GREETINGS

good morning good afternoon good evening / night good bye thank you please excuse me yes no very well I and

but if slowly (I) understand see you soon my name is to speak to go Do you speak? I'm sorry See you soon/tomorrow Great to see you

TEMPOS VERBAIS Não se preocupe em conhecer o inventário completo de tempos verbais, tempos que raramente ocorrem em linguagem comum e os quais você provavelmente saberá interpretar quando com eles se defrontar. Você assimila diferentes tempos verbais em contato com a língua e não através de esforço intelectual sobre uma apresentação esquemática. No entanto, abaixo estão os tempos verbais mais utilizados na língua inglesa. SIMPLE PRESENT - Are you a student? Do you speak English? PRESENT CONTINUOUS - Are you working now? SIMPLE PAST - Were you busy yesterday? Did you work? PAST CONTINUOUS - Was it raining yesterday when you arrived? GOING TO FUTURE - Are you going to work tomorrow? FUTURE - Will you be able to help me? FUTURE CONTINUOUS - I will be still working tomorrow, by the time you arrive.

CONDITIONAL - Would you like to have some coffee? HABITUAL PAST - We used to go to the beach when I was a kid. SIMPLE PERFECT - Have you ever been to Germany? PAST PERFECT - You would have passed the exams if you had studied more. SIMPLE FERFECT CONTINUOUS - I have been playing a lot of tennis recently. PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS - I had been working really hard by the time I was promoted. VERB TO BE ( simple present) I AM YOU ARE HE IS SHE IS IT IS WE ARE YOU ARE THEY ARE I'M YOU'RE HE'S SHE'S IT'S WE'RE YOU'RE THEY'RE

Exercises: Monte um diálogo utilizando as expressões acima e outras de sua escolha, como abaixo. STUDY THIS CONVERSATION Maria: Hello, good afternoon! My name is Maria. What is your name? Luiz: Hello Maria! My name is Luiz. How are you? Maria: Very well, thank you. Do you speak English? Luiz: Not very well, I'm sorry. But I understand if you speak slowly. Luiz: Where are you from? Maria: I am a Brazilian. And you? Luiz: I am Portuguese. Maria: Excuse me, but I have to go. Nice to meet you, Luiz. Luiz: It is my pleasure.

Maria: Goodbye Luiz, see you soon. Luiz: Goodbye Maria ADDRESSING PEOPLE Sir & Madam: You use when you don't know the name of the person you are addressing.. Mr.: Is used before a man's name. Mrs. & Miss.: Are used before a marriage and a single woman, respectively. Ms.: Is used in replacement for Miss AND Mrs. It has been created more recently, as a result of the feminism in the 60's. DEMONSTRATIVES THIS ( THESE ) - é usado para pessoa, animal ou objeto que está perto. THAT ( THOSE ) - é usado para pessoa, animal ou objeto que está longe. TEXT INTRODUCING A FRIEND Margareth: Fred, this is Mr. Sampson. He is my father. That is Mrs. Sampson. She is my mother. Father, this is Fred, my boyfriend. Mr. Sampson: Hello Fred! Welcome to my house. Fred: Thank you very much. I am so glad to meet you. Exercises: Siga o modelo e monte um pequeno texto utilizando os demonstrativos. ARTICLES ( ARTIGO DEFINIDO E INDEFINIDO) Em inglês só há uma forma para o artigo definido: the, que corresponde a o, a, os, as. Ex.:

The concept of green tourism is linked to the sustainable development. The tourism agency is closed. The Brazilian beaches are the most beautiful in the world. The children are difficult to guide in a track. a (an) corresponde ao nosso artigo indefinido um, uma. Ex.: The ecotourism is a good alternative to protect the nature. We have an urgency to protect the nature. Exercises: Forme algumas frases utilizando os artigos definidos e indefinidos. PRONOMES PESSOAIS (I/ME), REFLEXIVOS (MYSELF) E POSSESSIVOS (MY/MINE) As frases abaixo contêm inventário completo de pronomes do inglês, em todas as ocorrências gramaticais possíveis. A friend of mine told me that I should protect myself and not keep this money with me in my pocket, even though the money isn't mine. A friend of yours told you that you should protect yourself and not keep this money with you in your pocket, even though the money isn't yours. A friend of yours told you that you should protect yourselves and not keep this money with you in your pocket, even though the money isn't yours. A friend of his told him that he should protect himself and not keep this money with him in his pocket, even though the money isn't his. A friend of hers told her that she should protect herself and not keep this money with her in her pocket, even though the money isn't hers. A friend of ours told us that we should protect ourselves and not keep this money with us in our pocket, even though the money isn't ours. A friend of theirs told them that they should protect themselves and not keep this money with them in their pocket, even though the money isn't theirs.

