVcryOncknOws thcqucstlOns bh0kcspc0rc
h0u htm0sk, thc hum0n ucpths hc w0s m0uc tO rcVc0I,
1hc qucsttOn o thc mc0nlno rcNlty w0s thcOcntr0I suD-
]cOt o 0 l0sOln0ttn ul0IOuc Dctwccn Llnstcln 0nu 10Orc.
Ltnstctncmph0stZcuth0tsOlcnOch0utODclnucpcnucnto thc
cXtstcnOcOl0ny ODscrVcr. 1hls IcuhlmtOucnythc rc0Ilty o
ttmc 0s trrcVcrslDlIlty, 0s cVOIutlOn. n thc OOntr0ry, 1Orc
m0tnt0tncu th0tcVcn ll0DsOIu!ctruth OOuIu cXlst, ltwOuIu Dc
tn0OOcsslDIc tOthc hum0n mlnu. LurlOusIy cnOuh, thc prcs-
cnt cVOIutlOn o sOtcnOc ts runntn ln thc ulrcOttOn st0tcu Dy
usOnIy thrOuh thc 0OtlVc OOnstruOtlOn tn whlOh wc p0rtlOt-
p0Ic. AstttsOOnOtscIycXprcsscuDyO. b. KOth0rt, "1hcslm-
pIcl0Ottsth0tnOmc0surcmcnt, nOcXp0rlmcntOrODscrV0tlOn
t8 pOsstDIc wlthOut B rcIcV0nt thcOrctlO0I lr0mcwOrk.`
1'0 0lO 1'03
1hc st0tcmcnt th0t ttmc ts D0stO0IIy0cOmctrlO p0r0mctcr
th0tm0kcsltpOsslDIctOlOIIOwthcunlOIulno thcsuOOcsslOn
thrccOcnturtcs. LmlIcMcycrsOntrtcutOucsOrlDcthchlstOry
OlmOucrn sOtcnOc 0s thcr0uu0I tmpIcmcnt0tlOn Olwh0t hc
0rucu 0s 0 D0slO O0tcOry Olhum0n rc0sOn thc utllcrcnt
0nu thc Oh0nln h0u tO Dc rcduOcd tO thc lucntlO0I 0nd thc
gtDBHHl. DC hU lO UC cDHulcU.
HbH L1 | H
OllhtsurtVclOw0ru0lOrmuI0ltOnOlphystOstnwhtOh nOrclcr-
cnOc lO trVcrstbtItly wOuIubc m8ucOnlhc lu0u8mcnl0I IcVcI.
HrtsOnAprtI , IZZ, whcnHcnrt bcrsOn8ll0mplculOuc-
lcnu lhc O8usc Ol lhc muIltpItOtly OlOOcXtsltn ItVcu` ltmcs
00tnsl Ltnslctn. Ltnslctn`s rcpIy w0s 0bsOIulc. hc O0lcOrt-
O0IIy rccOlcu phtIOsOphcrs` ltmc. ` LtVcu cXpcrtcnOc O8nnOl
s0Vc wh0l h0s bccn ucncu by sOtcnOc.
VtOusIymtsunucrslOOu Ltnslctn`s lhcOryOlrcI0ltVtly. HOw-
cVcr, lhcrc 0IsO w0s sOmc prcuutOcOnLtnslctn`s p0rl durc,
bcrsOn`s ItVcu ltmc, `rclcrs lOlhc b0stO utmcnstOns Olbc-
OOmtn, lhc trrcVcrstbtItly lh0l Ltnslctn w0s wtIItn lO 0umtl
OnIy0l lhcphcnOmcnOIOtO0I IcVcI. Wc h0Vc 0Irc8uy rclcrrcu
lO Ltnslctn`sOOnVcrs8ltOnswtlhL8rn0p (sccLh0plcrY).
stuc lhc sOOpc OlphystOs.
ltsl0sOtn0ltnlOlOIIOw lhcOOlrcspOnucnOcbclwccn Ltn-
slctn0nulhcOIOscsllrtcnuN htsyunu8ystnZurtOh,MtOhcIc
bcssO. " AI!hOuhhcw0s0ncntnccr8nusOtcnltsl, lOw8rulhc
cnuOlhts Itlc bcssObcO8mc tnOrc0stnIyOOnOcrncuwtlhpht-
IOsOphy, Itlcr0lurc,0nulhcprObIcmslh0lsurrOunulhcOOrcOl
hum0n cXtslcnOc. UnltrtnIy hc kcpl 0sktn lhc s0mc qucs-
mcIy0ntIIustOn prOuOcuDytmprOD8DIc` tntlt8IOOnutltOns.
1hts ut8IOuc OOnltnucu OVcr m8ny yc0rs unltI bcssO, OIucr
lh8n Ltnslctnbycthlyc0rs, p8sscu8w8y, OnIy0lcw mOnlhs
bclOrc Ltnslctn`s uc8lh. n 0 I8sl Icllcr lO bcssO`s stslcr 0nu
sOn, LtnslctnwrOlc. MtOhcIc h8s IcH lhts slr8nc wOrIuusl
bclOrc mc.1htstsOlnOtmpOrl8nOc. lOrusOOnVtnOcuphyst-
stOn,8IlhOuh0 pcrstslcnlOnc.`n Ltnslctn`s urtVc lOpcrOctVc
lhc b0stO I8ws OlphystOs, lhc tnlcIIttDIc w8s tucnlthcu wtlh
lhc tmmul0bIc.
Whyw0s Ltnslctn sO slrOnIy OppOscu lO lhc tnlrOuuOltOn
OltrrcVcrstbtItly tnlO phystOs?Wc O8n OnIyucss. Ltnslctn
lcw sluucnls. Hc IlVcu ln0s0u llmc. lhclwO WOrIu W0rs, lhc
rlscOl0nll-bcmlllsm. l ls nOl surprlsln lh0llOrLlnslcln sOl-
cnOcw0s lhc rO0u lh0l IculOVlOlOryOVcrlhc lurmOlI Olllmc.
Wh0l 0OOnlr0sl, hOwcVcr, wllh hls sOlcnllhOwOrk. HlswOrIu
w0s luIIOlODscrVcrs, OlsOlcnllsls sllu8lcu ln V8rlOus OOOrul-
n0lc syslcms ln mOllOn wllh Onc 0nOlhcr, sllu8lcu On V8rlOus
sl0rsulcrlnDylhclrr0Vll0llOn0IhcIus.AII lhcsc ODscrVcrs
wcrccXOh8nlnlnlOrm0llOnlhrOuh sln8Is 0II OVcrlhc unl-
Vcrsc.Wh0lLlnslclnw0nlculOprcscrVc0DOVc8IIw0s lhcOD-
]cOllVc mc0nln Ol lhls OOmmunlO0llOn. HOwcVcr, wc O0n
pcrh0p l0lc lh0l Llnslcln slOppcu shOrl Ol0OOcpllnlh0t
OOmmunlO0llOn 0nu lrrcVcrslDlIlly 0rc OIOscIy rcI0lcu. LOm
lDIc prOOcss 0OOcsslDIc lO lhc hum0n mlnu, lhc prOrcsslVc
lnOrc0sc OlknOwIcuc.
10 clll0Qy c0ll|0l
n Lh0plcrXwcucsOrlDculhcscOOnuI0w0s0scIcOllOnprln
OlpIc. lOc0Oh lnlll0I OOnulllOnlhcrc OOrrcspOnus 0nlnlOrm0
tlOn. `AII lnlll0IOOnulllOnslOrwhlOhlhls lnlOrm0llOn lsnllc
0rc pcrmlllcu. HOwcVcr, lO rcVcrsc lhc ulrcOllOn Ol llmc wc
wOuIu nccu lnhnllclnlOrm0llOn,wcO8nnOlprOuuOcsllu0llOn
th0lwOuIdcVOIVcnlOOurp8sl |1hsslhccnlrOpyb8nlcrwc
h0Vc lnlrOuuOcu.
1hcrc ls 0n lnlcrcslln 0n0IOy wllh lhc OOnOcpl Ollhc Vc
OOllyOlIlhl0s lhcm8XlmumVcIOOllyOllr8nsmlsslOnOlsl
n0Is. Aswc h0Vc sccn lnLh8plcr Y, lhls lsOncOllhcD0slc
pOsluI0lcs OlLlnslcln`s rcI0llVlly lhcOry. 1hc cXlslcnOcOllhc
0 VcIOOltyrc0lcrlh0nlhcVcIOOllyo Ilhl.Wc OOuIuOVcrl0kc
lhl sln0Is 0nu ln lhlsw0y prcOcuc OurOwn p0sl. Llkcwlc,
thccntrOpyD0rrlcrl sncOcss0rytOlVcmc0nlnlOOOmmunl
00llOn. Wc h0Vc 0Irc0uy mcnllOncu lh0l l rrcVcrslDlIlly 0nd
OOmmunlO0llOn0rc OIOscIyrcI0lcu. NOrDcrl Wlcncr h00r
ucu lh0l thc cXlslcnOc OllwO ulrcOllOns Ol llmc wOuIu h0Vc
uls0slrOus OOnscqucnOcs. l ls wOrlhwhlIc lO Ollc 0 p0ss0gc
from hs woll-known book Cybcrnctics:
Bd00d, l S 8 Y0Iy Bl0I0SlBg Bl0ll00lu8l 080lm0Bl
l0 m8k0 lh0 8Bl8Sy 0 8B Bl0lg0Bl U0Bg wh0S0 lm0
Sh0uld IuB lh0 0lh0I w8y l0 0uI 0wB. 0 Su0h 8 U0Bg, 8ll
00mmuB08l0B wlh uS w0ud U0 m0SSU0. PBy SgB8l
h0 mghl S0Bd w0ud I080h uS wlh 8 l0g08l SlI08m 0
00BS0qu0BlS I0m hS 0Bl 0 Y0w, 8Bl000d0BlS I0m
0uIS. hcS0 8Bl000d0BlS w0ud 8lI08dy U0 B 0uI 080I-
0B00, 8Bd w0ud h8Y0 S0IY0d l0 uS 8S lh0 B8luI8l 088B8-
l0B 0 hS SgB8l, wlh0ul I0Su0SBg 8B Bl0llg0Bl
U0Bg l0 h8Y0 S0Bl l. h0 dI0w uS 8 Squ8I0, w0 Sh0uld
S00 lh0 I0m8BS M hS guI0 8S lS I00uIS0IS, 8Bd l w0uld
S00m l0 U0 lh0 0uI0uS 0IySl8lZ8l0B8lw8yS 0I00ly
08l8B8U00 lh0S0 I0m8BS. lS m08BBg w0uld S00m
l0 U0 8S 0Ilul0uS 8S lh0 800S w0 I08d Bl0 m0uBl8BS
8Bd 0lS. h0 dI8wBg 0 lh0 Squ8I0 w0ud 808I l0 uS
8S 8 08l8SlI0h0Sudd0B Bd00d, Uul 08l8B8Ul0 Uy B8l-
uI8l l8wSUy wh0h lh8l Squ8I0 w0dld 008S0 l0 08Sl.
LuI 00uBl0I8Il w0uld h8Y0 0880lly Sml8I d08S 00B-
00IBBg uS. W|hn uny uorld u|h uhch uc cun commu-
ncu|c, |hc drcc|on oj |mc s ungorm."
l S I00S0ly lh0 BBl0 0BlI0y U8II0I lh8l gu8I8Bl00S lh0
uBqu0B0SS M lh0 dI00l0B M lm0, lh0 m0SSUlly NSwl0hBg
I0m 0B0 dI00l0B 0 lm0 l0 lh0 00Sl0 0B0.
B lh0 00uIS0 0 lhS U00k, w0 h8Y0 SlI0SS0d lh0 lm0Il8B00
0 d0m0BSlI8l0BS 0 m0SSUly. B 80l, tBSl0B w8S lh0
HISl l0 gI8S lh8l m0Il8B00 wh0B h0 U8S0d hS 00B00l M Rl8-
lY0 Smull8B0ly 0B lh0 m0SSUly 0 lI8BSmllBg B0Im8-
l0B l VClDCllj gIClCI lDH lDl D llgDl. JDC WDDlC lDCDIj 0
Rl8lYly S Dul 8I0uBd lh0 080uS0B M `uB0US0IY8Ul0 Smul-
l8B0l0S. tBSl0B 00BSd0I0d lhS Sl0 8S S0m0wh8l Sml8I l0
lh0 Sl0 l8k0B B lh0Im0dyB8m0S wh0B 0I0lu8l m0l0B w8S
080ud0d. Uul S0m0 0 hS 00Bl0m0I8I0SM0S0BU0fg, 0I
088ml00mh8SZ0d 8B m0Il8Bl d0I0B00 D0lw00B lh0S0
lw0 m0SSUl0S. B lh0 08S0 0 lh0Im0dyB8m0S, 8 00Il8B
r|uu|on S d0B0d 8S DClHg 8US0Bl I0m B8luI0, B lh0 08S0 0
I08lYly, l S 8B obscrvu|on lh8l S d0B0d 8S m0SSUl0
lh8l S, 8 ly0 0 d80gu0, 0 00BmuB08l0B U0lw00B B8luI0
8Bd lh0 0IS0B wh0 d0S0IU0S l. huS M0S0BU0Ig S8w hmS0l
5 DllDWlHg lH5lClH`5 C8HQlC, lH 5QllC D lH5lClH`5 5KCQl-
0Sm, wh0B h0 gI0uBd0d qu8Blum m00h8B0S 0B lh0 080luS0n
Olwh8tthc gu8ntum unO0rt8lntyprlnOlp|cuchncs8sunODscr-
As|On8sthc scOOnuI8w w8s OOnslucrcu lOcXprcss OnIy 8
pr8OllO8| lmprOD8Dl|lly, lt h8u IlllIc lhcOrcllO8I lnlcrcst. YOu
OOuIu 8|w8ys hOpc tOOVcrOOmcltDysulhOlcnllcOhnlO8I sklII.
but wc h8Vc sccn th8t thls ls nOl sO. At lts rOOts thcrc ls 8
sc|cOtlOnOlpOsslDIc lnlll8| sl8lcs. lls OnIy 8Hcr lhcsc sl8lcs
h8Vc Dccn sc|cOtculh8llhcprOD8DlIllylnlcrprcl8llOnDcOOmcs
pOsslDIc. uuccu, 8s bOItZm8nn sl8lcu lOr thc hrst tlmc, thc
lnOrc8sc Ol cnlrOpy cXprcsscs thc lnOrc8sc o prOD8DlIlly, o
ulsurucr. HOwcVcr, hls lntcrprcl8llOn rcsuIls lrOm lhc OOn-
0|uslOnth8t cntrOpy ls8 sc|cOllOn prlnOlp|c Drc8klnlhctlmc
symmclry. t ls On|y8lcrthls symmclry-Drc8kln lh8t 8ny
pmD8DlIlsllO lnlcrprcl8llOn DcOOmcs pOsslDIc.
n spllcOlthc l8Ot th8t wc h8Vc rcOOupcu muOh o bOIlZ-
m8nn`s lnlcrprcl8llOn OlcnlrOpy, lhc D8sls o Our lnlcrprcl8-
tlOn Ol hls scOOnu I8w ls r8ulO8IIy ulllcrcnl, slnOc wc h8Vc l n
thc scOOnuI8w8s 8 symmctry-Drc8kln sc|cOllOn prlnOlp|c
prOD8Dl|lsllO lnlcrprcl8llOn
trrcVcrslDl|lty 8s lnOrc8sc OlulsOrucr
ts On|y lhc unlhO8llOn Oluyn8mlOs 8nu lhcrmOuyn8mlOs
wc sh8II uwcII On ltln mOrc ucl8lI.
