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Potential Production of Methane from

Canadian Wastes
By
Salim Abboud, Kevin Aschim, Brennan Bagdan, Partha Sarkar, Hongi
!uan, Brent Scorfield and Christian "elske, Alberta #esearch Council
Shahr$ad #ahbar and %ouis Marmen,
Canadian &as Association
"inal #e'ort ( Se'tember )*+*
)
)
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
%,S- ." -AB%/S 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 iii
%,S- ." ",&1#/S 00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 iv
/2/C1-,3/ S1MMA#! 00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 vi
+0* ,4-#.51C-,.4 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 +
+0+ .b6ective00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 +
+0) A''roach00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 )
)0* B,.&AS, S!4&AS A45 #/4/WAB%/ 4A-1#A% &AS
P#.51C-,.4 P#.C/SS/S "#.M WAS-/S00000000000000000000000000000000000000000 7
)0+ Anaerobic 5igestion00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 8
)0) &asification0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 9
)07 .ther /nergy Production Processes from Wastes00000000000000000000000000000 :
)070+ "ermentation00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 :
)070) Combustion0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 :
)0707 Pyrolysis000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 ;
70* M/-HA4/ P#.51C-,.4 P#.C/SS/S "#.M B,.&AS A45
S!4&AS 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 <
70+ Cleanu' 000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 <
70+0+ Biogas Cleaning 00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 <
70+0) Bio Syngas Cleaning and -reatment 0000000000000000000000000000000000000 +)
70) Se'aration 00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 +;
70)0+ %iuid Absor'tion 00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 +<
70)0) Solid Physical Adsor'tion 00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 +=
70)07 Membrane Se'aration 00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 +=
70)08 Cryogenic &as Se'aration 00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 )7
70)09 Summary 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 )7
80* P#.51C-,.4 ." B,.&AS, S!4&AS A45 #/4/WAB%/ 4A-1#A%
&AS "#.M CA4A5,A4 WAS-/S 00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 )9
80+ Agricultural Wastes 00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 )9
80+0+ Cro' #esidues 00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 )9
80+0) %ivestock Manure 00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 79
80) "orestry Wastes 000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 8*
807 Munici'al Wastes 000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 87
8070+ Munici'al Solid Waste 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 87
8070) Waste>ater 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 8<
80707 Biosolids 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 9+
80708 %andfills 00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 98
80709 -otal Munici'al Wastes 00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 9;
i
TABLE OF CONTENTS (CONCLUDED)
Page
90* P#.51C-,.4 ." M/-HA4/ "#.M CA4A5,A4 WAS-/S 00000000000000 :*
90+ -echnical "easibility 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 :*
90) /conomic "easibility 000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 :9
90)0+ /stimating the /conomically #ecoverable #esource 00000000000 ::
90)0) Pi'eline versus Po>er 00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 ::
90)07 #isk Sensitivity and Mitigation Analysis 00000000000000000000000000000 :=
90)08 Com'aring the "our Scenarios 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 :=
:0* &#//4H.1S/ &AS ,MPAC- ." M/-HA4/ CAP-1#/ "#.M
CA4A5,A4 WAS-/S 00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 ;+
;0* C.4C%1S,.4S 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 ;8
<0* #/C.MM/45A-,.4S 000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 ;:
<0+ Policy 5evelo'ment 00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 ;:
<0) -echnical 5evelo'ment 00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 ;:
=0* #/"/#/4C/S C,-/5 000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 ;;
ii
LIST OF TABLES
Page
-able +0 Canadian )**; Cro' Production and /stimates of Cro' #esidues 000000000 ):
-able )0 4e>foundland and %abrador )**; Cro' Production and /stimates
of Cro' #esidues 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 ):
-able 70 Prince /d>ard ,sland )**; Cro' Production and /stimates of Cro'
#esidues 00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 );
-able 80 4ova Scotia )**; Cro' Production and /stimates of Cro' #esidues 0000 );
-able 90 4e> Bruns>ick )**; Cro' Production and /stimates of Cro'
#esidues 00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 )<
-able :0 ?uebec )**; Cro' Production and /stimates of Cro' #esidues 000000000000 )<
-able ;0 .ntario )**; Cro' Production and /stimates of Cro' #esidues 000000000000 )=
-able <0 Manitoba )**; Cro' Production and /stimates of Cro' #esidues 000000000 )=
-able =0 Saskatche>an )**; Cro' Production and /stimates of Cro' #esidues 0 7*
-able +*0 Alberta )**; Cro' Production and /stimates of Cro' #esidues 000000000000 7*
-able ++0 British Columbia )**; Cro' Production and /stimates of Cro'
#esidues 00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 7+
-able +)0 Potential Methane Production from Canadian Cro' #esidues 000000000000000 77
-able +70 Canadian Production of Cattle and Hog Manures 0000000000000000000000000000000000 7;
-able +80 Canadian Production of Shee' and Chicken Manures 0000000000000000000000000000 7;
-able +90 Canadian Production of -urkey Manure 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 7<
-able +:0 Potential Methane Production from Canadian Manures 0000000000000000000000000 7<
-able +;0 Potential Production of Methane from Canadian "orestry Wastes 000000000 8+
