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Arthur Schopenhauer

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Arthur Schopenhauer
Arthur Schopenhauer
Born 22 February 1788
Danzig (Gda€sk)
Died 21 September 1860 (aged 72)
Frankfurt
Residence Germany
Nationality German
Era 19th century philosophy
Region Western philosophy
School
Post-Kantian philosophy
German Idealism
[1]
Main interests Metaphysics, aesthetics, ethics, phenomenology, morality, psychology
Notable ideas Will, Fourfold root of reason, philosophical pessimism
Signature
Arthur Schopenhauer
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Schopenhauer's birthplace € house
in, Gda€sk (Danzig), ul. ‚w. Ducha
(formerly Heiligegeistgasse)
Grave at Frankfurt Hauptfriedhof
Arthur Schopenhauer (22 February 1788 • 21 September 1860) was
a German philosopher best known for his book, The World as Will and
Representation, in which he claimed that our world is driven by a
continually dissatisfied will, continually seeking satisfaction.
Influenced by Eastern thought, he maintained that the "truth was
recognized by the sages of India";
[2]
consequently, his solutions to
suffering were similar to those of Vedantic and Buddhist thinkers (i.e.
asceticism); his faith in "transcendental ideality"
[3]
led him to accept
atheism and learn from Christian philosophy.
[4][5][6]
At age 25, he published his doctoral dissertation, On the Fourfold Root
of the Principle of Sufficient Reason, which examined the four distinct
aspects
[7]
of experience in the phenomenal world; consequently, he has
been influential in the history of phenomenology. He has influenced a
long list of thinkers, including Friedrich Nietzsche,
[8]
Richard Wagner,
Ludwig Wittgenstein, Erwin Schrƒdinger, Albert Einstein,
[9]
Sigmund
Freud, Otto Rank, Carl Jung, Joseph Campbell, Leo Tolstoy, Thomas
Mann, and Jorge Luis Borges.
Life
Arthur Schopenhauer was born in the city of Danzig (Gda€sk), on
Heiligegeistgasse (known in the present day as ‚w. Ducha 47), the son
of Johanna Schopenhauer (n„e Trosiener) and Heinrich Floris
Schopenhauer, both descendants of wealthy German Patrician families.
When the Kingdom of Prussia annexed the Polish-Lithuanian
Commonwealth city of Danzig in 1793, Schopenhauer's family moved
to Hamburg. In 1805, Schopenhauer's father may have committed
suicide.
[10]
Shortly thereafter, Schopenhauer's mother Johanna moved
to Weimar, then the centre of German literature, to pursue her writing career. After one year, Schopenhauer left the
family business in Hamburg to join her. As early as 1799, he started playing the flute.
He became a student at the University of Gƒttingen in 1809. There he studied metaphysics and psychology under
Gottlob Ernst Schulze, the author of Aenesidemus, who advised him to concentrate on Plato and Immanuel Kant. In
Berlin, from 1811 to 1812, he had attended lectures by the prominent post-Kantian philosopher Johann Gottlieb
Fichte and the theologian Friedrich Schleiermacher.
Arthur Schopenhauer
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Schopenhauer as a youth
In 1814, Schopenhauer began his seminal work The World as Will and
Representation (Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung). He finished it in 1818 and
published it the following year. In Dresden in 1819, Schopenhauer fathered, with
a servant, an illegitimate daughter who was born and died the same year. In
1820, Schopenhauer became a lecturer at the University of Berlin. He scheduled
his lectures to coincide with those of the famous philosopher G. W. F. Hegel,
whom Schopenhauer described as a "clumsy charlatan."
[11]
However, only five
students turned up to Schopenhauer's lectures, and he dropped out of academia.
A late essay, On University Philosophy, expressed his resentment towards the
work conducted in academies.
While in Berlin, Schopenhauer was named as a defendant in a lawsuit initiated
by a woman named Caroline Marquet.
[12]
She asked for damages, alleging that
Schopenhauer had pushed her. According to Schopenhauer's court testimony, she
deliberately annoyed him by raising her voice while standing right outside his door. Marquet alleged that the
philosopher had assaulted and battered her after she refused to leave his doorway. Her companion testified that she
saw Marquet prostrate outside his apartment. Because Marquet won the lawsuit, Schopenhauer made payments to
her for the next twenty years.
[13]
When she died, he wrote on a copy of her death certificate, Obit anus, abit onus
("The old woman dies, the burden is lifted").
In 1821, he fell in love with nineteen-year old opera singer, Caroline Richter (called Medon), and had a relationship
with her for several years. He discarded marriage plans, however, writing, "Marrying means to halve one's rights and
double one's duties," and "Marrying means to grasp blindfolded into a sack hoping to find an eel amongst an
assembly of snakes." When he was forty-three years old, seventeen-year old Flora Weiss recorded rejecting him in
her diary.
[14]
Schopenhauer had a notably strained relationship with his mother Johanna Schopenhauer. After his father's death,
Arthur Schopenhauer endured two long years of drudgery as a merchant, in honor of his dead father. Afterward, his
mother retired to Weimar, and Arthur Schopenhauer dedicated himself wholly to studies in the gymnasium of Gotha.
After he left it in disgust after seeing one of the masters lampooned, he went to live with his mother. But by that time
she had already opened her famous salon, and Arthur was not compatible with the vain, ceremonious ways of the
salon. He was also disgusted by the ease with which Johanna Schopenhauer had forgotten his father's memory.
Therefore, he attempted university life. There, he wrote his first book, On the Fourfold Root of the Principle of
Sufficient Reason. His mother informed him that the book was incomprehensible and it was unlikely that anyone
would ever buy a copy. In a fit of temper Arthur Schopenhauer told her that his work would be read long after the
rubbish she wrote would have been totally forgotten.
In 1831, a cholera epidemic broke out in Berlin and Schopenhauer left the city. Schopenhauer settled permanently in
Frankfurt in 1833, where he remained for the next twenty-seven years, living alone except for a succession of pet
poodles named Atman and Butz. The numerous notes that he made during these years, amongst others on aging,
were published posthumously under the title Senilia.
Schopenhauer had a robust constitution, but in 1860 his health began to deteriorate. He died of heart failure on 21
September 1860, while sitting on his couch with his cat at home. He was 72.
[15]
Arthur Schopenhauer
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Thought
Philosophy of the "Will"
Schopenhauer in 1815, second of the critical five
years of the initial composition of Die Welt als
Wille und Vorstellung.
A key focus of Schopenhauer was his investigation of individual
motivation. Before Schopenhauer, Hegel had popularized the concept
of Zeitgeist, the idea that society consisted of a collective
consciousness which moved in a distinct direction, dictating the actions
of its members. Schopenhauer, a reader of both Kant and Hegel,
criticized their logical optimism and the belief that individual morality
could be determined by society and reason. Schopenhauer believed that
humans were motivated by only their own basic desires, or Wille zum
Leben ("Will to Live"), which directed all of mankind.
[16]
For Schopenhauer, human desire was futile, illogical, directionless,
and, by extension, so was all human action in the world. He wrote
"Man can indeed do what he wants, but he cannot will what he wants".
In this sense, he adhered to the Fichtean principle of idealism: ‚the
world is for a subjectƒ. This idealism so presented, immediately
commits it to an ethical attitude, unlike the purely epistemological
concerns of Descartes and Berkeley. To Schopenhauer, the Will is a
malignant, metaphysical existence which controls not only the actions
of individual, intelligent agents, but ultimately all observable
phenomena; an evil to be terminated via mankind's duties: asceticism and chastity. He is credited with one of the
most famous opening lines of philosophy: ‚The world is my representationƒ. Will, for Schopenhauer, is what Kant
called the "thing-in-itself."
[17]
Nietzsche was greatly influenced by this idea of Will, while developing it in a
different direction.
Art and aesthetics
For Schopenhauer, human desiring, "willing," and craving cause suffering or pain. A temporary way to escape this
pain is through aesthetic contemplation (a method comparable to Zapffe's "Sublimation"). Aesthetic contemplation
allows one to escape this pain€albeit temporarily€because it stops one perceiving the world as mere presentation.