10 cv0 .l'0l0ly 0l0O'
1hc wOrIu Ol uyn8mlOs, Dc ll OI8sslO8I Or qu8nlum, ls 8 rc-
VcrslDIc wOrIu. As wc h8Vc cmph8slZcu ln Lh8plcr Y, nO
cVOIullOnO8nDc8sOrlDculOlhlswOrIu,lhc lnlOrm8llOn` cX-
prcsscu ln lcrms Ol uyn8mlO8I unlls rcm8lns OOnsl8nl. l l s
thcrclOrc Ol rc8t lmpOrl8nOc lh8l lhc cXlslcnOc o 8ncVOIu-
On lhc IcVcI Olm8OrOsOOplO ucsOrlpllOn Dul8IsO On 8II IcVcIs.
lOOursc, lhcrc 8rc OOnulllOns. 8swch8Vc sccn,8 mlnlmum
OOmpcXllylsncOcss8ry. bul lhc lmmcnsc lmpOrl8nOcOllrrc-
VcrslDIc prOOcsscs shOws lh8l lhls rcqul|cmcnl ls s8llshcu lOr
mOsl syslcms Ol lnlcrcsl. Kcm8rk8DIy, lhc pcrOcpllOn o Orl-
cnlcu llmc lnOrc8scs 8s lhc IcVcIOlDlOIOlO8IOr8nlZ8llOnln-
Orc8scs 8nu prOD8DIy rc8Ohcs lls OuImln8lln pOlnl ln hum8n
HOwcncr8I lslhls cVOIullOn8ry p8r8ulm? llnOIuucslsO-
8lcu syslcms lh8l cVOIVc lO ulsOrucr 8nu Opcn syslcms lh8l
cVOIVc lO hlhcr 8nu hlhcrlOrmsOlOOmpIcXlly. l lsnOl sur-
prlsln lh8l lhc cnlrOpy mcl8phOr h8s lcmplcu 8 numDcr o
wrllcrs uc8Iln wllh sOOl8I OrcOOnOmlO prODIcms. DVlOusIy
hcrc wc h8Vc lO Dc O8rcluI, hum8n Dclns 8rc nOl uyn8mlO
OD]cOls, 0nu lhc lr8nslllOn lO lhcrmOuyn8mlOs O8nnOl DclOr-
muI8lcu8s 0 scIcOllOn prlnOlpIc m8lnl8lncu Dy uyn8mlOs. n
bllIIl ll scsscnll8Ilh8ll nlhlspcrspcOllVcwcnOIOncrscclhc
lnlcrn8I lccIlnOllrrcVcrslblIlly 8s 8 suDcOllVc lmprcsslOn lh8l
0Ilcn8lcsuslrOmlhc OulslucwOrIu, Dul8sm8rkln Ourp8rllO
lp8llOn ln 0 wOrIu uOmln8lcu Dy 8n cVOIullOn8ry p8r8ulm.
LOsmOIOlO8IprODIcms8rc nOlOrlOusIyulmOuIl. Wc sllIIuO
Lnr8Vll8llOnDclnOIuuculnsOmclOrmOllhcscOOnuI8w, Or
lslhcrc0klnuOlul8IcOllO8ID8I8nOc DclwccnlhcrmOuyn8mlO
8nur8Vll8llOn? Lcrl8lnIylrrcVcrslDlIllyOOuIunOlh8vc0p-
pc8rcu8DruplIyln0 llmc-rcVcrslDIc wOrIu. 1hcOrllnOllrrc-
VcrslDlIlly ls 8 OOsmOIOlO8I prODIcm 8nu wOuIu rcqulrc 0n
0n8Iyslso lhcunlVcrsclnllshrslsl8cs.HcrcOur8lmlsmOrc
mOucsl. Wh8l uOcs lrrcVcrslDlIlly mc8n lOu8y? HOw uOcs
rcI0lc lO Our pOslllOn ln lhc wOrIu wcucsOrlDc?
/Cl0l3 0O cQ0Cl0l0|3
1hc ucnl8I OlDcOOmln Dy physlOs Orc8lcu uccp rllls wllhln
OIcnOc 8nu cslr8ncu sOlcnOc lrOm phlIOsOphy. Wh8l h8u
0rtgtnully bccn u durtng Wugcr Wtlh lhc domtnunl ^rt8lolcltun
ll80lDu gl80U8y DcC8mc 8 0Dgm8lC 888cllDu 0lcClc0
8g8u8l 8ll lhD8c (Chcm8l8, DDDg8l8, hy8C8u8) Dl whDm 8
QU8l8lc 0cl8ly c88lc0 u u8lUlc. Pl lhc cu0 D lhc uuc-
lcculh CculUly lh8 CDuHCl h80 8hc0 lDm u80c 8CcuCc lD
lhc lc8lDu Dclwccu 8CcuCc 8u0 lhc lc8l D CUlUlc, c8-
cC8y hD8Dhy. Wc h8c 0c8ClDc0 u Lh8lcl lh8 88-
cCl D lhc h8lDly D Wc8lclu lhDUghl, wlh l8 CDuluU8
8llUggc lD 8Chcc 8 ucw Uuly D KuDwc0gc. hc c0
lmc D lhc hcuDmcuDDg8l8, lhc L0nSBl DD8c0 lD
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lB0 lB00l0l08l kB0wl00g0 lB8l l0l0S0BlS lB0 8l8ll0
00l0Dl8l l000SS0S B SymD0lS. BS BB0l 8w8l0B0SS M
myS0l S lB0 D8SS 0l lB0 uB00lSl8B0Bg M my 0ll0w-
m0B wB0m m00l 8B0 80kB0wl00g0 8S D0BgS 0 my 0wB
kB0, wlB wB0m 00mmuB08l0 S0m0lm0S S0 Blm8l0y
8S l0 SB8l0 0y 8B0 S0ll0w wlB lB0m.
LBll l000Blly, B0w0Y0l, lB0l0 w8S 8 SllkBg 00BlGSl. B0 w-
l0lB8l uBY0lS0 808l00 l0 D0 8B 8ul0m8l0B 0ll0wBg 00l0I-
mBSl0 08uS8l l8wS, B 00Bll8Sl wlB lB0 S0Bl8B00uS 80lYly
8B0 ll0Y0lSDlly w0 080l0B00. B0 lw0 w0ll0S 8l0 B0W
0l8wBg 0l0S0l l0g0lB0l. S lBS 8 l0SS 0l lB0 B8lul8 S00B00ST
Ll8SS08l S00B00 8m00 8l 8 ll8BS8l0Bl Y0w 0 lh0 ByS-
08l uBY0lS0. B 080B 08S0 y0u w0ul0 D0 8Dl0 l0 00Bly H
08uS0 8B0 8B 000l. WB0B0Y0l 8 Sl00B8Sl0 00S0ll0B D-
00m0S B000SS8ly, lBS S B0 l0Bg0l m. W0 08B B0 l0Bg0l S08K
M 08uS8lly B 080B B0Y0u8l 080rm0Bl w0 08B 0Bly S08k
8D0ul Sl8lSl08l 08uS8lly. BS B8S, B 80l, D00B lB0 08S0 0Y0I
SB00 lB0 80Y0Bl 0 qu8Blum m00B8B0S, Dul l B8S D00B gl08ly
8ml00 Dy l000Bl 00Y0l0m0BlS B wB0B l8B00mB0SS 8B0
l0D8Dlly l8y 8B 0SS0Bl8l l0l0, 0Y0B B 0l8SS08l 0yB8m08
0l 0B0mSlly. h0l00l0, lB0 m000lB ll0B0 8S 00m8l00 l0 lB
0l8SS08l 0B0 l080S l0 8 kB0 0 080ly 8S 00m8l00 l0 lB
ll8BS8l0B0y 0 0l8SS08l lB0ugBl.
S lBS 8 0008l 0l lB0 Bum8B mB07 BS S 8 00ull qu0S-
l0B. PS S00BlSlS, w0 B8Y0 B0 0B000 w0 08BB0l 00S0lD0 0I
y0u lB0 w0ll0 8S w0 w0ul0 k0 l0 S00 l, Dul 0Bly 8S w0 8N
dUlc lo 8cc l lhtough lhc UumUucd mQUl m c8Qctmculdl
l0SullS 8Bd B0w lh00I0l08l 00B00lS. PlS0, w0 U0l0Y0 lh8l
lhS B0w Slu8l0B l0H00lS lh0 Slu8l0B w0 S00m l0 Bd B 0ul
0wB m0Bl8l 80lYly. Ll8SS08l Sy0h00gy 00Bl0I0d 8I0uBd
00BS00uS, lI8BS8I0Bl 80lYly, m0d0IB Sy0h00gy 8ll80h0S
mu0h w0ghl l0 lh0 08qu0 uB0l0BBg 0 lh0 uB00BS00uS.
0lh8S lhS S 8B m8g0 0 lh0 D8S0 08luI0S 0 hum8B 08S-
l0B00. 0m0mU0I L0duS, lh0 lu0dly 0 hS mBd B I0Bl 0
lh0 ShB8 8Bd lS 080ly 8Bd d8IkB0SS wh0B 00Bl0Bl0d wlh
hS 0wB 0lgBS. 0Ih8S lh0 00mBg l0g0lh0l 0 0ul B SghlS
8U0ul lh0 w0lld 8l0uBd uS 8B0 lh0 w0Ild BSd0 uS S 8 S8lSy-
Bg 08luI0 0 h0 l000Bl 0Y0ul0B B S00B00 lh8l w0 h8Y0 lI0d
10 d0S0IU0.
l S h8Id l0 8Y0d lh0 mI0SS0B lh8l lh0 dSlB0l0B U0-
lw00B wh8l 08SlS B lm0, wh8l S II0Y0ISDl0, 8Bd, 0B lh0
0lh0l h8Bd, wh8l S 0ulSd0 0 lm0, wh8l S 0l0lB8l, S 8l lh0
0lgB 0 hum8B SymU00 80lYly. 0lh8S lhS S 0S008y S0
B 8IlSl0 80lYly. Bd00d, 0B0 8S00l 0 lh0 lI8BS0Im8l0B 0
8 B8luI8 0Uj00l, 8 Sl0B0, l0 8B 0Dj00l 0 8Il S 0l0S0ly l08l0d l0
0ul m80l 0B m8ll0l. PllSl0 80lYly UI08kS lh0 l0m0I8l
Symm0lly 0 lh0 0Uj00l. l l08Y0S 8 m8Ik lh8l ll8BSl8l0S 0ul
l0m0I8 dSSymm0lly Bl0 lh0 l0m0l8l dSSymm0lly 0 lh0
0Dj00l. Lul 0 lh0 l0Y0lSUl0, B08lly 0y0l0 B0S0 l0Y0l B wh0h
w0 lY0 8lS0S muS0 lh8l S U0lh Sl00h8Sl0 8Bd lm0-0l0Bl0d.
1'D 'DDw3| O| |3|U|D
l S qul0 l0m8Ik8Ul0 lh8l w0 8l0 8l 8 mOm0Bl U0lh 0 l0-
0uBd 0h8Bg0 B lh0 S00Bl0 00B00l 0 B8luI0 8Bd 0 lh0
Sllu0luI0 0 hum8B S000ly 8S 8 l0Sul 0 lh0 d0m0gI8h0 08-
l0S0B. PS 8 I0Sull, lh0I0 S 8 B00d 0l B0w I0l8l0BS D0lw00B
m8B 8Bd B8lul0 8Bd U0lw00B m8B 8Bd m8B. W0 08B B0 l0Bg0l
8000l lh0 0d 8 I0l dSlB0l0B U0lw00B S00Bl0 8Bd 0lh-
08l Y8lu0S. hS w8S 0SSUl0 8l 8 lm0 wh0B lh0 08l0lB8l w0lld
8Bd 0ul Bl0IB8l w0lld 808I0d l0 00Bl0l, l0 U0 B08lly
0llh0g0B8l. 0d8y w0 kB0w lh8l lm0 S 8 00BSllu0l0B 8Bd
lh0l00l0 08ll0S 8B 0lh08l l0S0BSUlly.
h0 d08S l0 wh0h w0 h8Y0 d0Y0l0d mu0h S800 B lhS
book~thcdcaso|nstablty, o|Huctuaton~dttuscntothc
S008l S00B00S. W0 kB0w B0w lh8l S000l0S 8I0 mm0BS0ly
60ml08 SySl0mS BY0lYBg 8 0l0Bl8!ly 0B0lm0uS BumD0l 0
Dul08l0BS 080m0d Dy lh0 Y8l0ly 0 0ulul0S lh8l h8Y0
0Y0Y0d B lh0 l08lY0ly Sh0ll S8B 0 hum8B hSl0ly. W0 8H0w
lh8l SB0h SySl0mS 8l0 hghly S0BSlY0 l0 uClu8l0HS. hS
l08dS D0lh l0 h00 8Bd 8 lhl08l. h00, SH00 0Y0B Sm8 u0-
lu8l0BS m8y gl0w 8Hd 0h8Bg0 lh0 0Y0l8 Sllu0lul0. PS 8 l0-
Sul, BdYdu8l 80lVly S B0l d00m0d l0 BSgB08B00. LB
lh0 0lh0l h8Bd, lhS S 8lS0 8 lhl08l, SB00 B 0ul uBY0lS0 lh0
S00ully 0 Sl8D0, 0lm8B0Bl lu0S S00mS g0B0 0l0Y0l. W0 8l0
lYBg 0 8 d8Bg0l0uS 8Bd uB00ll8B w0ld lh8l BSl0S B0
0l0d 00Bd0B00, Dul 0lh8S 0Bly lh0 S8m0 00lBg 0
qu8l0d h00 lh8l S0m0 8lmud0 l08lS 808l l0 h8Y0 8l-
llDul0d l0 lh0 L0d 0 L0B0SS.
0Bly-S8 8ll0mlS l000d0d lh0 l0S00l g0H0SS, 8ll 0
wh0h w0l0 d0SlH0d l0 8. h0 w0lU 0 m8B h8S 8ftS0B
0ul 0 lh0 0h80l0 h08Il 0 lh0 t000dBg d0DlS h0 l00 S
080S0d l0 lh0 lSK 0 8ul0, 8Bd lh0 l0lulB l0 B0lhHg.
