Toward a more comprehensive analysis of Philippine politics: beyond

the patron-client, factional framework
by Benedict J. Tria Kerkvliet,
Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 26.2 (1995)
Document !"# $tt%#&&'ind.(ale('*+content,et-./01
T$irty year2 a(o, a t$eory o' ;$ili%%ine %olitic2 emer(ed t$at until no< remain2 t$e mo2t
in'luential amon( academic2 and i2 <idely ado%ted by =ournali2t2, di%lomat2 and ot$er
ob2erver2 o' t$e ;$ili%%ine2. .t2 ar(ument, in brie', i2 t$at ;$ili%%ine %olitic2 revolve2 around
inter%er2onal relation2$i%2>e2%ecially 'amilial and %atron1client one2>and 'action2
com%o2ed o' %er2onal alliance2. . re'er to t$i2 a2 t$e %atron1client, 'actional 'rame<ork (%c',
'or 2$ort). .t de2erve2 to be in'luential? a'ter all, %atron1client and ot$er %er2onal relation2
are indeed 2i(ni'icant in ;$ili%%ine %olitical li'e. T$e2e are al2o im%ortant 'eature2 in many
ot$er countrie2? $ence, t$e %c' 'rame<ork develo%ed 'or ;$ili%%ine 2tudie2 $a2 contributed
a2 <ell to com%arative %olitical 2tudie2.
/ 2eriou2 %roblem <it$ t$e 'rame<ork, $o<ever, i2 t$at it leave2 out and ob2cure2 a (reat
deal about ;$ili%%ine %olitic2. @oreover, t$e 'rame<ork i2 2o routinely u2ed by 2c$olar2 and
ot$er ob2erver2 t$at it $a2 become rei'ied to t$e %oint t$at it it2el' $a2 almo2t become
;$ili%%ine %olitic2, rat$er t$an bein( a u2e'ul %er2%ective or inter%retation 'or makin( 2en2e
o' a2%ect2 o' %olitical li'e. T<o ot$er inter%retation2 o' ;$ili%%ine %olitic2, <$ic$ . re'er to a2
de%endency and elite democracy, brin( in 'eature2 o' t$e countryA2 %olitical li'e t$at %c'
mi22e2. Bet t$ey too omit muc$ t$at i2 vital, and t$ey 2$are <it$ t$e 'rame<ork an
em%$a2i2 on %er2onal and %atron1client relation2.
@y central ob=ection i2 t$at t$e %c' 'rame<ork minimiCe2, even di2mi22e2 value2 and idea2,
ba2e2 'or or(aniCation and coo%eration, and cleava(e2 and 'riction2 e)ce%t t$o2e o' a
%er2onal, 'amilial, %atron1client nature. Becau2e ot$er value2, idea2, or(aniCation2, and
con'lict2 are mar(inaliCed and deemed unim%ortant, ;$ili%%ine %olitic2 and it2 2ociety and
culture (enerally are %ortrayed in a overly 2im%li2tic, unte)tured manner. /nd Dili%ino2 'or
<$om ot$er dimen2ion2 do in 'act matter are 2imilarly reduced to mere caricature2 o' t$eir
'uller, more com%licated 2elve2. T$e main %oint . <ant to make i2 t$at t$e dominant, %c'
'rame<ork i2 inadeEuate, a2 are t$e available alternative2. /'ter elaboratin( <$at %c' i2 and
<$at alternative2 add, .All look at election2><$ere %c' i2 2u%%o2ed to be mo2t a%%licable>
t$en at a 'e< ot$er realm2 in t$e %olitical land2ca%e# %olitician2, %olitical movement2, and
everyday %olitic2.
Patron-client Relations and Factions
@ary Folln2teiner, <$ile tryin( to make 2en2e o' election2 and related %olitical event2 in a
munici%ality in "uCon %rovince, came to 'ocu2 on 'amily, kin2$i%, and %atron1client relation2,
<$ic$ <ere t$e element2 in rival 'action2 and cliEue2.(1) 0arl "ande, <$ile tryin( to 'i(ure
out t$e %olitical %arty 2y2tem in t$e ;$ili%%ine2, arrived at t$e 2ame relation2$i%2 <it$in
;$ili%%ine 2ociety#
Gt$e ;$ili%%ine %olityG i2 2tructured le22 by or(aniCed intere2t (rou%2 or by
individual2 <$o in %olitic2 t$ink o' t$em2elve2 a2 member2 o' cate(orie2, i.e.,
o' di2tinctive 2ocial cla22e2 or occu%ation2, t$an by a net<ork o' mutual aid
relation2$i%2 bet<een %air2 o' individual2 (HdyadicH tie2G ). To a lar(e e)tent
t$e dyadic tie2 <it$ 2i(ni'icance 'or ;$ili%%ine %olitic2 are vertical one2, i.e.,
bond2 bet<een %ro2%erou2 %atron2 and t$eir %oor and de%endent client2.(2)
;atron1client relation2, kin2$i% net<ork2, ot$er %er2onal 'ollo<in(2, t$en, are ba2ic unit2
<it$in %olitical activity and or(aniCation2. T$ey, in turn, com%o2e H'action2H, t$e ot$er
im%ortant buildin( block in %olitical or(aniCation2, be(innin( at t$e local level. Ty%ically, a
local 'action
Gi2 a loo2e combination o' a number o'G 'amily con2tellation2 <it$ a rat$er
lar(e and %ro2%erou2 'amily con2tellation at it2 core and 2maller or le22
%ro2%erou2 one2 at it2 %eri%$ery. Iit$in eac$ 'amily con2tellation a 2tron(
<eb o' kin2$i% tie2 bind2 related 'amilie2 to(et$er into a co$e2ive (rou%.
Bet<een t$e allied con2tellation2 o' a 'action, a 2maller number o' dyadic tie2
>more commonly tie2 o' marria(e, compadre tie2, or tie2 o' %atron2$i% and
client2$i% rat$er t$an tie2 o' blood>create a le22er bond. Damily
con2tellation2 <ork in alliance <it$ one anot$er 'or varyin( %eriod2 o' time
due to t$e need to create combination2 lar(e enou($ to com%ete <it$ 2ome
%ro2%ect o' 2ucce22 in local election2 or in ot$er community %re2ti(e conte2t2.
/lliance2 amon( 'amilie2, %atron1client clu2ter2, and ot$er %er2onal 'ollo<in(2 are loo2e,
un2table, and o'ten 2$i'tin(, a2 are alliance2 amon( 'action2 t$em2elve2.(8)
;olitical %artie2 are e22entially com%o2ed o' numerou2 alliance2 amon( t$e2e 'action2
com%o2ed o' 'amilie2 and %atron1client net<ork2. I$ic$ 'amilie2 and 'action2 are in <$ic$
'action and %arty 'luctuate2 con2iderably, a2 do t$e number o' %artie2 (t<o ma=or one2 'rom
1986 until martial la< in 1972, but al2o 2everal minority %artie2? one ma=or %arty durin(
martial la< until t$e early 19J32? and 2ince t$en 2everal %artie2, <$ic$ (radually 2eem to
be coale2cin( into a cou%le o' main one2). But t$eir element2>t$o2e con2tellation2 o'
%er2onal relation2>and t$eir 'luid nature %er2i2t2. Durin( election2, %artie2 %er 2e %rovide a
label 'or candidate2 to run under. 0andidate2 rely $eavily on t$eir o<n 2ocial net<ork2,
<eavin( to(et$er ca2cadin( tier2 o' client 2u%%orter2 and 2u%%lemented <$ere nece22ary
<it$ money, material incentive2, and %romi2e2. "ocal leader2 tu( on t$e line2 o' t$eir
clienteli2tic 'ollo<in(2, $aulin( in vote2 'or candidate2 'or <$om t$ey in turn are client2
,ince Folln2teiner and "andeA2 early <ork, t$e %rinci%al modi'ication to t$i2 %c' 'rame<ork i2
2c$olar2$i% to e)%lain t$e emer(ence o' %olitical mac$ine2. ;er2onal net<ork2, <$ile vital
'or 2titc$in( 'action2 to(et$er, are in2u''icient and ine''icient 'or <innin( o''ice2 in lar(e
electorate2. Dor t$at rea2on, H%olitical mac$ine2H became a%%arent in t$e 19532K19632, 'ell
on $ard time2 durin( t$e @arco2 year2 <$en $i2 mac$ine <a2 t$e only (ame in t$e country,
but $ave been re2u2citated 2ince t$e mid119J32.(6) T$ey are run by t$e %olitically 2killed
leader2 o' elite 'amilie2 a2 <ell a2 by Hne< menH 'rom le22 <ealt$y and le22 <ell kno<n
'amily back(round2 <$o $ad t$e reEuired 2avvy 'or t$e a(e o' ma22 electoral %olitic2.(7) .n
order to com%ete 'or vote2, 2c$olar2 ar(ue, %er2onal connection2 are au(mented <it$
%olitical mac$ine2 t$at %rovide immediate material re<ard2 and inducement2 1 not
nece22arily to voter2 directly, t$ou($ t$ere i2 evidence o' t$at, but more o'ten to key
%layer2 in t$e %rovince2 and munici%alitie2 <$o (et t$eir 'ollo<er2 to vote 'or t$e mac$ineA2
@ac$ine %olitic2 $a2 brou($t out more clearly t$e im%ortance o' money in ;$ili%%ine %olitic2,
e2%ecially durin( election2. T$e %c' 'rame<ork allo<2 t$at monetary inducement2 to 2u%%ort
or o%%o2e %articular candidate2 or 'action2 are 2ometime2 (iven.(J) 6lection2 t$at are
battle2 bet<een lar(e %olitical mac$ine2 reEuire %olitician2 to come u% <it$ va2t 'inancial
re2ource2 in order to 2tay in t$e (ame. T$i2 im%erative, in turn, encoura(e2 %olitician2 to
concentrate on %ork barrel %ro(ramme2 to curry 'avour <it$ voter2, to u2e %ublic 'und2 to
'inance t$eir %olitical mac$ine2, and to re2ort to ot$er ille(al %ractice2.
;olitic2, de'ined broadly, com%ri2e2 t$e activitie2 in <$ic$ %eo%le, (rou%2, and or(aniCation2
en(a(e in order to control, allocate, and u2e re2ource2? %olitic2 al2o include2 t$e value2 and
idea2 underlyin( t$o2e activitie2.(9) /ccordin( to t$e %c' 'rame<ork, t$e underlyin( value2
and idea2 in ;$ili%%ine %olitic2 are lar(ely i' not e)clu2ively in t$e realm o' %er2onal
attac$ment2 and animo2itie2, %er2onal allie2 and enemie2, %er2onal intere2t2 and t$o2e
individual2 <it$ <$om one $a2 a %er2onal relation2$i%. ;olitical 2tru((le i2 about tryin( to
(ain acce22 to and maintain control over re2ource2 in order to advance oneA2 'ollo<in( and
%er2onal a22ociation2, <$ile underminin( and denyin( re2ource2 to rival individual2 and
'action2. 0leava(e2 are bet<een %eo%le <it$ di''erent %er2onal ambition2 and intere2t2.
4r(aniCation2 are built on connection2, %er2onal relation2$i%2 and mutual 2el' intere2t. .n
2$ort, t$e 'rame<ork leave2 little or no room 'or ot$er value2 and idea2, ot$er ba2e2 'or
cleava(e and 2tru((le, ot$er (round2 'or or(aniCin( and coo%eratin(.
Becau2e o' %erva2ive 'amilial, %atron1client, 'actional %olitic2, accordin( to t$e %c'
'rame<ork, %er2onal rivalrie2 and ambition2 determine ;$ili%%ine %olitical activity. .22ue2
and concern2 beyond individual and 'amilial one2 are o' little or no im%ortance, and no
ideolo(ical %o2ition2 or %rinci%al2 are at 2take. /l2o, becau2e kin2$i%, %atron1client relation2,
and alliance2 <eave to(et$er %eo%le in di''erent 2ocioeconomic %o2ition2, relation2 bet<een
elite and ma22e2, ric$ and %oor, are 2ymbiotic, 2moot$, and reci%rocal.(13) ,tru((le2 are
bet<een 'action2 com%o2ed o' %eo%le 'rom variou2 2ocioeconomic back(round2, not
bet<een %eo%le in di''erent cla22e2, 2tatu2 (rou%2, or even et$nic (rou%2.