Ou se você preferir uma frase mais simples, mas ainda abrangendo as 3 principais formas pronominais (pronome-sujeito, pronome-objeto, e possessivo): I have my books with me. You have your books with you. He has his books with him. She has her books with her. We have our books with us. They have their books with them. Exercises: Siga o modelo acima e forme frases com as 3 principais formas pronominais. PRONUNCIATION Ter boa entonação e pronuncia é fundamental para se fazer entender na língua inglesa. Procure treinar bastante pronuncias diferentes. Uma boa dica é assistir a filmes e ouvir música de preferência acompanhando a letra. Abaixo um exercício de pronuncia da língua inglesa que você pode utilizar. better, butter, city, water, writer, matter, automatic, category, demonstrated. quarter, order e porter. Internet, Pentagon, Pontiac, twenty, plenty.

VERB TO HAVE SIMPLE PRESENT I HAVE YOU HAVE HE HAS SHE HAS IT HAS WE HAVE SIMPLE PAST I HAD YOU HAD HE HAD SHE HAD IT HAD WE HAD

YOU HAVE THEY HAVE

YOU HAD THEY HAD

Exercises: Forme frases utilizando o verbo to have nos dois tempos verbais. NUMBERS 1- ONE 10002- TWO 10353- THREE 10904- FOUR 20005- FIVE 20066- SIX 30007- SEVEN 33558- EIGHT 40009- NINE 500010- TEN 10.000Exercises: Forme frases em que apareça o ano de datas importantes para você ou para a história. WHAT TIME IS IT? Para dizer a hora exata em inglês utilizamos a expressão O'CLOCK. EX. IT'S TEN O'CLOCK NOW 2030409991929395501828385001727372001626361001525359014243480132333701222326011213150-

No entanto, existem maneiras diferentes de dizer as horas e os minutos: IT'S FIFTEEN PAST SEVEN. IT'S A QUARTER PAST SEVEN. IT'S SEVEN FIFTEEN. Ou ainda: IT'S A HALF PAST TEN. IT'S A QUARTER TO ELEVEN. IT'S FIFTEEN TO ELEVEN. TEXT The bus arrived just in time at the hotel, about ten past three. When we went to the lake was about four o'clock, we arrived there when the sun was shining. There was a boat waiting us and we were very exciting to see the lots of species of fish. We dove at nine fifteen and came to the surface about ten. Exercises: Redija um pequeno texto descrevendo todo o seu dia (que hora você acorda, almoça...) VERB CAN Trata-se de um verbo modal utilizado para falar de habilidades que temos (físicas ou intelectuais). Bastante utilizado na língua inglesa é um verbo chave para muitas expressões idiomáticas. Em inglês, verbos auxiliares modais são verbos que só ocorrem na presença de outro verbo, são defectivos na conjugação e não têm passado nem futuro (com exceção do can que tem passado e condicional). Devido à alta freqüência com que ocorrem na língua, os verbos modais tornam-se imprescindíveis. TEXT Yes, I’m a crazy guy. If they have three cars, I can fly.

If they are beautiful, I can be more. If they pray too much, I can be in heaven. If they know the truth, I can say It’s a lie. And if they can say that I’m crazy… I can say, much more crazy is who says me That I can’t be happy. Exercises: Forme frases com o verbo can em diferentes formas verbais. VOCABULARY Em inglês a palavra hotel refere-se como em português a um lugar em que as pessoas se hospedam em férias com a família, final de semana etc. Hostel refere-se a hospedagem para estudantes, são como as pensões para estudantes no Brasil. Motel em inglês refere-se a lugares em que as pessoas de passagem se hospedam para passar a noite, são dormitórios de estrada. -Manager -Doorman -Chambermaid(room maid) -Receptionist -desk clerk -Telephone operator -Elevator -Bell boy -Bell captain Taxi -Where can I get a taxi? There is a taxi stand at the door. -Taxi,taxi. Where to? -Take me to the ___ hotel, please. Here we are,sir(lady). -How much is it? -Gerente -Porteiro -Camareira -Recepcionista -Telefonista -Ascensorista -Mensageiro -Chefe dos mensageiros

It's two. -Thanks QUESTIONS YOU MAY HEAR -Where do you want to go? -How many are you? -Do you have any baggage? -Where to? In a hotel -May I leave this in your safe? -What time are meals served? -Will you have our bags brought up? -May I have my key? -Do I keep the key or turn it in when I go out? REQUESTS (PEDIDOS) -Call me at______in the morning. -May I have my key? an ashtray? an extra towel? an extra pillow? some soap? some stationery? some hangers? some ice? -Send the boy| up, please. mail up,please. breakfast up,please. visitor up,please. -I'd like room service. -I want something to eat. -I want something to drink.