`L0lS 00 l w0lkS [Hulwuy hcyuumoq 080l8m0d
L0d 8S h0 0t08l0d lh0 W0ld, 8Bd lhS h00, wh0h h8S
8000m8B0d 8l lh0 SuDS0qu0Bl hSl0ly 0 lh0 w0lU 8Bd
m8BkBd, h8S 0mh8SZ0d lghl l0m lh0 0ulS0l lh8l lhS
hSl0ly S Dl8Bd0d wlh lh0 m8lk 0 l8d08 uH00ll8Hly"
. l . ERLlN, Ay0tn8l lhc Lurrcnl, scIc0Icuwr|I|ngs 0u. H. H0ruy
(Ncw YOrk. 1hc V|k|ng rcss, lb), p. XXVl.
. bc0 lTUS LUCRETlUS LARUS, c A0lur0 Hcrum, bOOk l, V.
1~1. cu. 0nu 0Omm. L. b0|Icy (XlOru XlOru Un|V0rs|Iy
rcss l41, J VOIs. )
J. . LENOBLE, Ht8lotrc Jc l` tJc Jc n0lurc (0r|s. A|Dln Ml0hcI,
4. b. ASCAL, "Wnsccs,`lr0g.1Z, ln Ocuvrc8 Lompllc8 (0rls:
bruns0hw|g-bOuIrOuX-L0Zlcr, l4-l4).
J. J. %ONOD, Lh0ncc 0nJ Accc88tly (Ncw YOrk. V|nI0gc bOOks,
l1Z), pp. l1Z~1J.
b. L. Y1CO, hc Acw ctcncc, Ir0ns.. L. bcrg|n0nuM. H. |s0h
(NcwYOrk. lb), p0r. JJ l .
7. J. YERNANT cI 0I. , tvtn0lton cl r0lton0ltl, csp. J OTTERO,
"bympImcs, s|gncs, c0r|Iurcs` (0r|s. bcu|I, l14).
. A. OYR, 0ltlco luJtc8 (H0ssO0ks, Lng. . 1h0 H0rV0sI0r
rcss, l 1b).
V. . OPPER, Objccltvc KnowlcJyc (XlOru. LI0rcnuOn rcss,
l. tORMAN, "Wc|m0rLuIIurc, L0us0I|Iy 0nu Qu0nIum 1hcOry,
llb~lZ1, Au0pI0I|On Dy Lcrm0n hys|0|sIs 0nu M0Ihcm0Il-
0l0nsIO 0nHOsI|Ic lnIcIIc0Iu0I LnV|rOnmcnI,`Ht8lortc0l luJ
tc8 tn hy8tc0l ctcncc8, VOI . J ( l 1l ), pp. l-l l.
l l . J. DEEDHAM 0nuL. A.ONAN, A horlcr ctcncc 0nJ Ltvtlt0
lton tn Lhtn0, VOI . l (L0mDr|ugc. L0mDr|ugc UnlVcrslIy r0ss,
l 1b), p. l 1.
l. A. LDDlNOTON, hc A0lurc o| lhc hy8tc0l WorlJ (AnnArDOr
UnlVcrs|Iy OlM|0h|g0n rcss, lb), pp. b-b.
l J. lD|u. , p. lJ.
l4. ERLlN, Op.0|I. , p. l .
lJ. . OPPER, UncnJcJ @uc8l (L0b0IIc,lII . pcnLOurIuDI|sh-
lng LOmp0ny, l1), pp. l l ~Z.
lb. L. RUNO, JIhu|0IOguc, "OcI000us0,`Opcrc l0lt0nc, (b0rt
I907); C. 1. FCLFRC, Ihc Auturc o] Ihyscul Lxstcnce
(LOnuOn. LcOrgc AIIcn Unwln, l 1Z).
HLH U L| L|A 31
l 1. YALRY, C0htcr8, ( VOI 8. ) 00. Mr8. KOD|n8On-V0I0ry, (r|8.
L0II|m0r0, l 1J-11).
l b. L. bCHRODlNOER, "Ar0 Ih0r0 Qu0nIum 1ump8?` hc Brtlt8h
Journ0l )or lhc htlo8ophy o)ctcncc, YOI. lII( l), pp. l
l , Ih|8 I0XI h08 D00n q0OI00 w|Ih |n0|gn0I|On Dy W br|0g-
m0nn |n h|8 0OnIr|DuI|On IO clcrmtnt8m 0nJ rccJom tn lhc
Ayc q MoJcm ctcncc, 00. b. HOOk (N0w YOrk. N0w YOrk
Un|V0r8|Iy r088, l b).
# A. LlNSTEl N, 'r| n2| p| 0n 0 0r Or80hung, K000 2ur .
0Dur8I0g V0n M0X I0n0k (llb) tn Mctn Wcllb|lJ, U|I8I0|n
Y0rI0g l 11, pp. l 1l, Ir0n8.Jc08 0nd ptnton8 (N0w YOrk.
LrOwn, l 4), pp. 41.
. LRRENMATT, hc hy8tct8l8. (N0w YOrk. LmV0, l 4).
l . b. %O5COVlCl, L880t 8ur l`ht8lotrc hum0tnc Jc l0 n0lurc, LOII00-
I|On Lh0mp8 (r|8. I0mm0r|On, l 11).
. QuOI00 |n KOn0n, Op. 0|I . , p. b1.
J. NONOO, Op. 0|I . , p. l b.
L3l0l 1
l. J. 1. LESAOULlERS, "1h0 N0wIOn|0n by8I0mOlIh0WOr|J,1h0
b08IMO00IOlLOV0rnm0nI.0nAII0gOr|00IO0m,` l 1b, quOI00
tn H. N. 1AlRCHlLD, Hcltytou8 rcnJ8 tn Lnylt8h oclQ, YOI. l
(N0w YOrk. LOIumD|0 Un|V0r8|Iy r088, l J), p. J1.
. ID|0., p. Jb.
J. L0r0bu0h00hI0mph08|2000n0|IIu8Ir0I00Ih|80mD|gu||yOlIh0
0mp|r|00I (pltck8) 0n0 8y8I0m0I|0 (rtnctp0) |n hc m0c o|
Acwlon 0nJ Lockc tn lhc Ayc o)Hc08on, N0wm0nH|8IOry0n0
h|IO8OphyOlb0|0n00 b0r|08 (LOn0On. bh000 W0r0, l l ).
4. L0 ctcncc cl l0 Jtvcr8tl Jc8 cullurc8, (r|8. UNLbL, Uh
l 11), pp. l -l .
J. L. L. LlLLlSPlE, hc LJyc o) bjccltvIly (r|n00IOn, N.J. .
r|n00IOn Un|V0r8|Iy r088, l 1), pp. l -U.
. M. MElDEOOER, hc @uc8lton Lonccrntny cchnoloyy (N0w
YOrk. H0rp0r KOw, l J1), p. .
!. ID|0. , p. l .
b. ID|0. , p. l .
. "1h0 LOm|ng OlIh0L0I00nAg0,`0r0Joxc8 o)royrc88 (bn
r0n0|80O. r00m0n LOmp0ny, l 1b).
l. b00, Or|n8I0n00. LAV1ES. lhcr WorlJ8 (1OrOnIO. !. M. O0nI
bOn8, l b).
1 NL
11. A. OESTLER, hc Hool8 o| CotnctJcncc (LOn0OnH0I0htn8On,
1), pp. l J6~J.
. A. YR, Acwlont0n luJtc8 (Lh|00gO LntV08tIyOlL0t00gO
088, l 6), pp. J-1.
J. ln"K0000n0Ht8IOy` (lruclur0l Anlhropoloyy H, N0wYOk
b08t0 bOOk8, l 1), LI0000 L0Vt-bI0088 0t8008808 Ih0 0On0t-
ItOn8 Ih0I I000 IO Ih0N0OItIht0 0n0 ln008It0I 0VOI0ItOn8. 1h0
mO00I h0tnIO00008, tnVOIVtng 0h0tn 000ItOn8 0n000I0Iy8t8 (0
pO0088wtIhktn0It08 0h000I0t200DyIh08hOI00n00mpIth00-
ItOn ph0nOm0n0) 0II08I8 IO0n 0mntIy D0Iw00n Ih0 pODI0m8 M
I0tn Ih0m08 OlIh0 "8I00I00I 0ppO00h` tn0nIhOpOIOgy.
1. "ln8t00 000h 8O0t0Iy, Ih0 O00 Ol myIh 0X0I0008 0t0IOg00 Ih0
gO0p`8 myIh8 00nOI0t8008880, Ih0y 00I0n8lOm00 wh0n
Ih0y00IhO0ghIIOD00p00I00.`L. LVl-bTRAUSS, LHommc
Au (0t8lOn, l 1l ), p. 6. 1h08myIht00I0t80O080t8 IOD0
0t8Itng0t8h00 lOm 0tIt00I (80t0nIth0 0n0phtIO8Opht0) 0t0IOg00
b000080Ol0ntnItn8t0tn0DtItIyOl800hO800h 0mtII0IOIhtnk
tn 0 0ItOn0I w0y. 1h0p00It00OlOrtIt00I 0t0IOg00 h08gtV0n IO
0VOI 0ItV0 0000I00ItOn.
3. 1ht8 t8, Ol0O080, On0OlIh0 m0tn Ih0m08 OlAI0X0n00KOy0.
b. 1h000hntItOnOl800h0n"0D800tIy`OppO808Ih00g0-IOngt000
Ih0I 0 80m0t0nIIy It0ky 00Vt00 wO0I0 p0mtI On0 IO 0h00I n0-
I00. b00Ih00OI800VOI00 Dy 0ngtn008 ItII Ih0Iw0nIt0Ih00n-
I0yIOIh00On8I00ItOnOlp0p0I00|-mOItOnm00htn08tnA. 0
H0m0, crpclu0l Molton: hc HtsloQ o) 0n bscsston (N0w
YOk: bI. M0Itn`8 M088, l 11).
7. Hpp0 I0n8I0I00 tnIO 0 nOm Iht8 0XOtI0m0nI DOn O0I Ol Ih0
ft8k8 tnVOIV00 tn Ih0 0Xp0tm0nI0I g0m08. H0 0mm8, tn hc
Loytc o)ctcnl(c t8covcQ, Ih0I Ih0 80t0nIth0 mu8l IOuk lO
I00 mO8I "tmpOD0DI0 hypOIh08t8-Ih0I t8, Ih0 mO8I t8ky
On0-IO IyIO 0l0I0 tI 08 w0II 08 Ih0 0O08pOn0tng Ih0Ot08.
6. K. tEYNMAN, hc Ch0r0clcr o)hystc0l L0w (L0mDt0g0,
M088. M.l.1. M088, l W1), 800On00h0pI0.
. !. DEEDHAM, "b0t0n000n0 bO0t0Iy tn L08I 0n0 W08I, ` hc
r0nJ tlr0lton (LOn0On AII0n Unwtn, lW).
. A. N. HlTEHEAD, ctcncc 0nJ lhc MoJcm WorlJ (N0wYOk
10000088, l W1), p. l .
. WEEDHAM, Op. 0tI. , p. J6.
. DEEDHAM, Op. 0tI., p. JJ.
J. K.MOYYAAS 0mph08tz00Iht8"000tVtntz0ItOn`OIh0wOI0Dy
Ih0Lht8It0nm0I0phOOlIh0wOI0m00htn0tnHcltyton 0nJ lhc
Ht8c o)MoJcrn ctcncc (L0|nD0rgh0n0 LOn0On. b0OI||8hA00-
00m|0 r088, l1), 08p. pp. l4-I .
4. HlTEHEAD, op. 0|I. , p. 4.
. 1h0l0mO08 I0XI 0DO0I n0I0r0 D0|ngwr|II0n |n m0Ih0m0I|00|
8|gn8|8IOD0lO0n0 |n/ 0yyt0lorc. b000|8Ohc t0loyuc Con-
ccrntny lhc wo Chtc) WorlJ y8lcm8, n0 r0V. 00. (b0rk0|0y
Un|V0r8|Iy M L0||lOrn|0 r088, l1).
. AI |008I |I w08 Ir|0mph0nI |n Ih0 00000m|08 0r00I00 |n r0n00,
r088|0, 0n0 K088|0 Dy 0D8O|0I08OV0r0|gn8. ln hc ctcnlt8l`8
Holc tn octcly (Lng|0wOO0 L||8,N. 1. O0n00I|On8M MO00rn
bO0|O|Ogy b0r|08, r0nI|00-H0||, l1l ), b0n O0V|0 0mph08|200
Ih00|8I|n0I|On D0Iw00n phy8|0|8I8M Ih080 0O0nIr|08, 000|00I00
IO phy8|08 08 0 g|0mOrO08 0n0 p0r0|y Ih0Or0I|00| 80|0n00, 0n0
Ih0 Lng||8h phy8|0|8I8 |mm0rg00 |n 0 w00|Ih M 0mp|r|00| 0n0
I00hn|00|prOD|0m8. b0n O0V|0pmpO80000Onn00I|OnD0Iw00n
Ih0 l080|n0I|On lOr 0 Ih0Or0I|00| 80|0n00 0n0 Ih0 r0|0g0I|On l0r
mOV0m0nI. `
7. lnh|8D|Ogr0phy Ol07|0mD0rIJc0n J`Alcmbcrl, ctcncc 0nJ
Lnltyhlcnmcnl (XlOr0 L|0r0n0On r088 , l 1)1hOm08
H0nk|n8 0mph08|200 hOw 0|O800 0n0 8m0|| w08 Ih0 hr8I Ir0c
80|0nI|h00Omm0n|Iy, |n Ih0mO00rn 80n80OIh0 I0rm, n0m0|y,
Ih0I Ol Ih0 0|ghI00nIh-00nI0ry phy8|0|8I8 0n0 m0Ih0m0I|0|0n8,
0n0 hOw |nI|m0I0 w0r0 Ih0| rr0|0I|On8 w|IhIh0 0D8O|0I0 8OV-
5. LlNSTElN, op. 0|I . , pp. -.
. L. %ACH, "1h0L0OnOm|00|N0I0r0Olhy8|00| lnq0|ry, `opu-
l0r ctcnly/c Lcclurc8 (Lh|00gO p0n LO0rI 0D||8h|ng LOm-
p0ny, I b), pp. l1-5.
J. 1. LONNE, An An0lomy o)lhc WorlJ wh0r0|n . . . Ih0lr0||Iy0n0
Ih0 br|I|8h M0800m, ll l ).