T$e c$aracteri2tic2 o' ;$ili%%ine %olitic2 on <$ic$ t$e 'rame<ork concentrate2 are
%articularly %ronounced durin( election2. Dor %olitician2 t$e crucial t$in( i2 to <in o''ice.
.22ue2, to t$e e)tent t$ey are addre22ed, are only <indo< dre22in( 'or %er2onal ambition.
;olitician2 2eek %ublic o''ice not to 2erve t$e %ublic but to advance t$eir o<n %er2onal,
'amilial, and 'actional intere2t2. /nd ambitiou2 %olitician2 u2e lo<er o''ice2 a2 2te%%in(
2tone2 to $i($er one2, 2eekin( (reater (lory and %o<er 'or t$em2elve2 and t$eir 'ollo<er2.
/2 'or voter2, <$ile 2ome may re(ard election2 a2 a <ay to %artici%ate in and a''ect t$e
bu2ine22 o' (overnment, mo2t take an in2trumental a%%roac$, 2eein( election2 a2 an
o%%ortunity to e)tract money, %er2onal 'avour2, or ot$er immediate return2 'or t$em2elve2
and t$eir 'amilie2 in e)c$an(e 'or t$eir vote2. 6lection2 are al2o <ay2 to 'ul'ill cliental
obli(ation2, by cam%ai(nin( and votin( 'or t$e candidate2 o' oneA2 %atron and callin( on
'amily member2 and clo2e 'riend2 to do t$e 2ame.
T$ere are (round2 'or ar(uin( t$at %atron1client and ot$er relation2 are im%ortant in
;$ili%%ine %olitic2. 0lienteli2m a2 a ba2i2 'or or(aniCin( t$rive2 in condition2 t$at are 2till
%ronounced in t$e ;$ili%%ine2# (reat ineEuality, ab2ence o' im%er2onal (uarantee2 'or
%$y2ical and economic 2ecurity, and t$e need 'or %er2onal linka(e2 beyond immediate kin a2
%art o' e''ort to $ave more 2ecurity.(11) /naly2t2, includin( my2el', %oint to con2iderable
evidence 'or t$e continued %revalence o' %atron1client relation2 and 'actionali2m.(12) T$e
demi2e o' t$e @arco2 'amily and cronie2 $a2 been 'ollo<ed, conclude2 a ne< 2tudy, by t$e
Ha2cendancy and dominance o' %olitical clan2G H(19) / recent analy2i2 o' %olitic2 in 2out$ern
@indanao durin( t$e 19732 'ind2 t$e %c' 'rame<ork 2till relevant 'or Hlayin( bare t$e
2tructural %rinci%le2 underlyin( bot$G H %olitic2 and everyday li'e, t$e ne)u2 o' <$ic$ i2 t$e
%olitical 'amily.(18) /not$er 2ocial 2cienti2t em%$a2iCe2 t$e 2till Hendurin( a2%ect2H o'
;$ili%%ine culture and value2, <$ic$ include Ht$e %rimacy o' kin2$i%, t$e in'luence o'
%articulari2m and %er2onali2m, t$e im%ortance o' reci%rocity and %atron1client relation2, t$e
em%$a2i2 on 2moot$1inter%er2onal relation2, and t$e %erva2ive %overty on value2 and
/nd t$e2e in turn, $e 2ay2, 2tron(ly 2$a%e ;$ili%%ine %olitic2. .n %articular, t$e
He)clu2ivene22 o' t$e Dili%ino 'amily, t$e im%ortance o' %atron1client tie2, and t$e 2tren(t$
o' re(ional and lin(ui2tic a''initie2 cau2e Dili%ino %olitic2 and (overnance to be $i($ly
%er2onali2t and %articulari2ticH.(15) But are t$e value2 and 2o 'ort$ identi'ied t$rou($ t$e
%c' 'rame<ork t$e only im%ortant value2 and idea2, cleava(e2, and ty%e2 o' or(aniCation2 in
;$ili%%ine %olitic2*
Other pproaches
T<o additional a%%roac$e2 ackno<led(e t$e im%ortance o' %atron1client and ot$er %er2onal
%olitic2 in t$e ;$ili%%ine2 but 'ind t$e %c' 'rame<ork inadeEuate to account 'or ot$er
%rominent %$enomena. T$e Helite democracyH a%%roac$ 2ay2 <e mu2t al2o under2tand t$e
role o' violence, coercion, intimidation, monetary inducement2, and t$e con2iderable
autonomy elite2 $ave to mani%ulate 'ormal democratic %rocedure2 to t$eir likin(. T$e
HneocolonialH or Hde%endencyH ar(ument em%$a2iCe2 t$e in'luence, even control o' 'orei(n
intere2t2 over ;$ili%%ine %olitic2.
6lection2 are 'reEuently more violent and viciou2 t$an t$e ima(e o' %lacid and tranEuil
alliance 2<itc$in( in a %c' 'rame<ork convey2. /ckno<led(in( and e)%lainin( t$i2 and t$e
routine violation o' 'ormal %rocedure2 are ma=or di''erence2 bet<een t$e %c' a%%roac$ and
t$e elite democracy inter%retation o' ;$ili%%ine %olitic2, <$ic$ $old2 t$at t$e %olitical 2y2tem
i2 e22entially one in <$ic$ elite2 u2e connection2, <ealt$, and %$y2ical 'orce to control t$e
countryA2 re2ource2. ;ublic o''ice2 are 2ource2 'or %er2onal 'ortune. T$e $i($er t$e o''ice,
t$e more lucrative t$e return2 'or oneA2 'amily and allie2, t$ou($ o''icial2 in %ro2%erou2
%rovince2 and citie2 can al2o do very <ell. 0on2eEuently, election2 are device2 'or %olitical
elite2 to 2ort out <$o <ill 'ea2t in t$e %ublic larder 'or a term or t<o, and a <ay to make t$e
ma22e2 'eel a %art o' 2omet$in( 'rom <$ic$ t$ey are actually 2$ut out.(16)
/naly2t2 <it$in an elite democracy 2c$ool are not alone in dra<in( attention to candidate2
and t$eir minion2 <$o tam%er <it$ votin( %rocedure2, intimidate voter2, and em%loy violent
tactic2. .t i2 <idely kno<n t$at many %olitician2 $ave body(uard2, and many $ave t$eir o<n
armie2, <$ic$ <ere di2mantled or <ent under(round durin( t$e 19732 martial la< year2 but
$ave 2ince been revived. ,ome elite2 al2o u2e, <$en t$ey can, t$e ;$ili%%ine 0on2tabulary,
/rmy, %olice 'orce2, and ot$er in2titution2 o' t$e 2tate in order to attain and retain %ublic
o''ice. I$erea2 2c$olar2 <orkin( <it$in t$e %c' 'rame<ork 'ind t$at violence and 'raud are
unu2ual and rarely a''ect outcome2, ot$er analy2t2 ar(ue t$at 2uc$ ne'ariou2 met$od2 $ave
lon( been %rominent 'eature2 o' electoral %olitic2.(17) 5e(ro2 4ccidental, t$e .loco2 re(ion,
0ebu, and @ara<i are amon( t$o2e %art2 o' t$e country <$ere endemic violence bet<een
rival candidate2 and t$eir 2u%%orter2 $a2 been re%orted.(1J) @any 2c$olar2 $ave ar(ued
t$at t$e 1989 national election <a2 very likely H<onH by Luirino by mean2 o' %added
electoral role2, 'raudulent tallie2, t$reat2, and <ide2%read %$y2ical violence.(19)
T$e neocolonial, de%endency inter%retation a(ree2 <it$ muc$ o' t$e elite democracy
ar(ument and ackno<led(e2 t$e im%ortance o' %atron1client and 'actional %olitic2. But
<$erea2 t$e elite democracy ar(ument 2ee2 Dili%ino elite2 a2 able to mani%ulate 'orei(n
intere2t2 to t$eir o<n advanta(e, t$e de%endency 2c$ool 2ee2 'orei(n bu2ine22e2 and
/merican military intere2t2 dominatin( muc$ o' t$e ;$ili%%ine2, includin( t$e elite2, <$o are
in e''ect t$eir client2.
5eit$er o' t$e2e additional vie<2, $o<ever, brin(2 in enou($ o' t$e value2, met$od2 and
motivation2 in t$e ;$ili%%ine %olitical land2ca%e. T$e de%endency a%%roac$ allo<2 'or little
Dili%ino initiative and tend2 to be mec$ani2tic. T$e elite democracy inter%retation i2 lar(ely a
2o%$i2ticated elaboration o' t$e H(un2, (oon2, and (oldH vie< o' ;$ili%%ine %olitic2, <$ic$ i2
Bot$, $o<ever, do (o beyond %er2onal relation2$i%2. 5eocolonial ambition2 cla2$ <it$
nationali2tic a2%iration2? landed elite2 $ave intere2t2 in common t$at 2u%er2ede t$eir
'actional di''erence2? and local elite2 are at odd2 <it$ central aut$oritie2.
@otivation2, obli(ation2, and intere2t2 beyond, or in addition to, 'amilial and narro<
%er2onal one2 are <idely mani'e2ted in ;$ili%%ine %olitical li'e. T$ey include intere2t2 and
value2 connected to cla22, 2tatu2, et$nic, re(ional, local, and cultural identitie2 t$at could
'i(ure in %eo%leA2 %olitical activity. /not$er dimen2ion, <$ic$ may overla% <it$ t$e 'ormer,
encom%a22e2 idea2 and ideal2 a22ociated <it$ ideolo(ie2 like democracy, ca%itali2m,
communi2m, @ar)i2m, 0$ri2tianity, .2lam, a2 <ell a2 le22 de'ined 2et2 o' ideal2 about $o<
2ocial, economic, and %olitical li'e 2$ould or 2$ould not be or(aniCed. T$ere i2 con2iderable
evidence 'or t$e2e additional value2 and idea2, ba2e2 o' or(aniCation, and cleava(e2 in
many %olitical 2%$ere2. . am not ar(uin( t$at t$e value2 and motivation2 em%$a2iCed by a
%c' 'rame<ork are ab2ent? but . am 2ayin( t$at ot$er2 are al2o im%ortant.
.n recent year2 t<o 2tudie2 o' national %olitic2 $ave tried to encom%a22 a 'uller ran(e o'
idea2, or(aniCational ba2e2, and cleava(e2 t$an t$e %c', elite democracy, or de%endency
a%%roac$e2 can $andle individually. 4ne i2 David Iur'elA2 book.(23) .n %lace2 Iur'el u2e2 a
%c' a%%roac$, but t$e 2tudy al2o include2 t$e %olitic2 o' 2ocio1economic intere2t2, in t$e
'orm o' %ea2ant or(aniCation2, 2tudent (rou%2, middle cla22 or(aniCation2, and 2o 'ort$. /nd
in realm o' idea2 im%ortant to %olitical activity, Iur'el di2cu22e2 not only %er2onal and
'amilial loyaltie2 and t$e like but al2o ca%itali2m, @ar)i2m, democratic value2 and liberation
t$eolo(y. T$e 2econd i2 a book manu2cri%t by @ark T$om%2on, <$o more 2el' con2ciou2ly
t$an Iur'el 2te%2 out2ide %c' analy2i2.(21) I$ile $e 'ind2 t$e 'rame<ork u2e'ul, $e al2o
2ay2 it i2 too limitin(. "ike t$o2e <$o u2e elite democracy ar(ument2, $e 2ay2 t$e %c'
a%%roac$ doe2 not account 'or violence and ot$er un2avoury a2%ect2 o' ;$ili%%ine %olitic2.
But (oin( beyond bot$ a%%roac$e2, T$om%2on ar(ue2 t$at im%ortant to under2tandin(
%olitic2 in t$e ;$ili%%ine2 are Hmoral a%%eal2H to %eo%leA2 de2ire2 'or 'reedom, democracy,
and et$ical %ublic 2ervant2, and a%%eal2 to %eo%leA2 'eelin(2 o' %ity, em%at$y, and
T$e additional 'eature2 o' ;$ili%%ine %olitic2 t$at Iur'el and T$om%2on brin( into 'ocu2 are
t$e kind t$at . al2o <ant to include in a more com%re$en2ive analy2i2. T$e remainder o' t$e
%a%er <ill elaborate.
