You are on page 1of 25

Safe Food Handling Procedures

Page Topic
2 PURCHASING AND RECEIVING
3 DRY STORAGE
4 REFRIGERATED STORAGE
5 FROZEN STORAGE
5 PREPARATION – Thawing
6 PREPARATION !i"#$%%an$&'"
6 PREPARATION – !$a(") Fi"h) an* P&'%(+,
- PREPARATION – Sa%a*" C&n(aining P&($n(ia%%, Ha.a+*&'" Ing+$*i$n("
- PREPARATION – Egg" an* Egg !i/('+$"
- PREPARATION – 0a(($+ an* 0+$a*ing
1 PREPARATION – F+'i(" an* V$g$(a2%$"
1 PREPARATION I#$
3 COO4ING
3 SERVING
3 5EFTOVERS AND ADVANCE PREPARATION
67 Ta2%$ 68 C+i($+ia 9&+ A##$:(ing &+ R$;$#(ing a F&&* D$%i<$+,
62 Ta2%$ 28 D$%i<$+, V$hi#%$ C+i($+ia
63 Ta2%$ 38 S(&+ag$ G'i*$%in$" 9&+ S:$#i9i# F&&*"
65 Ta2%$ 48 C&==$+#ia%%, Pa#>ag$* P&($n(ia%%, Ha.a+*&'" F&&* an* (h$ Th+$$ Da, R'%$
66 Ta2%$ 58 !ini='= Sa9$ In($+na% C&&>ing T$=:$+a('+$"
6- Ta2%$ 68 !ini='= Sa9$ In($+na% R$h$a(ing T$=:$+a('+$"
61 Ta2%$ -8 F&&*" E/$=:( 9+&= (h$ 0', A=$+i#an R'%$
63 Han*&'( 68 C+i($+ia 9&+ A##$:(ing an* R$;$#(ing F&&* 9+&= a F&&* D+i<$
26 Han*&'( 28 P&($n(ia%%, Ha.a+*&'" F&&*"
23 Han*&'( 38 Ca%i2+a(ing 0i=$(a%%i# Th$+=&=$($+"
24 Han*&'( 48 !$a"'+ing F&&* T$=:$+a('+$"
Description: The standards presented in this section are based on the 2005 Food Code. Safe food handling procedures address the
safe handling of food from purchasing to service. Standards that address facilities, equipment, cleaning, sanitizing, pest control, and
workers are outlined in Section ! "rerequisite "rograms.
#evised $%20%0& 'S (( Safe )ood 'andling *
PURCHASING AND RECEIING !"NIT"RING
FRE#UENC$
+ll food is from an approved source. This includes food purchased directl, from a licensed%permitted food establishment,
such as a grocer, store or a wholesale food supplier, or commerciall, processed foods that and received during a
food drive. -hole, uncut fresh produce .fruits and vegetables/ can be from an, source. +nnual
0eliver, vehicles are clean and operating at temperatures outlined in Table 2! 0eliver, 1ehicle 2riteria on page *2. 0ail,
+ll food from a )ood 0rive must be inspected before storing using the criteria in 'andout *! 2riteria for +ccepting and
#e3ecting )ood from a )ood 0rive found at the end of this section. +ll food items that do not meet this criteria must be
properl, discarded. NOTE: Child Nutrition Services at the NC Department of Public Instruction has the right to disallo
the receipt and use of donated foods in the operation if the operation does not follo the acceptance criteria outlined in
!andout "# +s needed
)ood is inspected within *0 minutes of deliver, using the criteria outlined in Table *! 2riteria for +ccepting or #e3ecting
a )ood 0eliver, on page *0. )ood that is re3ected is segregated from all other items until returned to the vendor.
+s needed 4
note on invoice
The temperature of refrigerated and cooked foods is taken within ten minutes of deliver, using the guidelines outlined in
Table *! 2riteria for +ccepting or #e3ecting a )ood 0eliver, on page *0. )rozen foods are checked to be sure the, are
rock solid and no watermarks appear on the packaging. )ood that is not at proper temperature is segregated from all other
items until returned to the vendor.
+s needed 4
note on invoice
#evised $%20%0& 'S (( Safe )ood 'andling 2
DR$ ST"RAGE !"NIT"RING
FRE#UENC$
)ood is stored using the criteria in Table 5! Storage 6uidelines for Specific )oods on page *5. 7onthl,
USDA commodities 4 if food is taken out of the cases, label in permanent black marker each individual can%containers
with the pack date that appears on the case .month%,ear/ or label with the receipt date .month%,ear/ if no pack date is
available.