. n Ih|8 pO|nI, 800 1. MANYlNS, "1h0 K000pI|On O NcwIOn`8
b00On0L0wM MOI|On |n Ih0 L|ghI00nIhL0nI0ry, `Archtvc8 n
lcm0lton0lc8 J` Ht8lotrc Jc8 ctcncc8, VO| . XX ( I 1), pp. 4~
, 0n0 l. b. LOHEN, "N0wIOn`8 b00Ond L0w 0n0 Ih0LOn00pI
OlOr00 |n Ih0r|n0|p|0, hc Annu8 Mtr0btlt8 o)tr 800c
Acwlon, rt ccnlcnnt0l Cclcbr0lton, hc cx08 @u0rlcrly,
VO| . X. NO. 3 l I %1), pp. -I 1. 1hc lOur lO!!Own pararaphs
fc8I,lOr wh0I 0On00rn8 0IOm|8m 0n0Ih00On80rV0I|OnIh0Or|08,
OnW bCO, hc LontcI BcIwccn AIomt8m 0nd Lon8crv0Iton
hcoQ (LOn0On. M00dOn0I0, l1).
. A. OYRE, 0ltlco Iudtc8 (H088O0k8, Lng. . 1hc H0rVc8Icr
rc88, l 16),pp.6~4.
J. lnh|8 h|8IOryOlmc0h0n|089cctcncc o)Mcch0ntc8: A LrtI
tc0l 0nd Ht8Iortc0l AccounI o)I8 cvclopmcnI (L0 b0|Ic, l|I. :
pcn LOurI uDI|8h|ngLOmp0ny, lN)Lrn8IM00hI0|08Irc88
OnIh|80u0|hI|0I|OnOlmO0crndyn0m|08M DOIhIhcIr0]c0IOrtc8
80|cn0c 0nd Ihc cng|nccr`8 0OmpuI0I|On8.
4. 1h|80I |c08I |8 Ihc 0On0|u8|OnM IO00y`8 h|8IOr|0n8 whO Dcg0n
Ihc 8Iudy M Ihc |mprc88|Vc m088 O NcwIOn`8 '0hcm|00| H-
pcr8, ` wh|0h I|II nOw wcrc |gnODd Ord|8d0|ncd 08 "nOn80|cn-
I|h0. `bcc . J LOBBS, hc tound0Iton8 o)NcwIon8 Alchcmy
(L0mDr|0gc. L0mDr|0gc Un|Vcr8|Iyrc88, l 1), K. ESTIALL,
"NcwIOn0ndIhcHcrmcI|01r00|I|On`|nctcncc, Mcdtctnc 0nd
octcIy, cd. A. L. LEBUS (LOn0On. Hc|ncm0nn, l 1), 0n0 K.
ESTIALL, "1hc KOIc OAI0hcmy |n NcwIOn`8 L0rccr,` Hc0
8on, LxpcrtmcnI 0nd My8Itct8m, cd. M. L. KlGHlNl ONELL1
0nd W K. bHEA(LOn0On. M00m|II0n, l1). A8 LOrd Kcync8,
whOpI0ycd00ru0|0|p0rI|nIhc0OI|c0I|OnM Ihc8cp0pcr8,8um-
m0r|2cd(quOIcd| nLOBBS, Op.0|I . , p. l J), "NcwIOnw08nOIIhc
hr8IM Ihc0gcOrc08On. Hcw08Ihc|08IM Ihcb0Dy|On|0n80nd
bumcr|0n8,Ihc I08I grc0I m|n0wh|0hIOOkc0OuIOnIhc V|8|DIc
Du|I0 Our |nIcIIc0Iu0I |nhcr|I0n0c r0Ihcr Ic88 Ih0n l ,J yc0r8
0gO. `
. LOBBS, Op. 0|I . , 0I8O cX0m|nc0 Ihc rOIc O Ihc "mc0|0IOr` Dy
wh|0hIwO8uD8I0n0c80rc m00c "8O0|0DIc. `Wc m0y rc00||hcrc
Ihc |mpOrI0n0c M Ihc mc0|0IOr |n LOcIhc`8 LlccItvc A)ntItc8
(LngI. Ir0n8. LrccnwOOd l7). Or wh0I 0On0crn8 0hcm|8Iry,
LOcIhc w08 nOI l0rlrOm NcwIOn.
. 1hc 8IOry O Ncw|On`8 "m|8I0kc` |8 IOI0 |n HANYlN8` 8,Jc0n
dAlcmbcrI, pp. Z-J.
!. L. L. UIION, "KccX|On88urI0 IO|d`8IIr00I|On,`0ppcn0|XIO
nIroducIton 0 l` ht8Iotrc dc8 mtn0ux ( l 111),JOmc lX Ol
cuvrc8 LomplrIc8 ( Hr|8. L0rn|cr rcrc8), pp. 1,11.
6. L. L. UIION, Ht8Iotrc n0Iurcllc. c l0 N0Iurc, ccondc Vuc
( l 1),quOIc0 |n H. METZGER, NcuIon, I0hl, Bocrh00vc cI l0
docIrtnc chtmtquc (0r|8. bl0n0h0r0, l 11),pp. 1-6.
. A. 1HAKRAY 0c80r|Dc8Ihcw0yrcn0h0hcm|8IryDc00mcbul-
lOn|0n|nAIom 0nd owcr: An L880y on NcwIont0n M0IIcr hc
ory 0nd Ihc cvclopmcnI o) Lhcmt8Iry (L0mDr|0gc, M088. .
H0rV0r0 DVcI5y Ic55. l V1), jj. VV-Z. ftlhOel`s
I0Itquc chtmiquc 000Omp|8hc0 bullOn`8 prOgr0m 0n0 0|8O
0|O800 |I, 8|n00 h|80|80|p|08g0V0 0p Ih0 0II0mpI IO 0n00r8I0n0
0h0m|00|r000I|On8|n I0rm80Omp0I|b|0w|IhN0wIOn|0n0On
1U. W0 0OnOIw|8h IO Iry IO 0XpI0|n h0r0 Ih0r008On8OlN0wIOn`8
Ir|0mph |n r0n00, nOrOl|I8l0||,D0I IO 0mph08|20 Ih0 0I |008I
Ih0 prO0088 Ol prOl088|On0||20I|On Ol 80|0n00. b00 M. LROS
LAND, hc octcly o)Arcuctl: A Vtcw o)rcnch ctcncc 0l lhc
tmc o)A0polon (LOn0On. H0|n0m0nn, l), 08 w0|| 08 h|8
0y Lu880c (L0mDr|0g0. L0mDr|0g0 Un|V0r8|Iy r088, l16).
11. 1hOm08K0hnm000OlIh|8 rO|0Ol80|0nI|h0 |n8I|I0I|On8, I0k|ng
OwH r0prO000I|On, Ih0 m0|n 0h0r00I0r|8I|0Ol80|0nI|h000I|V|Iy
08w0knOw |IIO00y. 1h|8prOD|0mh080|8OD00n0pprO00h00Dy
M. LrO8|0n0, K. H0hn, 0n0W 0rr0r|nhc Lmcrycncc o)ct
cncc tn Wc8lcrn Luropc, 00. M. LROSLAND (LOn0On. M00-
m|||0n, l1).
l . 1h0rO|0Ol"m0n00n0 |nI0r08I 8O008p|80dDy ph||O8Oph0r8
800h0808IOn b00h0|0r0 |nr0n008hO0|0D0I0k0n08Ih08|gn
OlIh0 Op0n 0h0r00I0rOl0|ghI00nIh-00nI0ry 80
|0n00. ln0 w0y,
I0ry, 0I |008I lOr wh0I 0On00rn8 Ih0 80|0nI|h0 cullurc. An0 w0
0O0|0 |00rn IO00y lrOm Ih0 m0|I|p||0|Iy Ol|O00| 00000m|08 0n0
0|r0|08 wh0r0 80|0nI|h0m0II0r8w0r00|8008800DynOnprOl088|O-
1J. Q0OI00 | n1. bCHLANOER, Lc8 ml0phorc8 Jc l` ory0nt8mc
(lr8: Vrn, l1l ), p. l6.
l4. 1.L. %AXWELL, ctcncc 0nJ rcc Wtll, |nLAMPBELL 0n0AR-
NET, Op.0|I . , p. 44J. L. LAMPBELL W LARNET, hc Lyc o|
J0mc8 Llcrk M0xwcll (LOn0On, M00m|||0n, l 66Z).
l. 1h|8 prOD|0m |8 On0 OlIh0 m0|n Ih0m08Olr0n0h ph||O8Oph0f
M|0h0| b0rr08. b00, lOr |n8I0n00, "LOn0|I|On8` |n h|8 L0 n0t8-
80ncc Jc l0 phy8tguc J0n8 lc lcxlc Jc Lucrcc (lr|8. M|n0|I,
177). bOm0 I0XI8 Dy M. b0rr080r0nOw0V0||0D|0 |n Lng||8h
Ir0n8|0I|On, Ih0nk8 IO Ih0p|O08 200| OIh0r0n0h bI00|08 O0-
p0rIm0nI Ol 1Ohn8 HOpk| n8 Un| V0r8| Iy. b00 M. bERRES,
Hcrmc8: Ltlcr0lurc, ctcncc, htlo8ophy. (b0|I|mOr0 1hc
1Ohn8 HOpk|n8 Un|V0r8|Iy r088, l6Z.)
1. b00,0DO0IIh0l0I0OL0p|000`800mOn, L. LASSlRER,clcrmt
nt8m 0nJ nlcrJclcrmtnt8m tn MoJcrn hy8tc8 (N0w H0Vcn,
LOnn. Y0| 0Un|V0r8|Iy r088, l), pp. J~.
Cl0,l0l c
l. K. DlSBET, Ht8loQ o]lhc dc0 o]royrc88 (Ncw YO|K. b08|0
bOOk8, l b), p. 4.
. O. LlDEROT, dAlcmbcrl8 rc0m (H0rmOn08wOrIh. , Lng. . cn-
gu|n bOOk8, l 1), pp. l -1.
J. O. LlDERO, Lonvcr80lton Bcluccn d`Alcmbcrl 0nd tJcrol,
d`Alcmbcrl8 rc0m, pp. l b-.
4. O. LlDEROT, cn8c8 8ur lnlcrprl0lton dc l0 N0lurc ( l14),
cuvrc8 Lomplclc8, 1Omcll(0r|8.L0rn|crrcrc8, l b1), p. 11.
. O|0crOI 080r|Dc8 Ih|8Op|n|OnIO Ihc phy8|0|0n bOr0cu |n Ihc
. bcc, lOr | n8I0n0c, A. OVEJOY, hc rc0l Lh0tn o]Bctny8
(L0mDr|0gc, M088. . H0rV0r0 Un|Vcr8|Iy rc88, l1J).
!. 1hc h|8IOr|0n L|II|8p|c prOpO8c0 0 rcI0I|On DcIwccn Ihc prOIc8I
0g0|n8I m0Ibcm0I|00I phy8|08, 08 pOpuI0r|Zc0 DyO|0crOI |n Ihc
Lnc]clopdtc, 0n0IhcrcVOluI|On0r|c8` hO8I|I|Iy0g0|n8IIh|8O -
0|0I 80|cn0c, 08 m0n|lc8Ic0 Dy Ihc 0IO8urc OIhc A000cmy 0n0
L0VO|8|cr`8 0c0Ih. 1h|8 |8 0Vcry0OnIrOVcr8|0IpO|nI, DuIwh0I|8
N0pOIcOn|0 |n8I|IuI|On8, 8p0lI|ng Ihchn0I V|0IOry O8I0Ic 0000-
cmy OVcr 0r0|l8mcn (8cc L. L. LlLLlSPlE, 1hc Ln0y0IOpc0|0
0n0 Ihc J00OD|n h|IO8Ophy O|b0|cn0c. A bIu0y |n l0c08 0n0
LOn8cgucn0c8,` Lrtltc0l roblcm8 tn lhc Ht8lo o)ctcncc, c0.
M. LLAOETT (M00|8On,W|8. . Un|Vcr8|IyOlW|80On8|nrc88,
l), pp. -b.
b. L. L. bTAHL, Vcr|I0DIcO|8I|n0I|On0 cI0DI|rcnIrcIcm|XIccIIc
V|V0nI 0u 0Orp8 hum0| n, ` cuvrc8 mdtcophtlo8ophtgue cI
pr0ltguc8, 1Omc ll (MOnIpcII|cr. |Ir0I cI | I8, l b l ) , c8p.
pp. 1-b.
. bcc J bCHLANOER, Lc8 ml0phorc8 dc lory0nt8mc, lOr 0 0c-
80r|pI|OnOlIhcIr0n8lOrm0I|OnOIhc mc0n|ngOOrg0n|Z0I|On"
DcIwccn bI0hI0n0Ihc KOm0nI|0|8I8.
l. htlo8oph] o]N0lurc, l .
l l . 1h|8 |8Kn|ghI`80On0Iu8|On|n1hcLcrm0n b0|cn0c| n IhcKO
m0nI|0 Hr|O0, ` hc Lmcrycncc o]ctcncc tn Wc8lcm Luropc.
l . H. EROSON, L0 pcn8c cl lc mouv0nl |n cuvrc8 (0r|8.
I|On8 0u LcnIcn0|rc, U l 1) , p. l b, Ir0n8. hc Lrc0ltvc
Mtnd (1OIOw0, N. J. . L|IIIchcI0, A00m8, l 1), p. 4.
lJ. lD|0. , p. l b1, Ir0n8. , p. 40.
4. bd., Q. l28; trans. , Q. 9.
l. H. bERGSOM, L`volulton cr0lrtcc |n cuvrc8, p. 1b4, Ir0n8.
Lrc0ltvc Lvolulton (LOn0On. M00m|II0n, ll l), p. Jl .
l. lD|0. , p. Jb, Ir0n8. , p. 4.
l1. lD|0. , p. 1b4, Ir0n8. , p. Jl .
lb. bERGSON, L0 pcn8c cl lc mouv0nl, p. l 1J, Ir0n8. , p. J.
l. lD|0.,p. l 14, Ir0n8. , p. JJ.
. A. N. WHl1EHEAD, ctcncc 0nd lhc Modcrn World, p..
l . A. N. WHl1EHEAD, rocc88 0nd Hc0ltly: An L880y tn Lo8mo-
oyy (Ncw YOrk. 1hc rcc rc88, l), p. .
. lD|0. , p..
J. JO8cphNcc0h0m0n0L. H. W000|ngIOnDOIh00knOw|c0gcdIhc
0c0VOr IO 0c80r|Dc |n 0po8tltvc w0y Ihc Org0n|8m08 0 whOIc.
1. H. HELMHOL1Z, Ubcr dtc Lrh0lluny dcr Kr0)l ( l b41), Ir0n8. | n
b. bRUSH, Ktncltc hcory, VOI . l , hc N0lurc o)08c8 0nd
Hc0I (XlO|d. crg0mOn rc88, l ), p. . bcc 0|8O Y.
LLKANA, hc t8covcry o) lhc Lon8crv0lton o) Lncryy
(LOndOn. HuI0h|n8On L0u00I|On0I, l14) 0nd %. HElMANN,
"Hc|mhO|I2 0nd K0nI. 1hc McI0phy8|00|Oun00I|On8 O UDcf
d|cLrh0IIung00rKr0|I,`ludtc8 tn lhc Ht8loQ 0nd hlo8ophy
q ctcncc8, VOI . ( l 14), pp. -Jb.