6lection cam%ai(n2 are, indeed, o'ten built around %er2onalitie2# t$eir net<ork2 and
alliance2, and %olitical mac$ine2 (rea2ed by %atrona(e. ;atron1client tie2 and 'actional
a''iliation2, $o<ever, do not %rovide t$e only or even t$e mo2t im%ortant motivation2 'or
%eo%le to vote 'or one candidate rat$er t$an anot$er. Dor e)am%le, Dili%ino2 o'ten 2u%%ort
candidate2 <$o come 'rom t$eir o<n re(ion or 2%eak t$eir native lan(ua(e.(22) /r(uably,
t$ou($, t$e2e con2ideration2 are com%le) mani'e2tation o' alle(iance2 and value2 (oin(
back to t$e %rimacy o' 'amily tie2 in ;$ili%%ine %olitic2.(29) @ore di''icult to e)%lain u2in( a
%c' inter%retation i2 evidence t$at a number o' ot$er con2ideration2 in'luence t$e <ay
%eo%le vote# %olicy matter2? Euality o' leader2$i%? oneA2 %erceived intere2t2 a2 a <orker,
tenant 'armer, 'i2$er%er2on, bu2ine22 %er2on, 2tudent, u%land re2ident, @u2lim, or a2
2omeone in ot$er economic, et$nic, and 2ocial %o2ition2? and moral i22ue2.(28) T$e mi) and
relative im%ortance o' t$e2e con2ideration2, alon( <it$ %er2onal one2, can vary 'rom %lace
to %lace, over time, and 'rom %er2on to %er2on.
Iort$ 2tre22in( $ere i2 t$at 2ocial, economic, and %olitical i22ue2 are o'ten 2i(ni'icant
concern2 'or voter2 and candidate2. 0e2ar 0limaco, 'or e)am%le, <a2 elected mayor o'
Mamboan(a 0ity in 19J3 lar(ely becau2e $e ran Hon an e)%licitly anti1@arco2, anti1@artial
"a< %lat'ormH, a %o2ition t$at al2o $el%ed ot$er candidate2 'or local (overnment in
@indanao to <in t$at year.(25) T$e 1973 election o' dele(ate2 'or t$e 1971 0on2titutional
0onvention <a2 electri'ied by di2cu22ion2 o' t$e 2tructure o' (overnment, t$e @arco2
admini2tration, and , military ba2e2, and numerou2 additional i22ue2.(26)
T$e im%ortance o' i22ue2 i2 not a recent develo%ment, eit$er. Ni(orou2 debate on i22ue2
durin( election2 date2 'rom at lea2t t$e late 19932 <$en candidate2 'or munici%al o''ice2 in
central "uCon in 1997 and 1983 <ere dee%ly immer2ed in debate2 re(ardin( a(ricultural
tenancy, <orker2A condition2, 2ocial =u2tice, ;$ili%%ine1/merican relation2, amon( ot$er
matter2. T$e2e a(ain became ma=or i22ue2 in election cam%ai(n2 'or con(re22ional 2eat2 in
/not$er im%ortant a2%ect o' electoral %olitic2 t$at 'all2 out2ide a %c' 'rame<ork i2 t$e
contendin( claim2 and vie<2 about t$e %ur%o2e and %roce22 o' election2 t$em2elve2. T$i2
contentiou2 i22ue $a2 been a vibrant moti' in electoral %olitic2 2ince at lea2t t$e 19932.
I$ile many %eo%le 2ee and u2e election2 to advance %er2onal and 'actional intere2t2 and
ca%ture t$e 2%oil2 o' %ublic o''ice (vie<2 2ummariCed in t$e %c' 'rame<ork) and re(ard
election2 a2 a battle2 'ou($t <it$ H(un2, (oon2, and (oldH, ot$er Dili%ino2 2tru((le to make
election2 to be about le(itimacy, 'airne22, and democratic %roce22e2. T$e latter claim t$at
election2 are or at lea2t 2$ould be about makin( t$e country more democratic by 'ollo<in(
%ro%er %rocedure2 to re%lace corru%t and 2el'1centred %olitician2 and %olitical mac$ine2 <it$
candidate2 <$o come clo2er to u%$oldin( democratic value2 and <ant to 2erve t$e country,
not =u2t t$em2elve2 and %er2onal circle2. 4ne can 'ind numerou2 mani'e2tation2 o' ordinary
Dili%ino2 2tru((lin( to a22ert t$i2 2econd vie< o' election2. . <ill re'er to only a t$ree 2%eci'ic
ca2e2 $ere and t$en di2cu22 a cou%le o' election2 in <$ic$ conte2ted meanin(2 o' election2
<ere ma=or t$eme2.(2J)
Be'ore doin( 2o, . <ant to mention t$at "ande $im2el' $a2 noted t$at %eo%le may turn
a(ain2t %olitician2 <$o are too 'ree and ea2y <it$ t$e democratic rule2 and %rocedure2,
leavin( 2ome room 'or %olitical con2ideration2 t$at <ould 2eem to 'all out2ide t$e %c'
'rame<ork.(29) But $e and ot$er2 <orkin( <it$in t$e 'rame<ork 2ay little more about 2uc$
be$aviour, im%lyin( it i2 o' ne(li(ible im%ortance, <$erea2 . am 2u((e2tin( it i2 central
dynamic o' electoral %olitic2.
.n 1969, candidate2 <$o $ad lo2t t$e vote tally 'or t$e con(re22ional 2eat in Batane2
%rovince %rote2ted t$at t$e H<innerH $ad em%loyed armed men to terrori2e and coerce
voter2 and %ollin( 2tation clerk2. T$e H<innerH, o' cour2e, denied t$e alle(ation2? and
ne<2%a%er columni2t2 believed $im.(93) I$en an o''icial inve2ti(ation be(an, ei($teen
Batane2 teac$er2 <$o $ad 2erved a2 votin( clerk2 2te%%ed 'or<ard 1 de2%ite t$reat2 a(ain2t
t$eir live2 1 and te2ti'ied t$at indeed armed men $ad 'orced t$em to endor2e 'al2i'ied tally
2$eet2 and ot$er 'raudulent votin( %rocedure2. T$eir te2timonie2 and 2ub2eEuent evidence
t$at came to li($t led to t$e criminal c$ar(e2 a(ain2t t$e H<innerH and t$e %roclamation o'
one o' t$e Hlo2in(H candidate2 a2 t$e real <inner.(91)
.n 19J2 t$e nation $eld election2 'or barrio ca%tain2, t$e 'ir2t in ten year2 and t$e 'ir2t local
election2 2ince @arco2 $ad li'ted martial la< t$e year be'ore. @any villa(er2 in ,an !icardo
(Talavera, 5ueva 6ci=a) $ad lon( <aited 'or t$i2 election. T$ey $o%ed t$e incumbent <ould
be de'eated, alt$ou($ t$ey kne< t$at $e $ad t$e u%%er $and becau2e $e <a2 backed by t$e
munici%al branc$ o' @arco2A2 Kilu2an Ba(on( "i%unan (KB") %olitical %arty. 2in( 2ome o'
t$i2 %olitical mu2cle, t$e incumbent ca%tain maneuvered to %revent a %otential o%%onent
'rom 'ilin( candidacy %a%er2, t$ereby a22urin( $i2 re1election. Fi2 deed di2(u2ted not only
t$o2e <$o $ad lon( com%lained about $i2 %oor leader2$i% but al2o numerou2 %eo%le <$o
$ad %reviou2ly 2u%%orted $im. To 2$o< t$eir contem%t, t<o1t$ird2 o' t$e re(i2tered voter2
eit$er boycotted t$e election or voted 'or t$e %er2on <$o2e candidacy $ad been 'oiled.(92)
.n t$e 19JJ (ubernatorial election in .loco2 5orte, t$e re%ortedly very %o%ular candidate
!odol'o Darina2 <a2 nevert$ele22 t$ou($t to $ave little c$ance o' de'eatin( @anuela /blan,
even t$ou($ 2$e <a2 <idely di2liked in %art becau2e $er 'amily $ad 2mu((led in $u(e
Euantitie2 o' (arlic 'rom Tai<an, cau2in( $avoc 'or local (arlic indu2try. T$e /blan 'amily
<a2 e)%ected to u2e it2 $old over certain mayor2, military o''icer2, and %olicemen to take
t$e (overnor2$i% one <ay or anot$er. But a volunteer movement Hto kee% <atc$ over t$e
%oll2 in all %recinct2H made t$e countin( and re%ortin( %roce22 $one2t, allo<in( Darina2 to
T$e2e 2mall e)am%le2 reveal %eo%le tryin( to %re2erve or create 2ome inte(rity and $one2ty
in election2 and turn t$em into e)%re22ion2 o' actual 2entiment2 or evaluation2 o'
candidate2 and i22ue2. .n 2o doin(, t$ey en(a(e and o%%o2e t$o2e <$o $ave di''erent, o'ten
2ini2ter under2tandin(2 o' <$at election2 are about. Drom time to time, t$e2e con'lictin(
vie<2 o' election2 bur2t onto t$e national 2cene a2 ma=or con'rontation2.
4ne im%ortant %eriod <a2 t$e election2 in 1951 ('or con(re22ional and lo<er o''ice2) and
1959 (<$ic$ 'eatured a %re2idential election a2 <ell). T$ey 'ollo<ed 1987 and 1989
election2 (t$e latter al2o 'or t$e %re2idency), <$ic$ <ere %robably amon( t$e mo2t 2ordid
and 'oul in t$e countryA2 $i2tory. .ncumbent2 braCenly u2ed t$eir o''ice2, t$e %olice, and t$e
;$ili%%ine 0on2tabulary to mu2cle and 'ina(le t$eir <ay to re1election. By 1951, many
%eo%le <ere (irdin( 'or even <or2e election2, de2%ite electoral and ot$er re'orm2 in t$e
interim aimed at tryin( to %revent a re1occurrence. ,ome Dili%ino2 <ere 2o di2(u2ted and
dubiou2 t$at t$e election2 could be anyt$in( ot$er t$an totally corru%t t$at t$ey boycotted
t$e election2 and ur(ed ot$er2 to do like<i2e.
4t$er %eo%le, $o<ever, <ent t$e o%%o2ite direction, t$ro<in( t$em2elve2 into a 2tru((le to
%revent a re%eat o' 1987 and 1989. T$ey re%orted to o''icial2 and t$e %re22 ca2e2 o'
intimidation and violence, in2i2ted on %rotectin( %ollin( 2tation2 a(ain2t mani%ulation,
monitored t$e countin( o' vote2, %ubliciCed name2 o' candidate2 and ot$er2 <$o violated
t$e rule2, (uarded ballot bo)e2, and o'ten 2tood t$eir (round a(ain2t armed aut$oritie2 <$o
tried to 2care t$em o''. T$e2e <ide2%read activitie2, cou%led <it$ im%roved media covera(e
and electoral re'orm2, contributed to makin( t$e 1951 and 1959 election2 'ar cleaner t$an
be'ore. T$e mo2t <ell1kno<n amon( t$e many or(aniCation2 %re22in( 'or $one2t election2
<a2 t$e 5ational @ovement 'or Dree 6lection2 (5/@D!6"), e2tabli2$ed in mid 1951. 6ven
many remote villa(e2 $ad 5/@D!6" c$a%ter2 to $el% make t$e votin(, tallyin(, and
re%ortin( t$at year 2ur%ri2in(ly 'air and %eace'ul. T$i2 <a2 re%eated in 1959 a2 even more
%eo%le (ot involved in 5/@D!6" to democratiCe t$e election %roce22. .n bot$ year2,
numerou2 ot$er or(aniCation2 al2o <ere active.
Bot$ 1951 and 1959 2$o< determination amon( a <ide 2%ectrum o' t$e %o%ulation to make
election2 a ma=or i22ue. Iould election2 be, a2 in t$e 19832, lar(ely a democratic 'acade
be$ind <$ic$ %eo%le are coerced, intimidated, and abu2ed, and ballot2 are treated
cavalierly* 4r <ould t$ere be 2ub2tance to t$e democratic a%%earance2* ;ut 2im%ly, <ould
t$e country live u% to t$e r$etoric, <$ic$ nearly every leader e2%ou2ed but too 'e<
%racti2ed, o' 'ree, o%en, $one2t election2* @any or(aniCation2 and individual2 <ere %re22in(
'or a Hye2H an2<er to t$e2e la2t t<o Eue2tion2.