Commercially packaged food (( label in permanent black marker with date received .month%,ear/ in a conspicuous
location on the package. NOTE: Food from a food drive must be mar$ed ith the date that it as inspected# 7onthl,
The first in, first out .)8)9/ procedure is used for all dr, food storage. 7onthl,
+ll food is stored on clean shelving that is at least : inches off the floor. 7onthl,
The temperature.s/ of the dr, storage area.s/ is between 50
o
) .*0
o
2/ and ;0
o
) .2*
o
2/ and is clean, dr,, and well(
ventilated. 7onthl,
)ood that is removed from its original packaging is stored in durable, food(grade containers that are not e<posed to direct
sunlight. 7onthl,
2leaning supplies and other chemicals are completel, separated from all food, dishes, utensils, linens, and single(use
items. 7onthl,
=on(food supplies and chemicals are in their original containers. 8f not in the original container, the holding container is
clearl, labeled on the side with the name of the contents. 0o not label the lid because lids are interchangeable. NOTE:
Some chemical suppliers provide labels that can be used instead of handritten labels# 7onthl,
#evised $%20%0& 'S (( Safe )ood 'andling 5
REFRIGERATED ST"RAGE !"NIT"RING
FRE#UENC$
)ood is stored to allow for good air circulation. Shelves are not lined with foil or other materials. 7onthl,
+ll food that is not stored in its original packaging is covered and labeled with the amount and date .2>+0/. "roper food
covering is a food(grade lid, plastic wrap, or aluminum foil. 7onthl,
+ refrigerator thermometer is on the top shelf near the door of the refrigerator. The temperature of the refrigerator is at
5&?) .
o
2/ or colder. The temperature of all potentiall, hazardous food must be at *
o
) .5
o
2/ or colder. The definition
and e<amples of potentiall, hazardous food are in 'andout 2! "otentiall, 'azardous )oods on page 2*. 0ail,
CCP -- Cooked and ready-to-eat foods are stored above raw foods in the refrigerator in tightly closed containers.
Foods are stored in this order:
• Prepared or ready-to-eat food (top shelf)
• Fish, seafood items, eggs
• hole c!ts of raw beef and pork
• "ro!nd or processed meats
• #aw and gro!nd po!ltry (bottom shelf)
$aily
CCP % Containers of commercially processed potentially ha&ardo!s foods that are opened in the operation are stored
for no more than three days from the day of preparation at '(°F ()
o
C). *he container lid or wrapping is clearly
marked with the date that the item was opened. *he only e+ceptions to this are listed in *able ': Commercially
Packaged Potentially ,a&ardo!s Foods and the *hree $ay #!le on page ().
$aily
#evised $%20%0& 'S (( Safe )ood 'andling
FR"%EN ST"RAGE !"NIT"RING
FRE#UENC$
+ll foods that are not in their original packaging are covered and labeled with the amount and date .2>+0/. 7onthl,
)reezers are defrosted according to manufacturer instructions. NOTE: %anufacturer instructions should be available for
all e&uipment# 7onthl,
+ freezer thermometer is placed near the front of the freezer on the top shelf. The temperature is 0
o
) .(*$
o
2/ or colder
unless the food requires a different storage temperature. 0ail,
PREPARATI"N && T'a(ing !"NIT"RING
FRE#UENC$
9ne of the following methods is used to thaw frozen foods that are potentiall, hazardous!
• 8n a refrigerator that is at *°) .5
o
2/ or colder. Thaw raw meats, raw poultr,, and raw fish on the lowest shelf.
• @nder safe running water that is at ;0
o
) .2*
o
2/ or colder. 8f using this method, the food must be prepared within four
hours.
• 0uring the cooking process.
• 8n a microwave oven immediatel, followed b, cooking.
+s needed 4
note on
production sheet
under .*2/
"otentiall, hazardous food that is held above *°) .5
o
2/ for more than four hours is thrown out.