-able +<0 Annual Canadian Munici'al Solid Waste @MSWA Production @)**9A 0 0 0 88
-able +=0 Annual Methane Production from Canadian Munici'al Solid Wastes
@)**9A 000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 89
iii
LIST OF TABLES (CONCLUDED)
Page
-able )*0 Annual Methane Production from Canadian Waste>aters @)**:A 000000000 8=
-able )+0 Annual Methane Production from Canadian Biosolids @)**:A 000000000000000 9)
-able ))0 Annual Methane &as &eneration and Ca'ture from Canadian %andfills
@)**9A 000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 99
-able )70 Annual Potential Production of Methane from Canadian Munici'al
Wastes000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 9<
-able )80 Potential Methane Production from Canadian Wastes 000000000000000000000000000 :)
-able )90 Potential #4& as a "unction of /nergy Production and Current 4&
Consum'tion 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 :8
-able ):0 /conomic Analysis of #4& Scenarios 000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 ;*
-able );0 &H& #eductions 5ue to Production of #ene>able 4atural &as 00000000000 ;)
LIST OF FIGURES
Page
"igure +0 Potential Path>ays for /nergy Production from Biomass 0000000000000000000000 7
"igure )0 "lo>chart of the Biogas Cleaning Process 000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 =
"igure 70 "lo>chart of the "our Main Ste's in Biomass &asification System 000000 +)
"igure 80 Process "lo>chart of the SyntheticB#ene>able 4atural &as @S4&B#4&A
Production from Biomass 00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 +;
"igure 90 Availability of Canadian Cro' #esidues for A5 and &asification 000000000 78
"igure :0 Potential Production of #4& from Canadian Cro' #esidues 00000000000000000 78
"igure ;0 Availability of Canadian Manures for A5 and &asification 000000000000000000 7=
"igure <0 Potential Production of #4& from Canadian Manures 00000000000000000000000000 7=
iv
LIST OF FIGURES (CONCLUDED)
Page
"igure =0 Potential Production of #4& from Canadian "orestry Wastes 00000000000000 8)
"igure +*0 Canadian Munici'al Solid Waste 5is'osal @)**9A 000000000000000000000000000000000 8:
"igure ++0 Availability of Canadian MSW for A5 and &asification as Com'ared
to -otal 5is'osed MSW 00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 8:
"igure +)0 Potential Production of #4& from Canadian Munici'al Solid
Wastes 00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 8;
"igure +70 Potential Production of #4& from Canadian Waste>aters 00000000000000000000 9*
"igure +80 Potential Production of #4& from Canadian Biosolids 0000000000000000000000000 97
"igure +90 Potential Production of #4& from Canadian %andfills 00000000000000000000000000 9:
"igure +:0 Potential Production of #4& from Canadian Munici'al Wastes 00000000000 9<
"igure +;0 Potential #4& Source of Production from Munici'al Wastes 000000000000000 9=
"igure +<0 Potential -otal Production of #4& from Canadian Munici'al
Wastes 00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 9=
"igure +=0 Potential Production of #4& from Canadian Wastes 00000000000000000000000000000 :)
"igure )*0 Contribution of Wastes to #4& Production 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 :7
"igure )+0 Contribution of #4& -echnology to #4& Production 00000000000000000000000000 :7
"igure ))0 Potential #4& Production as a "unction of 4& 1se 000000000000000000000000000000 :8
"igure )70 /conomic Analysis of "eedlot Biogas to Pi'eline &rade #4& 0000000000000 :<
"igure )80 Potential &H& #eductions 5ue to #4& Production 000000000000000000000000000000 ;7
"igure )90 #elative Potential &H& #eductions 5ue to #4& Production 0000000000000000 ;7
v
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
-his re'ort evaluates the role >astes can 'lay in 'roducing energy from >aste
biomass by generating methane from Canadian >astes, >hich can then be used as a
rene>able natural gas @#4&A source0
-he ob6ective of this 'ro6ect is to conduct a literature based study >hose aim >ill
be to assess the technical 'otential for methane generation from Canadian >astes, and the
relative greenhouse gas @&H&A im'acts of ca'turing the generated methane0 -he 'ro6ect
also looks at the economic viability of different scenarios involving the 'roduction of
#4&0 While the >ork does not attem't to uantify the useful 'otential of #4& in
Canada, >hich >ould need factoring in infrastructure and economic constraints, it >ill
assist in determining the resource base for methane from >aste0
We define technical feasibility as the 'otential to reali$e a 'roduct based on the
availability of resources and the 'rior kno>ledge and eC'erience of using similar
'rocesses for 'roducing similar 'roducts0 Production of #4& from Canadian >astes >as
sho>n to arise from the a''lication of t>o >ell used and understood 'rocessesD anaerobic
digestion and gasification0 With the main focus of this re'ort the 'roduction of methane
from >aste biomass, >e have concentrated our discussion of cleaning and u'grading of
anaerobic digestion 'roduced ra> biogas and gasifier 'roduced ra> biosyngas0 Based on
our findings, it is envisioned that anaerobic digestion 'rocess >ill be the main source of
#4& in the neCt 9 to +* years >ith gasification contributing after>ards0 -his is based on
the availability of the technologies, 'rior use and acce'tance by industry and the need for
further technology develo'ment activities0
Canadian >astes that are amenable to 'roducing #4& are those containing
significant amounts of biomass and are mostly generated by the agricultural, forestry and
munici'al sectors0
Agricultural >astes containing significant biomass are mostly made u' of cro'
residues and animal manures0 -hese >astes can be converted to biogas and syngas
through anaerobic digestion and gasification0 -he 'roduced biogas can be cleaned u' of
'otential contaminants and se'arated into CH
8
and C.
)
both of >hich can be sold as
vi
#4& and industrial grade C.
)
0 Syngas can be cleaned u', methanated and then
se'arated into CH
8
and C.