Instead, one no longer perceives the world as an object of perception (therefore as subject to the Principle of
Sufficient Grounds; time, space and causality) from which one is separated; rather one becomes one with that
perception:"one can thus no longer separate the perceiver from the perception" (The World as Will and
Representation, section 34). From this immersion with the world one no longer views oneself as an individual who
suffers in the world due to one's individual will but, rather, becomes a "subject of cognition" to a perception that is
"Pure, will-less, timeless" (section 34) where the essence, "ideas," of the world are shown. Art is the practical
consequence of this brief aesthetic contemplation as it attempts to depict one's immersion with the world, thus tries
to depict the essence/pure ideas of the world. Music, for Schopenhauer, was the purest form of art because it was the
one that depicted the will itself without it appearing as subject to the Principle of Sufficient Grounds, therefore as an
individual object. According to Daniel Albright, "Schopenhauer thought that music was the only art that did not
merely copy ideas, but actually embodied the will itself."
[18]
He deemed music to be a timeless, universal, language which is comprehended everywhere, and can imbue global
enthusiasm, if in possession of a significant melody.
Arthur Schopenhauer
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Ethics
Schopenhauer's moral theory proposed that only compassion can drive moral acts. According to Schopenhauer, acts
of compassion eye only the good of the object of the acts, that is, they cannot be inspired by either the prospect of
personal utility or the feeling of duty. Mankind can also be guided by egoism and malice. Egotistic acts are those
guided by self-interest, desire for pleasure or happiness. Schopenhauer believed most of our deeds belong to this
class. Acts of malice are different from egotistic acts. As in the case of acts of compassion, these do not target
personal utility. Their aim is to cause damage to others, independently of personal gains.
Punishment
According to Schopenhauer, whenever we make a choice, "we assume as necessary that that decision was preceded
by something from which it ensued, and which we call the ground or reason, or more accurately the motive, of the
resultant action."
[19]
Choices are not made freely. Our actions are necessary and determined because "every human
being, even every animal, after the motive has appeared, must carry out the action which alone is in accordance with
his inborn and immutable character."
[20]
A definite action inevitably results when a particular motive influences a
person's given, unchangeable character. The State, Schopenhauer claimed, punishes criminals in order to prevent
future crimes. It does so by placing "beside every possible motive for committing a wrong a more powerful motive
for leaving it undone, in the inescapable punishment. Accordingly, the criminal code is as complete a register as
possible of counter-motives to all criminal actions that can possibly be imagined...."
[21]
...the law and its fulfillment, namely punishment, are directed essentially to the future, not to the past. This
distinguishes punishment from revenge, for revenge is motivated by what has happened, and hence by the past
as such. All retaliation for wrong by inflicting a pain without any object for the future is revenge, and can have
no other purpose than consolation for the suffering one has endured by the sight of the suffering one has
caused in another. Such a thing is wickedness and cruelty, and cannot be ethically justified. ...the object of
punishment...is deterrence from crime.... Object and purpose for the future distinguish punishment from
revenge, and punishment has this object only when it is inflicted in fulfillment of a law. Only in this way does
it proclaim itself to be inevitable and infallible for every future case; and thus it obtains for the law the power
to deter....
[22]
Should capital punishment be legal? "For safeguarding the lives of citizens," he asserted, "capital punishment is
therefore absolutely necessary."
[23]
"The murderer," wrote Schopenhauer, "who is condemned to death according to
the law must, it is true, be now used as a mere means, and with complete right. For public security, which is the
principal object of the State, is disturbed by him; indeed it is abolished if the law remains unfulfilled. The murderer,
his life, his person, must be the means of fulfilling the law, and thus of re-establishing public security."
[24]
Schopenhauer disagreed with those who would abolish capital punishment. "Those who would like to abolish it
should be given the answer: 'First remove murder from the world, and then capital punishment ought to follow.' "
People, according to Schopenhauer, cannot be improved. They can only be influenced by strong motives that
overpower criminal motives. Schopenhauer declared that "real moral reform is not at all possible, but only determent
from the deed...."
He claimed that this doctrine was not original with him. Previously, it appeared in the writings of Plato,
[25]
Seneca,
Hobbes, Pufendorf, and Anselm Feuerbach. Schopenhauer declared that their teaching was corrupted by subsequent
errors and therefore was in need of clarification.
Arthur Schopenhauer
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Psychology
Schopenhauer was perhaps even more influential in his treatment of man's psychology than he was in the realm of
philosophy.
Philosophers have not traditionally been impressed by the tribulations of sex, but Schopenhauer addressed it and
related concepts forthrightly:
...one ought rather to be surprised that a thing [sex] which plays throughout so important a part in human life
has hitherto practically been disregarded by philosophers altogether, and lies before us as raw and untreated
material.
[26]
He gave a name to a force within man which he felt had invariably precedence over reason: the Will to Live or Will
to Life (Wille zum Leben), defined as an inherent drive within human beings, and indeed all creatures, to stay alive; a
force which inveigles us into reproducing.
Schopenhauer refused to conceive of love as either trifling or accidental, but rather understood it to be an immensely
powerful force lying unseen within man's psyche and dramatically shaping the world:
The ultimate aim of all love affairs ... is more important than all other aims in man's life; and therefore it is
quite worthy of the profound seriousness with which everyone pursues it.
What is decided by it is nothing less than the composition of the next generation ...
[27]
These ideas foreshadowed the discovery of evolution, Freud's concepts of the libido and the unconscious mind, and
evolutionary psychology in general.
[28]
Political and social thought
Politics
Bust in Frankfurt am Main
Schopenhauer's politics were, for the most part, an echo of his system
of ethics (the latter being expressed in Die beiden Grundprobleme der
Ethik, available in English as two separate books, On the Basis of
Morality and On the Freedom of the Will). Ethics also occupies about
one quarter of his central work, The World as Will and Representation.
In occasional political comments in his Parerga and Paralipomena and
Manuscript Remains, Schopenhauer described himself as a proponent
of limited government. What was essential, he thought, was that the
state should "leave each man free to work out his own salvation", and
so long as government was thus limited, he would "prefer to be ruled
by a lion than one of [his] fellow rats" € i.e., by a monarch, rather
than a democrat. Schopenhauer shared the view of Thomas Hobbes on
the necessity of the state, and of state action, to check the destructive
tendencies innate to our species. He also defended the independence of
the legislative, judicial and executive branches of power, and a
monarch as an impartial element able to practice justice (in a practical
and everyday sense, not a cosmological one).
[29]
He declared
monarchy as "that which is natural to man" for "intelligence has always under a monarchical government a much
better chance against its irreconcilable and ever-present foe, stupidity" and disparaged republicanism as "unnatural as
it is unfavourable to the higher intellectual life and the arts and sciences."
Schopenhauer, by his own admission, did not give much thought to politics, and several times he writes proudly of
how little attention he had paid "to political affairs of [his] day". In a life that spanned several revolutions in French
and German government, and a few continent-shaking wars, he did indeed maintain his aloof position of "minding
Arthur Schopenhauer
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not the times but the eternities". He wrote many disparaging remarks about Germany and the Germans. A typical
example is, "For a German it is even good to have somewhat lengthy words in his mouth, for he thinks slowly, and
they give him time to reflect."
[30]
Schopenhauer attributed civilizational primacy to the northern "white races" due to their sensitivity and creativity
(except for the ancient Egyptians and Hindus whom he saw as equal):
The highest civilization and culture, apart from the ancient Hindus and Egyptians, are found exclusively
among the white races; and even with many dark peoples, the ruling caste or race is fairer in colour than
the rest and has, therefore, evidently immigrated, for example, the Brahmans, the Incas, and the rulers of
the South Sea Islands. All this is due to the fact that necessity is the mother of invention because those
tribes that emigrated early to the north, and there gradually became white, had to develop all their
intellectual powers and invent and perfect all the arts in their struggle with need, want and misery, which
in their many forms were brought about by the climate. This they had to do in order to make up for the
parsimony of nature and out of it all came their high civilization.
[31]
Despite this, he was adamantly against differing treatment of races, was fervently anti-slavery, and supported the
abolitionist movement in the United States. He describes the treatment of "[our] innocent black brothers whom force
and injustice have delivered into [the slave-master's] devilish clutches" as "belonging to the blackest pages of
mankind's criminal record".