+s needed 4
note on
production sheet
under .*2/
#evised $%20%0& 'S (( Safe )ood 'andling 5
PREPARATI"N ) !iscellaneous !"NIT"RING
FRE#UENC$
Standardized recipes or standardized procedures are used to prepare all menu items. 0ail,
2leaned and sanitized work areas, cutting boards, knives, and utensils are used to prepare food. 0ail,
Aefore opening, all lids of cans and 3ars are wiped with a clean wet cloth that has been immersed in a properl, prepared
sanitizing solution. 0o not use soap, water to wipe cans and 3ars. +s needed
CCP -- -o bare hand-contact with any e+posed cooked or ready-to-eat foods. $aily
PREPARATI"N ) !eat* Fis'* and Poultr+ !"NIT"RING
FRE#UENC$
Separate knives, utensils, and cutting boards are used to prepare raw meats, fish, and poultr,. +s needed
9nl, remove as much food as can be prepared within 50 minutes from the refrigerator%freezer. .Preparation is defined as
cutting' slicing' dicing' breading' or battering# This ()*minute time frame does not include the time needed for coo$ing#+ +s needed
7eats, fish, and poultr, are refrigerated or frozen within *0 minutes after cutting, slicing, dicing, breading, or battering. +s needed
#evised $%20%0& 'S (( Safe )ood 'andling :
PREPARATI"N ) Salads Containing Potentiall+ Ha,ardous Ingredients !"NIT"RING
FRE#UENC$
CCP -- #aw meat, fish, and po!ltry are properly cooked and cooled before adding them to a salad. $aily
CCP -- .ll ingredients, incl!ding those that are not potentially ha&ardo!s, are properly cooled to '(
o
F ()
o
C) or colder
!ntil they are ready to be mi+ed. .ll containers and !tensils are chilled before !sing them to make salad. $aily
9nl, remove as much potentiall, hazardous food as can be prepared within 50 minutes from the refrigerator%freezer.
Preparation is defined as cutting' slicing' dicing' and peeling# +s needed
PREPARATI"N ) Eggs and Egg !i-tures !"NIT"RING
FRE#UENC$
"asteurized shell eggs or pasteurized liquid eggs are used to make egg mi<tures and egg(based batters. "ooling shell eggs
is not allowed. Shell eggs can onl, be used for preparation of single(service items, such as eggs over eas, or a single(
serving of scrambled eggs. +s needed
PREPARATI"N ) .atter and .reading !"NIT"RING
FRE#UENC$
9nl, batter or bread as much potentiall, hazardous food as can be prepared within 50 minutes. +s needed
-hen breading food that will be cooked at a later time, refrigerate or freeze within 50 minutes after breading or battering. +s needed
@nused batter or breading is thrown out after it has been in the temperature danger zone (( *
o
) .5
o
2/ to *55
o
) .:0
o
2/ ((
for four hours or longer.
+s needed 4 on
production plan
"asteurized shell eggs or pasteurized liquid eggs are used to make batter.
+s needed 4 on
production plan
#evised $%20%0& 'S (( Safe )ood 'andling ;
PREPARATI"N ) Fruits and egeta/les !"NIT"RING
FRE#UENC$
Separate cutting boards, knives, and utensils are used to prepare fruits and vegetables. Preparation is defined as cutting'
slicing' chopping' mincing' dicing' and,or peeling# 7onthl,
)ruits and vegetables are washed thoroughl, under safe running water before cutting, cooking, or combining with other
ingredients. Soap and%or sanitizing solution is never used to wash the surface of fruits and vegetables. 7onthl,
+ll prepared fruits and vegetables are stored in the refrigerator at *
o
) .5
o
2/ or colder. 7onthl,
PREPARATI"N ) Ice !"NIT"RING
FRE#UENC$
Safe drinking water is used to make ice. +nnual
8ce that was used to chill food or beverages is never used as a food ingredient. 7onthl,
+ cleaned and sanitized container.s/ and ice scoop.s/ is used to dispense ice unless an automatic ice dispenser is available. 7onthl,
#evised $%20%0& 'S (( Safe )ood 'andling $
C""0ING !"NIT"RING
FRE#UENC$
Standardized recipes or standardized preparation procedures are used to prepare all menu items. 0ail,
CCP -- .ll potentially ha&ardo!s foods are cooked to temperat!res o!tlined in *able ): /inim!m 0afe 1nternal
Cooking *emperat!res on page (2. $aily
2ooking is completed no more than 20 minutes prior to beginning service .e<ceptions are soups and chili/B then batch
cooked as needed throughout the serving period as needed to reduce holding times of food to no more than 20 minutes. 0ail,
SERING !"NIT"RING
FRE#UENC$
CCP -- .ll potentially ha&ardo!s hot foods are at (3)°F (24
o
C) or hotter before service. $aily
CCP -- .ll potentially ha&ardo!s cold foods are at '(°F ()
o
C) or colder before service. $aily
CCP -- Potentially ha&ardo!s foods that is in the temperat!re danger &one -- '(°F ()
o
C) to (3)°F (24
o
C) -- for more
than fo!r ho!rs is discarded.