)
0
5ata sho>s that the greatest 'otential for 'roducing #4& from cro' residues is
through gasification as it consumes most of the biomass >hile anaerobic digestion is
limited to about )*E of that biomass0
Manure 'roduction on Canadian farms varies according to the ty'e of animals and
the animal 'o'ulation numbers, but is amenable for 'roducing #4&0 5ata sho>s that the
'otential for 'roducing #4& from manure residues is slightly higher through gasification
than that for anaerobic digestion0
"orestry residues are made u' of forest o'eration residues and mountain 'ine
beetle @MPBA residues0 "orest residue data sho>s that the 'otentially available residues
are to be found mostly in BC @77EA, ?uebec @);EA and .ntario @+;EA0 Potential
'roduction of #4& from these residues through gasification sho>s a similar 'attern as
the residue distribution0
Canadian munici'al >astes considered as 'otential sources for #4& 'roduction
included solid >astes collected from homes and businesses by munici'alities @MSWA,
landfill gas recovered from closed landfills @%"&A, >aste>aters @WWA collected through
munici'al se>er systems, and the munici'al biosolids >hich are the solid materials
collected @through settlingA of the >aste>aters0
5ata of the contributions of each munici'al >aste to the total munici'al 'otential
#4& 'roduction sho>s that the largest sources of 'otential #4& are from solid >astes
@MSWA and %andfills0 -his is understandable considering the much larger solid
'roduction of >astes from the above t>o sources0 Anaerobic digestion contributes
slightly more #4& than gasification due to the 'roduction of %"&0 -otal 'otential #4&
'roduction sho>s a distribution similar to 'o'ulation si$e0
-his munici'al >aste source is significant for the large contribution of anaerobic
digestion to #4& 'roduction allo>ing for the use of established technologies >ith much
easier technology u'take and ada'tation0 Another attractive as'ect for using this >aste is
the lo>er cost of 'roduction due to the absence of >aste collection and trans'ortation
costs as they are usually incurred by the munici'alities0 -he most significant costs are
vii
those associated >ith gas cleaning and se'aration0 Challenges eCist in ada'ting
gasification to munici'al >astes as fe> gasification 'lants eCist and those usually use the
syngas only to 'roduce 'o>er0 Most thermal treatments of munici'al >astes, have u'
until no> tended to favour incineration0
All 'otential #4& that can be 'roduced from the total Canadian >astes revie>ed,
sho>s that a 'otential total of )80= MtByr of #4& can be 'roduced0 "orestry seems to
have the 'otential to 'roduce +)0= MtByr @9+E of totalA, follo>ed by <0< MtByr @7:EA
from agriculture and 70) MtByr @+7EA from munici'al >astes0 -he use of gasification
seems to have the 'otential to 'roduce most of the #4& in Canada as >e estimated that
)+ MtByr @<8E of totalA can be 'roduced by this 'rocess0 Anaerobic digestion has the
'otential to 'roduce 70= MtByr @+:E of totalAF >hile this 'rocess seems to be significantly
less than gasification, it is still significant because of the technology availability and
lo>er cost0
We com'ared the relative si$e of our 'otential #4& estimates to the current
natural gas use for the residential and commercial sectors0 -he 'otential Canadian
generation of )80= MtByr of #4& corres'onds to an energy value of +08 -GByr or
7<=,9)< &Wh of electricity0 #4& 'roduction can account for a significant amount of the
natural gas use0 4ationally, our estimate of the technical 'otential is that +7*E of current
4& residential and commercial use can be re'laced by the 'roduced #4&0
We develo'ed several scenarios using 'ro'rietary s'readsheets develo'ed >ithin
the Alberta #esearch Council, to highlight the com'leCity around the economics issue0
.ur analysis sho>s that to lo>er the cost of #4&, then the technology costs for cleaning
the biogas needs to be reduced0 At the moment, there is very little data on the cost to
clean gas to a 'i'eline grade0 Ho>ever, the economic models >hich have been 'resented
evaluated different scenarios >hich included eCam'les of #4& used to 'roduce 'i'eline
grade natural gas, or #4& used in 'o>er 'roduction0 -he economics underlines the need
to develo' biogas cleaning technologies that lo>er ca'ital costs by an order of magnitude
over the current state of the art0
-he 'roduction and ca'ture of #4& from Canadian >astes contributes to &H&
reduction through t>o 'rocessesD emission reduction and fuel substitution0 /mission
viii
reduction can be achieved through the ca'ture of the emitted methane from landfills and
the anaerobic digestion of animal manures0 "uel substitution a''lies to the use of #4&
to re'lace any natural gas 'roduced from fossil fuels0
-otal &H& reductions >ere estimated as +*; Mt C.
)
eByr for Canada >ith the
largest amounts found for ?uebec, .ntario and BC0 "uel substitution seems to contribute
more &H& reductions than emission reduction eCce't for those 'rovinces >ith large
forestry >astes such as BC0 Almost 77E of the Canadian &H& reductions arise from
emission reduction, >hile the rest @:;EA from fuel substitution0
-he 'otential #4& 'roduction from >astes can contribute a significant amount of
&H& reductions and thus carbon credits, >hich may alleviate the cost of #4& 'roduction
if factoring in the sale of the C.