. H. KElCHEN0ACH, hc trcclton o)tmc (bcrkc|cy. Un|Vcr8|Iy
OL0||lOrn|0 rc88, l), pp. l~l1.
l. W bCOT, ADOulIhcnOVcIIyOlIhc8cprODIcm8,8cchc LonjtcI
Bclwccn Alomt8m 0nd Lon8crv0lton hcoQ, bOOkll,0n00DOul
Ihc|ndu8Ir|0I 0OnIcXI whcrc Ihc8c0On0cpI8 wcrc 0rc0Icd, O.
LARDwELL, rom W0ll lo Ll0u8tu8 (LOn0On, Hc|ncm0nn,
l1I ). rI|0uI0r|y |nIcrc8I|ng |nIh|8rc8pc0I |8Ihc0OnVcrgcn0c
DcIwccn On Onc h0n0 Ihc nccd 00Icrm|nc0 Dy |ndu8Ir|0I prOD-
|cm8 0n0 On Ihc OIhcr Ihc pO8|I|V|8I 8|mpI|h00I|On8 Dy Opcr0-
I|On0I 0chn|I|On8.
. J. HERlVEL, Jo8cph ourtcr. hc M0n 0nd lhc hy8tct8l (Ox-
lOr0. LI0rcndOn rc88, l1). ln Ih|8 D|Ogr0phywc Ic0rnIhclD|-
|Ow|ng 0ur|Ou8 |nlOrm0I|On. Our|cr wOuId h0Vc DrO0ghI D00k
lrOm h|8 Ir|pw|IhbOn0p0rIcIOLgypI08|0knc8800u8|ngpcrm0-
ncnI 0cpcr0|I|On8Olhc0I.
J. bcc, mOrcp0rI|0u|0r|y, Ihc|nIrO0u0I|OnIOLOmIc`8htlo8ophtc
rcmtcrc (0r|8. Hcrm0n, l1), `uguIc LOmIc 0uIO-Ir0du|l
dans l'encyclopedie" in 1u JruUuCIOn (Paris: Minuit, l974) und
"Nu0gc, `L0 t8lrtbulton (r|8. M|nu|I, l11).
4. L. bMl1H, "N0I0r0 hIO8Ophy 0nd1hcrmOdyn0mI08. WIII0m
1hOm8On0n0IhcOyn0mI001hcOryOlHc0I, `he Brtlt8h Jour-
n0l ]or lhe htlo8oph] o]ctence, YO . ( l1),pp. J~J l 0nd
M. LROSLAND 0n0 L. bMlTH, "1hc1r0n8mI88IOn Ol hy8I08
lmm |0n0c IO brII0In, lb~l b4,` Ht8lortc0l ludte8 tn lhe
h]8tc0l ctence8, YO . ( l 1b), pp. l~l .
. Or wh0I lOOw8, 8cc Y. LLKANA, he t8coreQ o]lhe Lon-
8err0lton o]Lnery] rtnctple, 08 wc 08 Ihc l0mO08 p0pcr Dy
1hOm08 K0hn, "Lncry 0On8crV0IIOn080n L80mpc M bIm0
I0ncO08OI80OVcry, ` OrIgIn0yp0DI8hcdInLrtltc0l roblrm8 tn
lhe Ht8loQ o]ctencc 0n0 rc0cnIy In1. UHN, he L88enlt0
en8ton (LhI00O. UnIVcr8IIy M LhI00gO Mc88, l11).
b. LLKANA lOOwcd Ihc 8Ow 0ry8I0I20IIOnOlIhc 0On0cpI M cn-
cry, 8cc hI8 DOOk 0nd "HcmhOI2`8 Kr0. An l08Ir0IIOn M
LOn0cpI8 In 08,`Ht8lortc0l ludte8 tn lhe h]8tc0l ctence8,
YO . (l 1), pp. J~b.
. J. JOULE, "M0IIcr, LIVIngOr0c 0nd Hc0I, ` he ctenlc 0-
per8 o]J0me8 re8coll Joule, YO . l (LOn0On. 10yOr r0n0I8,
l b4), pp. ~1b (q0OI0IIOn, p. 1J).
. 1hc LngI8h Ir0n80IIOn8M M0ycr`8 IwO rc0I p0r8, "n I0c
Or0c8 M lnOrg0nI0 N0I0rc` 0nd "1hc MOIIOn8 M rg0nI8m8
8nd 1hcIr Kc0IIOn IO McI0DOI8m, ` 0m In Lneryy: Ht8lortc0
erelopmenl o] 0 Loncepl, cd. K. b. LlNDSAr (bIrO0d8D0r,
. . bcn0hm0rk8 pcr8 On Lncrgy l , OOwdcn, H0I0hIn8On
KO88, l1).
. L. ENTON, "YII0I8m In Ihc NIncIccnIh LcnI0ry b0IcnIIhC
1hO0ghI. A )pOOgy 0nd Kc088c88mcnI, ` ludte8 tn Ht8loQ
0nd htlo8oph] o]ctence, YO . ( l 14), pp. l 1~4b.
DcrdI c Lrh0I 0ng dcrKr0lI, Op. 0t I . ,
pp. ~l .
l l . L. LELEUZE, Ntel8che el l0 phtlo8ophte (0rI8. Uh l 1J),
pp. 4b~.
l. ln IhI8 8I00y M ZO0`8 "OO0Ic0r 800 , ` eux el 8tyn0ux de
brume 0rI8. Lr088cl ( l 1), p. l, MI0hc bcrrc8 wrOIc. "1hc
0cnI0ry Ih0Iw08pr00IIc0y dr0wIng IO0 0O8c whcn Ihc nOVcl
0ppc0rcd h0dOpcnc0wIIhIhc m0]c8II08I0DIIIyOlIhc 8O0r8y8-
Icm, 0nd w08 nOw hcd wIIh dI8m0y 0I Ihc rccnIc88 dcgr0d0
IIOn8M hrc. Hcn0c Ihc hcr0c, pO8IIIVc 0Icmm0. pcrlc0I0y0c
wIIhO0Irc8Id0c, cIcrn00ndpO8IIIVcyV00cd,I .c. , Ihc0O8mOl-
OgyOlIhc 80n,Orc8c 0mI88c00y0c,O8Ing II80Icrcn0c,Irm-
hrc whI0h m08I cIIhcrDcc8IIng0I8hc0Or0c8IrOycd,wIIhO0I0
ternatve. Lne dreams Ol LapIace, whIst CarnOt and thc Othcrs
h0Vc lOrcVcr 8m08hcd Ihc 00DDy-hOc, Ihc nI0hc, whcrc Onc
0O0d 8ccp In pc00c; On0 I8 drc0mIng, Ih0I I8 0crI0In. Ihcn
00I0r0 0r000I8m8 h0VIng rcI0rncu IhrO0gh 0nOIhcr uOOr,
I0rO0gh 0nOIhcr OpcnIng Ol Ihc 80mc uOOr, 0rc pOwcrluly rc-
0w0kcncd. ImmOrI0 0mc, p0rIlyIng b02c OrcVI hr0?`
l. 1hc0OnIIn0IIy bcIwccnL0rnOIl0Ihcr0nu8Onh08bccncmph0-
8I2cu byL0ruwc(rom W0ll lo Ll0u8tu8) 0nub0OII(hc Lon-
)tcl Bcluccn Alomt8m 0nd Lon8crv0lton hcoQ).
l4. OAVlES, hc Hun0u0] Untvcr8c (Ncw YOrk. cng0In bOOk8,
l b), p. l 1.
l. OYSON, "LncrgynIhcUnIVcr8c, `ctcnlgc Amcrtc0n, YO.
(l1l ), pp. -.
. Wh0I w08 p0rII000ry ImpOrI0nIw08 IOgr08p Ih0I, unIkcwh0I
h0ppcn8 In mc0h0nI08, II I8 nOI] u8I 0ny 8IIu0IIOn Ol0 Ihcr-
mOuyn0mI0 8y8|cm Ih0I00nbc0h0r00IcrI2cu080"8I0Ic`, quIIc
Ihc 0OnIr0ry. bcc L. OAU8, "LnIrOpy 0nuOI88Ip0IIOn, `Ht8lor-
tc0l ludtc8 tn lhc h]8tc0l ctcncc8, YO . (l 1), pp. Jl-4.
l 1. ln hI8 00IObIOgr0phy, ctcnlt]tc Aulobtoyr0ph] (LOnuOn.
WII0m8 NOrg0Ic, l ),M0X0n0krc00cuhOwI8O0Icuhc
h0u bccn whcn hc hr8I cmph08I2cu Ihc pc00I0rIIy Ol hc0I 0nu
cncrgyIh0Ir0I8c8IhcIrrcVcr8IbIIIyprObcm. LncrgcII0I8I8800h
08 8Iw0u w0nIcu 0 lOrm8 Olcncryy IO bc gIVcn Ihc 80mc
8I0I08. Or Ihcm, Ihc l0 Ol0 bOuy bcIwccn IwO 0lIIIuuc cVc8
I0kc8 p00c by VIrI0cOlIhc 80mc kInu OlprOu00IIVc uIllcrcn0c
08Ihcp0880gcOlhc0IbcIwccnIwO bOuIc80IuIllc|cnIIcmpcr0-
Iurc8. hu8, 8Iw0u`8 0Omp0rI8On uIu 0w0y wIIh Ihc 0ru0I0
uI8IIn0IIOn bcIwccn 0n Iuc0y rcVcr8Ibc prO0c88, 8u0h 08 Ihc
hc0IuIll08IOn. byuOIng8O, hcw0800I00yI0kIng0p0pO8IIIOn
8ImI0rIOwh0Iwc h0Vc0IIrIb0IcuIOL0gr0ngc. whcrcL0gr0ngc
0On8Iucrcu0On8crV0IIOnOlcncryy080prOpcrIy bcOnyInyOny
IO Iuc0 008c8 b0I 08O Ihc Ony Onc 00p0bc OlbcIng Irc0Icu
rIgOrO08y,8Iw0u hcu 0On8crV0IIOnOlcncrgy08IhcprOpcrIy
Ol0ny n0I0r0 Ir0n8lOrm0IIOn, b0I uchncu 0On8crV0IIOn Olcn-
crgyd]crcncc8 (rcquIrcuby 0I|0n8lOrm0IIOn8In0cOny0uIl-
lcrcn0c00nprOuu0c0nOIhcruIcrcn0c)080n0b8Ir00IIuc0, b0I
Ihc 8Oc Ob]c0IlOr 0 r0IIOn0 80Icn0c.
l b. 1hc 8pIIIIng Ol Ihc cnIrOpy V0rI0IIOn InIO IwO uIcrcnI Icrm8
w08 InIrOu00cu In l. rIgOgInc, Lludc lhcrmod]n0mtguc dc8
hnomcnc8 trrvcr8tblc8, 1h08c u` 0gl0g0IIOn pr08cnI0c 0 0
l000I0 uc8 80Icn008 uc ` UnIVcr8II0 LI brc uc br0Xcc8 l 4
(rI8. O0nOu, l 41).
19. . LLAOSIOS, Mnn. JhjS., O1. 1?5 (1865), Q. 353.
. M. LANCK,"1hcUnIIyOlIhchy8I00UnIVcr8c, `A urvc] o]
h]8tc8, Lollcclton o]Lcclurc8 0nd L880]8 (Ncw YOrk. L.
OuIIOn, l), p. l.
l . K. LAlLLOlS, "L00|ssymcIr|c, `Lohrcncc8 0vcnlurcu8c8, LO-
c0I|On l0ccs (lr|s. L0I|m0r0, l1J), p. Ib.
Cl0l0l C
1. Orwh0I 0On0crns Ihc 0OnIcnIOlIh|s0n0IhclOI IOw|ng 0h0pIcr,
8cc LLANSDORll0n0 l. RlGOGlNE, hcrmod]n0mtc hcoQ
o]lruclurc, l0btltly 0nd luclu0lton8 (Ncw YOrk. JOhn W|lcy
bOns, l1I ) 0n0L. NlCOL|80n0 l. RlGOGlNE,c(jry0n/0-
lton tn NonLgutltbrtum ]8lcm8 (Ncw YOrk. JOhn W|Icy
bOns, I 11), whcrc lurIh0rrclcrcn0cs m0y DclOun0.
. NlE1ZSCHE, cr Wtllc Zur M0chl, umlltchc Wcrkc (bIuII-
g0rI. Kmncr, l 4), 0phOr|sm J.
J. Wh|0hprc0|sc0OnIcnI00nDcg|VcnIOIhcgcncr0II0wOlcnIrOpy
grOwIb? Or 0IhcOrcI|0|0n pbys|0|sI su0h0s 0c OOnucr, 0hcm|-
00I00I|V|Iy, wh|0h0ppc0rc0 ODs0urc 0n0 |n000css|DIc IO Ihcr0-
I|On0I 0pprO00h Ol mc0h0n| 0s, w0s mysIcr|Ous cnOugh IO
Dc0Omc Ihc synOnym OlIhc |rrcVcrs|blc prO0css. Dus 0bcm|s-
| gnOrc0 0nymOrc. bcc h . Oc OOnucr, L` A]]tntl (0r| s
L0uIb|cr-V||I0rs, I )0n0l ns0gcrh]8. Hcv. J, 4(IJ I ).
4. M. bERRES, L0 n0t880ncc dc l0 ph]8tguc d0n8 lc lcxlc dc Lu-
crccc, op. ctl.
. Or mOrc 0cI0| I s 0On00rn|ng 0hcm|00 Os0| II 0I| Ons, scc A.
WlNlREE, "KOI0I|ngLbcm00I Kc00I|Ons, ccnl(}tc Amcr-
c0n, VOI . J (l14), pp. b-.
. A. LJLD0E1ER 0n0 L. NlCJL8, `7n AIIOsIcr|0MO0cI w|Ih
Hs|I|Vccc0D00kAppI|c0IOLIy0OIyI|0s0|II0I|Ons, `royrc8
tn hcorcltc0l Btoloy], VOI . 4 (I1),pp. ~I ,A.LOLD0E1ER
0n0 b. K. LALAN, "s0|II0IOry LnZymcs, `Annu0l Hcvtcu o]
Btoph]8c8 0nd Btocnytnccrtny, VOI . (I 1), pp. 44~1J..
7. b. HESS, A. bOl1EUX, 0n0 J. KR0GER, "LOOpcr0I|On Ol
LIy0OIyI|0 LnZymcs, `Adv0ncc8 tnLn]mc Hcyul0lton, VOI .
[l), pp. l4~1, scc 0IsO b. HESS, A. LOLD0E1ER, 0n0 K.