.n 19J6, a 2imilar cri2i2 over election2 reac$ed a cre2cendo, loo2ely re'erred to a2 t$e
H%eo%le %o<er revolutionH <$ic$ 'orced Derdinand @arco2A2 aut$oritarian re(ime to 'all. 5ot
'or a minute <ould . claim t$at t$i2 event <a2 only about t$e meanin( and %ur%o2e o'
election2. T$e dynamic2 o' t$at year and event2 leadin( u% to it <ere com%le) and t$eir
2i(ni'icance multi'aceted. / credible ar(ument could be made t$at 19J6 included a
con'rontation bet<een com%etin( clu2ter2 o' elite2 1 t$e @arco2 cliEue o%%o2ed by elite
leader2 coale2ced by t$eir determination to 2to% t$e @arco2 dyna2ty and =oined in t$e 'inal
$our2 by %rominent @arco2 2u%%orter2 <$o de'ected.(98) /nd a2 indicated earlier, certainly
'or many t$e election <a2 about economic and %olitical i22ue2. 0lienteli2m, 'actionali2m,
%er2onal relation2, re(ionali2m, and ot$er 'actor2 al2o in'luenced many %eo%leA2 vote2 and
under2tandin( o' <$at t$e election <a2 about.
T$e2e line2 o' analy2i2, $o<ever revealin(, leave out a vital dynamic. Dor million2 o' Dili%ino2
t$e 19J51J6 cam%ai(n <a2 al2o a 2tru((le to make election2 an e)%re22ion o' %eo%leA2
vie<2 and de2ire2 'or t$eir country. T$ey <ere determined to brin( t$e votin( %roce22 in line
<it$ t$e r$etoric t$at election2 2$ould be 'ree o' coercion, intimidation, c$eatin(, and 'raud.
T$ey 2ou($t to make t$i2 election a met$od by <$ic$ t$e ma=ority could decide <$at %er2on
and <$at kind o' (overnment <a2 better 'or t$e country. T$e di''erence2 bet<een @arco2
and /Euino and <$at t$ey re%re2ented <ere 2trikin(, certainly more 2o t$an in mo2t
national election2 (in t$e ;$ili%%ine2 1 or el2e<$ere, come to t$ink o' it). 0lo2ely related
<ere t$e 2tron( 'eelin(2 acro22 a <ide 2%ectrum o' t$e country t$at t$e (overnment $ad to
c$an(e le2t already terrible condition2 become muc$ <or2e and, e2%ecially, le2t civil <ar,
already %ronounced in numerou2 area2, <ould 2%read. 4r, an eEually un%lea2ant
alternative, many Dili%ino2 'eared t$at t$e military <ould 'orce'ully to%%le t$e @arco2
(overnment and e2tabli2$ a military re(ime. Dor million2 o' an)iou2 Dili%ino2, t$e 19J6
election <a2 t$e be2t c$ance, %er$a%2 t$e la2t c$ance, to c$an(e %eace'ully ('or t$e better
t$ey $o%ed) <$o rule2 and $o<.(95) / key Eue2tion 'or many Dili%ino2 <a2 <ould t$e 19J6
election be mani%ulated and 2ubverted by @arco2 and $i2 %olitical mac$ine or <ould it be a
more credible and democratic %roce22* @illion2 o' %eo%le <ere determined to make 2ure it
<ould be t$e latter.
T<o Dili%ino2, <$o $ad 'or year2 been active in anti1martial la< and anti1@arco2 2tru((le2
and, like many in t$eir 2ituation, <ere $i($ly 2ce%tical o' election2 and $ad con2idered
boycottin( t$e 19J6 one, nevert$ele22 o%ted in2tead 'or Hcritical %artici%ationH. ,eein( $o<
%eo%le t$re< t$em2elve2 into tryin( to make t$e election aut$entic <a2 'or t$em a real eye1
o%ener. T$ey <rote#
T$e <$ole e)%erienceG $a2 been a $umblin( one 'or or(aniCer2 like u2. .n t$e
2cenario buildin( e''ort2, t$e e)ternal 'actor2 <ere all %redicted but t$e
%eo%leA2 re2%on2e <a2 not 'ore2een. . t$ink it i2 becau2e <e Oor(aniCer2P (et
lo2t in our o<n a(enda and 'ail to li2ten to our o<n %eo%le and $eed t$e
2i(n2, t$e mode o' %olitical %artici%ation t$ey are mo2t com'ortable in 1 t$e
non1violent <ay.
T$e O%oliticalP revolution $a2 clearly advanced t$e 2tru((le o' t$e Dili%ino2 'or
a more =u2t and democratic 2ociety? it $a2 (iven %eo%le a 2$ar% and
re're2$in( 2en2e o' t$e o't Euoted clic$e>2overei(nty belon(2 to t$e %eo%le>
'or in t$e end, it boil2 do<n to one t$in(><e re'u2ed to be du%ed once more,
to be dictated u%on and to $ave t$e trut$ man(led.(96)
@any %olitician2 in t$e ;$ili%%ine2 do 2eem to 'it <it$in t$e %c' 'rame<ork>e22entially
%reoccu%ied <it$ %er2onal %o<er and %romotin( t$eir o<n intere2t2 and t$o2e o' t$eir
'ollo<er2. /dd to t$at t$e u2e o' %ublic o''ice 'or 2el' enric$ment and t$u((ery o' <arlord2
and %rivate armie2 em%$a2iCed in elite democracy 2c$ool o' analy2i2, one <ould $ave
rea2on to t$ink virtually no %olitician2 in t$e country are concerned <it$ anyt$in( $avin( to
do <it$ %olicy i22ue2, %ublic intere2t2, or %olitical ideal2. T$e billion2 o' dollar2 2tolen by
Derdinand and .melda @arco2 and collea(ue2 in %ublic o''ice 'rom t$e late 19632 to mid
19J32 2eem to many ob2erver2 in2ide and out2ide t$e ;$ili%%ine2 to be (rote2Euely
ma(ni'ied ver2ion2 o' <$at i2 common %ractice amon( t$e countryA2 %olitician2.
.2 it enou($ to leave e)%lanation2 o' %olitician2A be$aviour at t$at* /re idea2, ideal2, value2,
and concern2 beyond %er2onal %o<er and <ealt$ really o' no or mini2cule concern to
%olitician2 in t$e ;$ili%%ine2* .t i2 di''icult to an2<er Hye2H. Too many %eo%le in %ublic
%o2ition2 come to mind 'or <$om t$e2e c$aracteriCation2 are not only ina%%ro%riate but
un'air, 2tri%%in( t$e2e %ublic 'i(ure2 o' laudable dimen2ion2 o' t$eir %er2onalitie2 and
%olitical <ork. T$i2 i2 not to 2ay t$at t$ey are totally altrui2tic or 2el'le22, 'ree o' %layin(
'actional %olitic2, or une)%erienced in %layin( %er2onal 'avourite2. But at t$e 2ame time,
ot$er idea2 and value2 are im%ortant to t$em.
6)am%le2 o' national %olitician2 o' t$i2 kind in recent year2 could include Jo2e Diokno, !aul
@an(la%u2, Jovito ,alon(a and "orenCo @. Tanada. @any Dili%ino2, . 2u2%ect, <ould readily
a(ree t$at t$e2e 'our 2enator2, eac$ elected more t$an once by national electorate2, <ere
%olitician2 t$at do not 'it t$e %c' 2tereoty%e. Bet t$ey and ot$er2 like t$em (et little
attention 'rom academic2.(97) 5o doubt t$ey en(a(ed in %atron1client and 'actional %olitic2
durin( t$eir many year2 o' %ublic 2ervice and numerou2 election cam%ai(n2. But to leave
t$eir %olitical be$aviour at t$at <ould be a (ro22 mi2re%re2entation o' t$eir career2. T$ey
<ere al2o animated by $uman ri($t2, %ublic %olicy i22ue2, 2i(ni'icant le(al Eue2tion2, and
%$ilo2o%$ical dilemma2. T$ey <ere not bou($t or mani%ulated men? nor <ere t$ey
a%%arently 'orever 2c$emin( $o< to buy and mani%ulate ot$er2. Debate, ar(ument2,
%rinci%le2, and t$e %ublic (ood mattered to t$em. /ll $ave been de2cribed a2 nationali2t2 'or
ar(uin( vi(orou2ly in 'avour o' a ;$ili%%ine2 inde%endent o' 'orei(n involvement, e2%ecially
'rom t$e nited ,tate2. Durin( martial la< year2, all could %robably $ave become %rominent
in t$e @arco2 re(ime? t$ey at lea2t could $ave ke%t t$eir $ead2 do<n and avoided cla2$in(
<it$ t$at (overnment. .n2tead, all <ere dee%ly involved in o%%o2in( @arco2 and $i2 'orm o'
;olitician2 like t$em $ave a%%eared not only recently or only on t$e national 2cene. T$ere
$ave been ot$er2 in t$e %a2t and in local %ublic o''ice2. Becau2e even le22 i2 2aid about
t$em, . <ould like to $i($li($t $ere t<o 2uc$ %ublic 2ervant2.
4ne i2 ;edro /bad ,anto2, <$o <a2 'ir2t elected to ;$ili%%ine 5ational /22embly in 1916
and 2erved t<o term2 until 1929.(9J) 5o doubt $e too <a2 involved in %er2onal 'action2 and
alliance2, but like t$e 2enator2 mentioned above, ot$er, broader, le22 immediately %er2onal
intere2t2 al2o 2tirred $im. /bad ,anto2 $ad 'ou($t in t$e revolution a(ain2t ,%ain and
2ub2eEuently a(ain2t t$e nited ,tate2 until $e <a2 arre2ted and nearly e)ecuted. /'ter
bein( relea2ed 'rom %ri2on $e re2umed %re22in( nationali2t ideal2. Fe re%ortedly broke <it$
$i2 lon(1time 'riend @anuel LueCon, t$en a leadin( 'i(ure in t$e /22embly, over i22ue2
re(ardin( ;$ili%%ine inde%endence. /2 a le(i2lator $e al2o o%%o2ed a $ead ta), 2u%%orted
<omenA2 2u''ra(e, and 'avoured t$e le(aliCation o' divorce. ,o 'ar a2 i2 kno<n, $e vie<ed
%ublic o''ice a2 a %lace 'or (ivin( %ublic 2ervice, not 'or 2eekin( 2el' %romotion or
enric$ment. .ndeed, t$ou($ t$e 2on o' a <ealt$y landed 'amily and once accu2tomed to
%lu2$ 2urroundin(2, $e c$o2e a rat$er a2cetic li'e durin( t$e 19232 and t$rou($out t$e
19932, <$en $e <a2 dee%ly involved in %olitical activitie2 %re22in( 'or im%roved rural
condition2 in central "uCon, e2%ecially in $i2 $ome %rovince o' ;am%an(a.
I$y $e turned to t$i2 cau2e i2 not clear. ;art o' t$e an2<er i2 a combination o' $i2 (ro<in(
%er2onal di2(u2t <it$ t$e arro(ance o' t$e <ealt$y to<ard t$e %oor and $i2 readin( o' @ar)
and ot$er 2ociali2t <riter2 'rom 6uro%e and t$e nited ,tate2. Fe may al2o $ave been
in'luenced by t$e a(rarian revolution bre<in( in 0$ina in t$e 19932. .n any event, $i2
mode2t $ou2e in ;am%an(a became a centre 'or %olitical <ork %re22in( 'or 2ocial and
economic im%rovement o' rural 'amilie2. Fe <a2 a leader in t$e %rovinceA2 lar(e2t labour
or(aniCation /(uman din( Tala%a(obra (:eneral Iorker2A nion) <$o2e member2 <ere
%rimarily <orker2 on 2u(arcane %lantation2. Fe al2o 'ounded t$e ,ociali2t %arty in 1991 and
<a2 a %rominent 'i(ure in t$e ;o%ular Dront %arty, a coalition o' %ea2ant, <orker, and ot$er
cau2e1oriented or(aniCation2 t$at ran candidate2 'or munici%al and %rovincial o''ice2 in
;am%an(a and nearby %rovince2 in t$e 19932. /bad ,anto2 $im2el' <a2 a candidate 'or
(overnor on t$e ;o%ular Dront ticket t<ice in t$e 19932, runnin( 2tron(ly on a %lat'orm t$at
called 'or a(rarian re'orm, better condition2 'or <orker2, and clean election2. Fe nearly <on
in t$e 1983 election, t$e year in <$ic$ nine ;o%ular Dront candidate2 <on mayor2$i%2 in
nine o' ;am%an(aA2 t<enty1one munici%alitie2. .n 1982 $e <a2 one o' numerou2 out2%oken
o%%onent2 o' t$e Ja%ane2e military re(ime, <$ic$ in turn arre2ted and t$en e)ecuted $im.