)
'roduced and the value of its carbon credit0
.n a going for>ard basis, there is a need to engage a''ro'riate stakeholders and
various levels of government to get a better handle on the useful 'otential of #4&
considering s'atial infrastructure and economic factors, initiate 'olicy develo'ment as
>ell as undertaking additional technical develo'ment that >ill 'rovide more o'erating
and cost data0
iC
+0 INTRODUCTION
-he use of biomass resources for energy 'roduction started early in human
history, and continued to be the ma6or source of energy until overtaken by coal then oil in
the +=
th
and )*
th
centuries0 Biomass su''lies 90=E of Canadian 'rimary energy sources,
+9E of the >orldHs energy and 79E of the develo'ing countries needs @Holmes and
/d>ards, )**7A0 -he rest of the energy needs are su''lied by fossil fuels0 Concern about
the use of fossil fuels and the resulting atmos'heric buildu' of carbon dioCide has led to a
reevaluation of biomass resources for energy 'roduction0
-he ne> efforts to use biomass for energy 'roduction centre on increasing
efficiency, 'romoting sustainability of this resource and lo>ering carbon dioCide
atmos'heric levels by re'lacing fossil fuels0
-his re'ort evaluates the role >astes can 'lay in 'roducing energy from >aste
biomass by generating methane from Canadian >astes, >hich can then be used a
rene>able natural gas @#4&A source0 -his 'ath to energy 'roduction offers the
advantages of ne> 'reviously unta''ed sources of biomass and a solution to mounting
>aste 'roblems0
1.1. OBJECTIVE
-he ob6ective of this 'ro6ect is to conduct a literature based study >hose aim >ill
be to assess the technical 'otential for methane generation from Canadian >astes, and the
relative greenhouse gas @&H&A im'acts of ca'turing the generated methane0 -he 'ro6ect
also looks at the economic viability of different scenarios involving the 'roduction of
#4&0 While the >ork does not attem't to uantify the useful 'otential of #4& in
Canada, >hich >ould need factoring in infrastructure and economic constraintsF the study
>ill enable the C&A to determine @>ith coarse granularityA the resource base for methane
from >aste0
,n 'articular the follo>ing sub(ob6ectives >ill be addressedD
-he sources of >astes that are or can be 'otentially converted into methane
@e0g0 Munici'al and AgriculturalA
+
-he total resource 'otential nationally >ith 'rovincial breakdo>n >here
'ossibleBfeasible @the technically feasible 'otential methane generationA
/C'ressed as 'ercent of domestic gas consum'tion or any other unit that
relates it to current gas use
-he economic viability of different scenarios involving the 'roduction of
#4&0
-he 'otential for &H& management @im'act of ca'turing methane, turning it
to C.
)
and claiming the benefitA0
1.2. APPROACH
We revie>ed the literature >ith res'ect to the available 'rocesses for converting
>aste into rene>able natural gas @#4&A and the results >ill be discussed in the follo>ing
cha'ters0 "urthermore, >e collected data related to the source and uantities of >astes
'roduced in Canada, organi$ed by 'rovince and for the >hole country0 We used the
>aste information to calculate 'otential uantities of #4& that can be 'roduced from
these >astes using assum'tions about the conversion 'ath>ays and yields0 -hese values
>ere based on the scientific literature and our o>n eC'erience and >ill be eC'lained later
in this re'ort0 -he 'otential #4& 'roduction values are discussed for each 'rovince and
the country in terms of #4& 'roduction 'ath>ays and their technical and economic
feasibilities0 Similar discussion is also included for the 'otential reduction in greenhouse
gases reali$ed from the 'roduction of #4& from >aste0
)
)0 BIOGAS, SYNGAS AND RENEWABLE NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION
PROCESSES FROM WASTES
Biomass can be converted to fuel for 'roduction of energy, i0e0 electrical and
thermal or ra> materials for the synthesis of chemicals, liuid fuels, gaseous fuels such as
hydrogen and methane0 -here are five different technological routes by >hich energy
can be 'roduced from biomass0 -hese five 'rocesses are sho>n in "igure + and can be
grou'ed into thermochemical @biomass combustion, gasification and 'yrolysisA and non(
thermal @anaerobic digestion and fermentationA 'rocesses0 -hough the diagram in
"igure + has sho>n energy 'roduction but the chemicals 'roduced by digestion,
fermentation, gasification and 'yrolysis can be used as feedstocks for 'roducing other
useful chemicals0
Bi!"##
C!$%#&i'
(T()*!"+ E')*,-)
P-*+-#i#
(+i.%i/ i+, ,"#)%#
0*/%1&# "'/ C("*)
G"#i2i1"&i'
(G"#)%# F%)+)
F)*!)'&"&i'
(A+1(+#)
A'")*$i1
Di,)#&i'
(G"#)%# F%)+)
E')*,-
Fi,%*) 1. Potential Path>ays for /nergy Production from Biomass0
7
2.1. ANAEROBIC DIGESTION
Anaerobic digesters are commonly used for effluent and se>age treatment or for
managing animal >astes0 Anaerobic digestion is a sim'le 'rocess that can greatly reduce
the amount of organic matter >hich might other>ise end u' in landfills or >aste
incinerators0 ,n develo'ing countries sim'le home and farm(based anaerobic digestion
systems offer the 'otential for chea', lo> cost energy from biogas0 /nvironmental
'ressure on solid >aste dis'osal methods in develo'ed countries has increased the
a''lication of anaerobic digestion as a 'rocess for reducing >aste volumes and
generating useful by'roducts0 Anaerobic digestion may either be used to 'rocess the
source se'arated fraction of biodegradable >aste, or alternatively combined >ith
mechanical sorting systems, to 'rocess miCed munici'al >aste0 Almost any
biodegradable organic material can be 'rocessed >ith anaerobic digestion0 -his includes
biodegradable >aste materials such as >aste 'a'er, grass cli''ings, leftover food, se>age
and animal >aste0 Anaerobic digesters can also be fed >ith s'ecially gro>n energy cro's
or silage for dedicated biogas 'roduction0 After sorting or screening to remove 'hysical
contaminants, such as metals and 'lastics, from the feedstock the material is often
shredded, minced, or hydrocrushed to increase the surface area available to microbes in
the digesters and hence increase the s'eed of digestion0 -he material is then fed into an
airtight digester >here the anaerobic treatment takes 'lace0 -here are four key biological
and chemical stages of anaerobic digestionD
+0 -he first is the chemical reaction of hydrolysis, >here com'leC organic
molecules are broken do>n into sim'le sugars, amino acids, and fatty acids
>ith the addition of hydroCyl grou's0
)0 -he second stage is the biological 'rocess of acidogenesis >here a further
breakdo>n by acidogens into sim'ler molecules, volatile fatty acids @3"AsA
occurs, 'roducing ammonia, carbon dioCide and hydrogen sulfide as
by'roducts0
8
70 -he third stage is the biological 'rocess of acetogenesis >here the sim'le
molecules from acidogenesis are further digested by acetogens to 'roduce
carbon dioCide, hydrogen and mainly acetic acid0
80 -he fourth stage is the biological 'rocess of methanogenesis >here methane,
carbon dioCide and >ater are 'roduced by methanogens0
A sim'lified generic chemical euation of the overall 'rocess is as follo>sD
C
:
H
+)
.