$aily
>ong(handled serving utensils are used for serving and are stored in the food. 0ail,
1EFT"ERS AND ADANCE PREPARATI"N !"NIT"RING
FRE#UENC$
+ll leftover foods are thrown out after each meal. 0ail,
=o advance preparation of potentiall, hazardous foods is not allowed. =9TC! "otentiall, hazardous foods that can be
cooked, cooled, and served the same da, are allowed. C<amples include! potato salad and macaroni salad. =%+
#evised $%20%0& 'S (( Safe )ood 'andling &
Ta/le 2: Criteria for Accepting or Re3ecting a Food Deli4er+
F""D Criteria to Accept Deli4er+
7eat and "oultr, *
o
) .5
o
2/ or colder.
Stamped with @S0+ inspection stamp.
6ood color and no odor.
"ackaging clean and in good condition and no signs of tampering and%or counterfeiting.
Seafood *
o
) .5
o
2/ or colder.
6ood color and no off(odors.
"ackaging clean and in good condition and no signs of tampering and%or counterfeiting.
)resh produce 2lean and good condition and no signs of tampering and%or counterfeiting.
8f produce is cut or processed, it is at *
o
) or colder.
0air, "roducts *
o
) .5
o
2/ or colder.
"ackaging clean and in good condition and no signs of tampering and%or counterfeiting.
+ll products are pasteurized.
Cggs Shell eggs at 5
o
) .;
o
2/ or colderB liquid eggs at *
o
) .5
o
2/ or colder.
Shell eggs (( clean and uncrackedB frozen, and dr, eggs 4 pasteurized.
"ackaging clean and in good condition and no signs of tampering and%or counterfeiting.
#efrigerated and frozen
processed food
*
o
) .5
o
2/ or colderB if frozen, the product is rock solid.
"ackaging clean and in good condition and no signs of tampering and%or counterfeiting.
7+" 8f the product requires refrigeration, it is at *
o
) .5
o
2/ or colder.
"ackaging clean and in good condition and no signs of tampering and%or counterfeiting.
>abels can be read and attached to the product.
2anned food =o swollen ends, leaks, rust, or dents.
>abel can be read and is attached to the product.
=o signs of tampering and%or counterfeiting.
#evised $%20%0& 'S (( Safe )ood 'andling *0
0r, foods "ackaging clean and in good condition and no signs of tampering and%or counterfeiting.
=o signs of pest infestation.
@'T "ackaging clean and in good condition and no signs of tampering and%or counterfeiting.
8f product requires refrigeration, it is at *
o
) .5
o
2/ or colder.
>abel is attached and can be read.
Aaked 6oods "ackaging clean and in good condition and no signs of tampering and%or counterfeiting.
"roducts are not mold,.
"otentiall, 'azardous
'ot )oods
Temperature at *55
o
) .:0
o
2/ or hotter.
'olding containers are clean and in good condition and no signs of tampering and%or counterfeiting.
#evised $%20%0& 'S (( Safe )ood 'andling **
Ta/le 5: Deli4er+ e'icle Criteria
T$PE "F F""D .EING TRANSP"RTED TE!PERATURE
#efrigerated foods *
o
) .5
o
2/ or colder
)rozen foods 0
o
) .(*$
o
2/ or colder
'ot foods that are "otentiall, 'azardous *55
o
) .:0
o
2/ or hotter
#evised $%20%0& 'S (( Safe )ood 'andling *2
Ta/le 6: Storage Guidelines for Specific Foods
Food Te7perature "t'er Re8uire7ents
7eat *
o
) .5
o
2/ Tightl, wrap or place it in a deep container.
"oultr, *
o
) .5
o
2/
Store ice(packed poultr, in self(draining containers. 2hange ice often and sanitize the
container regularl,.
)ish *
o
) .5
o
2/
Tightl, wrap or store in original packaging.