T$e ;o%ular Dront mayor2 allied <it$ /bad ,anto2 <ere al2o likely motivated by i22ue2 and
ideal2 rat$er t$an, or alon( <it$, %er2onal advancement. @y $unc$ i2 t$at re2ident2 o' any
%art o' t$e country could readily name local %olitician2 o' t$i2 kind. 0ertainly in ,an !icardo
and nei($bourin( villa(e2 . kno< in 5ueva 6ci=a, re2ident2 can identi'y %ublic o''ice $older2
<$o do not 'it t$e ima(e conveyed by t$e %c' 'rame<ork. 4ne i2 @anuela ,anta /na
Fer 'ir2t cam%ai(n 'or a 2eat on t$e munici%al council in Talavera, 5ueva 6ci=a, <a2 in 1955.
,$e <a2 91 year2 old, livin( in t$e villa(e o' ,an !icardo <$ere 2$e $ad been born and
rai2ed, t$e dau($ter o' %oor %ea2ant 'amily. (Fer 'at$er, /mando, $ad been a local %ea2ant
leader in t$e 19932 and <a2 killed in 1988 in an battle bet<een Ja%ane2e 'orce2 and a local
(rou% o' t$e Fukbala$a% (uerrilla2.) ,$e <on an over<$elmin( ma=ority o' vote2 in 1955,
becomin( t$e 'ir2t <oman in t$e munici%ality to 2erve a2 a council member. Dour year2 later
2$e tried, but 'ailed, to become TalaveraA2 vice mayor. T$at <a2 t$e la2t o' $er electoral
%olitic2 until 19J7. .n t$e interim, be2ide2 rai2in( t<o c$ildren lar(ely a2 a 2in(le %arent ($er
$u2band, a 0ommuni2t %arty leader, $avin( been in %ri2on 'or nearly 93 year2 on c$ar(e2 o'
2ubver2ion) and earnin( an income by variou2 mean2 1 'rom <orkin( in rice 'ield2 to 2ellin(
in2urance door to door in 5ueva 6ci=a to<n2 and villa(e2 1 2$e <a2 active in numerou2
or(aniCation2 %re22in( 'or a(rarian re'orm and ot$er %ea2ant cau2e2, includin( %layin( a
leadin( role in t$e e2tabli2$ment o' a marketin( coo%erative amon( rice 'armer2 in t$e
vicinity o' ,an !icardo. .n 19J7, in t$e 'ir2t local election2 'ollo<in( t$e end o' t$e @arco2
rule, 2$e a(ain 2ucce22'ully ran 'or a 2eat on TalaveraA2 munici%al council, a %o2ition 2$e 2till
$eld <$en . la2t met $er in January 1998.
"ike anyone <$o i2 <ell kno<n in t$e area, ,anta /na @aclan( $a2 a net<ork o' %er2onal
relation2$i%2, 2ome o' <$ic$ %robably are $el%'ul in $el%in( $er <in election2. But 2$e i2 not
%reoccu%ied <it$ buildin( t$o2e net<ork2 and en(a(in( in 'actional %olitic2. T$e <ay 2$e
(oe2 about $er <ork a2 a councillor, coo%erative leader, and activi2t in numerou2 cau2e2
readily convey2 $er dee% involvement in i22ue2 bearin( on land tenure, em%loyment, $ealt$
care, 'arm1(ate %rice2 'or 2mall rice (ro<er2, and numerou2 ot$er %roblem2 t$at concern
avera(e villa(er2. 4ver t$e decade2 2$e $a2 cro22ed and 2tood u% to many lar(e
lando<ner2, 0on2tabulary o''icer2, and ot$er2 <it$ more HcloutH t$an 2$e $a2. ,$e $a2 al2o
di2a(reed <it$ and $ad di2%ute2 <it$ ot$er %ea2ant activi2t2 and leader2 in ,an !icardo and
el2e<$ere in t$e %rovince. ,$e i2 an o%inionated, 2tron( <illed %er2on. ,$e <in2 local
election2, accordin( to <$at %eo%le tell me and <$at . $ave ob2erved, not 2o muc$ becau2e
2$e i2 %o%ular or $a2 many contact2, 'riend2$i%2, and ot$er %er2onal linka(e2, rat$er more
becau2e 2$e i2 <idely re2%ected and tru2ted a2 a %er2on o' con2iderable inte(rity and
commitment to bein( decent, 'air, and %ublic (not 2el') 2ervin(.
.t i2 %o22ible t$at t$e %olitician2 cited in t$i2 2ection are truly e)ce%tional. 6ven i' t$ey are,
t$ey 2till need to be accounted 'or and ackno<led(ed, <$ic$ t$e %c' 'rame<ork and elite
democracy and de%endency alternative2 do not. . 2u2%ect, $o<ever, t$at <$ile mo2t
%olitician2 may not be a2 admirable a2 t$e2e, a 2i(ni'icant %ercenta(e are motivated in %art
by t$e kind o' value2 and idea2 t$at are 2trikin( in t$e2e e)am%le2. T$at i2, t$e concern2 o'
%olitician2 are con2iderably more diver2e t$an t$o2e em%$a2iCed in %c', elite democracy,
and de%endency analy2e2.
Political "ovements
T$i2 and t$e ne)t 2ection look at %olitical area2 ot$er t$an election2 and %eo%le $oldin(
%ublic o''ice. T$ere are 2everal %o22ible realm2 to 2elect 'rom. 4ne could look at t$e %olitic2
o' in2titution2, 2uc$ a2 univer2itie2, c$urc$e2, bureaucracie2, or t$e military? or at 2ocial and
%ro'e22ional a22ociation2, like t$e Kni($t2 o' 0olumbu2, @a2onic lod(e2, ;$ili%%ine
@ec$anical 6n(ineer2 /22ociation, or ;$ili%%ine @edical /22ociation. .' my ar(ument i2 valid,
t$en one <ould 'ind in eac$ o' t$em a blend o' value2 and idea2, ba2e2 o' or(aniCation, and
cleava(e2 t$at 'all <it$in and out2ide a %c' 'rame<ork. / Euick e)am%le i2 t$e ;$ili%%ine
0at$olic c$urc$. ,everal 2tudie2 indicate t$at 'or decade2 %olitic2 <it$in t$i2 or(aniCation
$a2 been ric$ly te)tured by con'lict2 over %ro'oundly %olitical value2 and c$oice2 a22ociated
<it$ i22ue2 ran(in( 'rom 2u%%ortin( t$e 0ommuni2t %arty to birt$ control.(99) / %c'
analy2i2, even one 2u%%lemented <it$ de%endency and elite democracy a%%roac$e2, <ould
be <oe'ully inadeEuate a2 a 'rame<ork 'or analyCin( %olitic2 in t$e2e in2titution2.
. cannot (o 'urt$er into in2titutional %olitic2 $ere. .n2tead, . <ill con2ider a2%ect2 o' <$at
mi($t broadly be called H%olitical movement2H in t$e ;$ili%%ine2. /mon( t$e movement2 one
could di2cu22 are t$o2e involvin( 2tudent2, <omen, @u2lim2, radical2 (a22ociated, 'or
in2tance, <it$ 0ommuni2t %artie2 in t$e country), and <orker2. T$ere i2 a 2econdary
literature 'or eac$, t$ou($ it i2 2%ar2e and muc$ more re2earc$ need2 to be done. 4ne
could not adeEuately analy2e t$e2e movement2 u2in( a %c' 'rame<ork. Too many
dimen2ion2 <ould not 'it. @atter2 $i($li($ted by t$e %c' 'rame<ork are %re2ent, but 'orm
only %art o' t$e 2tory.
Take t$e <orker2A movement, brie'ly. T$e $i2tory o' labour 'ederation2 and union2 i2 laced
<it$ alliance2 and animo2itie2 amon( individual leader2, %er2onal =ealou2ie2, and 'actional
rivalrie2. /nd one can 'ind numerou2 e)am%le2 o' labour leader2 <$o2e e(o2 and %er2onal
ambition2 'ar over2$ado<ed t$eir concern 'or c$am%ionin( t$e cau2e2 o' <orkin( cla22 men
and <omen. But leavin( t$e analy2i2 t$ere <ould be to leave out t$e numerou2 economic,
2ocial, and %olitical i22ue2 t$at al2o motivate and mobiliCe union member2 and leader2,
includin( 2$ar% debate2 <it$in t$e movementA2 union2 and 'ederation2 over 2trate(ie2,
tactic2, and (oal2.(83) @oreover, t$e $i2tory o' con'rontation bet<een or(aniCed <orker2
and t$eir em%loyer2 i2 clear evidence t$at a %c' 'rame<ork de%iction o' no cla22 or 2ocial
anta(oni2m i2 erroneou2.
;roo' o' 2$ar% 2ocial con'lict i2 al2o evident in t$e radical movement a22ociated <it$
0ommuni2t %artie2, armed rebellion2, and %rotracted (uerrilla <ar'are durin( muc$ o' t$i2
century. 4nly in a very limited <ay doe2 t$e %c' 'rame<ork $el% to e)%lain a2%ect2 o' t$at
%olitical $i2tory. 0on2ider, 'or in2tance, t$e current 2%lit2 <it$in t$e 0ommuni2t ;arty o' t$e
;$ili%%ine2 (0;;).(81) Drom a %c' %er2%ective, one could ar(ue t$at t$e %arty i2 but anot$er
e)am%le o' a Dili%ino or(aniCation t$at cannot 2u2tain leader2$i% tran2ition2 <it$out
2%linterin( and 'actionaliCin( on account o' %er2onal vindictivene22 and envy amon(
e(oti2tical leader2, eac$ c$ar(in( t$e ot$er2 <it$ abu2in( t$eir %o2ition2 o' aut$ority 'or
%er2onal (ain and (lory. T$ere are (round2 to 2u%%ort t$i2 inter%retation. But a2 im%ortant,
i' not more 2o, i2 t$e evidence 'or dee%, lon(12moulderin( debate2 and di2cord2 <it$in t$e
%arty over a ran(e o' ma=or %olitical Eue2tion2. /mon( t$em are t$e role o' urban
in2urrection, <$et$er to tolerate or encoura(e %eace'ul rat$er t$an armed 2tru((le, 2uitable
'orm2 o' military or(aniCation, le(itimate aut$ority relation2$i%2 <it$in t$e %arty, and %ro%er
relation2 bet<een t$e 0;; and or(aniCation2 allied <it$ it.
T$e movement . can 2ay mo2t about involve2 %ea2ant and ot$er rural <orker or(aniCation2.
T$inkin( about ;$ili%%ine %olitic2 <it$in a %c' 'rame<ork, one could not ima(ine t$e
2tream2, even torrent2 o' rural or(aniCation2 t$at $ave %romoted a ran(e o' i22ue2 and
cau2e2 (enerally aimed at tryin( to im%rove economic, %olitical, and 2ocial condition2 in t$e
country2ide. Bet t$i2 i2 %reci2ely <$at t$e ;$ili%%ine2 $a2 $ad in t$e t<entiet$ century.
T$ou2and2 o' 2mall or(aniCation2 o' villa(er2 $ave %re22ured local lando<ner2 and
(overnment o''icial2 to take t$eir com%laint2 2eriou2ly and numerou2 lar(e re(ional and
national 'ederation2 and a22ociation2 o' %ea2ant and a(ricultural <orker2 $ave %u2$ed 'or
a(rarian re'orm2 and ot$er %olicie2. ,everal violent %ea2ant u%ri2in(2 $ave al2o occurred?
2ome o' t$em $ave (ro<n into rural1ba2ed rebellion2 and revolutionary armie2 t$at $ave
t$reatened to to%%le t$e 2tate.