:
I 7C.
)
J 7CH
8
2.2. GASIFICATION
&asification is a 'rocess that converts carbonaceous materials, such as coal,
'etroleum, or biomass, into carbon monoCide, hydrogen and methane by the reaction of
the ra> organic feedstock at elevated tem'eratures >ith a controlled amount of oCygen at
a deficit condition0 -he resulting gas miCture is called synthesis gas or syngas and is itself
a fuel0 &asification is a very efficient method for eCtracting energy from many different
ty'es of organic materials0 -he advantage of gasification is that using the syngas is more
efficient than direct combustion of the original ra> feedstockF more of the energy
contained in the ra> feedstock is eCtracted0 Syngas may be burned directly in internal
combustion engines, used to 'roduce methanol and hydrogen, converted via the "ischer(
-ro'sch 'rocess into synthetic fuel, or converted to methane through catalytic
methanation0 &asification can also begin >ith materials that are not other>ise as useful
fuels, such as biomass or organic >aste0 ,n addition, the high(tem'erature combustion
refines out corrosive ash elements such as chloride and 'otassium, allo>ing clean gas
'roduction from other>ise 'roblematic fuels0 &asification of coal is currently >idely
used on industrial scales to generate electricity0 Ho>ever, almost any ty'e of organic
material can be used as the ra> material for gasification, such as >ood, biomass, or even
'lastic >aste0 -hus, gasification may be an im'ortant technology for rene>able energy0
&asification relies on chemical 'rocesses at elevated tem'eratures, ;**KC(+<**KC, >hich
distinguishes it from biological 'rocesses such as anaerobic digestion that 'roduce
biogas0
9
2.3. OTHER ENERGY PRODUCTION PROCESSES FROM WASTES
-hree other 'rocesses commonly used for energy 'roduction from >astes are
fermentation, combustion and 'yrolysis0 -hese 'rocesses >ill be discussed briefly here0
2.3.1. F)*!)'&"&i'
"ermentation is the biochemical conversion of carbohydrates into energy in the
form of alcohols0 -his 'rocess uses microorganisms andBor en$ymes to convert biomass
feedstocks @including >astesA into fuel alcohols, most notably ethanol0 /thanol is used in
liuid fuel blends and its most common use is currently found in Bra$il and increasingly
in the 1S and /10 Most ethanol today is 'roduced from grains, corn, sugar beets and
sugar cane0
-he 'rocess includes the 'hysical breakdo>n of the biomass tissues through
grinding to eC'ose their starches then adding >ater and heat to cook the miCture0 -he
resulting miC is then treated >ith en$ymes that transform the starches into sugars, >hich
is follo>ed by fermentation of the sugars to alcohols using added yeast microorganisms0
-he resulting alcohol @ethanolA is then distilled and dehydrated before readying for use
@Holmes and /d>ards, )**7A0
2.3.2. C!$%#&i'
Combustion is a com'leC seuence of eCothermic chemical reactions bet>een a
fuel and oCidant @oCygenF air(a source of oCygenA to 'roduce thermal energy0 ,t is the
ma6or chemical energy conversion techniue and key to humankindLs eCistence0
Combustion includes thermal, hydrodynamic, and chemical 'rocesses0 ,t starts >ith the
miCing of fuel and oCidant, and sometimes in the 'resence of other s'ecies or catalysts0
-he fuel can be gaseous, liuid, or solid @biomassA and the miCture may be ignited >ith a
heat source0 5uring combustion, ne> chemical substances are created, i0e0, carbonaceous
materials of the feedstock react >ith oCygen and 'roduce gaseous 'roduct0 Combustion
'rocess o'erates in eCcess oCygen0 When ignited, chemical reactions of feedstock and
oCidant take 'lace and the heat release from the reaction creates a self(sustained 'rocess0
"or combustion to occur three things must be 'resentD a fuel to be burned, a source of
:
oCygen, and a source of heat0 As a result of combustion, eChausts are created and heat is
generated0 .ne can control or sto' the combustion 'rocess by controlling the amount of
the fuel available, the amount of oCygen available, or the source of heat0
2.3.3. P-*+-#i#
Pyrolysis is a chemical decom'osition induced in organic materials by thermal
energy in the absence of oCygen0 But in real >orld a''lication, it is not 'ossible to
achieve a com'letely oCygen(free atmos'here0 Pyrolysis transforms organic materials
into gaseous com'onents, liuid, and a solid residue @cokeA containing fiCed carbon and
ash0 Pyrolysis of organic materials 'roduces combustible gases, including carbon