[32]
Schopenhauer additionally maintained a marked metaphysical and political anti-Judaism. Schopenhauer argued that
Christianity constituted a revolt against the materialistic basis of Judaism, exhibiting an Indian-influenced ethics
reflecting the Aryan-Vedic theme of spiritual "self-conquest." This he saw as opposed to what he held to be the
ignorant drive toward earthly utopianism and superficiality of a worldly Jewish spirit:
While all other religions endeavor to explain to the people by symbols the metaphysical significance of
life, the religion of the Jews is entirely immanent and furnishes nothing but a mere war-cry in the
struggle with other nations.
[33]
Views on women
In Schopenhauer's 1851 essay Of Women, he expressed his opposition to what he called "Teutonico-Christian
stupidity" on female affairs. He claimed that "woman is by nature meant to obey", and opposed Schiller's poem in
honor of women, "W…rde der Frauen" ("Dignity of Women"). The essay does give two compliments, however: that
"women are decidedly more sober in their judgment than [men] are" and are more sympathetic to the suffering of
others.
Schopenhauer's controversial writings have influenced many, from Friedrich Nietzsche to nineteenth-century
feminists.
[34]
Schopenhauer's biological analysis of the difference between the sexes, and their separate roles in the
struggle for survival and reproduction, anticipates some of the claims that were later ventured by sociobiologists and
evolutionary psychologists.
After the elderly Schopenhauer sat for a sculpture portrait by Elisabet Ney, he told Richard Wagner's friend Malwida
von Meysenbug, "I have not yet spoken my last word about women. I believe that if a woman succeeds in
withdrawing from the mass, or rather raising herself above the mass, she grows ceaselessly and more than a man."
[35]
Arthur Schopenhauer
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Heredity and eugenics
Schopenhauer at age 58 on May 16,
1846
Schopenhauer believed that personality and intellect were inherited. He quotes
Horace's saying, "From the brave and good are the brave descended" (Odes, iv,
4, 29) and Shakespeare's line from Cymbeline, "Cowards father cowards, and
base things sire base" (IV, 2) to reinforce his hereditarian argument.
[36]
Mechanistically, Schopenhauer believed that a person inherits his level of
intellect through his mother, and personal character through one's father.
[37]
This
belief in heritability of traits informed Schopenhauer's view of love •  placing it
at the highest level of importance. For Schopenhauer the ‚final aim of all love
intrigues, be they comic or tragic, is really of more importance than all other ends
in human life. What it all turns upon is nothing less than the composition of the
next generation.... It is not the weal or woe of any one individual, but that of the
human race to come, which is here at stake.ƒ This view of the importance for the
species of whom we choose to love was reflected in his views on eugenics or
good breeding. Here Schopenhauer wrote:
With our knowledge of the complete unalterability both of character and of mental faculties, we are led
to the view that a real and thorough improvement of the human race might be reached not so much from
outside as from within, not so much by theory and instruction as rather by the path of generation. Plato
had something of the kind in mind when, in the fifth book of his Republic, he explained his plan for
increasing and improving his warrior caste. If we could castrate all scoundrels and stick all stupid geese
in a convent, and give men of noble character a whole harem, and procure men, and indeed thorough
men, for all girls of intellect and understanding, then a generation would soon arise which would
produce a better age than that of Pericles.
In another context, Schopenhauer reiterated his antidemocratic-eugenic thesis: "If you want Utopian plans, I would
say: the only solution to the problem is the despotism of the wise and noble members of a genuine aristocracy, a
genuine nobility, achieved by mating the most magnanimous men with the cleverest and most gifted women. This
proposal constitutes my Utopia and my Platonic Republic".
[38]
Analysts (e.g., Keith Ansell-Pearson) have suggested
that Schopenhauer's advocacy of anti-egalitarianism and eugenics influenced the neo-aristocratic philosophy of
Friedrich Nietzsche, who initially considered Schopenhauer his mentor.
[39]
Animal welfare
As a consequence of his monistic philosophy, Schopenhauer was very concerned about the welfare of animals.
[40]
For him, all individual animals, including humans, are essentially the same, being phenomenal manifestations of the
one underlying Will. The word "will" designated, for him, force, power, impulse, energy, and desire; it is the closest
word we have that can signify both the real essence of all external things and also our own direct, inner experience.
Since everything is basically Will, then humans and animals are fundamentally the same and can recognize
themselves in each other.
[41]
For this reason, he claimed that a good person would have sympathy for animals, who
are our fellow sufferers.
Compassion for animals is intimately associated with goodness of character, and it may be confidently
asserted that he who is cruel to living creatures cannot be a good man.
[42]
Nothing leads more definitely to a recognition of the identity of the essential nature in animal and
human phenomena than a study of zoology and anatomy.
The assumption that animals are without rights and the illusion that our treatment of them has no moral
significance is a positively outrageous example of Western crudity and barbarity. Universal compassion
is the only guarantee of morality.
Arthur Schopenhauer
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In 1841, he praised the establishment, in London, of the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, and also
the Animals' Friends Society in Philadelphia. Schopenhauer even went so far as to protest against the use of the
pronoun "it" in reference to animals because it led to the treatment of them as though they were inanimate things.
[43]
To reinforce his points, Schopenhauer referred to anecdotal reports of the look in the eyes of a monkey who had been
shot
[44]
and also the grief of a baby elephant whose mother had been killed by a hunter.
[45]
He was very attached to his succession of pet poodles. Schopenhauer criticized Spinoza's
[46]
belief that animals are
to be used as a mere means for the satisfaction of humans.
[47][48]
Views on homosexuality and pederasty
Schopenhauer was also one of the first philosophers since the days of Greek philosophy to address the subject of
male homosexuality. In the third, expanded edition of The World as Will and Representation (1856), Schopenhauer
added an appendix to his chapter on the "Metaphysics of Sexual Love". He also wrote that homosexuality did have
the benefit of preventing ill-begotten children. Concerning this, he stated, "... the vice we are considering appears to
work directly against the aims and ends of nature, and that in a matter that is all important and of the greatest concern
to her, it must in fact serve these very aims, although only indirectly, as a means for preventing greater evils."
[49]
Shrewdly anticipating the interpretive distortion, on the part of the popular mind, of his attempted scientific
explanation of pederasty as personal advocacy (when he had otherwise described the act, in terms of spiritual ethics,
as an "objectionable aberration"), Schopenhauer sarcastically concludes the appendix with the statement that "by
expounding these paradoxical ideas, I wanted to grant to the professors of philosophy a small favour, for they are
very disconcerted by the ever-increasing publicization of my philosophy which they so carefully concealed. I have
done so by giving them the opportunity of slandering me by saying that I defend and commend pederasty."
Intellectual interests and affinities
Indology
Schopenhauer read the Latin translation of the Upanishads which had been translated by French writer Anquetil du
Perron from the Persian translation of Prince Dara Shikoh entitled Sirre-Akbar ("The Great Secret"). He was so
impressed by their philosophy that he called them "the production of the highest human wisdom," and considered
them to contain superhuman conceptions. The Upanishads was a great source of inspiration to Schopenhauer, and
writing about them he said:
It is the most satisfying and elevating reading (with the exception of the original text) which is possible
in the world; it has been the solace of my life and will be the solace of my death.
It is well known that the book Oupnekhat (Upanishad) always lay open on his table, and he invariably studied it
before sleeping at night. He called the opening up of Sanskrit literature "the greatest gift of our century", and
predicted that the philosophy and knowledge of the Upanishads would become the cherished faith of the West.
Schopenhauer was first introduced to the 1802 Latin Upanishad translation through Friedrich Majer. They met
during the winter of 1813-1814 in Weimar at the home of Schopenhauer„s mother according to the biographer
Sanfranski. Majer was a follower of Herder, and an early Indologist. Schopenhauer did not begin a serious study of
the Indic texts, however, until the summer of 1814. Sansfranski maintains that between 1815 and 1817,
Schopenhauer had another important cross-pollination with Indian Thought in Dresden. This was through his
neighbor of two years, Karl Christian Friedrich Krause. Krause was then a minor and rather unorthodox philosopher
who attempted to mix his own ideas with that of ancient Indian wisdom. Krause had also mastered Sanskrit, unlike
Schopenhauer, and the two developed a professional relationship. It was from Krause that Schopenhauer learned
meditation and received the closest thing to expert advice concerning Indian thought.