COMPLAINS (RECLAMAÇÕES) -There is no towel in my room. soap in my room. toilet paper in my room. air-conditioner in my room. light in my room. -The T.V.doesn't work. ASKING FOR INFORMATION -Where is the lounge? cocktail bar(bar)? restaurant? barber shop? beauty shop? taxi stand? dry cleaners? men's room? ladie's room? newstand? nearest drugstore? nearest post office? -Can you recommend a good inexpensive a good Italian restaurant? Chinese restaurant? Mexican restaurant? telephone calls for me? letters for me? change this bill for me? mail this letter for me? call a taxi for me? Exercises: Monte um diálogo descrevendo situações especificas. Ex. A chegada

de um hospede em um hotel, atendimento a um turista que pede informarão, um cliente fazendo pedido em um restaurante, etc. DAYS OF THE WEEK Sunday, Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, Saturday “I don't care if Monday's blue Tuesday's grey and Wednesday too Thursday I don't care about you Its Friday I'm in love… Saturday wait And Sunday always comes too late But Friday never hesitate...” By: The Cure MONTHS OF THE YEAR January February March April May June July August September October November December

September 11, 2001 - the day the world changed Was in a Tuesday, when the first plane crashed in one of the towers. We thought it was just an accident, minutes after, the second plane crossing the sky crashing in the second tower of the world trade center. Exercises: Escreva um texto ou forme frases em que apareçam os meses do ano. SEASONS Spring, Summer, Autumn/Fall, Winter. When the winter is coming here the leaves begin to fall from the trees. This is the autumn, my favorite season. Suddenly the cold starts to leaving and the spring come with all the colors but the rain here, in cerrado, is only on summer.

Exercises: Forme frases ou escreva um texto utilizando as estações do ano. VERBOS REGULARES O USO DO (S) NA 3º PESSOA Geralmente os verbos no presente do indicativo recebem um (s) na 3º pessoa do singular (he loves, she works). Mas note-se o seguinte: Os verbos que terminam em s, sh, ch, o, x recebem es. Os que terminam em y precedido de vogal, recebem apenas s. Os que terminam em y precedido de consoante mudam o y por ies. Lazy, lazy Jane She wants a drink of water, so she waits and waits and waits for it to rain. Jane sleeps well when the rain falls. Jane dances like crazy when the music is over. Exercises: Escreva um texto ou forme frases utilizando o singular na terceira pessoa. IRREGULAR VERBS (VERBOS IRREGULARES) Embora os verbos irregulares se constituam numa pequena minoria em relação a todos os verbos existentes na língua, a freqüência com que ocorrem é muito alta, o que lhes dá uma importância significativa. São todos de origem anglo-saxônica e predominantemente se referem a ações comuns. Os verbos irregulares do inglês são aqueles que não seguem uma regra geral de formação do passado e do particípio passado. A formação do past e do past participle, de acordo co a regra geral, que se aplica a todos os demais verbos, se dá através do sufixo ed. Portanto, todo verbo que não seguir esse padrão, será classificado de irregular. Ex. They took off the trees from here. Took é a forma do verbo take no passado.

Na frase: the miners have taken off the trees from the rainforest. O verbo take aparece na forma do past participle. Exercises: utilize os verbos irregulares para formar frases no passado. LISTA DE VERBOS IRREGULARES

TO BE TO BEAT TO BECOME TO BEGIN TO BREAK TO BRING TO BUILD TO BUY TO CATCH TO CHOOSE TO COME TO COST TO CUT TO DIVE TO DO TO DRAW TO DRINK TO EAT TO FALL TO FEEL TO FIGHT TO FIND TO FLY TO FORGET TO FREEZE

WAS/WERE BEAT BECAME BEGAN BROKE BROUGHT BUILT BOUGHT CAUGHT CHOSE CAME COST CUT DOVE DID DREW DRANK ATE FELL FELT FOUGHT FOUND FLEW FORGOT FROZE