T$e $i2tory o' %ea2ant or(aniCation, di2content, and occa2ional rebellion i2, in %art, a $i2tory
o' con'lict bet<een t$e %oor and t$e better o'', %ea2ant2 and landlord2, ma22e2 and elite2 1
%reci2ely t$e cleava(e2 t$at a %c' 'rame<ork cannot accommodate. ,imilarly, t$at
'rame<ork <ould not com%re$end numerou2 %olitical Eue2tion2 at t$e center o' t$e %ea2ant
movement# demand2 'or better tenancy arran(ement2, $i($er <a(e2, decent livin(
condition2, land redi2tribution, c$ea% credit, lo<er 'ertili2er %rice2, 'air rice %rice2, and many
more. 4ne cannot under2tand t$e %olitic2 o' %ea2ant and a(ricultural <orker or(aniCation2,
<$et$er 2mall or lar(e, <it$out includin( 2uc$ i22ue2 and Eue2tion2 in oneA2 analy2i2. 5or
can one com%re$end t$e t$reat t$at rural %eo%le $ave %o2ed to lar(e lando<ner2, 2u(ar
central o<ner2, (overnment o''icial2, and ot$er %o<er'ul intere2t2 <$o very o'ten re2orted
to violence and ot$er re%re22ion in an e''ort to 2ilence %ea2ant or(aniCation2. !ecall, 'or
e)am%le, t$at t$e ;amban2an( Kai2a$an n( m(a @a(bubukid (;K@, 5ational ;ea2ant2
nion), a mid119832 or(aniCation <it$ 533,333 member2, mo2t o' t$em in central "uCon,
<ent into oblivion not 'or <ant o' 2u%%ort 'rom %ea2ant2 but becau2e landlord armie2 and
(overnment troo%2 killed leader2 and member2 and drove under(round many o' t$e re2t.
T$e @alayan( ,ama$an( @a(2a2aka (@/,/K/, Dree /22ociation o' ;ea2ant2), 'ormed in t$e
early 19632 to %re22ure t$e 2tate to im%lement a(rarian re'orm, colla%2ed not merely
becau2e o' 'actionali2m and %er2onal rivalrie2 <it$in t$e or(aniCation 1 t$ou($ t$o2e e)i2ted
and became 2eriou2 in t$e late 19632 1 but al2o becau2e t$e @arco2 re(ime, <$en im%o2in(
martial la<, raided it2 o''ice2 and $ara22ed and arre2ted many member2 and leader2.
/ look at t<o recent %ea2ant1oriented or(aniCation2 t$at $ave $ad 2ome 2eriou2 internal
con'lict2 i2 a u2e'ul <ay to illu2trate brie'ly t$e limitation2 o' a %c' a%%roac$.(82) T$e t<o
are 0on(re22 'or ;eo%leA2 /(rarian !e'orm (0;/!) and Kilu2an( @a(bubukid n( ;ili%ina2
(K@;, ;ea2ant @ovement o' t$e ;$ili%%ine2). 0;/! be(an in 19J7 a2 an alliance amon(
2everal %ea2ant or(aniCation2 (one o' t$em bein( K@;) to cam%ai(n 'or a more
encom%a22in( a(rarian re'orm %ro(ramme t$an t$e /Euino (overnment <a2 %ro%o2in(. .t
became an e''ective advocate 'or a(rarian re'orm and related concern2 o' it2 member
or(aniCation2. But in 1999, it di22olved a'ter 2everal mont$2 o' internal di2a(reement2. T$e
K@;, 'ounded in 19J5, $ad (ro<n by t$e early 19932 into one o' t$e countryA2 lar(e2t
%ea2ant a22ociation2 <it$ c$a%ter2 and a''iliated (rou%2 in 2everal %rovince2. But it al2o $ad
many internal %roblem2 and in 1999 2%lit into t<o or(aniCation2. Di''icultie2 in eac$ ca2e
included %er2onal rivalrie2, 2u2%icion2, intri(ue2, and ot$er 'eature2 o' 'actional %olitic2
corre2%ondin( to a %c' analy2i2. !e(ardin( t$e K@;, cla2$in( e(o2 o' national leader2
'i(ured in t$e or(aniCationA2 breaku%. Jaime Tadeo <a2 it2 'oundin( c$air%er2on and $ad
2erved in t$at %o2ition until bein( 2entenced to a %ri2on term in 1993. !a'ael @ariano, <$o
$ad been a vice1c$air%er2on, t$en became t$e ne< c$air. /'ter bein( relea2ed in /u(u2t
1999, Tadeo a%%arently e)%ected to become a(ain t$e c$air%er2on but $e <a2 rebu''ed by
@ariano and ot$er2 in t$e national council. ,$ortly a'ter t$at, Tadeo and ot$er national
council member2 2aid to be loyal to $im 'ormed a ne< or(aniCation, t$e Democratic K@;
(DK@;). T$i2 and related evidence, includin( c$ar(e2 and counter1c$ar(e2 bet<een t$e t<o
2ide2 about mi2u2e o' K@; 'und2, could be <oven into an analy2i2 2$o<in( t$at t$e K@;
2%lit alon( 'ault line2 created by %er2onal rivalrie2 bet<een t<o leader2, eac$ <it$ $i2 o<n
2et o' 'ollo<er2. .n ot$er <ord2, t$e or(aniCation <a2 'actionaliCed very muc$ a2 a %c'
'rame<ork <ould lead one to e)%ect and could e)%lain. / 2imilar e)%lanation could be made
about 0;/!. "eader2 o' 2ome o' t$e member or(aniCation2 intimated t$at 0;/!A2
2ecretariat, ba2ed in LueCon 0ity, and it2 director, Dinky ,oliman, <ere intrudin( on t$e2e
leader2A tur', de%rivin( t$e2e leader2 and t$eir or(aniCation2 o' %o22ible 'undin( 'rom
'oundation donor2, and 2kimmin( money 'or %er2onal u2e 1 c$ar(e2 t$e 2ecretariat and
,oliman denied.
I$ile 2uc$ element2 'ittin( a %c' analy2i2 are evident, t$ey do not do =u2tice to t$e com%le)
rea2on2 'or <$at $a%%ened to t$e t<o or(aniCation2. Nital to under2tandin( t$e outcome2
are lon(12tandin( ar(ument2 over 2trate(ie2, tactic2, and ot$er 2ub2tantive i22ue2 central to
t$e %ur%o2e and meanin( o' eac$ or(aniCation. To 2ome e)tent, t$e2e i22ue2 are even
ent<ined <it$ t$e %er2onal anta(oni2m2 in t$at individual2 became identi'ied <it$ variou2
con'lictin( %o2ition2. .n t$e K@; a 2trenuou2 debate, datin( 'rom t$e late 19J32, re(ardin(
it2 relation2$i% <it$ t$e 0;; ultimately contributed to t$e 2%lit. "eader2 @ariano and Tadeo
$ad (ravitated to o%%o2ite %o2ition2 on t$e i22ue. T$at debate (enerated 2everal ot$er2 a2
t$e 0;; it2el' became dee%ly divided alon( a ran(e o' vital Eue2tion2. 0;/!A2 o<n 'ate <a2
a''ected by t$e divi2ion2 <it$in t$e K@;. /nd di''erence2 amon( 0;/!A2 member
or(aniCation2 al2o contributed to it2 di22olution. Dor in2tance, 2ome o' t$o2e or(aniCation2
<anted to (et involved in t$e 1992 election2 <$ile ot$er2 did not. T$o2e t$at did could not
a(ree on <$ic$ candidate2 'or %re2ident and ot$er national o''ice2 <ould better 2erve t$eir
%ea2ant member2$i%2. /nd a'ter t$e election2 t$ey di2a(reed on t$e e)tent to <$ic$ t$ey
2$ould <ork <it$ or o%%o2e t$e ne< !amo2 (overnment on a(rarian re'orm matter2.
;er$a%2 t$e mo2t e)$au2tin( debate2 <ere about numerou2 %ro%o2al2 and revi2ed
%ro%o2al2 'or $o< to reor(ani2e 0;/!. Ire2tlin( <it$ t$e2e and ot$er %roblem2 'rom 1991
on<ard2, 0;/! <a2 able to reac$ 2ati2'actory 2olution2 to 2ome but not to all. ltimately
t$e member or(aniCation2 decided to di2band and (o t$eir 2e%arate <ay2.
I$ile my di2cu22ion o' %olitical movement2 i2 by no mean2 e)$au2tive, it 2ub2tantiate2 t$e
main %oint t$at analyCin( t$em reEuire2 more t$an a %c' 'rame<ork.
!veryday Politics
/not$er %olitical realm i2 t$e va2t, (enerally unor(aniCed and in'ormal di2cour2e and activity
o' everyday %olitic2 <$ere %eo%le come to term2 <it$ and&or conte2t norm2 and rule2
re(ardin( aut$ority, %roduction, and t$e allocation o' re2ource2. 6)aminin( t$at terrain
t$rou($ only a %c' lookin( (la22 <ould overlook a (reat deal o' intere2tin( be$aviour and
.llu2trative i2 re2earc$ by @ic$ael ;inc$e2 in Tatalon, a LueCon 0ity nei($bour$ood
com%o2ed mainly o' %oor %eo%le. T$ere $e 'ind2 a HG%rinci%le line o' ten2ion t$at run2
t$rou($ t$ou($t and actionG, namely t$e ten2ion bet<een accommodation and re2i2tance
to t$e %revailin( 2ocial orderH.(89) /ccommodation by %oor Tatalon re2ident2 include2 a
ran(e o' activitie2, e2%ecially makin( tie2 to em%loyer2, <ealt$ier nei($bour2, and ot$er
%eo%le in %o2ition2 %otentially o' u2e to t$em in2ide and beyond Tatalon. Bein( in relatively
di2advanta(eou2 %o2ition2 2ocially, %olitically, and economically, t$e2e %eo%le nurture a2
be2t t$ey can <eb2 o' relation2$i%2 reac$in( u%<ard into $i($er, more 2ecure 2trata in t$e
$o%e o' bein( able to u2e t$o2e connection2 in time o' need. T$ey are client2 to a 2erie2 o'
%atron2, %roo' t$at t$e %c' 'rame<ork re%re2ent2 a ;$ili%%ine reality. But t$ere i2 more.
;oor re2ident2 al2o are critical o' $o< %eo%le above t$em in t$e 2ocial $ierarc$y treat and
re(ard t$em. T$ey carry around con2iderable re2entment and $o2tility to<ard t$o2e <it$
%o<er over t$em. Bein( rat$er vulnerable, $o<ever, t$ey rarely o%enly e)%re22 t$o2e
vie<2, e2%ecially in t$e %re2ence o' t$e very %eo%le <$om t$ey re2ent. /nd <$en t$ey do,
t$ey are likely to be (uarded about it. / deli($t'ul e)am%le conveyed by ;inc$e2 occurred at
a %ublic meetin( <$en t$e @arco2 re(ime <a2 2till in %o<er. .melda @arco2 $ad been
boa2tin( about $er com%a22ion 'or t$e %oor and %led(ed to (ive 2Euatter2 in Tatalon t$eir
land, at <$ic$ %oint a man in t$e cro<d $eld u% a 2mall %ot o' 2oil and 2$outed Hone %ot o'
landH, indirectly mockin( t$e Dir2t "ady.(88) ,uc$ animo2ity <ould not 2Euare <it$ a %c'
%ortrayal o' 2moot$, $armoniou2 relation2 bet<een elite and non1elite %eo%le.
@y re2earc$ in ,an !icardo, 5ueva 6ci=a, al2o reveal2 t$at a ma=or 'eature o' everyday
%olitic2 i2 coo%eration and con'lict amon( %eo%le in di''erent cla22e2 and 2tatu2e2 about
2uc$ matter2 a2 land, em%loyment, <orkin( condition2, %rice2, o%%ortunitie2 'or li'e
im%rovement, and (overnment o%%ortunitie2.(85) nder2tandin( %olitic2 in t$i2 0entral
"uCon villa(e reEuire2 e)aminin( bot$ $oriContal and vertical ali(nment2 and anta(oni2m2.
;atron1client relation2 and ot$er vertical tie2 amon( uneEual2 are <it$out doubt im%ortant,
but t$ey are not t$e 'ull ran(e o' interaction. Be2ide2 t$e makin( and nurturin( o' %atron1
client tie2, everyday %olitic2 include2 con2iderable re2i2tance by 2ubordinate villa(er2
a(ain2t t$e claim2 on t$em by <ealt$ier %eo%le, ca%itali2t2, and t$e (overnment and t$eir
2tru((le to claim <$at t$ey believe 2$ould be t$eir2. /2 in Tatalon, 2uc$ re2i2tance in ,an
!icardo i2 o'ten indirect, noncon'rontational, and $idden.