Aefore shipping, fish served raw or partiall, cooked must be frozen b, the processor to
(
o
) .(20
o
2/ or colder for seven da,s in a storage freezer or (5*
o
)
.(55
o
2/ or colder for fifteen hours in a blast freezer.
Shellfish Store alive at 5
o
) .;
o
2/
Store alive in the original container
Store clams, o,sters, mussels, and scallops in a displa, tank if the tank has a sign
stating that the shellfish are for displa, onl, or if a variance is obtained from the local
health department.
Deep shellstock tags on file for &0 da,s from the date the last shellfish was used.
Shell eggs *
o
) .5
o
2/ @se within (5 weeks of the packing date.
0air, *
o
) .5
o
2/ 0iscard if past the use(b, or e<piration date.
8ce cream and
frozen ,ogurt :
o
)(*0
o
) .(*
o
2(*2
o
2/ 0iscard if past the use(b, or e<piration date.
#evised $%20%0& 'S (( Safe )ood 'andling *5
Food Te7perature "t'er Re8uire7ents
)resh produce Temperature varies 8f delivered packed on ice, store that wa,.
7+", vacuum
packed, and
sous vide
packaged food *
o
) .5
o
2/ 0iscard if past the use use(b, or e<piration date.
@'T products,
asepticall,
packaged
50
o
)(;0
o
)
.*0
o
2(2*
o
2/
9nce opened, store all @'T at *
o
) .5
o
2/ or colder. #ead the label to determine if the
product needs to be refrigerated.
@'T products
not asepticall,
packaged *
o
) .5
o
2/ Store above raw foods. #ead the label to determine if the product needs to be refrigerated.
2anned%dr,
food
50
o
)(;0
o
)
.*0
o
2(2*
o
2/ 8f removed from its original packaging, store in airtight, clearl, labeled containers.
#evised $%20%0& 'S (( Safe )ood 'andling *
Ta/le 9: Co77erciall+ Pac:aged Potentiall+ Ha,ardous Foods and t'e T'ree Da+ Rule
Food Group Foods t'at can /e sa4ed for 7ore t'an t'ree da+s
a* /
2heese Alue, Arick, 2heddar, 2olb,, 7ontere,, 7uenster, and "armesan
2ultured 0air, "roducts Eogurt, sour cream, and buttermilk
7eats "epperoni, countr, cured ham
a
This is a list of foods that are commonl, used in the 2hild =utrition "rogram. 8f ,ou have a specific question about a food that is not on this list, please
contact ,our regional 2hild =utrition Specialist.
b
These foods can be refrigerated for more than three da,s after opening. 'owever, the, must be used before the date that is stamped on the package.
#evised $%20%0& 'S (( Safe )ood 'andling *5
Ta/le ;: !ini7u7 Safe Internal Coo:ing Te7peratures
Food !ini7u7 internal te7perature
"oultr, *:5
o
) .;
o
2/
Stuffing and stuffed meat *:5
o
) .;
o
2/
0ishes that include potentiall, hazardous ingredients *:5
o
) .;
o
2/
6round meats .including beef, pork, and other meat or fish/
*55
o
) .:$
o
2/
8n3ected meats .including brined ham and flavor(in3ected roasts/ *55
o
) .:$
o
2/
"ork, beef, veal, and lamb
*5
o
) .:5
o
2/ for steaks%chops
*55
o
) .:$
o
2/ for roasts
)ish, whole or fillets
Stuffed fish .or stuffing containing fish/
6round, chopped, or minced fish
*5
o
) .:5
o
2/
*:5
o
) .;
o
2/
*55
o
).:$
o
2/
Shell eggs for immediate service
Shell eggs that will be hot(held
*5
o
) .:5
o
2/
*55
o
) .:$
o
2/
)ruits or vegetables that will be hot(held *55
o
2ommerciall, processed, read,(to(eat food that will be hot(held *55
o
"otentiall, hazardous food cooked in a microwave oven *:5
o
) .;
o
2/
#evised $%20%0& 'S (( Safe )ood 'andling *:
Ta/le <: !ini7u7 Safe Internal Re'eating Te7peratures
Food Te7perature and Ti7e Ti7e to Reac' Te7perature
2ommerciall, processed food that will be hot(held *55
o
) .:0
o
2/ for *5 seconds 2 hours
"otentiall, hazardous food that has been properl,
cooked and cooled *:5
o
) .;
o
2/ for *5 seconds 2 hours
)ood that is reheated for immediate service. These
are foods that begin cold' are reheated &uic$l-' and
then served to the customer# +n, temperature =%+
#evised $%20%0& 'S (( Safe )ood 'andling *;
Ta/le =: Foods E-e7pt fro7 t'e .u+ A7erican Rule
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
Aananas
Aeef e<tract
Aeef, corned, canned
Arazil nuts
2apers
2ashew nuts
2aster beans and oil
2hestnuts
2hile
2ocoa beans
2oconut or coconut meat
2offee
7andarin oranges
9live oil
9lives, green
"ineapples
Spices and herbs in bulk
Sugars, raw
Tapioca flour
Tea, in bulk
Th,me oil
1anilla beans
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF
#evised $%20%0& 'S (( Safe )ood 'andling *$
Handout 2: Criteria for Accepting or Re3ecting Foods fro7 a Food Dri4e
Some t,pes of foods can be received as long as the, are inspected and in good condition. =ever accept prepared, perishable
foods, other than prepared, perishable foods packaged in a grocer, store and never displa,ed to the public.