BEEN BEAT BECOME BEGUN BROKEN BROUGHT BUILT BOUGHT CAUGHT CHOSEN COME COST CUT DIVED DONE DRAWN DRUNK EATEN FALLEN FELT FOUGHT FOUND FLOWN FORGOTTEN FROZEN

TO GET TO GIVE TO GO TO GROW TO HAVE TO HEAR TO HIDE TO HIT TO HOLD TO HURT TO KEEP TO KNOW TO LEAVE TO LEND TO LET TO LIE TO LOSE TO MAKE TO MEAN TO MEET TO PAY TO PUT TO READ TO RIDE TO RING TO RISE TO RUN TO SAY TO SEE TO SEEK TO SELL TO SEND TO SHAKE

GOT GAVE WENT GREW HAD HEARD HID HIT HELD HURT KEPT KNEW LEFT LENT LET LAY LOST MADE MEANT MET PAID PUT READ RODE RANG ROSE RAN SAID SAW SOUGHT SOLD SENT SHOOK

GOTTEN GIVEN GONE GROWN HAD HEARD HIDDEN HIT HELD HURT KEPT KNOWN LEFT LENT LET LAID LOST MADE MEANT MET PAID PUT READ RIDDEN RUNG RISEN RUN SAID SEEN SOUGHT SOLD SENT SHAKEN

TO SHOW TO SHUT TO SING TO SIT TO SLEEP TO SPEAK TO SPELL TO SPEND TO STAND TO STEAL TO SWIM TO TAKE TO TEACH TO TELL TO THINK TO THROW TO WEAR TO WIN TO WRITE GLOSSARY

SHOWED SHUT SANG SAT SLEPT SPOKE SPELT SPENT STOOD STOLE SWAM TOOK TAUGHT TOLD THOUGHT THREW WORE WON WROTE

SHOWN SHUT SUNG SAT SLEPT SPOKEN SPELT SPENT STOOD STOLEN SWUM TAKEN TAUGHT TOLD THOUGHT THROWN WORN WON WRITTEN

Aacompained baggage – bagagem que é transportada na mesma aeronave que o passageiro. AMTRAK – nome pelo qual é conhecido a maior empresa norte-americana de trens, National Railroad Passenger Corporation. Arunk – abreviatura de arrival unknown (chegada desconhecida) Baby boomer – pessoa nascida entre o período de 1946 e 1964. Para a industria do turismo público de grande poder econômico. To backpack – “mochilar”, viajar de mochila, hospedando-se em albergues e em acomodações baratas. Bed & breakfast – acomodação com café da manhã. Pousadas Big apple – nome pelo qual é conhecida a cidade de Nova Iorque.

To bump – impedir um hospede de se hospedar em um hotel ou de um passageiro de embarcar em um vôo por motivo de overbooking na maioria das vezes. Carrier – empresa aérea. Carrying capacity – capacidade de carga: quantidade de pessoas que um atrativo pode receber. Catering – termo usado para se referir genericamente a alimentos e bebidas. Charter – aluguel de aeronave, ônibus ou embarcação marítima. Cruise – cruzeiro marítimo. Currency – moeda corrente Customs – alfândega. Deadhead – ausência de passageiros em um vôo ou trem. DINKS – Doble Income No Kids, casais que não tem filhos. Discretionary income – renda que sobra do orçamento de um individuo. Discretionary time – tempo livre. Ecotourism – ecoturismo. Environment – meio ambiente. Facilities – instalações. Go-show – passageiro sem reserva que aparece para embarcar. Guest – hóspede, visitante. Hospitality industry – segmento da industria de turismo que engloba os setores de acomodações e de alimentos e bebidas. Host – anfitrião. Hostel – albergue. Jet leg – serie de disturbios fisiológicos que um passageiro pede apresentar em vôo. Leisure – lazer.

Motel – hospedagem de beira de estrada. No-show – passageiro ou hospede com reserva que não aparece. NGO – abreviatura de Non-Governmental-Organization. NTO – National Tourism Organization. Overbooking – venda de passagens além da capacidade de assentos. Package – pacote turístico. Party – grupo de turistas que juntos visitam um atrativo. Pink dollar – dinheiro do público homossexual. Round trip – viagem de ida e volta. Stand-by – mesmo que Go-show. Tour operator – agencia de viagem e turismo. WTO – World Tourism Organization WTTC – World Travel & Tourism Council. IGLTA – Internatinal Gay & Lesbian Travel Association.