[50]
Most noticeable, in the case of Schopenhauer„s work, was the significance of the Chandogya Upanishad, whose
Mahavakya, Tat Tvam Asi is mentioned throughout The World as Will and Representation.
[51]
Arthur Schopenhauer
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Buddhism
Schopenhauer noted a correspondence between his doctrines and the Four Noble Truths of Buddhism.
[52]
Similarities
centered on the principles that life involves suffering, that suffering is caused by desire (tanha), and that the
extinction of desire leads to liberation. Thus three of the four "truths of the Buddha" correspond to Schopenhauer's
doctrine of the will.
[53]
In Buddhism, however, while greed and lust are always unskillful, desire is ethically variable
- it can be skillful, unskillful, or neutral.
[54]
For Schopenhauer, Will had ontological primacy over the intellect; in other words, desire is understood to be prior to
thought. Schopenhauer felt this was similar to notions of purushartha or goals of life in Vedanta Hinduism.
In Schopenhauer's philosophy, denial of the will is attained by either:
†† personal experience of an extremely great suffering that leads to loss of the will to live; or
†† knowledge of the essential nature of life in the world through observation of the suffering of other people.
However, Buddhist nirvana is not equivalent to the condition that Schopenhauer described as denial of the will.
Nirvana is not the extinguishing of the person as some Western scholars have thought, but only the "extinguishing"
(the literal meaning of nirvana) of the flames of greed, hatred, and delusion that assail a person's character.
[55]
Occult
historian Joscelyn Godwin (1945- ) stated, "It was Buddhism that inspired the philosophy of Arthur Schopenhauer,
and, through him, attracted Richard Wagner.
[56]
This Orientalism reflected the struggle of the German Romantics, in
the words of Leon Poliakov, to free themselves from Judeo-Christian fetters".
[57]
In contradistinction to Godwin's
claim that Buddhism inspired Schopenhauer, the philosopher himself made the following statement in his discussion
of religions:
[58]
If I wished to take the results of my philosophy as the standard of truth, I should have to concede to
Buddhism pre-eminence over the others. In any case, it must be a pleasure to me to see my doctrine in
such close agreement with a religion that the majority of men on earth hold as their own, for this
numbers far more followers than any other. And this agreement must be yet the more pleasing to me,
inasmuch as in my philosophizing I have certainly not been under its influence [emphasis added]. For up
till 1818, when my work appeared, there was to be found in Europe only a very few accounts of
Buddhism.
[59]
Buddhist philosopher Nishitani Keiji, however, sought to distance Buddhism from Schopenhauer.
[60]
While
Schopenhauer's philosophy may sound rather mystical in such a summary, his methodology was resolutely
empirical, rather than speculative or transcendental:
Philosophy ... is a science, and as such has no articles of faith; accordingly, in it nothing can be assumed
as existing except what is either positively given empirically, or demonstrated through indubitable
conclusions.
[61]
Also note:
This actual world of what is knowable, in which we are and which is in us, remains both the material
and the limit of our consideration.
[62]
The argument that Buddhism affected Schopenhauer„s philosophy more than any other Dharmic faith loses more
credence when viewed in light of the fact that Schopenhauer did not begin a serious study of Buddhism until after
the publication of The World as Will and Representation in 1818.
[63]
Scholars have started to revise earlier views
about Schopenhauer's discovery of Buddhism. Proof of early interest and influence appears in Schopenhauer's
1815/16 notes (transcribed and translated by Urs App) about Buddhism. They are included in a recent case study that
traces Schopenhauer's interest in Buddhism and documents its influence.
[64]
Arthur Schopenhauer
11
Influences
Schopenhauer said he was influenced by the Upanishads, Immanuel Kant and Plato. References to Eastern
philosophy and religion appear frequently in Schopenhauer's writing. As noted above, he appreciated the teachings
of the Buddha and even called himself a "Buddhist".
[65]
He said
[66]
that his philosophy could not have been
conceived before these teachings were available.
Concerning the Upanishads and Vedas, he writes in The World as Will and Representation:
If the reader has also received the benefit of the Vedas, the access to which by means of the Upanishads
is in my eyes the greatest privilege which this still young century (1818) may claim before all previous
centuries, if then the reader, I say, has received his initiation in primeval Indian wisdom, and received it
with an open heart, he will be prepared in the very best way for hearing what I have to tell him. It will
not sound to him strange, as to many others, much less disagreeable; for I might, if it did not sound
conceited, contend that every one of the detached statements which constitute the Upanishads, may be
deduced as a necessary result from the fundamental thoughts which I have to enunciate, though those
deductions themselves are by no means to be found there.
[67]
He summarised the influence of the Upanishads thus: "It has been the solace of my life, it will be the solace of my
death!"
Among Schopenhauer's other influences were: Shakespeare, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, John Locke, Baruch Spinoza,
Matthias Claudius, George Berkeley, David Hume, and Ren„ Descartes.
[68]
Critique of Kant and Hegel
Critique of the Kantian philosophy
Schopenhauer accepted Kant's double-aspect of the universe € the phenomenal (world of experience) and the
noumenal (the true world, independent of experience). Some commentators suggest that Schopenhauer claimed that
the noumenon, or thing-in-itself, was the basis for Schopenhauer's concept of the will. Other commentators suggest
that Schopenhauer considered will to be only a subset of the "thing-in-itself" class, namely that which we can most
directly experience.
[69]
Schopenhauer's identification of the Kantian noumenon (i.e., the actually existing entity) with what he termed "will"
deserves some explanation. The noumenon was what Kant called the Ding an Sich, the "Thing in Itself", the reality
that is the foundation of our sensory and mental representations of an external world. In Kantian terms, those sensory
and mental representations are mere phenomena. Schopenhauer departed from Kant in his description of the
relationship between the phenomenon and the noumenon. According to Kant, things-in-themselves ground the
phenomenal representations in our minds; Schopenhauer, on the other hand, believed phenomena and noumena to be
two different sides of the same coin. Noumena do not cause phenomena, but rather phenomena are simply the way
by which our minds perceive the noumena, according to the Principle of Sufficient Reason. This is explained more
fully in Schopenhauer's doctoral thesis, On the Fourfold Root of the Principle of Sufficient Reason.
Schopenhauer's second major departure from Kant's epistemology concerns the body. Kant's philosophy was
formulated as a response to the radical philosophical skepticism of David Hume, who claimed that causality could
not be observed empirically. Schopenhauer begins by arguing that Kant's demarcation between external objects,
knowable only as phenomena, and the Thing in Itself of noumenon, contains a significant omission. There is, in fact,
one physical object we know more intimately than we know any object of sense perception: our own body.
We know our human bodies have boundaries and occupy space, the same way other objects known only through our
named senses do. Though we seldom think of our body as a physical object, we know even before reflection that it
shares some of an object's properties. We understand that a watermelon cannot successfully occupy the same space
as an oncoming truck; we know that if we tried to repeat the experiment with our own body, we would obtain similar
Arthur Schopenhauer
12
results • we know this even if we do not understand the physics involved.
We know that our consciousness inhabits a physical body, similar to other physical objects only known as
phenomena. Yet our consciousness is not commensurate with our body. Most of us possess the power of voluntary
motion. We usually are not aware of the breathing of our lungs or the beating of our heart unless somehow our
attention is called to them. Our ability to control either is limited. Our kidneys command our attention on their
schedule rather than one we choose. Few of us have any idea what our liver is doing right now, though this organ is
as needful as lungs, heart, or kidneys. The conscious mind is the servant, not the master, of these and other organs;
these organs have an agenda which the conscious mind did not choose, and over which it has limited power.
When Schopenhauer identifies the noumenon with the desires, needs, and impulses in us that we name "will," what
he is saying is that we participate in the reality of an otherwise unachievable world outside the mind through will.
We cannot prove that our mental picture of an outside world corresponds with a reality by reasoning; through will,
we know • without thinking • that the world can stimulate us. We suffer fear, or desire: these states arise
involuntarily; they arise prior to reflection; they arise even when the conscious mind would prefer to hold them at
bay. The rational mind is, for Schopenhauer, a leaf borne along in a stream of pre-reflective and largely unconscious
emotion. That stream is will, and through will, if not through logic, we can participate in the underlying reality
beyond mere phenomena. It is for this reason that Schopenhauer identifies the noumenon with what we call our will.