LElEVER, "cmpOr0, bp0I|00n0 un0I|On0Ir0cr|nKcgu-
0Ic0 b|O0hcm|00LcIIuI0rbysIcms, `Adv0ncc8 tn Lhcmtc0
h]8tc8, VOI . XXXVlll (I1b), pp. JJ-4l J.
. Fss lDo ICundofCn jmjCsum, NO1. 3l (l97S), j, 359.
A. L. LERESCH, "LcII Aggrcg0I|On 0n0 O|llcrcnI|0||On |n tc-
HcH U L| 3?
l]o8lcltum t8cotdcum, |n cvclopmcnl0l Btoloy], VO| . J
(I b), pp. I 1~I 1.
. A. LJLD0E1E00nU L. A. bEGEL, "\n||cU McCh0n|8mlOrKc-
|0y 0nU 8C| I I 0I|On Ol LyC| | C AM | n tcl]o8lcltum t8-
cotdcum, rocccdtny8 o] lhc N0lton0l Ac0dcm] o]ctcncc,
VO| . 14 ( | 11), pp. I 4J-41.
l. bcc M. LARDMER, hc Ambtdcxlrou8 Untvcr8c (Ncw YOk.
Lh0|c8 b0r|Dnc`8 bOn8, I 1).
. . K. KOMDEUDl0nu l. 0lGOGlME,h]8tc0, VO| . l1A( I 6l),
pp. l~4, L. K. KJMDEUDl , h]8tc0, VO| . l I A ( I b),
pp. ~. ll 0OuIu cVcn Dc Ih0l 0hcm|8Iry m0y Dr|ng lO lhc
m00rO80Op|0800IcIhc V|OI0I|On Ol p0|Iy |nwc0k lOr0c8, L. K.
KJMDEUDl 0nU L. W NELSOM, h]8tc0l Hcvtcu Lcllcr, VO| .
, NO. I 4( I bJ), pp. I ZJ-Z.
l. K. LElEVER 0nu W HJ0S1HEMKE, "MuII|pIc 1r0n8|I|On8 ln-
du0cu Dy L|ghl lnIcn8|Iy |u0lu0l|On8|n lIIum|n0Icu Lhcm|00|
by8Icm8, ` rocccdtny8 o] lhc N0lton0l Ac0dcm] o]ctcncc,
VO|. 1( I 1), pp. Z4-4. bcc 0I8O W HJ0S1HEMKE0nu M.
MALEK MAMSOUR, "lnucn0c O|LXIcrn0| NO|8c On NOncqu|-
||D|um h08c 1r0n8|I|On8,Zctl8chr(l ]r h]8tk B, VO| . 4
[11), pp. J1-I J , L. ARMOLD, W. HORS1HEMKE, 0nu K.
LElEVER, "Wh|lc0nu LOIOurcu LXIcn0| NO|8c0nu 10n8|I|On
hcnOmcn0|n NOnl|nc0by8Icm8, `Zctl8chr(}l]r h]8tk B,
VO| . Z(I 1b), pp. J1-1J, W HO0S1HEMKE, "NOncqu|I |br|um
10n8|I|On8 lnUuCcu Dy LXIcrn0I Wh|Ic 0nu LOlOucu NO|8c, `
)n0mtc8 o) )ncrcltc )8lcm8, cu. H. HAKEM(bcI | n:
bpr|ngc VcrI0g, I b), lOr0n0ppI|C0I|On lO0 D|OIOg|00I prOD-
|cm, K. LElEVE0 0nU W HO0S1HEMKE, "b|8I0b|I|Iy |n Iu0-
lu0I|ng LnV|rOnmcnI8. lmpl|C0I|On |n 1umOr mmunOIOgy,
Bullcltn o]M0lhcm0ltc Btoloy], VOI. 4I (I 1).
I J. H. L. bw!MMEY 0nU J. l JLLu0, "JbcJr0n8|I|On lO Jr-
DuIcn0c,` h]8tc8 od0], VOI . JI , NO.b (I 1b), pp. 4I-4.
I 4. M. J. EiGEM0AUM, '\n|Vcr80I Uch0V|O | n NOnI|nc0 by8-
lcm8,` Lo8 Al0mo8 ctcncc, NO I (bummcr Ib), pp. 4~Z1.
I . Jhc 0OnCcpI OlChrcOU |8 p0rI OlIhc qu0l|I0I|Vc Uc8Cr|pI|On Ol
cmDyOIOg|C0I UcVcIOpmcnIW0uu|ngIOn prOpO8cu mOc Ih0n
lwcnly yc08 0gO. lI |8 lruIy 0 D|lur00I|ng cVO|uI|On. 0 pO-
grc88|Vc cXpIOr0I|On 0IOng wh|Ch Ihc cmDryO grOw8 |n0n "cp|-
gcncI|0| nU800pc` whcc 0OcX|8I 8I0Dlc 8cgmcnI80nu8cgmcnI8
whcrc0 0hO|Cc0mOng 8cVcr0I UcVcIOpmcnI0I p0Ih8 |8 pO88|b|c.
bcc L. H. WADDlMG1OM, hc lr0lcy] o]lhc cnc (LOnuOn
AII cn \nw|n, I1). L. H. W0JU|ngIOn`8 0hrcOu8 0rc 0I8O 0
0cnIr0I rccrcnCc|n KcncJhOm`8b|OlO|C0lIhOubI.Jbc/could
8pc0IrumOl0OIIc0I|VcDch0V|Or8 Ihcy00ngcncr0Ic,0n01hOm`8,
8I0rI|ng lrOm gIOD0I m0Ihcm0I|00I cnI|I|c8 0n0 0Onnc0I|ng Ihc
Ihc phcnOmcnOIOg|00I 0c80r|pI|On Ol mOrphOgcnc8|8.
l. b. A. hAUFFMAN, K.%. bHYMKO, 0n0h. RABERT, "LOnIrOIOl
bcqucnI|0I LOmp0rImcnI Orm0I|On |n OrO8Oph|I0,` ctcncc,
VOI . l (l1b), pp. Z~.
l. H. ERG5ON, Lrc0ltvc Lvolulton, pp. 4-.
l . bccL. H. WADDINGTON, hc Lvolulton o]0n Lvolultont8I
(L0|nDurgh. L0|nDurgh Un|Vcr8|Iy rc88, l1) 0n0 WEI55,
"1hc L|V|ngby8Icm. OcIcrm|n|8mbIr0I|hc0, `Bc]ond Hcduc-
Itont8m, cu. A. hOE5TLER 0n0 J. K. bMYTHIE5 (LOn0On.
HuI0h|n8On, l).
l . O. L. hO5HLAND, ' MOdcI KcguI0IOry by8Icm. b00Icr|0I
LhcmOI0X|8,`h]8toloytc0l Hcvtcu, VOI. ,NO. 4,pp. bl l-Z.
Cl0,l0l C
. L. lCOLl5 0nu l. RlGOGlNE, c(jry0nt0lton tn Noncgutltb-
rtum ]8lcm8 (Ncw YOrk. JOhn W|Icy bOn8, l11).
Z. ARA5, L. PlCOL5, 0n0 %. %ALEK %AN5OUR, "bIO0h08I|0
1hcOryOlA0|0D0I|0 LXpIO8|On, `Journ0l o]l0lt8ltc0l h]8tc8,
VOI . JZ, NO. l ( l bJ), pp. l .
J. bcc,lOrcX0mpIc, %. %ALEK %AN5OUR, L. VAN DEN ROECK,
L. PlCOL5, 0n0J.W URNER, Ann0l8 o]h]8tc8, VOI . l Jl , NO.
Z (lbl ), p.ZbJ.
4. J. L. LENEUBOURG, `ppI |00I|OnucI`Orurc p0ru0Iu0I|On 8 l0
uc80r|pI|On 0c 0crI0|nc8 cI0pc8 0c I0 0On8Iru0I|On 0u n|0 0hc2
Ic8 Icrm|Ic8, ` n8cclc8 oct0ux, Journ0l nlcrn0tton0l pour
l ludc dc8 Arlhropodc8 8oct0ux, 1Omc Z4, NO. Z ( l 11),
pp. l l 1-J. 1h|8hr8ImO0cI |8 prc8cnIIyDc|ngcXIcn0cu |n0On-
nc0I|On w|Ih ncw cXpcr|mcnI0I 8Iu0|c8, . H. RUIN5MA, 'n
An0Iy8|8Olbu|I0|nyUch0V|OurOlIhc1crm|Icm0crotcrmc8 8ub-
h]0ltnu8, ` rocccdtny8 o]thc \H Lonyrc88 U (W0cgcn|n-
gcn, l11).
. K. LARAY 0n0 K. LEFEVER, ' K|ncI|0ApprO00h IO Ihc lm-
munOIOgy OlL0n0cr. bI0I|On0ry bI0Ic8 rOpcrI|c8 OlLllc0IOr-
10rgcI LcII Kc00I|On8,`Journ0l o]hcorcttc0l Btoloy], VOI . 1J
(lTb), pp. 4l1-Jb, 0n0 pr|V0Ic 0Ommun!00I|On.
. M. PLLEN, "O0rw|n|0n LVOIuI|On 0n0 0 rc00IOr-rcy L0OI-
Ogy, Bullcltn o] M0lhcm0ltc0l Btoloy], VOI . J1 ( l 1),

^>-4h 'VO1Ot OH HOgO1uIOH uHO IuD1Iy, 1rCCeed-

tny8 o]lhc N0lton0l Ac0dcm] o]ctcncc8, VOI. 1J,NO. J(l 1),
pp. -6. bcc 0I8O K. L2APLEW5KI, '7 McIhO0OIOgylOrLV0I-
HbH U | LHA d
u0ItOn OrcnI-MuI0nI LOmpcItItOn,`Joum0 ]or corclc0
Btoloy], VOI . 4 (11J), pp. 4-J.
1. bcc,lOrIhc prcscnIsI0IcOlIhts wOrk, M4 LlOEN 0n0 bCHUS-
TER, hc H]pcrc]clc (bcrItn. bprtngcrVcrI0g, l1).
5. K. MAYtnctcncc, VO. l b( l14),pp. 4-41,scc0sOK. mAY,
"btmpc M0Ihcm0It00 MO0cIs wtIh Vcry LOmpIt00Ic0 Oyn0m-
t 0s, `N0lurc, VO. l ( l 1), pp. 4~1.
. M. MASSELL, hc ]n0mtc8 tn Arlhropod rcd0lorrc] ]8-
lcm8 (rtn0cIOn, N. J. . rtn0cIOn Un|VcrstIy rcss, l15).
l. b. MElNRlCH, 'rIluI Otncrs, `N0lur0l Ht8loQ, VO. 5, NO. b
( l b), pp. 4-l , csp. quOIc, p. 4.
l l . M. LOVE, "hcAItcnbIr0Icgy,` N0lur0 Ht8loQ, VO. 5,NO. J
( lb), pp. J-J.
l . J. L. LENEUBOURO 0n0 M. PLLEN, "MOucIcs IhcOrtqucs 0c
l0dtVtstOn 0u Ir0V0t 0cs Ics sO0|cIcs0` tnsc0Ics, `Ac0dmtc
Ho]0lc Je Bclytguc, Bullcltn dc l0 Ll088c dc8 ctcncc8, Omc
LXll ( V7), pp. 4-ZV, M. PLLEN, "LVOIuI|On tn 0n L0O-
sysIcm wtIh L|mtIc0KcsOur0cs,`Op. 0tI. , pp. 4b~lJ.
. L. W MONTROLL, "bO0t0Oyn0mt0s0n0IhcQu0nItlytngOlbO-
0t0IOr0cs,`rocccdtny8 o]lhc N0lton0l Ac0dcm] o]ctcncc8,
VOI . 1, NO. l (l 1b), pp. 4JJ-J1.
l 4. M. PLLEN 0n0 M. bANOLlER, "Oyn0mt 0 MOdc OlUrb0n
LrOwIh, `Journ0l ]or oct0l 0nd Btoloytc0l lruclurc8, VO. l
( l 1b), pp. ZJ-@, 0n0 "UrD0nLVOIuItOn,bcIl-rg0ntZ0ItOn
0n0 Oc0tstOn-m0ktng,` Lnvtronmcnl 0nd l0nntny A, VOI. l J
(lbl ), pp. l 1~bJ.
l. L. H. WAOONG1ON, Iool8 )or houyhl, (bI. AID0ns, Lng. . l
00|n, l1), p. b.
l. b. J. LOULD, nloycn] 0nd h]loycn], Op. 0|I. bckn0p rcs8
H0rV0r0 UmVcrstIy rcss, lV11.
l1. L. LEVlbTRAUSS, "McIhO0cscIcnsctgncmcnI, `Anlhropoloyc
8lruclur0lc (0rIs. IOn), pp. J l l~l1.
l5. bcc,lOrtnsI0n0c, L. L. U5SET, hc Lonccpl o]Lgutltbrtum tn
Amcrtc0n oct0l houyhl (Ncw H0Vcn,LOnn.. Y0c UntVcrstIy
rcss, l).
l. b. J. LOULD, "hc bcIIOl0n AsIcrO|0, `N0lur0 Ht8loQ, VOl.
5, NO. l ( lb), p. -JJ.
Cl0,l0' /
1. A. N. HlTEHEAD, ctcncc 0nd lhc Modcrn World, p. l 5.
. The Fhilosoph) o/ RuJo(] Carnap, cd. HA. 5CuLP.P (Lam-
Dr|ugc. L0mDr|0gc Un|Vcrs|Iy rcss, lJ).
J. !. RASER,1hcrtn0|pIcOl1cmpOr0LcVc8.Ar0mcwOrklOf
Ihc O|0Oguc7 0Ommun|00I|On 0I Ihc 0Onlcrcn0c ctcnlgc
Lonccpl8 o]tmc tn Hum0nt8ltc 0nd oct0l cr8pccltvc8 (bcI-
0g|O, JuIy lbl ).
1. bccOnIh|8pO|nI b. bRUSH,l0lt8ltc0l h]8tC8 0nd rrcvcr8tblc
rocc88c8, c8p. pp. l-Z.
3. cucrh08r0Ihcr0OnV|n0|ngy8hOwnhOwIhc0uIur0I0OnIcXIOl
bOhr`8 yOuIh0Ouu h0Vc hcIpcu h|8uc0|8|On IO IOOk lOr 0 nOn-
mc0h0n|8I|0mOucOlIhc 0IOm,Ltn8lctn 0nd lhc cncr0lton o]
ctcncc (Ncw YOrk. b08|0 bOOk8, l14). bcc 0I8O W HElSEN-
BERG, h]8tc8 0nd Bc]ond (Ncw YOrk. H0rpcr KOw, l 1l )
0nu O. bERwER, "Unmc0h0n|80hcr Zw0ng. 0u|, Hc|8cnDcrg
0nu Ihc Kc)c0I|OnOlIhc Mc0h0n|00AIOm lZJ-I Z, `Ht8lor-
tc0l ludtc8 tn lhc h]8tc0l ctcncc8, VOI . b( I 11), pp. l b-Z.