,c$olar2 do 1 and 2$ould 1 reco(niCe t$e u2e'ulne22 o' t$e %atron1client, 'actional
'rame<ork. /l2o $el%'ul are t$e ar(ument2 o' elite democracy and de%endency analy2e2
re(ardin( t$e %re2ence o' violence, (reed, 2el'12ervin( elite2, and im%eriali2m in ;$ili%%ine
%olitic2. But <e <$o 2tudy t$e ;$ili%%ine2 2$ould not limit our analy2e2 to t$e 'eature2 on
<$ic$ t$e2e a%%roac$e2 d<ell. @uc$ more i2 $a%%enin( t$an t$ey can accommodate. /ll t$e
domain2 o' %olitical li'e di2cu22ed in t$i2 article 1 election2, %olitician2, %olitical movement2,
and everyday %olitic2 1 include value2 and idea2, cleava(e2, and a22ociation2 t$at are not
e)%lained and 2carcely reco(niCed by %atron1client, 'actional analy2i2. ;olitic2 in t$e
;$ili%%ine2 cannot accurately be reduced to %olitic2 o' %er2onal relation2$i%2, and ambition2.
Fo<ever im%ortant t$o2e are, %rinci%le2, belie'2 about <$at i2 be2t 'or a con2tituency or a
cla22 o' %eo%le or a nation, a22e22ment2 o' <$at i2 ri($t or <ron( beyond t$e %er2onal, and
many ot$er con2ideration2 are al2o %erva2ive. /nd relation2 bet<een cla22e2 and 2tatu2
(rou%2, contrary to t$e %c' 'rame<ork, are not nece22arily $armoniou2 and devoid o'
2i(ni'icant con'lict. T$ey may be, but t$ey may in2tead be con'lictual, and o'ten t$ey are
;er$a%2 2omeone can eventually brin( to(et$er into one, all1encom%a22in( 'rame<ork
%atron1client analy2i2, 'actionali2m, %olitical economy, cla22 analy2i2, 'emini2t analy2i2,
%o2t1moderni2m, and ot$er a%%roac$e2 reEuired to $ave a com%re$en2ive under2tandin( o'
;$ili%%ine %olitic2. T$en a(ain, maybe t$at i2 not de2irable. 4ne rea2on t$e %c' 'rame<ork
$a2 been 2o in'luential on 2c$olar2$i% 1 be2ide2 it 2$eddin( li($t on certain a2%ect2 o'
%olitical li'e 1 i2 t$at it <a2 readily available 'or analy2t2 to u2e. !at$er t$an 'i(urin( out 'or
t$em2elve2 an under2tandin( o' ;$ili%%ine %olitic2, many re2earc$er2 $ave reac$ed 'or a %c'
a%%roac$, %er$a%2 2u%%lemented by an elite democracy inter%retation, to brin( order to t$e
colla(e o' material, leavin( a2ide <$atever did not 'it. / ne< totaliCin( 'rame<ork could
$ave 2imilar con2eEuence2.
6)clu2ion2 and di2tortion2 are inevitable, no matter $o< com%re$en2ive t$e analy2i2. @uc$
in li'e elude2 2ynt$e2i2, t$ou($ 2ome 2ynt$e2e2 are more inclu2ive and ele(ant t$an ot$er2.
!at$er t$an analy2t2 no< 2%endin( inordinate amount2 o' time and ener(y debatin( <$ic$
2in(le a%%roac$ i2 be2t or $o< to combine many or all into one, it <ould be more %roductive
to e)amine ;$ili%%ine %olitic2 care'ully <$ile bearin( in mind all or a2 many available
inter%retation2 and a%%roac$e2 a2 %o22ible and remainin( o%en to bein( 2ur%ri2ed by
'indin(2 t$at do not 'it any o' t$em. / 2c$olar can t$en %ut 'or<ard an analy2i2 in t$e 2%irit
o' 2tru((lin( to (ain (reater in2i($t and a%%reciation 'or <$at i2 (oin( on <it$out claimin(
t$at t$e %articular 'rame<ork u2ed or ar(ument made ca%ture2 t$e e22ence o' t$e entire
2ociety. 4ne can be vi(orou2 in ar(uin( 'or t$e utility o' one or a combination o' a%%roac$e2
<$ile at t$e 2ame time ackno<led(in( t$at ot$er inter%retation2 are %lau2ible. Dee%
re2earc$ on ;$ili%%ine %olitic2 i2 2till 2carce. / (reat deal more 2$ould be done acro22 an
array o' %olitical li'e 1 not =u2t election2, %olitical %artie2, and ot$er conventional a2%ect2 o'
t$e land2ca%e but al2o domain2 2uc$ a2 non1(overnment in2titution2 and or(aniCation2,
%olitical movement2, and everyday %olitic2. . <ould 'avour %roceedin( <it$ t$at re2earc$ in
t$e manner =u2t mentioned rat$er t$an in2i2tin( no< on one a%%roac$ to re%lace t$e once
dominant %atron1client, 'actional 'rame<ork.
. am (rate'ul 'or comment2 on earlier ver2ion2 'rom t<o anonymou2 reader2 'or t$e Journal
o' ,out$ea2t /2ian ,tudie2 and 'rom 0arl "ande, @elinda Tria Kerkvliet and Bruce
1 @ary !. Folln2teiner, T$e Dynamic2 o' ;o<er in a ;$ili%%ine @unici%ality (LueCon 0ity#
0ommunity Develo%ment !e2earc$ 0enter, niver2ity o' t$e ;$ili%%ine2, 1969).
2 0arl "ande, "eader2, Daction2, and ;artie2# T$e ,tructure o' ;$ili%%ine ;olitic2 (5e<
Faven# ,out$ea2t /2ia ,tudie2, Bale niver2ity, 1965), %. 1.
9 .bid., %. 17.
8 Folln2teiner, Dynamic2 o' ;o<er, "ande, "eader2, Daction2, and ;artie2? 4no're 0or%uC,
T$e ;$ili%%ine2 (6n(le<ood 0li''2, 5.J.# ;rentice Fall, 1965), %. 97? !emi(io 6. /(%alo, T$e
;olitical 6lite and t$e ;eo%le# / ,tudy o' ;olitic2 in 4ccidental @indoro (@anila# 0olle(e o'
;ublic /dmini2tration, niver2ity o' t$e ;$ili%%ine2, 1972).
5 "ande, "eader2, Daction2, and ;olitic2? 0arl "ande and /llan 0i(ler, H,ocial 0leava(e and
;olitical ;artie2 in t$e ;o2t1@arco2 ;$ili%%ine2H, Dinal !e%ort 'or t$e .,. De%artment o'
,tateA2 6)ternal !e2earc$ ;ro(ram and t$e niver2ity o' Kan2a2, 1993, %%. 9J183? /(%alo,
;olitical 6lite and t$e ;eo%le? Folln2teiner, Dynamic2 o' ;o<er, Firo'umi /ndo, H6lection2 in
t$e ;$ili%%ine2# @a2216lite .nteraction T$rou($ t$e 6lectoral ;roce22, 198611969H (;$.D.
di22., niver2ity o' @ic$i(an, 1971), c$. 6? /rt$ur ,$antC, H;olitical ;artie2# T$e 0$an(in(
Doundation2 o' ;$ili%%ine DemocracyH (;$.D. di22., niver2ity o' @ic$i(an, 1972), c$. 9.
6 T$e revival o' rival %olitical mac$ine2 2ince t$e demi2e o' @arco2A2 i2 o'ten cited in ne<2
covera(e and commentary in t$e ;$ili%%ine2 and abroad. Dor in2tance, 2ee 0onrado de
Luiro2, H/ Trium%$, Be2 1 but o' I$atH, ;$ili%%ine Daily .nEuirer (16 @ay 1992)# 5? Dar
6a2tern 6conomic !evie< (19 @arc$ 1992)# 22193.
7 T$e term Hne< menH i2 'rom Kit @ac$ado, <$o $a2 done t$e mo2t <ork on t$e evolution
o' ;$ili%%ine %olitical mac$ine2. K.:. @ac$ado, H0$an(in( /2%ect2 o' Dactionali2m in
;$ili%%ine "ocal ;olitic2H, /2ian ,urvey 11 (December)# 11J2199? K.:. @ac$ado, H"eader2$i%
and 4r(aniCation in ;$ili%%ine "ocal ;olitic2H (;$.D. di22., niver2ity o' Ia2$in(ton, 1972)?
K.:. @ac$ado, H0$an(in( ;attern2 o' "eader2$i% !ecruitment and t$e 6mer(ence o' t$e
;ro'e22ional ;olitician in ;$ili%%ine "ocal ;olitic2H, in ;olitical 0$an(e in t$e ;$ili%%ine2#
,tudie2 o' "ocal ;olitic2 ;recedin( @artial "a<, ed. Benedict J. Kerkvliet (Fonolulu# /2ian
,tudie2 at Fa<aii, niver2ity ;re22 o' Fa<aii, 1978), %%. 771129.
J Dor in2tance, 2ee "ande, "eader2, Daction2, and ;artie2, %%. 62, 6J, 79, 115.
9 /drian "e't<ic$, H;olitic2# ;eo%le, !e2ource2, and ;o<erH, in I$at i2 ;olitic2*, ed. /drian
"e't<ic$ (4)'ord# Ba2il Black<ell, 19J8), %%. 68165? Benedict J. Tria Kerkvliet, 6veryday
;olitic2 in t$e ;$ili%%ine2# 0la22 and ,tatu2 !elation2 in a 0entral "uCon Nilla(e (Berkeley#
niver2ity o' 0ali'ornia ;re22, 1993), %. 11.
13 Folln2teiner, Dynamic2 o' ;o<er, %%. J6, 91? "ande, "eader2, Daction2, and ;artie2, %%.
13112? /(%alo, ;olitical 6lite and t$e ;eo%le, %. 978? and David Timberman, / 0$an(ele22
"and# 0ontinuity and 0$an(e in ;$ili%%ine ;olitic2 (5e< Bork# @.6. ,$ar%e, 1991), %%. 291
11 Jame2 ,cott, H;atron10lient ;olitic2 and ;olitical 0$an(e in ,out$ea2t /2iaH, in Driend2,
Dollo<er2, and Daction2# / !eader in ;olitical 0lienteli2m, ed. ,te''en ,c$midt, et al.
(Berkeley# niver2ity o' 0ali'ornia ;re22, 1977), %. 192.
12 Kerkvliet, 6veryday ;olitic2, c$. 7.
19 6ric :utierreC, et al., /ll in t$e Damily# / ,tudy o' 6lite2 and ;o<er !elation2 in t$e
;$ili%%ine2 (LueCon 0ity# .n2titute 'or ;o%ular Democracy, 1992), %. 163.
18 Jeremy Beckett, H;olitical Damilie2 and Damily ;olitic2 amon( t$e @u2lim @a(uindanaon
o' 0ota$atoH, in /n /narc$y o' Damilie2# ,tate and Damily in t$e ;$ili%%ine2, ed. /l'red
@c0oy (@adi2on# 0enter 'or ,out$ea2t /2ian ,tudie2, niver2ity o' Ii2con2in, 1999), %.
15 Timberman, 0$an(ele22 "and, %%. 15116, 22.
16 Benedict /nder2on, H0aciEue Democracy in t$e ;$ili%%ine2# 4ri(in2 and Dream2H, 5e<
"e't !evie< 169 (19JJ)# 9191? ;aul Futc$cro't, H4li(arc$2 and 0ronie2 in t$e ;$ili%%ine
,tate# T$e ;olitic2 o' ;atrimonial ;lunderH, Iorld ;olitic2 89 (/%ril 1991)# 818153? /.!.
@a(no, ;o<er Iit$out Dorm# 622ay2 on t$e Dili%ino ,tate and ;olitic2 (@anila# Kalika2an
;re22, 1993), %%. 73192, 9J199? Jo$n T$ayer ,idel, HBeyond ;atron10lient !elation2#
Iarlordi2m and "ocal ;olitic2 in t$e ;$ili%%ine2H, Ka2arinlan 8 (12t Luarter 19J9)# 19193.
/l2o 2ee /rt$ur Iilliam2A di22ertation <$ic$ ar(ue2 t$at i' indeed %atron1client relation2
<ere central to t$e 2y2tem, 'ar more re2ource2 <ould $ave trickled do<n to rural voter2.
.n2tead, mo2t o' money to <$ic$ %olitician2 $ad acce22, le(ally and ille(ally, 2tayed <it$
t$em and <it$in limited, elite circle2 O/rt$ur Iilliam2, H0enter, Bureaucracy, and "ocality#
0entral1"ocal !elation2 in t$e ;$ili%%ine2H (;$.D. di22., 0ornell niver2ity, 19J1), %%. 53''.Q.