In his criticism of Kant, Schopenhauer claimed that sensation and understanding are separate and distinct abilities.
Yet, for Kant, an object is known through each of them. Kant wrote: "... [T]here are two stems of human knowledge
... namely, sensibility and understanding, objects being given by the former [sensibility] and thought by the latter
[understanding]."
[70]
Schopenhauer disagreed. He asserted that mere sense impressions, not objects, are given by
sensibility. According to Schopenhauer, objects are intuitively perceived by understanding and are discursively
thought by reason (Kant had claimed that (1) the understanding thinks objects through concepts and that (2) reason
seeks the unconditioned or ultimate answer to "why?"). Schopenhauer said that Kant's mistake regarding perception
resulted in all of the obscurity and difficult confusion that is exhibited in the Transcendental Analytic section of his
critique.
Lastly, Schopenhauer departed from Kant in how he interpreted the Platonic ideas. In The World as Will and
Representation Schopenhauer explicitly stated:
...Kant used the word [Idea] wrongly as well as illegitimately, although Plato had already taken
possession of it, and used it most appropriately.
Instead Schopenhauer relied upon the Neoplatonist interpretation of the biographer Diogenes La‡rtius from Lives
and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers. In reference to Plato„s Ideas, Schopenhauer quotes La‡rtius verbatim in an
explanatory footnote.
Diogenes La‡rtius (III, 12) Plato ideas in natura velut exemplaria dixit subsistere; cetera his esse similia, ad istarum
similitudinem consistencia. (Plato teaches that the Ideas exist in nature, so to speak, as patterns or prototypes, and
that the remainder of things only resemble them, and exist as their copies.)
[71]
Critique of Hegel
Schopenhauer expressed his dislike for the philosophy of his contemporary Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel many
times in his published works. The following quotations are typical:
If I were to say that the so-called philosophy of this fellow Hegel is a colossal piece of mystification which
will yet provide posterity with an inexhaustible theme for laughter at our times, that it is a pseudo-philosophy
paralyzing all mental powers, stifling all real thinking, and, by the most outrageous misuse of language,
putting in its place the hollowest, most senseless, thoughtless, and, as is confirmed by its success, most
stupefying verbiage, I should be quite right.
Arthur Schopenhauer
13
Further, if I were to say that this summus philosophus [...] scribbled nonsense quite unlike any mortal before
him, so that whoever could read his most eulogized work, the so-called Phenomenology of the Mind, without
feeling as if he were in a madhouse, would qualify as an inmate for Bedlam, I should be no less right.
[72]
At first Fichte and Schelling shine as the heroes of this epoch; to be followed by the man who is quite
unworthy even of them, and greatly their inferior in point of talent --- I mean the stupid and clumsy charlatan
Hegel.
[73]
In his Foreword to the first edition of his work Die beiden Grundprobleme der Ethik, Schopenhauer suggested that
he had shown Hegel to have fallen prey to the Post hoc ergo propter hoc fallacy.
Schopenhauer suggested that Hegel's works were filled with "castles of abstraction," and that Hegel used deliberately
impressive but ultimately vacuous verbiage. He also thought that his glorification of church and state were designed
for personal advantage and had little to do with the search for philosophical truth. For instance, the Right Hegelians
interpreted Hegel as viewing the Prussian state of his day as perfect and the goal of all history up until then.
[74]
Criticism
The British philosopher and historian Bertrand Russell, deemed Schopenhauer's doctrine insincere, because judging
by his life:
'He habitually dined well, at a good restaurant; he had many trivial love-affairs, which were sensual but not
passionate; he was exceedingly quarrelsome and unusually avaricious. ... It is hard to find in his life evidences of any
virtue except kindness to animals ... In all other respects he was completely selfish. It is difficult to believe that a
man who was profoundly convinced of the virtue of asceticism and resignation would never have made any attempt
to embody his convictions in his practice.'
Influence
Caricature of Schopenhauer by
Wilhelm Busch (1832•1908)
Schopenhauer has had a massive influence upon later thinkers, though more so in
the arts (especially literature and music) and psychology than in philosophy. His
popularity peaked in the early twentieth century, especially during the Modernist
era, and waned somewhat thereafter. Nevertheless, a number of recent
publications have reinterpreted and modernised the study of Schopenhauer. His
theory is also being explored by some modern philosophers as a precursor to
evolutionary theory and modern evolutionary psychology.
[75]
Richard Wagner, writing in his autobiography, remembered his first impression
that Schopenhauer left on him (when he read World as will and representation):
Schopenhauer„s book was never completely out of my mind, and by the
following summer I had studied it from cover to cover four times. It had a
radical influence on my whole life.
[76]
Wagner also commented that "serious mood, which was trying to find ecstatic
expression" created by Schopenhauer inspired the conception of Tristan und
Isolde. See also Influence of Schopenhauer on Tristan und Isolde.
Friedrich Nietzsche owed the awakening of his philosophical interest to reading The World as Will and
Representation and admitted that he was one of the few philosophers that he respected, dedicating to him his essay
Schopenhauer als Erzieher
[77]
one of his Untimely Meditations.
Jorge Luis Borges remarked that the reason he had never attempted to write a systematic account of his world view,
despite his penchant for philosophy and metaphysics in particular, was because Schopenhauer had already written it
for him.
[78]
Arthur Schopenhauer
14
As a teenager, Ludwig Wittgenstein was strongly influenced by Schopenhauer's epistemological idealism. However,
after his study of the philosophy of mathematics, he abandoned epistemological idealism for Gottlob Frege's
conceptual realism.
[79]
The philosopher Gilbert Ryle read Schopenhauer's works as a student, but later largely forgot them. He unwittingly
recycled ideas from Schopenhauer in his The Concept of Mind.
[80]
Selected bibliography
† On the Fourfold Root of the Principle of Sufficient Reason (€ber die vierfache Wurzel des Satzes vom
zureichenden Grunde), 1813
† On Vision and Colors (€ber das Sehn und die Farben), 1816 ISBN 978-0-85496-988-3
† The World as Will and Representation (alternatively translated in English as The World as Will and Idea; original
German is Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung), 1818/1819, vol 2 1844
†† Vol. 1 Dover edition 1966, ISBN 978-0-486-21761-1
†† Vol. 2 Dover edition 1966, ISBN 978-0-486-21762-8
†† Peter Smith Publisher hardcover set 1969, ISBN 978-0-8446-2885-1
†† Everyman Paperback combined abridged edition (290 p.) ISBN 978-0-460-87505-9
† The Art of Being Right (Eristische Dialektik: Die Kunst, Recht zu Behalten), 1931
† On the Will in Nature (€ber den Willen in der Natur), 1836 ISBN 978-0-85496-999-9
† On the Freedom of the Will (€ber die Freiheit des menschlichen Willens), 1839 ISBN 978-0-631-14552-3
† On the Basis of Morality (€ber die Grundlage der Moral), 1840
† Parerga und Paralipomena, 1851; English Translation by E. F. J. Payne, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1974, 2
Volumes:
†† Printings:
†† 1974 Hardcover, by ISBN:
†† Vol 1 and 2, ISBN 978-0-19-519813-3,
†† Vol 1, ISBN [TBD],
†† Vol 2, ISBN 978-0-19-824527-8,
†† 1974/1980 Paperback, Vol 1, ISBN 978-0-19-824634-3, Vol 2, ISBN 978-0-19-824635-0,
†† 2001 Paperback, Vol 1, ISBN 978-0-19-924220-7, Vol 2, ISBN 978-0-19-924221-4
† Essays and Aphorisms, being excerpts from Volume 2 of Parerga und Paralipomena, selected and translated
by R J Hollingdale, with Introduction by R J Hollingdale, Penguin Classics, 1970, Paperback 1973: ISBN
978-0-14-044227-4 (9780140442274)
† Arthur Schopenhauer, Manuscript Remains, Volume II, Berg Publishers Ltd., ISBN 978-0-85496-539-7
Online
† Works by Arthur Schopenhauer
[81]
at Project Gutenberg
† Illustrated version of the "Art of Being Right"
[82]
and links to logic and sophisms used by the stratagems.