The decision about whether or not to accept food from a food drive depends on a number of factors. )our categories have been
established to help site managers determine the relative risks associated with various t,pes of food and to provide guidance on what
precautions must be taken. The four categories are!
G 2ategor, *! =on(perishable foods
G 2ategor, 2! >ow hazard perishable foods
G 2ategor, 5! "otentiall, hazardous foods
G 2ategor, ! 'igh risk foods
Category Definition Examples Precautions
Non-perishable foods 0o not require refrigeration • canned or bottled products
• dr, goods, such as flour,
sugar, pasta
• breads or pastries .without
cream fillings/
• "roperl, training individuals
who are responsible for
sorting and identif,ing cans
or 3ars that ma, not be safe
for consumption.
• Aulk packages that require
breaking down into smaller
quantities or repackaging
must be accompanied with
proper labeling using safe
food handling practices.
• 'ome canned foods must be
re3ected because of the risk
for botulism poisoning.
o! ha"ard perishable foods Sometimes require refrigeration #aw fruits and vegetables

• "artiall, spoiled produce
must be discarded.
• Store sliced fruits and
vegetables at *?) or colder.
#evised $%20%0& 'S (( Safe )ood 'andling *&
• @npasteurized 3uices must be
boiled before drinking.
• -ash all raw fruits and
vegetable thoroughl, before
use.
Potentially ha"ardous foods #equire refrigeration • dair, products (( cream and
cream products, ice cream,
frozen desserts, and ,ogurt
• eggs and egg products
• tofu products
• meat and meat products that
come from a commercial
processor or retailer
• 0air, products must be
pasteurized, held at less than
*?) or frozen 0?), and
distributed in their original
unopened containers.
• 7eat and meat products must
be held at less than *?) or
frozen to 0?) and distributed
in their original unopened
packages.
• 7eat and poultr, ma, onl,
be donated from an approved
source, properl, dressed, and
at proper temperatures upon
receipt.
• Cggs and egg products must
be refrigerated. 1isibl,
cracked eggs must be
discarded.
#igh risk foods )oods from this categor,
cannot be accepted and used.
• unpasteurized dair, products
• home(canned foods
• uninspected wild game
• products that are not
identifiable
• prepared, perishable foods
2annot be certain of the source
or prior handling practices so
these foods cannot be accepted
or used.
#evised $%20%0& 'S (( Safe )ood 'andling 20
from a home or foodservice
establishment.
#evised $%20%0& 'S (( Safe )ood 'andling 2*
Handout 5: Potentiall+ Ha,ardous Foods
+ll food can cause foodborne illness so all food must be handled safel, from the time it is received until the time it is served.
"otentiall, hazardous foods are those that can support the growth of bacteria. To control for bacterial growth, one needs to!
• cook foods to proper temperatures
• keep foods hot .*55
o
) or hotter/
• keep foods cold .*
o
) or colder/, and
• minimize time in the temperature danger zone
The Food Code, the basis of the =2 School '+22" "lan, identifies potentiall, hazardous foods as raw or cooked animal foods .meat,
fish, poultr,, dair,, eggs/B heat treated plant foods .cooked vegetables, baked potatoes, te<turized vegetable protein/B cut melonB
garlic(in(oil that has not been acidifiedB and raw bean sprouts.