monoCide, hydrogen and methane, and other hydrocarbons0 ,f the off(gases are cooled,
liuids condense 'roducing an oilBtar residue and contaminated >ater0 Pyrolysis ty'ically
occurs in the tem'eratures range bet>een 79*KC(99*KC0 ,n general it is a sim'le, lo>(
cost technology ca'able of 'rocessing a >ide variety of feedstocks 'roducing gases, a
bio(oil, bio(chemicals, and charcoal0 An ancient industrial use of anhydrous 'yrolysis is
the 'roduction of charcoal through the 'yrolysis of >ood0 ,n more recent times, 'yrolysis
has been used on a massive scale to turn coal into coke for metallurgy, es'ecially
steelmaking0
Slow pyrolysis is a thermochemical decom'osition of organic material at elevated
tem'eratures in the absence of oCygen0 -he feed material is dried and fed into a stirred,
heated kiln0 As the material 'asses through the kiln, a combustible gas is evolved and is
continuously removed from the reactor0 A''roCimately 79E by >eight of the dry feed
material is converted to a high(carbon char material that is collected on the discharge of
the reactor0 -y'ical yield is 7*E liuid @mostly >aterA, 79E gaseous 'roduct and 79E
char0
Anhydrous 'yrolysis can also be used to 'roduce liuid fuel similar to diesel from solid
biomass0 -he most common techniue uses very lo> residence times @M) secondsA and
high heating rates using a tem'erature bet>een 7** and 9** KC and is called either fast
;
or flash pyrolysis0 "ast 'yrolysis of biomass achieves high yields of liuids0 #a'id
heating means that the biomass must be ground into fine 'articles and that the insulating
char layer that forms at the surface of the reacting 'articles must be continuously
removed0 -y'ically it yields :*(;9E oil, +*()9E gaseous 'roduct and +*(+9E chars0
70 METHANE PRODUCTION PROCESSES FROM BIOGAS AND SYNGAS
As it is already stated in the earlier section, the main focus of this re'ort is
'roduction of methane from >aste biomass0 -herefore, >e >ould be concentrating our
discussion of cleaning and u'grading of anaerobic digestion 'roduced ra> biogas and
gasifier 'roduced ra> biosyngas >here gasifier o'eration tem'erature is M+***KC0 -he
anaerobic digestion 'roduced ra> biogas consists of 8*(<* E methane @CH
8
A and +9(
9* E carbon dioCide @C.
)
A0 -herefore, methane is the ma6or constituent of the anaerobic
digestion 'roduced biogas0 Here NBiosyngasH term is used to distinguish it from the
NSyngasH 'roduced by gasification technology from fossil fuel0 &asifier 'roduced ra>
biosyngas mainly consists of hydrogen and carbon monoCide0 -herefore, here a
methanation ste' has to be included0
3.1. CLEANUP
3.1.1. Bi,"# C+)"'i',
-y'ically, anaerobic digestion 'roduced ra> biogas consists of 8*(<*E methane
@CH
8
A and +9(9*E carbon dioCide @C.
)
A, >ith the eCact 'ro'ortions de'ending on the
'roduction conditions and 'rocessing techniues0 ,n addition, hydrogen sul'hide @H
)
SA,
ammonia @4H
7
A, siloCanes, >ater va'or and nitrogen gas @4
)
A may be 'resent in small
amounts0 ,n order to u'grade the biogas to a natural gas uality, a multi(stage cleaning
and u'grading treatments are needed to obtain desired biomethane0 -he cleaning and
u'grading 'rocesses de'ends on the feedstock, anaerobic digestion 'rocess and the end
use of the biomethane0 "lo>chart in "igure ) sho>s the ty'ical biogas cleaning stages0
/Ccellent revie> of biogas cleaning is 'rovided in 4#Can document on Biogas
-reatment @Conestoga(#overs O Associates, )**;A, and the follo>ing references @,/A
Bioenergy, )***F Schmack Biogas A&F and Persson et al0 )**:A are recommended for
further reading0
<
H"+,)'"&)/
H-/*1"*$' R)!4"+
C"*$' Di5i/)
R)!4"+
R"6 Bi,"#
Main ,m'urities to be removedD
H
)
S Corrosion, -oCicity, Sulfur .Cides
formation
H
)
. Condensation in gas lines, corrosive acid
solution formation
HC(2 Corrosion
C.
)
#educing energy content, &H&
A'")*$i1 Di,)#&i'
Mi#&%*)
R)!4"+
P"*&i1%+"&)
R)!4"+
H-/*,)' S%+2i/)
R)!4"+
Si+5"')
R)!4"+
#efrigeration, absor'tion @glycolA, adsor'tion @silica
gelA, Cyclone se'arator or knockout dram
"iltration, cyclone se'arator, electrostatic 'reci'itation
AirBoCygen in6ection to digester, ,ron chloride miCing to
digester slurry, #eacting biogas >ith ,ron oCide or
hydroCide, ,m'regnated Activated Carbon @PSAA,
Water O 4a.H scrubbing
Activated carbon adsor'tion, Cryogenic condensation,
Physical absor'tion by Polyethylene &lycol or
SeleCol
-M
, Hydrocarbon .il
Activated carbon, or removed >ith C.