† The Art Of Controversy (Die Kunst, Recht zu behalten)
[83]
. (bilingual) [The Art of Being Right]
† Studies in Pessimism
[84]
- audiobook from LibriVox.
† The World as Will and Idea at Internet Archive:
† Volume I;
[85]
† Volume II;
[86]
† Volume III.
[87]
† On the fourfold root of the principle of sufficient reason and On the will in nature. Two essays:
† Internet Archive.
[88]
Translated by Mrs. Karl Hillebrand (1903).
Arthur Schopenhauer
15
† Cornell University Library Historical Monographs Collection.
[89]
Reprinted by Cornell University Library
Digital Collections
[90]
† Facsimile edition of Schopenhauer's manuscripts
[91]
in SchopenhauerSource
[92]
† Essays of Schopenhauer
[93]
References
Footnotes
[1] Whether or not Schopenhauer's system is idealist has been a matter of dispute among historians of philosophy; see German Idealism on the
Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy (http:/ / www. iep.utm. edu/ germidea/ #H6).
[2] [2] Arthur Schopenhauer, The World as Will and Representation, Vol. 1, trans. E. Payne, (New York: Dover Publishing Inc., 1969), 3.
[3] [3] Arthur Schopenhauer, The World as Will and Representation, Vol. 1, trans. E. Payne, (New York: Dover Publishing Inc., 1969), 4.
[4] [4] Arthur Schopenhauer, The World as Will and Representation, Vol. 2, trans. E. Payne, (New York: Dover Publishing Inc., 1966), 639. "the
Veda says; Finditur nodus cordis, dissolvuntur omnes dubitationes, ejusque opera evanescunt. In agreement with this view, the fifteenth
sermon of Meister Eckhart will be found well worth reading."
[5] [5] Arthur Schopenhauer, The World as Will and Representation, Vol. 2, trans. E. Payne, (New York: Dover Publishing Inc., 1966), 635. "Even
the conclusion of Seneca's last letter is in keeping with this... which certainly seems to indicate an influence of Christianity."
[6] The World as Will and Representation, Vol. 2, Ch. 48 (Dover page 616), "The ascetic tendency is certainly unmistakable in genuine and
original Christianity, as it was developed in the writings of the Church Fathers from the kernel of the New Testament"
[7] [7] Arthur Schopenhauer, The World as Will and Representation, Vol. 1, trans. E. Payne, (New York: Dover Publishing Inc., 1969), table of
contents.
[8] [8] Addressed in: Cate, Curtis. Friedrich Nietzsche. Chapter 7.
[9] Albert Einstein in Mein Glaubensbekenntnis (http:/ / www. einstein-website. de/ z_biography/ credo. html) (August 1932): "I do not believe
in free will. Schopenhauer's words: 'Man can do what he wants, but he cannot will what he wants,[Der Mensch kann wohl tun, was er will,
aber er kann nicht wollen, was er will]' accompany me in all situations throughout my life and reconcile me with the actions of others, even if
they are rather painful to me. This awareness of the lack of free will keeps me from taking myself and my fellow men too seriously as acting
and deciding individuals, and from losing my temper." Schopenhauer's clearer, actual words were: "You can do what you will, but in any
given moment of your life you can will only one definite thing and absolutely nothing other than that one thing." [Du kannst tun was du willst:
aber du kannst in jedem gegebenen Augenblick deines Lebens nur ein Bestimmtes wollen und schlechterdings nichts anderes als dieses eine.]
On the Freedom of the Will, Ch. II.
[10] [10] Safranski (1990) page 12. "There was in the father's life some dark and vague source of fear which later made him hurl himself to his death
from the attic of his house in Hamburg."
[11] Schopenhauer, Arthur. Author's preface to "On The Fourfold Root of the Principle of sufficient reason. Page 1. On the Fourfold Root of the
Principle of Sufficient Reason
[12] [12] Addressed in: Russell, Bertrand (1945).
[13] [13] Safranski (1990), Chapter 19
[14] "But an examination of his life reveals a yearning for marriage frustrated by a train of rejections." In the year 1831, Schopenhauer fell in
love with a girl named Flora Weiss. At a boat party in Germany he made his advance by offering her a bunch of grapes. Flora„s diary records
this event as follows: ‚I didn„t want the grapes because old Schopenhauer had touched them, so I let them slide, quite gently into the water.ƒ
Apparently, she was underwhelmed."
[15] Schopenhauer: his life and philosophy.H Zimmern - 1932 - G. Allen & Unwin ltd
[16] "The reality is what Schopenhauer calls the Will, the Will to Live." Letter to Richard C. Lyon, 1 August 1949, George Santayana, The
Letters of George Santayana, Scribner's, New York, 1955
[17] But like Fichte, he rejects the Kantian claim that the thing-in-itself as an unknowable substratum of experience. Schopenhauer's argument is
that the thing in-itself in Kant is an incoherent sense of object: it is the opposite to objects, and yet it is said to be an object-in-itself: ‚the
phantom of a dreamƒ.
[18] [18] Daniel Albright, Modernism and Music, 2004, page 39, footnote 34
[19] On the Fourfold Root of the Principle of Sufficient Reason, ˆ 43.
[20] On the Fourfold Root of the Principle of Sufficient Reason, ˆ 49.
[21] Schopenhauer, The World as Will and Representation, Vol. I, ˆ 62.
[22] Paul R„e, in his The Origin of Moral Sensation, reflected Schopenhauer's concerns when he wrote: "The feeling of justice thus arises out of
two errors, namely, because the punishments inflicted by authorities and educators appear as acts of retribution, and because people believe in
the freedom of the will."
[23] The World as Will and Representation, Vol. II, Ch. XLVII.
[24] The World as Will and Representation, Vol. I, ˆ 62.
[25] "...he who attempts to punish in accordance with reason does not retaliate on account of the past wrong (for he could not undo something
which has been done) but for the sake of the future, so that neither the wrongdoer himself, nor others who see him being punished, will do
Arthur Schopenhauer
16
wrong again." Plato, "Protagoras", 324 B. Plato wrote that punishment should "be an example to other men not to offend." Plato, "Laws",
Book IX, 863.
[26] Schopenhauer, Arthur. Supplements to the Fourth Book of "The World as Will and Representation, Page 338 The World as Will and
Representation/Supplements to the Fourth Book
[27] Schopenhauer, Arthur. Supplements to the Fourth Book of "The World as Will and Representation. Page 340 The World as Will and
Representation/Supplements to the Fourth Book
[28] [28] "Nearly a century before Freud... in Schopenhauer there is, for the first time, an explicit philosophy of the unconscious and of the body."
Safranski pg. 345.
[29] The World as Will and Representation, Vol. 2, Ch. 47
[30] The World as Will and Representation, Vol. 2, Ch. 12
[31] Parerga and Paralipomena, Volume II, Section 92
[32] Parerga and Paralipomena, "On Ethics," Sec. 5
[33] "Fragments for the history of philosophy", Parerga and Paralipomena, Volume I.
[34] Feminism and the Limits of Equality PA Cain - Ga. L. Rev., 1989
[35] [35] Safranski (1990), Chapter 24. Page 348.
[36] Payne, The World as Will and Representation, Vol. II, p. 519
[37] [37] On the Suffering of the World, (1970), Page 35. Penguin Books-Great Ideas
[38] Essays and Aphorisms, trans. R.J. Hollingdale, Middlesex: London, 1970, p. 154
[39] Nietzsche and modern German thought [PDF] from homelinux.org. K Ansell-Pearson - 1991 - Psychology Press
[40] [40] Christina Gerhardt, "Thinking With: Animals in Schopenhauer, Horkheimer and Adorno." Critical Theory and Animals. Ed. John
Sanbonmatsu. Lanham: Rowland, 2011. 137-157.
[41] "Unlike the intellect, it [the Will] does not depend on the perfection of the organism, but is essentially the same in all animals as that which
is known to us so intimately. Accordingly, the animal has all the emotions of humans, such as joy, grief, fear, anger, love, hatred, strong
desire, envy, and so on. The great difference between human and animal rests solely on the intellect's degrees of perfection." On the Will in
Nature, "Physiology and Pathology."