AN$%A &''DS
#aw meat, fish, poultr,, and unpasteurized shell eggs must be cooked to proper endpoint cooking temperatures before serving. +ll
commerciall, processed meat, fish, poultr,, egg products, which are often labeled H)ull, cookedH/ need to be cooked to *55
o
) or
hotter before serving. 7ilk must be stored at *
o
) or colder.
&(U$)S
)ruits (( e<cept for figs and melons (( are not potentiall, hazardous because of their low p'. )igs and melons onl, become potentiall,
hazardous after the, are cut or in the case of figs, when the, are heated. 8n summar,, whole fruits are not potentiall, hazardousB
cooked fruits are not potentiall, hazardous, e<cept for figs .potentiall, hazardous/. 9nl, cut melons and cut figs are potentiall,
hazardous.
=on(potentiall, hazardous fruits do not need to be refrigerated for safet,. The, are refrigerated to e<tend their shelf(life. "otentiall,
hazardous fruits (( cut melons and cut or cooked figs (( must be refrigerated for safet,. 8t figs are cooked, the, must be cooked to
*55
0
) and held at *55
o
) and if leftover, properl, cooled, labeled, and used within three da,s. 8f not used within three da,s, the, must
be discarded.
*E+E)A,ES
1egetables are not potentiall, hazardous until the, are heated and then hot(held. 8n =orth 2arolina schools all cooked vegetables are
potentiall, hazardous because the, are heated and then placed on a hot serving line. +ll cooked vegetables must be heated to *55
o
) or
hotter and held at *55
o
) or hotter. 8f leftover, the, must be properl, cooled, labeled, and reheated within three da,s. 8f not used
within three da,s, the, must be thrown out.
#evised $%20%0& 'S (( Safe )ood 'andling 22
)omatoes- 2ut tomatoes will support the growth of Salmonella as demonstrated with the recent outbreaks. -hole tomatoes do not
need to be received or stored at refrigeration temperatures but once cut the, must be kept at *
o
) or colder. Tomatoes that are cooked
are potentiall, hazardous and so must be cooked to *55
o
) or hotter and held at *55
o
) or hotter. 8f tomatoes that come out of a can are
cooked for hot(holding, the, must be cooked to *55
o
) or hotter. 8f tomatoes out of a can are not cooked and mi<ed with other non(
potentiall, hazardous foods, then the, are not potentiall, hazardous.
ettuce and Spinach- =either lettuce nor spinach are potentiall, hazardous until the, are heated. The outbreaks during the past ,ear
were due to the presence of E# coli 0*5;!'; on the outside of the spinach due to environmental contamination. =either food will
support the growth of pathogens even though a pathogen might be present due to contamination. +lso, for the case of packaged lettuce
or spinach, if the bag states that the produce is washed and read, to use, no further washing is required. Therefore, fresh lettuce and
fresh spinach do not need to be kept at *
o
) or colder. 2ooked spinach must be cooked to *55
o
) or hotter and then held at *55
o
) or
hotter.
')#E( PAN) &''DS
Aaked potatoes, sweet potatoes, cooked rice, cooked pinto beans, other cooked beans, and te<turized so, protein are also classified as
potentiall, hazardous. These foods must be cooked to *55
o
) or hotter and held at *55
o
) or hotter. 8f leftover, the, must be properl,
cooled down, labeled, and reheated within three da,s. 8f not used within three da,s, the, must be thrown out.
Peanut ,utter- "eanut butter is not a potentiall, hazardous food because of its low water activit,. Therefore, peanut butter and 3ell,
sandwiches do not need to be refrigerated.
+arlic-in-oil- 7ost =orth 2arolina schools are not using garlic(in(oil as an ingredient. 'owever, if ,ou should use garlic(in(oil,
purchase commerciall, processed product that lists acid as an ingredient.
(a! bean sprouts- 9nl, purchased bean sprouts from an approved supplier. -hen received, store them at *
o
) or colder.
#evised $%20%0& 'S (( Safe )ood 'andling 25
Handout 6: Cali/rating T'er7o7eters ) In&House
+ccurate temperature readings are critical to the success of a '+22" "lan. Therefore, all thermometers, including those that are used
to measure food temperatures and those that are used to measure air temperature, must be calibrated on a scheduled basis to determine
how accurate the thermometer is reading temperatures. 2alibration is the process of verif,ing the accurac, of a thermometer.