17 0ontra2t, 'or in2tance, 0arl "ande, ,out$ern Ta(alo( Notin(, 198611969# ;olitical
Be$aviour in a ;$ili%%ine !e(ion (Dekalb# 0enter 'or ,out$ea2t /2ian ,tudie2, 5ort$ern
.llinoi2 niver2ity, 1979), e2%ecially %. 99 and ,$antC, H;olitical ;artie2H, %%. 185, 288, 2J61
J9 <it$ /l'red @c0oy, HLueConA2 0ommon<ealt$# T$e 6mer(ence o' ;$ili%%ine
/ut$oritariani2mH, in ;$ili%%ine 0olonial Democracy, ed. !uby !. ;arede2 (LueCon 0ity#
/teneo de @anila niver2ity ;re22, 19J9), %. 191 and 6u(ene :ibb2, HDamily and ;olitic2# /
2tudy o' a Dili%ino @iddle 0la22 DamilyH (;$.D. di22., 0laremont :raduate ,c$ool, 1971), %.
1J Dor 0ebu 2ee !e2il @o=are2, H;olitical 0$an(e in a !ural Di2trict in 0ebu ;rovinceH, in
Drom @arco2 to /Euino# "ocal ;er2%ective2 on ;olitical Tran2ition in t$e ;$ili%%ine2, ed.
Benedict J. Tria Kerkvliet and !e2il @o=are2 (Fonolulu# niver2ity o' Fa<aii ;re22, 1991),
%%. 591J1? 'or @ara<i, 2ee 0arter Bentley, H;eo%le ;o<er and /'ter in t$e .2lamic 0ity o'
@ara<iH, in Drom @arco2 to /Euino, %%. 9615J? 'or 5e(ro2 4ccidental be'ore and a'ter t$e
@arco2 year2, 2ee /l'red @c0oy, HT$e !e2toration o' ;lanter ;o<er in "a 0arlota 0ityH, in
Drom @arco2 to /Euino, %%. 1351182. Jor(e 0oEuia <rite2 t$at t$e (overnor o' 5e(ro2
4ccidental in t$e late 19832 and early 19532 'inanced $i2 notoriou2 %rivate army 'rom
(amblin( den2 2%on2ored by munici%al mayor2 <$o collected %rotection money (ton() 'or
t$e %ur%o2e. I$en unit2 o' t$e ;$ili%%ine /rmy <ere 2ent t$ere to %olice t$e %oll2 in t$e
1951 election2, t$ey <ere 2ur%ri2ed to 'ind t$at t$i2 H%rivate armyH <a2 better eEui%%ed
t$an t$ey <ere OJor(e !. 0oEuia, T$e ;$ili%%ine ;re2idential 6lection o' 1959 (@anila#
;$ili%%ine 6ducation Doundation, 1955), %%. 9719JQ.
19 ,ee, 'or e)am%le, David Iur'el, Dili%ino ;olitic2# Develo%ment and Decay (.t$aca#
0ornell niver2ity ;re22, 19JJ), %. 97? Benedict J. Kerkvliet, T$e Fuk !ebellion# / ,tudy o'
;ea2ant !evolt in t$e ;$ili%%ine2 (Berkeley# niver2ity o' 0ali'ornia ;re22, 1977), %. 235?
@ark T$om%2on, Democratic 4%%o2ition to ,ultan1i2tic !ule# T$e /nti1@arco2 ,tru((le and
t$e Trouble2 Tran2ition in t$e ;$ili%%ine2 (5e< Faven# Bale niver2ity ;re22, 'ort$comin()?
0oEuia, ;$ili%%ine ;re2idential 6lection, %%. 95197, 111118? and Drance2 ". ,tarner,
@a(2ay2ay and t$e ;$ili%%ine ;ea2antry (Berkeley# niver2ity o' 0ali'ornia ;re22, 1961), %%.
63, 65166, 252. /l2o 2ee re%ort2 in t$e @anila 0$ronicle, ,e%tember15ovember 1989.
23 Iur'el, Dili%ino ;olitic2.
21 T$om%2on, Democratic 4%%o2ition to ,ultani2tic !ule.
22 /ndo, H6lection2 in t$e ;$ili%%ine2H, %%. 771J3? "ande, ,out$ern Ta(alo( Notin(, %. 9J?
"ande and 0i(ler, H,ocial 0leava(e and ;olitical ;artie2H, %%. 9J181.
29 ,$antC, H;olitical ;artie2H, %. 275.
28 0ri2tina Blanc1,Canton, H0$an(e and ;olitic2 in a Ie2tern Ni2ayan @unici%alityH, in Drom
@arco2 to /Euino, %%. J21138? Jame2 6der, H;olitical Tran2ition in a ;ala<an Darmin(
0ommunityH, in Drom @arco2 to /Euino, %%. 189165? Benedict J. Tria Kerkvliet,
Hnder2tandin( ;olitic2 in a 5ueva 6ci=a !ural 0ommunityH, in Drom @arco2 to /Euino, %%.
226186? !e2il @o=are2, H;olitical 0$an(e in a !ural Di2trict in 0ebu ;rovinceH, in Drom
@arco2 to /Euino, %%. 591J1? !aul ;ertierra, H0ommunity and ;o<er in an .lokano
@unici%alityH, in Drom @arco2 to /Euino, %%. 287165? @ic$ael ;inc$e2, HT$e Iorkin( 0la22
6)%erience o' ,$ame, .neEuality and ;eo%le ;o<er in Tatalon, @anilaH, in Drom @arco2 to
/Euino, %%. 1661J6? !o2anne !utten, H0ourtin( t$e Iorker2A Note# !$etoric and !e2%on2e
in a ;$ili%%ine Facienda !e(ionH (5e< Bork# Iorkin( ;a%er ,erie2, 5e< ,c$ool 'or ,ocial
!e2earc$, 1999)? @ark Turner, H;olitic2 Durin( t$e Tran2ition in Mamboan(a 0ity, 19J81
19JJH, in Drom @arco2 to /Euino, %%. 19195? Iillem Iolter2, ;olitic2, ;atrona(e and 0la22
0on'lict in 0entral "uCon (T$e Fa(ue# .n2titute o' ,ocial ,tudie2, 19J9), c$. 9? Dernando
Mialcita, H;er2%ective2 on "e(itimacy in .loco2 5orteH, in Drom @arco2 to /Euino, %%. 2661J7.
25 Turner, H;olitic2 Durin( t$e Tran2itionH, %. 15.
26 Iur'el, Dili%ino ;olitic2, %. 139? ;etronilo Daroy, H4n t$e 6ve o' Dictator2$i% and
!evolutionH, in Dictator2$i% and !evolution# !oot2 o' ;eo%leA2 ;o<er, ed. /urora Javate1de
Dio2, et al. (@etro @anila# 0on2%ectu2, 19JJ), %%. 8, 7.
27 Kerkvliet, Fuk !ebellion.
2J Dor an elaboration, 2ee Benedict J. Tria Kerkvliet, H0onte2ted @eanin(2 o' 6lection2 in t$e
;$ili%%ine2H, un%ubli2$ed %a%er, 5ovember 1999.
29 "ande, "eader2, Daction2, and ;artie2, %. 58.
93 @anila 0$ronicle, 25 5ov. 1969, %. 15? 2J 5ov. 1969, %. 1J.
91 @anila 0$ronicle, 1J Dec. 1969, %. 18? 22 Dec. 1969, %. 1? 1 Jan. 1973, %. 12? 21 Jan.
1973, %. 1? 9 Deb. 1973, %. 1.
92 Kerkvliet, 6veryday ;olitic2, %. 299198.
99 Mialcita, H;er2%ective2 on "e(itimacyH, %. 2J11J2.
98 ,ymbolic o' t$i2 elite alliance in o%%o2ition to @arco2 re(ime <a2 t$e HDacilitator :rou%H,
H0onvenor :rou%H, and H;otential ,tandard Bearer2H 1 a HI$oA2 I$oH o' t$e bu2ine22 and
%olitical elite not $oldin( national (overnment o''ice 1 t$at emer(ed in 19J8 t$en mer(ed
to(et$er later durin( t$at year and out o' <$ic$ in 19J5 came t$e candidacie2 o' 0oraCon
/Euino and ,alvador "aurel. (@a. ,erena .. Diokno, Hnity and ,tru((leH, in Dictator2$i%
and !evolution, %%. 152155.)
95 / 2en2e o' t$i2 mood i2 conveyed in an intervie< <it$ 0ecilia @unoC ;alma, a 'ormer
,u%reme 0ourt =u2tice <$o <a2 active in %olitical or(aniCation2 o%%o2in( @arco2. O;aulynn
;. ,icam, H.ntervie<# 0ecilia @unoC ;almaH, 5ational @id<eek (11 December 19J5)# 6113.Q
/l2o 2ee !uben 0anoy, T$e 0ounter'eit !evolution# @artial "a< in t$e ;$ili%%ine2 (@anila#
;$ili%%ine 6lection2, 19J3), %%. 28J153. @any %eo%le . met in 19J5 in @anila and rural area2
<ere terribly <orried about 2%readin( civil <ar and $o%ed t$at a %eace'ul election <ould
rever2e t$at trend. T$e im%ortance o' t$e election and t$e 2eriou2ne22 <it$ <$ic$ many
ordinary citiCen2 re(arded it are conveyed in a marvellou2 'ilm directed by :ary Kildea
about villa(er2 in Bukidnon %rovince. (:ary Kildea, HNalencia DiaryH. Dilm&Nideo. T<o $our2.
96 ;er2onal corre2%ondence 'rom Dinky and Fec ,oliman, 11 @arc$ 19J6.
97 T$ou($ my 2earc$ $a2 not yet been com%re$en2ive, . $ave t$u2 'ar been unable to
locate a 2c$olarly analy2i2 o' any o' t$e2e 'our %olitician2.
9J T$i2 and t$e ne)t %ara(ra%$ are ba2ed on Jo$n /. "arkin, ,u(ar and t$e 4ri(in2 o'
@odern ;$ili%%ine ,ociety (Berkeley# niver2ity o' 0ali'ornia ;re22, 1999), %%. 1961233?
/ntonio ,. Tan, HT$e .deolo(y o' ;edro /bad ,anto2A ,ociali2t ;artyH (LueCon 0ity#
4cca2ional ;a%er, /2ian 0enter, niver2ity o' t$e ;$ili%%ine2, 19J8)? Benedict J. Kerkvliet,
H;ea2ant !ebellion in t$e ;$ili%%ine2H (;$.D. di22., niver2ity o' Ii2con2in, @adi2on, 1972),
%%. 199155? and Kerkvliet, Fuk !ebellion, %%. 52159.
99 ,ee, 'or e)am%le, !obert Boun(blood, @arco2 /(ain2t t$e 0$urc$# 6conomic
Develo%ment and ;olitical !e%re22ion in t$e ;$ili%%ine2 (.t$aca# 0ornell niver2ity ;re22,
1993)? Iil'redo Dabro2, T$e 0$urc$ and .t2 ,ocial .nvolvement in t$e ;$ili%%ine2, 19931
1972 (LueCon 0ity# /teneo de @anila niver2ity ;re22, 19JJ)? and ;a2Euale T. :iordano,
/<akenin( to @i22ion# T$e ;$ili%%ine 0at$olic 0$urc$ 1965119J1 (LueCon 0ity# 5e< Day
;ubli2$er2, 19JJ).
83 @elinda Tria Kerkvliet, @anila Iorker2A nion2, 193311953 (LueCon 0ity# 5e< Day,
81 T$e 'ollo<in( di2cu22ion i2 ba2ed on intervie<2 <it$ %eo%le clo2e to t$e movement,
@etro @anila, January 1998, article2 in Ka2arinlan, 1992199, and t$e collection o'
0ommuni2t ;arty and 5e< ;eo%leA2 /rmy document2, @alaliman( ;a(2u2uri at
;a(%a%aba(on(12i(la&;ro'ound !e1e)amination and !evitaliCation (@etro @anila, circa
82 T$i2 di2cu22ion i2 ba2ed on conver2ation2 durin( December 1999 and January 1998 <it$
2i) %eo%le involved in t$e2e t<o or(aniCation2.
89 ;inc$e2, HIorkin( 0la22 6)%erienceH, %. 1J9.
88 .bid., %. 176.
85 Kerkvliet, 6veryday ;olitic2.

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