. ln Bl0ckBod] hcor) 0nd lhc @u0nlum t8conltnutl], 1
J (XlOru. L0rcnuOn rc88 0nu Ncw YOrk. XlOru Un|Vcr-
8|Iy rc88, l 1b), 1hOm08 Kuhn h08 Dc0uI|luIIy 8hOwn hOw
0IO8cIyI0n0klOIOwcubOII2m0nn`8 8I0I|8I|00IIrc0ImcnIOl|rrc-
Vcr8|D|I|Iy |n h|8Own wOrk.
. J. MEHRA0nu H. KECHEN0ERG, hc Ht8lortc0l cvclopmcnl o]
@u0nlum hcoQ, VO8. l-4(NcwYOrk. bpr|ngcrVcrI0g, I bZ).
. bcc, 0DOuI Ihc 0On0cpIu0 lr0mcwOrk OlIhc cXpcr|mcnI0 Ic8I8
rc0cnIy0On0c|VculOrh|uucnV0r|0DIc8 |nqu0nIummc0h0n|08,
b. D` L8AGNA1, Lonccplu0l ound0lton8 o]@u0nlum Mcch0n-
tc8, Znu 0ug. cu. (Kc0u|ng,M088. . bcn)0m|n, I 1). bcc0I8O b.
D` L8AGNA1, "1hc Qu0nIum1hcOry 0nu Kc0I|Iy,` ctcnlgc
Amcrtc0n, VOI. Z4l ( l1), pp. I Zb-4.
. bcc,lOrIhc0OmpIcmcnI0r|Iy pr|n0|pIc, b. D`L8AGNA1, Op. 0|I . ,
M. JAMMER, hc htlo8oph] o] @u0nlum Mcch0ntc8 (Ncw
YOrk. JOhn W|cy bOn8, l14), 0nu A. E1ERSEN, @u0nlum
Mcch0ntc8 0nd lhc htlo8ophtc0l r0dttton (L0mbr|ugc, M088. :
Ml1 rc88, l b). L. LEORGE 0nu l. RlGOGlNE, "LOhcrcn0c
0nu K0nuOmnc88 |n Qu0nIum 1hcOry, h]8tc0, VOI . A
( l 1), pp.J-bZ.
l. L. KJ8ENlELD, "1hcMc08ur|ng rO0c88|nQu0nIumMc0h0n-
t08, `upplcmcnl o]lhc royrc88 o]hcorcltc0l h]8tc8 ,(l),
p. ZZZ.
l l. ADOuIIhc qu0nIum mc0h0n|08 p0r0uOXc8, wh|0h 00nIruIy Dc
80|u IO Dc Ihc n|ghIm0rc8 OlIhc 0I088|00 m|nu, 8|n0c Ihcy 0I
(b0hru|ngcr`8 00I, W|gncr`8 lr|cnu, muII|pIc un|Vcr8c8) 00I IO
|n Ihc gu|8cOlb0hru|ngcr`8 cqu0I|On), 8cc IhcDOOk8Dyu`L8-
p0n0I 0nu J0mmcr.
l Z. . MlSRA, l. RlGOGlNE,0nuM. LOUR0AE, "Ly0pOunOVV0rt-
0DIc, LnIrOpy 0n0 Mc08urcmcnl |n Qu0nIum Mc0h0n|08,"ro
cccdtny o]lhc N0lton0 Ac0dcm] q ctcncc, VOI . 1 ( l1),
pp. 41b~411. RlGOGlNE 0n0 L. LEORGE, "1hc bc0Ond
L0w 08 0 bcIc0I|On r|n0|pIc. 1hc M|0rO80Op|0 1hcOryOlO|8-
8|p0I|VcrO0c88c8 |n Qu0nIumby8Icm8, `IO0ppc0r|nrocccd-
tny o] lhc N0lton0 Ac0dcm] o] ctcncc. VOI b ( l bJ)
l J. H. MlNKOwSKl, "bp00c0n01|mc, `hc rtnctpc o]Hc0lvtly
(Ncw YOrk. OOVcr uDI|00I|On8, lJ).
l4. A. O. bAKHAROV, tm0 Zh. Lkp. cor. t., VOl. J, NO. J
( l W1).
C0Ql0' O
l . L. N. LEwlS, "1hc bymmcIry M 1|mc |n hy8|08, ` ctcncc,
VOI . 1 I ( I J), p. 1.
. A. S. LDDlNG1ON, hc N0lurc o] lhc hytc0 Word (Ncw
YOrk. M00m|II0n, l4@), p. 14.
J. M. LARDNER, hc Ambtdcxlrou Untvcrc: Mtrror A]mmclQ
0nd tmc-Hcvcrcd Word (NcwYOrk.Lh0rIc8b0r|Dncr`8bOn8,
l1), p. 4J.
4. M. LANCK, Hc0ltc on hcrmod]n0mtc (Ncw YOrk. OOVcr
uDI|00I|On8, I 4), p. l.
. QuOIc Dy K. OEN8tGH, "HOwbuD]c0I|Vcl8LnIrOpy7`Lhcmt-
l tn Brtl0tn, VOI. I 1( l V@l ), QQ. l@-@.
. bcc, lOr |n8I0n0c, M. KAC, rob0btltl] 0nd Hc0lcd optc tn
h]tc0 ctcncc (LOn0On. lnIcr80|cn0c uDI|00I|On8, l).
. !. W. Ll88S,Lcmcnl0r] rtnc|pc tn l0ltltc0 Mcch0ntc
(Ncw YOrk. OOVcr uDI|00I|On8, l), Lh0p. Xl.
. Or |n8I0n0c, b. W0I0n0Dc |nIrO0u0c8 0 8IrOng 0|8I|n0I|On Dc-
lwccn lhc wOrI0 IODc 0OnIcmpI0Ir00n0IhcwOrI0upOnwh|0h
wc, 0800I|Vc 0gcnI8,wOrk,hc 8I0Ic8 lhcrc | 8nO0On8|8Icnlw0y
M 8pc0k|ng0DOuIcnIrOpy |n0rc08c|l|l|8 nOI |n 0Onnc0I|Onw|Ih
Our00I|On8 On I0c wOrI0. HOwcVcr, 0II Our phy8|08 | 8 |nl00l
0DOuIlhcwOrI0IODc00Ic0On,0n0 W0I0n0Dc`80|8I|n0I|OnIhu8
m|n|8I|0 8ymmcIry` 0n0 "m00rO80Op|0 prOD0D|I|8l|0 08ymmc-
lry. 1hc quc8I|On | 8 Icll w|IhOuI 0n 0n8wcr. HOw 00n wc
mc0n|ngluIIy 80y Ih0I Ihc 8un |8 | rrcVcl8|DIyDurn|ng7bcc b.
WA1ANA8E, "1|mc 0n0 Ihc rOD0D|I|8I|0 V|cw Ol Ihc WOrI0, "
hc Votcc o)tmc, c0. J. tRASER (Ncw YOrk. Ur0Z|IIcr, l).
. M0xwcII`8 0cmOn 0ppc0r8 |n J. L. mAWELL. heor o1He0l
(LOn0On. LOngm0n8, l b1 I ), Lh0p. XXI , 8cc 0|8O L. OAU8,
"M8Xwc`8 OcmOn`8nd MElMANN, "MOc0u0rOr0c8, bI-
lt8It0 Kcprc8cnI0ItOn 0nd M0Xwc|`8 OcmOn,` DOIh |n ludtc8
tn Ht8l0Q und htl080phy 0]ctcncc, VO. l ( l 1),Ih|8VOumc
t8 cnI|rcy dcVOIcd IO M0Xwc.
l. L. OLTZMANN, 0pul0rc chrt]lcn, ncwcd. (br0un80hwc|g-
Wtc8D0dcn Vtcwcg, l 1). A8 L| k0n0cmph08|2c8 |n "bOI2-
m0nn`8 b0tcnI|h0 Kc8c0r0h rOgr0m 0nd lI8 A|Icrn0I|Vc8,` n-
lcruclt0n Bcl wccn ctcncc und htl080phy ( AI 0nI t 0,
H|gh|0nd8,N.J. Hum0n|Itc8rc88, l14),IhcO0rwtn|0n|dc0M
cVOuItOn t8 cXp |0|IycXprc88cd mO8Iy |n bOI2m0nn`8 V|cw
DOuI 80|cnI|h0 knOwcdgcIh0I|8,|n h|8 dclcn8cOlmc0h0n|8-
lt0 mOdc80g0tn8IcncrgcIt0t8I8. bcc, lOr|n8I0n0c,h|8 lbb c0-
lurc "1hc bc0Ond L0w Ol1hcrmOdyn0m|08, hc0rcltcul
hy8tc8 und htl080phtcul r0blcm8, cd. b.%CLUlNNESS (OOr-
dD0hI, NcIhcr0nd8 O. Kc|dc , l14).
11. Or rc0cnI 000OunI 8cc . RlOOlNE, tr0m Bctny l0 Bcc0m-
tny-tmc und L0mplcxtly tn lhc hy8tcul ctcncc8 (b0n r0n-
0t80O W H. rccm0n LOmp0ny, lb).
l. n ht8ctcnlgc Aul0bt0yruphy, 0n0k dc80r|Dc8 h|80h0ng|ng
D0ItOn8h|p w|Ih bOI2m0nn (whO w08 hr8I hO8I|c IO Ihc phc-
tDc 0nd t rrcVcr8|Dc prO0c88c8). bcc 0 8O On Ih| 8 pO|nI Y.
LLKANA, Op. 0|I . , 0nd b. bRUSH, lult8ltcul hy8tc8 und rrc-
rcr8tblc r0cc88c8, pp. 4~ l , lOrL|n8Ic|n,Op. 0tI. , pp. 1Z14,
lOr b0hrd|ngcr, L. bCHRODlNOER, ctcncc, hc0Q und Mun
(Ncw YOrk: OOVcr uDI|00I|On8, l1).
l 3. H. OlNCAR, "L0mc00n|quccII` cXpcr|cn0c, `Hcvuc dc Mlu-
phy8tguc cl dc M0rulc, VO . l ( l b3), pp. J4-31. H. OlNCAR,
Lc0n8 dc hcrm0dynumtguc, cd. J. bOnd|n ( l bZ, 0r|8 Hcr-
m0nn lZ3).
l4. bcclOr08IudyOlIhc0OnIrOVcr8|c80rOundbOII2m0nn`8cnIrOpy,
8cc On Ih|8 pO|nIb. bRUSH, hc Ktnd 0]M0lt0n Wc Lull Hcul,
Op. 0|I . , 0nd 0n0k`8 rcm0rk8 |nh|8D|Ogr0phy(LO80hmtdIw08
0n0k`8 8IudcnI).
l . . RlOOOlNE, L. LEOROE, MENlN, 0nd L. OSENFELD, `
Un|l|cd Ormu0I |On Ol Oyn0m|08 0nd 1hcrmOdyn0mt08,
Lhcmtcu crtplu, VO . 4 (113), pp. ~3.
l b. O. ARK, hc muyc 0]Llcrntly: H00l8 0]tmc tn lhc hy8tcul
W0rld (Amhcr8l, M088. LntVcr8tly OlM8800hu8cII8 rc88,
1. bcc 08O On Iht8 pO|nI b. RUSH, hc Ktnd 0]M0lt0n Wc Lull
Hrul-bOOk , hy8tc8 und lhc Al0mt8l8; bOOk ll, lult8ltcul
h]SCS nnd rreverSDe rDCeSSeS (PmslftUam: WOtlh MOlland
uDl|8h|ngLOmp0ny, l1),08wc08h|80OmmcnIcd0nIhOIOgy,
Ktncltc hcoQ: VO. , hc N0lurc o]0c 0nd Hc0l, VO . ,
rrcvcrblc roccc (XlOru. c|g0mOnrc88, l0nulW).
l 5. J. . Ll88S, Llcmcnl0r] rtnctplc tn l0ltltc0l Mcch0ntc8
(NcwYOrk. OOVcr uDI|00I|On8, lM), Lh0p Xl. Or0n h|8IOf-
t00 000OunI, 8cc J. %EHRA, "L|n8Ic|n 0nu Ihc Ounu0I|On Ol
bI0I|8I|00I Mc0h0n|08, h]tc0, VOI. 1A, NO. ( l14), p. l1.
. M0nyM0rX|8In0Iurcph|IO8Ophcr88ccmIOI0kc|n8p|r0l|OnlrOm
LngcI8(quOIcuDy Lcn|n|n h|8htloophtc Nolcbook) whcnhc
wrOIc |nAnlthrtny (MO80Ow. Orc|gn L0ngu0gc8 ub|8h|ng
HOu8c, l4), p. l 1, "MOI|On |8 0 0OnIr0u|0I|On. cVcn 8|mpIc
mc0h0n|000h0ngcOl0pO8|I|On 00nOny0Omc0DOulIhmughd
DOuy Dc|ng 0I Onc 0nu Ihc 80mc mOmcnI Ol I|mc DOIh |n Onc
pI00c0nu |n 0nOIhcr pI00c, Dc|ng |nOnc0nuIhc 80mcp00c0nd
0I8O nOI |n |I. Anu Ihc 0OnI|nuOu80nu 8|muII0ncOu8 8OIuI|On Ol
Ih|8 0OnIr0u|0I|On |8 prc0|8cIy wh0I mOI|On |8. `
. L. OLTZMANN, Lcclurc on 0 hcoQ (bcrkcIcy. Un|Vcr8tly
Ol L0I|lOrn|0 rc88, I 4), p. 44l, quOIcu |n K. CPPER, Un-
cndcd @ucl (L0 b0IIc, l . . pcn LOurI uDI|8h|ng LOmp0ny,
l1), p. I .
l . tOPPER, Op. 0|l. , p. l N.
Cl0,l0l U
l . YOLTAlRE, tcltonn0trc htloophtguc. (r|8. L0rn|cf, l4.)
. bcc nOIc, Lh0pIcrN1.
J. K. OPPER, "1hc ArrOw Ol1|mc, N0lurc, VO . l 1T ( l ),
p. J5.
4. bcc M. LARDNER, hc Ambtdcxlrou Untvcrc, pp. Z1l~1.
3. A. LlNSTElN 0nu W lTZ, h]. Zch., VO. l (lW), p. JJ.
. H. OlNCAR, Lc mlhodc nouvcllc dc I0 mc0ntguc clc8lc
(Ncw YOrk. OOVcr uDI|00I|On8, l 1), E. T. HlTTAKER,
rc0ltc on lhc An0l]ltc0l ]n0mtc o]0rltclc 0nd Htytd
Bodtc (L0mDr|ugc. L0mDr|ugc Un|Vcr8|Iy rc88, l ).
T. J. %OSER, l0blc 0nd H0ndom Molton tn ]n0mtc0 ]lcm8
(r|n0cIOn, N.J. . r|n0cIOn Un|Vcr8|Iy rc88, l14).