Calibrating &ood )hermometers .,imetallic or %etal-stem )hermometers/
#ead the manufacturer instructions to determine how to calibrate ,our thermometers. Some t,pes must be returned to the
manufacturer to be calibrated. 2alibrate all food thermometers at least once a da, or ever, time it is dropped.
Two accepted methods for calibration are the boiling(point method and ice(point method. Aoth are described below.
5oiling-point method (*his method can only be !sed if yo!r elevation is (,444 feet or less. 1f yo! do not know yo!r elevation, it is
best to check the acc!racy of yo!r thermometers !sing the ice-point method.)
*. Aoil clean tap water in a deep pot.
2. "ut the thermometer stem or probe into the boiling water so the sensing area is completel, submerged.
5. -ait 50 seconds or until the indicator stops moving.
. 8f the temperature is at 2*2
o
) .*00
o
2/ then remove the thermometer. 8t is read, for use.
5. 8f the temperature is not at 2*2
o
) .*00
o
2/, hold the calibration nut securel, with a wrench or other tool and rotate the head of
the thermometer until it reads 2*2I) .*00
o
2/ or the appropriate boiling(point temperature for ,our elevation.
1ce-point method
*. )ill a large container with crushed ice. +dd clean tap water until the container is full.
2. "ut the thermometer stem or probe into the ice water so the sensing area is completel, submerged. -ait 50 seconds or until
the indicator stops moving.
5. 8f the temperature is at 52
o
) .0
o
2/, remove the thermometer. 8t is read, for use.
. 8f the temperature is not at 52
o
) .0
o
2/, then hold the calibration nut securel, with a wrench or other tool and rotate the head of
the thermometer until it reads 52I) .0
o
2/.
#evised $%20%0& 'S (( Safe )ood 'andling 2
Handout 9: !easuring Food Te7peratures
Temperature readings will onl, be correct if the thermometer is placed in the proper location in the food. 8f not inserted
correctl,, or placed in the wrong area, the reading on the food thermometer will not accuratel, reflect the internal temperature of the
food. 8n general, place the food thermometer in the thickest part of the food, awa, from bone, fat, or gristle.
Aefore using a food thermometer, read the manufacturerJs instructions. The instructions should tell how far the thermometer
must be inserted in a food to give an accurate reading. 8f instructions are not available, check the stem of the food thermometer for an
indentation, or Hdimple.H This shows one end of the location of the sensing device. 0ial thermometers must be inserted about 2 to 5
inches into the food. )or most digital thermometers, one onl, needs to a small area of the tip to get an accurate reading. 2lean and
sanitize the stem of ,our thermometer before use.
0here to Place the )hermometer
%eat# -hen taking the temperature of beef, pork, or lamb roasts, place the food thermometer midwa, in the roast, awa, from
the bone. -hen cooking hamburgers, steaks, or chops, insert a thermistor or thermocouple in the thickest part of the meat, awa, from
bone, fat, or gristle. 8f using a bimetallic stemmed thermometer, see HThin foodsH below. -hen cooking irregularl, shaped food, such
as a beef roast, check the temperature in several places.
Poultr-# -hen cooking whole poultr,, the food thermometer should be inserted into the thickest part of the thigh .avoiding the bone/.
8f the poultr, is stuffed, the center of the stuffing should be checked after the thigh reads *$0?) .$2
o
2/, stuffing must reach *:5?)
.;
o
2/. 8f cooking poultr, parts, insert food thermometer into the thickest area, avoiding the bone. The food thermometer ma, be
inserted sidewa,s if necessar,. -hen the food is irregularl, shaped, the temperature should be checked in several places.
Thin foods# -hen measuring the temperature of a thin food, such as a hamburger patt,, pork chop, or chicken breast, use a thermistor
or thermocouple food thermometer if possible. 'owever, if an Hinstant(readH dial bimetallic(coil food thermometer is used, the probe
must be inserted into the side of the food so that entire sensing area .usuall, 2(5 inches/ is positioned through the center of the food.
To avoid burning fingers, it ma, be helpful to remove the food from the heat source .if cooking on a grill or in a fr,ing pan/ and insert
the food thermometer sidewa,s after placing the item on a clean spatula or plate.
Combination dishes# )or casseroles and other combination dishes, place the food thermometer into the thickest portion of the food or
the center of the dish. Cgg dishes and dishes containing ground meat and poultr, should be checked in several places.
#evised $%20%0& 'S (( Safe )ood 'andling 25