[42] On the basis of morality, ˆ 19
[43] "...in English all animals are of the neuter gender and so are represented by the pronoun 'it,' just as if they were inanimate things. The effect
of this artifice is quite revolting, especially in the case of primates, such as dogs, monkeys, and the like...." On the basis of morality, ˆ 19.
[44] "I recall having read of an Englishman who, while hunting in India, had shot a monkey; he could not forget the look which the dying animal
gave him, and since then had never again fired at monkeys." On the basis of morality, ˆ 19.
[45] "[Sir William Harris] describes how he shot his first elephant, a female. The next morning he went to look for the dead animal; all the other
elephants had fled from the neighborhood except a young one, who had spent the night with its dead mother. Forgetting all fear, he came
toward the sportsmen with the clearest and liveliest evidence of inconsolable grief, and put his tiny trunk round them in order to appeal to
them for help. Harris says he was then filled with real remorse for what he had done, and felt as if he had committed a murder." On the basis
of morality, ˆ 19.
[46] "His contempt for animals, who, as mere things for our use, are declared by him to be without rights,...in conjunction with Pantheism, is at
the same time absurd and abominable." The World as Will and Representation, Vol. 2, Chapter 50.
[47] Spinoza, Ethics, Pt. IV, Prop. XXXVII, Note I.: "Still I do not deny that beasts feel: what I deny is, that we may not consult our own
advantage and use them as we please, treating them in a way which best suits us; for their nature is not like ours...." This is the exact opposite
of Schopenhauer's doctrine. Also, ibid., Appendix, 26, "whatsoever there be in nature beside man, a regard for our advantage does not call on
us to preserve, but to preserve or destroy according to its various capacities, and to adapt to our use as best we may."
[48] "Such are the matters which I engage to prove in Prop. xviii of this Part, whereby it is plain that the law against the slaughtering of animals
is founded rather on vain superstition and womanish pity than on sound reason. The rational quest of what is useful to us further teaches us the
necessity of associating ourselves with our fellow-men, but not with beasts, or things, whose nature is different from our own; we have the
same rights in respect to them as they have in respect to us. Nay, as everyone's right is defined by his virtue, or power, men have far greater
rights over beasts than beasts have over men. Still I affirm that beasts feel. But I also affirm that we may consult our own advantage and use
them as we please, treating them in the way which best suits us; for their nature is not like ours, and their emotions are naturally different from
human emotions." Ethics, Part 4, Prop. 37, Note 1.
[49] . He wrote that only those who were too old or too young to reproduce strong, healthy children would resort to pederasty (Schopenhauer
considered pederasty to be in itself a vice)."The World as Will and Representation: Volume Two". Dover
[50] [50] Christopher McCoy, 3-4
[51] [51] Christopher McCoy, 54-56
[52] Abelson, Peter (April 1993). Schopenhauer and Buddhism (http:/ / ccbs. ntu. edu. tw/ FULLTEXT/ JR-PHIL/ peter2. htm). Philosophy East
and West Volume 43, Number 2, pp. 255-278. University of Hawaii Press. Retrieved on: 12 April 2008.
[53] Janaway, Christopher, Self and World in Schopenhauer's Philosophy, p. 28 f.
[54] [54] David Burton, "Buddhism, Knowledge and Liberation: A Philosophical Study." Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2004, page 22.
[55] John J. Holder, Early Buddhist Discourses. Hackett Publishing Company, 2006, page xx.
[56] Godwin, J: Arktos: The Polar Myth in Science, Symbolism, and Nazi Survival, page 38. Adventures Unlimited Press, 1996, ISBN
978-0-932813-35-0, ISBN 978-0-932813-35-0
Arthur Schopenhauer
17
[57] Arktos, p. 38.
[58] "Schopenhauer is often said to be the first, or indeed the only, modern Western philosopher of any note to attempt any integration of his
work with Eastern ways of thinking. That he was the first is surely true, but the claim that he was influenced by Indian thought needs some
qualification. There is a remarkable correspondence, at least in broad terms, between some of the central Schopenhauerian doctrines and
Buddhism: notably in the views that empirical existence is suffering, that suffering originates in desires, and that salvation can be attained by
the extinction of desires. These three 'truths of the Buddha' are mirrored closely in the essential structure of the doctrine of the will (On this,
see Dorothea W. Dauer, Schopenhauer as Transmitter of Buddhist Ideas. Note also the discussion by Bryan Magee, The Philosophy of
Schopenhauer, pp. 14-15, 316-21). Janaway, Christopher, Self and World in Schopenhauer's Philosophy, p. 28 f.
[59] The World as Will and Representation€€, Vol. 2, Ch. 17
[60] Artistic detachment in Japan and the West: psychic distance in comparative aesthetics. S Odin - 2001 - Univ of Hawaii Press
[61] Parerga & Paralipomena, vol. I, p. 106., trans. E.F.J. Payne.
[62] World as Will and Representation, vol. I, p. 273, trans. E.F.J. Payne.
[63] [63] Christopher McCoy, 3
[64] App, Urs Arthur Schopenhauer and China. Sino-Platonic Papers Nr. 200 (April 2010) (http:/ / www. sino-platonic. org/ complete/
spp200_schopenhauer.pdf) (PDF, 8.7 Mb PDF, 164 p.; Schopenhauer's early notes on Buddhism reproduced in Appendix). This study
provides an overview of the actual discovery of Buddhism by Schopenhauer.
[65] Abelsen, Peter (1993). "Schopenhauer and Buddhism." (http:/ / www. questia. com/ PM. qst?a=o& d=96540080) Philosophy East & West,
44:2 p. 255. Retrieved on: 18 August 2007.
[66] Schopenhauer and Buddhism. P Abelsen, H Amsterdam, A Schopenhauer - Philosophy East & West, 1993
[67] The World as Will and Representation Preface to the first edition, p. xiii
[68] Schopenhauer and the Cartesian Tradition. T Humphrey - Journal of the History of Philosophy, 1981 - muse.jhu.edu
[69] Bryan Magee, Misunderstanding Schopenhauer, Institute of Germanic and Romance Studies, University of London, 1990, ISBN
978-0-85457-148-2
[70] Critique of Pure Reason, A 15
[71] [71] McCoy, Christopher Patrick. 2009. Thou Art That: Schopenhauer's Philosophy and the Chandogya Upanishad. Master's thesis, James
Madison University: 10-13.
[72] On the Basis of Morality, pp. 15•16.
[73] On the Basis of Morality, p. 35.
[74] [74] "... the Hegelians who, in complete unsmiling seriousness, were airing the question of what the further content of world history could
possibly be, now that in the Hegelian philosophy the world spirit had reached the goal, the knowledge of itself." Safranski, p. 256.
[75] In the book Straw Dogs, John Gray upheld Schopenhauer as one of the few philosophers who has dedicated himself to studying Eastern
philosophy as well as Western philosophy. The book argues against free will, and states that humans have much more in common with
animals than is commonly admitted in the West. Schopenhauer is praised for his attitude towards animals, and for having addressed the
brutality of much of human life.
[76] [76] Kimball, Roger. Schopenhauer's world. The New Criterion, 1985
[77] [77] Schopenhauer as Educator
[78] [78] Magee 1997, p. 413.