. Or0 gcncr0 rcV|cw, 8ccJ. LE8Owl1Z 0nu L. ENROSE, "MOd-
crn LrgOu|01hcOry,` h]tc od0] (cD. l 1J), pp. J~.
. Or 0 mOrc ucI0|Icu 8Iuuy, 8cc . ALESCU, Lgutltbrtum 0nd
NonLgutltbrtum l0ltltc0l Mcch0ntc (Ncw YOrk. JOhn Wtcy
bOn8, l 1).
l. V. PRNOLD anu A. PVEZ, ErpoJic Froblems o]Clussicu Mc-
ch0ntc (Ncw YOrk. bcn]0m|n, lb).
333 NL
l . H. OlNCAR, "Lc H0s0rd, `ccncc cl Mlh0dc (r|s 0m-
m0r|On, ll4), p. .
lZ. . %lSRA, l. RlOOOlNE 0ndM.LOURBAOE, "rOmOcIcrm|n|s-
l|0 Oyn0m|0slO rOD0D||sI|0 Ocs0r|pI|Ons,`hy8tcu, VO . bA
( l1), pp. l~Z.
3. O. N. ARKS 0nd N. J. HRlF, tmc8, pucc8 und lucc8: A
Lhr0n0yc0yruphtc cr8pccltrc (NcwYOrk.JOhnW|cy bOns,
4. M. LOURBAOE 0nd l . RlOOlNE, "lnIr|ns|0 K0ndOmncss 0nd
lnIr|ns|0 lrrcVcrs|D||Iy |n L0ss|00 Oyn0m|00 bysIcms, ` r0-
cccdtny8 0]lhc Nult0nul Acudcmy 0]ctcncc8, J (Apr| lb3).
l . l. RlOOlNE 0ndL. LEOROE, "1hcbc0OndL0w0s0bcc0I|On
r|n0|pc 1hc M|0rOs0Op|01hcOry OO|ss|p0I|Vc rO0csscs | n
Qu0nIum bysIcms, ` r0cccdtny8 0] lhc Nult0nul Acudcmy q
ctcncc8, VO. b (l b3), pp. 4M-44.
l. Y. DABOKOV, L00k ul lhc Hurlcgutn8! (M0Lr0w-H| l14).
l 1. J. DEEDHAM, "b0|cn0c 0nd bO0|cIy |n L0sI 0nd Wcsl,` hc
rund tlrult0n (LOndOn. Acn Unw|n, lW).
l b. bcc lOr mOrc dcI0|s . %lSRA, l . RlOOOlNE 0nd %. LOUR-
BAOE, "rOm dcIcrm|n|sI|0 Oyn0m|0s IO prOD0D||sI|0 Ds0r|p-
l|On`, hy8tcu bA (l 1) l-Z. , . %lSRA 0nd l. RlOOlNE
"1|mc, rOD0D||Iy 0nd Oyn0m|0s`, |nL0nyltmc rcdtclt0n tn
ynumtc8, cds. L. W. HOrIOn, L. L. Kc0| h 0nd A. L.
b2cDchcy, (Ncw YOrk, W|cy lb3).
l. l. RlOOlNE, L. LEOROE, MENlN, 0nd L. OSENFELD, '
Un|l|cd Ormu0I|On OlOyn0m|0s 0nd 1hcrmOdyn0m|0s, `
Lhcmtcu crtplu, VO . 4 ( l 13), pp. -3Z.
Z. M. LOURBAOE "lnIr|ns|0 |rrcVcrs|D|l|Iy OKOmOgOrOV dyn0m-
|00 sysIcms,`hy8tcu lb3, U. M|sr00nd l. r|gOg|nc,Lcllcr8
tn Mulhcmultcul hy8tc8, bcpIcmDcr lb3.
L0C d30
l . A. b. LDDlNOTON, hc Nulurc 0] lhc hy8tcul W0rld (Ncw
YOrk. M00m|0n, l 4b).
Z. L. LVY-RUHL, Lu Mcnlultl rtmtl (r|s. U lZZ).
J. L. %lLLS, Humlcl'8 Lu8llc (AusI|n. Un|Vcrs|Iy O1cX0s rcss,
4. K. AOORE, "1hc N0IurcOlKc0|Iy` (L00uII0. M0dcrn Hcrtcw
XLlX, 13 l ), pp. 4Z-43.
. O. b. bOTHARl , 0mc h0uyhl8 0n rulh (Ncw Dh|. Ann|Vcr-
suty POOtess, HOuH WuOHu CeHCe PCuOeny, MuhuOOt huh
Z0l0r M0rg, l 1), p. .
HLH | L|A 3
. E. %EYERSON, dcnltly 0nd Hc0ltly (NcwYOrk OOVcruDt00-
ItOn8, l Z).
7. Oc80rtDcd tn H. EROSON, Ml0ngc8 (0rt8 Ul l 1Z),
pp. l 34-.
. L0rrc8p0ndcncc, Albcrl Ltn8lctnMtchclc Bc880, JJ-JJ
(rt8 Hcrm0n, l1Z).
V. N. lENER, Lybcrncltc8 (L0mDrt0gc, M088. . M. l. 1 rc880nd
Ncw YOrk JOhn WtIcy bOn8, ll ).
l. %. %ERLEAU~ONTY, "Lc phtlO8Ophc cI l08O0tOOgtc,`
dc l0 htl080phtc, LOIc0ItOnldcc8 (0rt8 L0IItm0rd, l ),
pp. l3~37.
l l . %. %ERLEAU-ONTY, H8um8 dc L0ur8 JJ-0J (0rt8 L0-
tm0rd, lb), p. l l.
lZ. YALRY, L0htcr8, L0Ict0dc(0rt8. L0IItm0rd, l13),p. l33.
l3. Or wh0I lOIIOw8 8cc 08O l. RlOOOlNE, l. bTENOERS, 0n0 b.
AHAUT, "L0dyn0mtqucdcLctDnt28 Lu0rc0c,`Lrtltguc "bpc-
0t0I bcrrc8, ` VOI . 3 (J0n. lT), pp. 34-. LngI. Ir0n8. : y-
n0mtc8 ]r0m Lctbnt l0 Lucrcltu8, ` AIcrwOr0 IO M. bERRES,
Hcrmc8: Ltlcr0lurc, ctcncc, htl080phy (b0IItmOrc: JOhn8
HOpktn8 UntV. r. , lbZ), pp. l 31~.
l4. L. b. ElRCE, hc M0nt8l VOI. Z ( l bZ), pp. 3Zl ~331.
l. A. N. HlTEHEAD, r0cc88 0nd Hc0ltly, pp. Z4-l . n Iht8
8uD)c0I, 8cc l. LECLERC, Whtlchc0d8 Mcl0phy8tc8 (bIOOm-
tngIOn ln0t0n0 UntVcr8tIy rc88, l1).
l. L0 n0t880ncc dc l0 phy8tguc d0n8 lc lcxlc dc Lucrcc, p. l 3.
l1. LUCRETlUS, c N0lur0 Hcrum, bOOk ll. 'g0tn, tl0II mOVc-
mcnIt8 0Iw0y8 tnIcr0Onnc0Ic0, Ihc ncw0rt8tnglrOmIhcOI0 tn 0
dcIcrmtn0IcOrdcrtlIhc 0IOm8 ncVcr8wcrVc 8O08IOOrtgtn0Ic
8Omc ncw mOVcmcRI Ih0I wtII 8n0p Ihc DOnd8 Oll0Ic, Ihc cVcr-
I08Itng 8cqucn0c Ol00u8c 0nd cc0I-wh0I t8Ihc 8Our0c OIhc
lrcc wtII pO88c88cd DyItVtngIhtng8 IhrOughOuI Ihcc0rIh?`
lb. M. bERRES, Op. 0tI. , p. lJ.
l. M. bERRES, Op. 0tI. , p. l Z , 0I8Opp.b~b0nd "KOum0tncI
0uIkncr Ir0dut8cnI I`
0rtIurc, ` L0 lr0duclt0n (rt8 MtnutI,
Z. b. %OSCOVlCl , H0mmc8 d0mc8ltguc8 cl h0mmc8 80ur0gc8,
pp. Z1~b.
Zl . 1 UHN, hc lruclurc 0]ctcnlgc Hcr0lult0n8, ndcd. tn0r
(Lht00gO Lht00gO UntVcr8tIy rc88, l1).
. bcc A. N. HlTEHEAD, r0cc88 0nd Hc0ltly, Op. 0tI. 0nd M.
MElDEOOER ctn und Zctl (1uDtngcn Ntcmcycr l11).
3. H. EYL, htl080phy 0]M0lhcm0ltc8 0nd N0lur0l ctcncc
|Mtn0cIOn, N.J.: rtn0cIOn UntVcr8tIy rc88, l 4).
4. A. DEHER, "Vt8tOn du Icmp8 cI dc I ` ht8IOtrc d0n8 l0 0uIIurc
]utVc,` Lc8 cullurc8 cl lc lcmp8 (rt8 yOI, l 1), p. l1.
| `L
NOIc. gcnumDcr8g|Vcn|nboldlace|n0|00IcIO00I|OnOl0chn|I|On8
Or 0|80u88|On8OlIcrm8Or0On0cpI8 |n0cXc0 hcrc.
A00cIcr0l|On, b7bV
Amn|Iy, Z, I J
Ay0tn8l lhc Lurrcnl (bcrI|n), Z
Ag088|2, LOu|8, I
AI0hcmy, , 0mn|Iy |n, l J,
Lh|nc8c, Z1b
AIcmbcrI, Jc0n Lc KOn0 0` , Z,
O|0crOI 0n0, b-bZ,
OppO8|I|On IO NcwlOn|0n
80|cn0c Ol, Z, J, ,
Ambidcxlrou8 Univcr8e, he
(L0r0ncr), ZJ4
AmOcD08, I -
Ampcrc, An0rc M0r|c, 1, 1
An0X0gOr08, Z4
Anl|rc0u0I|On|8l8, I 1J-14
Ar0h|mc0c8, J, 4I , J4
Ar|8IOIIc, J, 4, 1 I , b, I 1J,
J, J, On0h0ngc, 2,
nOl|On Ol8p00c Ol, I 1I ,
phy8|08 Ol, J~4I , 0n0
IhcOIOgy, 4~
ArrOw Ol I|mc, XX, XXV||, b, l,
bOII2m0nn On, ZJ~, 0nd
cIcmcnI0ry p0rI|0|c8, Zbb,
0n0cnIrOpy, l I ,Z1~,0nd
hc0I cng|nc8, I l l~I , L0y2cr
On, XXV, mc0n|ng Ol, b,
0n0 prOD0D|Ily, ZJb-J; IOcS
pI0ycd by, Jl
AIOm|8I8, J, J, 0On0cpI|On Ol

Changc Ol, Z, J; On
IurDu|cn0c, I 4l
AIIr00lOr, I Z I , l JJ, l4, lZ
b00h, J. b., J1
b00hcI0r0, L08IOn, JZn
b00Icr|0I 0hcmOl0X|8, I 1
b0kcr Ir0n8lOrm0l|On, ZbV,
Z1Z-1, Z1b-1, ZbJ, Zb
bc|ng 0n0 bc0Om|ng, J I
bclOusOV-Zh0bOl|nky rc00I|On,
I I -J, I b
bcn0r0 n8t0bIty, I 4Z~44,
Ir0n8|l|On IO 0h0O8 |n, I 1-5
bcrg8On, Hcnr|, I, 1, b,
-4, , I Z, I 1J~14,
JI ~Z, On0yn0m|08, N,On
I|mc, Z I4, Z4
bcr||n, l80|0h, Z, I I , I J, b
bcrnOu|||, O0n|cI, bZ
bcrry, b. , I 1
bcrIhOI|cI, LI0u0c LOu|8,
LOmIc, J In
bc88O, M|0hcIc, Z4
b|lur00I|On8, XV, l~l , l 1,
Z1, 008000|ng, I 1~1, |n
cVOIuI|On, l 1I ~1Z,
Hu0Iu0I|On80n0, I 11, lb, |n
IcaCOn-Uu5On 5y5cmS,
Z, rOIc Ol0h0n0c |n, XXVl,
l1, I 1, 8O0|0|, JI J, 0nd
b|lur00I|Ons ( c0nld)
sI0I|sI|00I mO0cI , Z-,
IhcOry Ol, l 4
b|g b0ng, XXV|| , Zbb, 0n0 0rrOw
OlI|mc, XXV, Z
b|OIOgy, Z, I, 00I0I ysIs |n,
l 33-34, 0hcm|00I rc00I|Ons
tn, l 3l -3Z, "0Ommun|00I|On`
0mOng mOIc0uIcs |n, I 3,
0On0cpIs lrOm phys|0s
0ppI|c0 IO, Z1, 0n0
0OnVcrs|On, I b, cVOIuI|On
0n0, I Z, I Zb, IOg|sI|0
cqu0I|On |n, I 3-,
mOlc0uI0r, 8cc MOIc0uI0r
D|OIOgy, rc0u0I|On|sI-
0nI|rc0u0I|On|sI 0OnlI|0I | n,
l 14, Ic0hnOI Og|00I 0n0IOg|cs
| n, l 14~1, I|mc |n, I I ,
Wh|Ichc00 On,
b|r0hO, Z
bl0kc, W|llt0m, 3
bOcrh0Vc, Hcrm0nn, I
bOhr, N|cIs, Z, 14, ZZ, ZZ4-Z,
ZZb, ZZ, ZZ-3
bOII2m0nn, Luuw|g, XV||, l,
I , l ZZ-Z1, ZI , ZZ1, Z34-3,
Zb, Z, Z14, Zb-b1, Z1,
JZn, JJ l n, 0nd 0rrOw Ol
I|mc, Z3-, On crgOU|0
sysIcms, Z, On cVOIuI|On
IOw0r0 cqu|l|br|um, Z4~43,
Ob]c0I|Ons IOIhcOr|cs Ol,
Z43-4, 0nd IbcOry Ol
cnscmbIcs, Z4b, Z
bOII2m0nn`s 0OnsI0nI, l Z4
bOII2m0nn`s Or0cr pr|n0|pIc,
1~5, l4Z, I 43, I , l3,
l b1
bOr0c0, 3ZI n
bOrn, M0X, ZZ, Z3
bOun00ry 0On0|I|Ons, 1M,
I Z-ZI , l Z, l Z, I 3b-3,
l 4Z, l41, I I
br0u0cI, XV|||, X|X
br|0gm0nn, l W, 3 ln
IllOUH, 2l
brOgI|c, LOu|s 0c, ZZ
brunO, L|Or00nO, l
bruns, 1Z, Z
brusscI0IOr, I 4, l 4b, l l , I Z,
"brusscIs s0hOO| , ` XV
bu0h00hI , Lcr0, 3 I n
bullOn, LcOrgcs lOu|s Lc0Icr0
0c, LOmIc, -1, 3 I n
buIIs,1hOm0s, 3
L0|IIO|s, KOgcr, l Zb
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