)
C+)"' Bi!)&("')
(RNG)
C+)"' C"*$'
Di5i/)
Fi,%*) 2. "lo>chart of the Biogas Cleaning Process0
=
Particle Removal: Some moisture removing techniues also remove 'articles as
>ell as some 'article removal techniues also remove moisture0 "iltration is a sim'le
>ay to remove 'articles0 Gust 'assing the biogas through stainless steel mesh filter or
filter 'ad can remove 'articles as >ell as some of the moisture0 Cyclone se'arator can be
very effective to remove larger 'articles as >ell as some moisture from the biogas0 Here
centrifugal force is used for se'arating the 'articles from the biogas stream0 /lectrostatic
'reci'itator can be used to remove 'articles from biogas0
Hydrogen Sulfide RemovalD Hydrogen sulfide is needed to be removed in order
to avoid corrosion in com'ressors, 'i'eline, gas storage tank and other metallic 'arts0 .n
the to' of its corrosiveness it is also toCic0 5ue to all these 'otential 'roblems >ith
hydrogen sulfide, it is generally removed at the early stages of cleaning 'rocess0 -here
are number of >ays hydrogen sulfide can be removed as listed belo>D
AirB.Cygen in6ection to digester biogas
,ron chloride miCing to digester slurry
,ron oCide or iron hydroCide
,m'regnated activated carbon
Water scrubbing
Sodium hydroCide scrubbing
AirBor oCygen in6ection is a biological method of removing of hydrogen sulfide0
.Cygen 'romotes sul'hur oCidi$ing bacteria in the digester and the bacteria converts
hydrogen sulfide to yello> cluster of sul'hur0 -hough air in6ection is sim'le and a lo>
cost solution, it introduces nitrogen in the biogas >hich is difficult to remove0
,ron chloride in digester slurry reacts >ith hydrogen sulfide and forms iron
sulfide0 -his method is very effective in reducing high hydrogen sulfide levels but less
effective in attaining lo> and stable levels0 ,ron oCide or iron hydroCide can be used for
+*
removal of hydrogen sulfide, here iron oCideBhydroCide react >ith hydrogen sulfide of
the biogas and form iron sulfide0 ,n this case biogas is 'assed through iron
++
oCideBhydroCide bed0 -his reaction is slightly endothermic, o'timum reaction
tem'erature is bet>een )9KC and 9*KC0 ,ron oCide can be recovered by reacting iron
sulfide >ith air0 -his regenerative 'rocess is highly eCothermic0
With 'ressure s>ing adsor'tion @PSAA systems hydrogen sulfide is removed by
'otassium iodide im'regnated activated carbon0 "or this 'rocess small amount of air is
needed to be added in the biogas0 Hydrogen sulfide is catalytically converted to sul'hur
and >ater0 -his reaction occurs at a 'ressure of ; to < bar and a tem'erature of 9*KC(
;*KC0 -he sul'hur is adsorbed by activated carbon0
Hydrogen sulfide is soluble in >aterF therefore, >ater scrubbing can be used to
remove hydrogen sulfide0 Contaminated >ater must be regenerated before reuse0
Hydrogen sulfide can be desorbed from >ater and the result is a fugitive emission0 Water
solution of sodium hydroCide has higher hydrogen sulfide absor'tion ca'acity than 'ure
>ater0 Sodium hydroCide reacts >ith hydrogen sulfite and form sodium sulfide0 Ma6or
'roblem here is the dis'osal of sodium sulfide contaminated >ater0
Halogenated Hydrocarbon Removal: Halogenated hydrocarbon including
hydrochloric acid, hydrofluoric acid and chlorinated aromatics are difficult to remove in
lo> concentration0 &enerally halogenated hydrocarbons are simultaneously removed
>ith carbon dioCide0 Activated carbon can be used for removing halogenated
hydrocarbon0
Siloxane Removal: SiloCane form siliceous de'osit on engine and enhances the
>ear and as a result reduces the lifes'an of the engine or engine 'arts0 ,t can be removed
by several >ays0 Activated carbon can remove siloCane by adsor'tion0 Cryogenic
condensation can be used for removing it0 ,t is 'ossible to remove ==E of siloCane by
cooling the biogas at (;*KC0 Polyethylene glycol or SeleCol
-M
, a commercially available
solvent can be used for siloCane removal0 Here 'hysical absor'tion is the mechanism0
-his chemicals are not selective to siloCane removal, it also remove carbon dioCide,
+)
hydrogen sulfide and >ater va'or0 Hydrocarbon oil can be effective in removing
siloCane and the oil can be regenerated by vacuum treatment0
+7
#a> biogas is normally saturated >ith moisture and it must be removed to avoid
corrosion of 'i'ing and the eui'ments and free$ing 'roblems in >inter0 Moisture should
be removed close to the do>nstream 'rocess unit0 Multi'le moisture ta's can be installed
in the vital location of the 'i'ing net>ork0 -here are multi'le >ays to remove moisture,
such as refrigeration, here biogas is cooled belo> its de> 'oint to condense >ater and
remove it0 ,t can be removed using absor'tion techniue such glycol or some salt
absorbed moisture0 Absorbing chemical can be regenerated by drying at high
tem'erature0
3.1.2. Bi S-',"# C+)"'i', "'/ T*)"&!)'&
A biomass gasification system can be divided into four ma6or ste's, as sho>n in
the 'rocess flo>chart they are ra> biomass conditioning, gasification, crude biosyngas
cleaning and gas utili$ation0 5e'ending on the biomass feedstock and the ty'e of
gasifier, the ra> biomass must be conditioned @si$ed, dried etc0A0 Achieving a good
continuous and reliable biomass conditioning is often one of the most im'ortant 'oints in
o'eration of a gasification 'lant0
Fi,%*) 3. "lo>chart of the "our Main Ste's in a Biomass &asification System0
+8
-here are several different ty'esH gasifier technologies available, each of them has there
o>n characteristicsD
"luidi$ed bed gasifiers
"iCed bed gasifiers
/ntrained flo> gasifiers
,ndirect gasifiers
,f gasification is 'erformed at high tem'erature @e0g0, entrained flo> gasificationA
i0e0, P+)**KC, biomass is com'letely converted into H
)
, C., C.