[79] [79] Malcolm, Norman. Ludwig Wittgenstein: A Memoir. Oxford University Press, 1958, page 6
[80] [80] , Ch. 16
[81] http:/ / www.gutenberg. org/ author/ Arthur+ Schopenhauer
[82] http:/ / www.logicien. fr
[83] http:/ / coolhaus. de/ art-of-controversy/
[84] http:/ / librivox. org/ studies-in-pessimism-by-arthur-schopenhauer/
[85] http:/ / www.archive. org/ details/ theworldaswillan01schouoft
[86] http:/ / www.archive. org/ details/ theworldaswill02schouoft
[87] http:/ / www.archive. org/ details/ theworldaswillan03schouoft
[88] http:/ / www.archive. org/ details/ onthefourfoldroo00schouoft
[89] http:/ / dlxs2. library. cornell.edu/ cgi/ t/ text/ text-idx?c=cdl;idno=cdl322
[90] http:/ / www.amazon. com/ dp/ 1429739630/
[91] http:/ / www.schopenhauersource. org/ type_list. php?type=manuscript
[92] http:/ / www.schopenhauersource. org/
[93] http:/ / ebooks. adelaide. edu. au/ s/ schopenhauer/ arthur/ essays/
Arthur Schopenhauer
18
Bibliography
† Albright, Daniel (2004) Modernism and Music: An Anthology of Sources. University of Chicago Press. ISBN
978-0-226-01267-4
† Hannan, Barbara, The Riddle of the World: A Reconsideration of Schopenhauer's Philosophy (Oxford, OUP,
2009)
† Magee, Bryan, Confessions of a Philosopher, Random House, 1998, ISBN 978-0-375-50028-2. Chapters 20, 21
† Safranski, R…diger (1990) Schopenhauer and the Wild Years of Philosophy. Harvard University Press, ISBN
978-0-674-79275-3; orig. German Schopenhauer und Die wilden Jahre der Philosophie, Carl Hanser Verlag
(1987)
† The Living Thoughts of Schopenhauer, Thomas Mann editor, Longmans Green & Co., 1939
Further reading
Biographies
† Frederick Copleston, Arthur Schopenhauer, philosopher of pessimism (Burns, Oates & Washbourne, 1946)
† O.F.Damm, Arthur Schopenhauer - eine Biographie, (Reclam, 1912)
† Kuno Fischer, Arthur Schopenhauer (Heidelberg: Winter, 1893); revised as Schopenhauers Leben, Werke und
Lehre (Heidelberg: Winter, 1898).
† Eduard Grisebach, Schopenhauer - Geschichte seines Lebens (Berlin: Hofmann, 1876).
† D.W. Hamlyn, Schopenhauer, London: Routledge & Kegan Paul (1980, 1985)
† Heinrich Hasse, Schopenhauer. (Reinhardt, 1926)
† Arthur H…bscher, Arthur Schopenhauer - Ein Lebensbild (Leipzig: Brockhaus, 1938).
† Thomas Mann, Schopenhauer (Bermann-Fischer, 1938)
† R…diger Safranski, Schopenhauer und die wilden Jahre der Philosophie - Eine Biographie, hard cover Carl
Hanser Verlag, M…nchen 1987, ISBN 978-3-446-14490-3, pocket edition Fischer: ISBN 978-3-596-14299-6.
† R…diger Safranski, Schopenhauer and the Wild Years of Philosophy, trans. Ewald Osers (London: Weidenfeld and
Nicolson, 1989)
† Walther Schneider, Schopenhauer - Eine Biographie (Vienna: Bermann-Fischer, 1937).
† William Wallace, Life of Arthur Schopenhauer (London: Scott, 1890; repr., St. Clair Shores, Mich.: Scholarly
Press, 1970)
Other books
† App, Urs. Arthur Schopenhauer and China. Sino-Platonic Papers Nr. 200 (April 2010) (http:/ / www.
sino-platonic. org/ complete/ spp200_schopenhauer. pdf) (PDF, 8.7 Mb PDF, 164 p.). Contains extensive
appendixes which include transcriptions and English translations of Schopenhauer's early notes about Buddhism
and Indian philosophy.
† Atwell, John. Schopenhauer on the Character of the World, The Metaphysics of Will.
† --------, Schopenhauer, The Human Character.
† Cartwright, David. Schopenhauer: A Biography, Cambridge University Press, 2010. ISBN 978-0-521-82598-6
† Edwards, Anthony. An Evolutionary Epistemological Critique of Schopenhauer's Metaphysics. 123 Books, 2011.
† Copleston, Frederick, Schopenhauer: Philosopher of Pessimism, 1946 (reprinted London: Search Press, 1975).
† Gardiner, Patrick, 1963. Schopenhauer. Penguin Books.
† --------, Schopenhauer: A Very Short introduction.
† Janaway, Christopher, 2003. Self and World in Schopenhauer's Philosophy. Oxford University Press. ISBN
978-0-19-825003-6
Arthur Schopenhauer
19
† Magee, Bryan, The Philosophy of Schopenhauer, Oxford University Press (1988, reprint 1997). ISBN
978-0-19-823722-8
†† Mannion, Gerard, "Schopenhauer, Religion and Morality - The Humble Path to Ethics", Ashgate Press, New
Critical Thinking in Philosophy Series, 2003, 314pp.
† Zimmern, Helen, Arthur Schopenhauer, his Life and Philosophy, London, Longman, and Co., 1876.
Articles
† Abelson, Peter (1993). "Schopenhauer and Buddhism" (http:/ / ccbs. ntu. edu. tw/ FULLTEXT/ JR-PHIL/ peter2.
htm). Philosophy East and West 43 (2): 255•78. doi: 10.2307/1399616 (http:/ / dx. doi. org/ 10. 2307/ 1399616).
JSTOR  1399616 (http:/ / www. jstor. org/ stable/ 1399616).
† Jim„nez, Camilo, 2006, " Tagebuch eines Ehrgeizigen: Arthur Schopenhauers Studienjahre in Berlin, (http:/ /
www. avinus-magazin. eu/ html/ jimenez_-_der_junge_schopenhau. html)" Avinus Magazin (in German).
† Mazard, Eisel, 2005, " Schopenhauer and the Empirical Critique of Idealism in the History of Ideas. (http:/ /
www. pratyeka. org/ schopenhauer/ )" On Schopenhauer's (debated) place in the history of European philosophy
and his relation to his predecessors.
† Moges, Awet, 2006, " Schopenhauer's Philosophy. (http:/ / www. galilean-library. org/ manuscript.
php?postid=43800)" Galileian Library.
† Sangharakshita, 2004, " Schopenhauer and aesthetic appreciation. (http:/ / www. centrebouddhisteparis. org/
En_Anglais/ Sangharakshita_en_anglais/ Aesthetic_appreciation/ aesthetic_appreciation. html)"
† Young, Christopher; Brook, Andrew (1994). "Schopenhauer and Freud" (http:/ / www. carleton. ca/ ~abrook/
SCHOPENY. htm). International Journal of Psychoanalysis 75: 101•18. PMID  8005756 (http:/ / www. ncbi.
nlm. nih. gov/ pubmed/ 8005756).
† Oxenford's "Iconoclasm in German Philosophy," (See p. 388) (http:/ / books. google. com/
books?id=ungVAQAAIAAJ& pg=PP11& dq="westminster+ review"+ + + "iconoclasm+ in+ german+
philosophy"& ie=ISO-8859-1& output=html)
External links
† Works by Arthur Schopenhauer (http:/ / www. gutenberg. org/ author/ Arthur_Schopenhauer) at Project
Gutenberg
† Works by Schopenhauer in audio format (http:/ / librivox. org/ newcatalog/ search. php?title=&
author=Schopenhauer& status=all& action=Search) from LibriVox
† Arthur Schopenhauer (http:/ / plato. stanford. edu/ entries/ schopenhauer) entry by Robert Wicks in the Stanford
Encyclopedia of Philosophy
† Schopenhauersource: Reproductions of Schopenhauer's manuscripts (http:/ / www. schopenhauersource. org/ )
† Kant's philosophy as rectified by Schopenhauer (http:/ / www.archive. org/ details/ cu31924029023327)
† Timeline of German Philosophers (http:/ / www. weple. org/ timeline.
html#ids=14631,12007,12598,700,10671,9518,37304,95184,& title=8 German Philosophers)
† A Quick Introduction to Schopenhauer (http:/ / ljhammond. com/ classics/ cl1. htm#scho)
† Arthur Schopenhauer (http:/ / www. findagrave. com/ cgi-bin/ fg. cgi?page=gr& GRid=12793) at Find a Grave
† Ross, Kelley L., 1998, " Arthur Schopenhauer (1788-1860). (http:/ / www. friesian. com/ arthur. htm)" Two short
essays, on Schopenhauer's life and work, and on his dim view of academia.
Article Sources and Contributors
20
Article Sources and Contributors
Arthur Schopenhauer  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=537887549  Contributors: * ‰Š ‹Œ•Ž‰ •• *, -jkb-, 137.111.13.xxx, 217.70.229.xxx, A4, Abdullais4u, Aberrantsea,
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