)
O H
)
.0 -his biosyngas
is free from tar and is chemically similar to syngas derived from fossil fuels and can be
used for the same a''lications such as "isher -ro'sch diesel 'roduction, MethanolB5M/
'roduction, Ammonia 'roduction, Hydrogen source etc0 -he advantages of entrained
flo> gasification are that there is a lot of eC'erience >ith large scale 'lants using coal O
refinery >aste0 "eeding Qra>R biomass into such a 'lant is often not 'ossible and the lo>
energy density of biomass favors smaller scale 'lants for >hich this entrained flo>
gasifier is not suitable0
%o> tem'erature gasification @fluidi$ed bed, fiCed bed gasifierA, i0e0, M+***KC is
the other o'tion and commonly used for biomass gasification0 -he uality and 'ureness
of the biosyngas al>ays differ bet>een different gasifiers0 ,m'urities in a ra> syngas are
tar, 'articulates, halogens, alkali metals, S(com'ounds, 4(com'ounds, heavy metals,
calcium etc0 -y'ically most all the cleaning 'rocesses o'erates at lot lo>er tem'erature
that the gasifier itself0 -herefore, ra> syngas need to be cooled for cleaning treatment0
,n most cases, it is desirable to utili$e the sensible heat in the gas, for eCam'le raising
steam0
,n some cases first ste' in this 'rocess is a >ater scrubber that utili$es >ater trays
to >ash and cool the syngas0 -he >ater scrubber removes the fine solids, as >ell as
ammonia, chlorides, and other trace com'onents that are >ater soluble0 -he acid gas
removal @A&#A system is designed to remove greater than ==E of the total sulfur from
the ra> syngas0 Primary sulfur com'ounds in the syngas are hydrogen sulfide @H
)
SA and
carbonyl sulfide @C.SA0 Because C.S is not readily ca'tured by the A&#, a hydrolysis
+9
unit is utili$ed u'stream of the A&# to react C.S >ith >ater va'or in the 'resence of a
catalyst to form H
)
S and C.
)
0
Solids 'articulates can be removed by cyclone se'arators, barrier filters,
electrostatic filters, and >et scrubbers0 Cyclone se'arators are a 'rimary means of
removing bulk 'articulates from gas streams0 -hey rely on centrifugal force to se'arate
solids from the gas by directing the gas flo> into a circular 'ath0 Cyclone se'arators are
em'loyed as an initial gas cleanu' ste' in most gasifier systems because they are
effective and relatively ineC'ensive to o'erate0 Cyclone se'arators are effective at
removing larger 'articles and can o'erate over a >ide range of tem'eratures, limited
'rimarily by the material of construction0 -hey can remove P=*E of 'articulates above
about 9 microns in diameter at minimal 'ressure dro's of *0*+ atm0 Since cyclone
se'arators can o'erate at elevated tem'eratures, the sensible heat in the 'roduct gas can
be retained0 Cyclone se'arators also remove condensed tars and alkali material from the
gas streamF although the va'ori$ed forms of those constituents remain in the gas stream0
Barrier filters include a range of inorganic 'orous membranes that allo> gases to
'enetrate but 'revent the 'assage of 'articulates0 Barrier filters membranes can be
designed to remove almost any si$e of 'articulate, including those in the sub(micron
range, but the 'ressure differential across the filter >ill increase as the 'ore si$e
decreases0 As a result, there are technical and economic constraints that effectively limit
'articulate removal to about *09Sm in systems such as gasifiers that must handle large
gas volumes0 "ilters are cleaned by 'eriodically 'assing 'ulsing clean gas through the
filter in the reverse direction of normal gas flo>0 -o reduce the overall 'articulate load,
these filters are ty'ically 'laced do>nstream from cyclone se'arator0 /lectrostatic filters
have also been used eCtensively in a variety of gas cleaning o'erations0 ,n these systems,
the 'roduct gas flo>s 'ast high(voltage electrodes that im'art an electric charge to
'articulates, but do not affect the 'ermanent gases0 -he 'articulates are then collected as
the gas stream 'asses collector 'lates of the o''osite 'olarity0 -he electrically charged
'articulates migrate to the collector 'late and de'osit on the surface0 Particulates are
removed from the scrubber 'lates by either >et or dry methods0 5ry scrubbers use
+:
mechanical action to 'eriodically remove material from the surface and can o'erate at
tem'eratures of 9**KC or more0
-he 'resence of tars in the 'roduct gas is seen as the biggest 'roblem in the
smooth a''lication of biomass 'roduct gas as source of sustainable energy0 -ar is formed
in the gasifier and com'rises a >ide s'ectrum of organic com'ounds, generally
consisting of several aromatic rings0 Heavy tars condense out as the gas tem'erature
dro's and cause ma6or fouling0 -he tar de> 'oint is a critical factor0 %ight tars like
'henol or na'hthalene have limited influence on the tar de> 'oint, but are not less
'roblematic0 %ight tars like 'henol chemically 'ollute the bleed >ater of do>nstream
condensers and aueous scrubbers0 4a'hthalene is im'ortant as it is kno>n to crystalli$e
at the inlet of gas engines causing a high service demand0 -ar can be removed fe>
different >ays as follo>sD
Thermal tar cracking: A thermal tar cracker heats u' the 'roduct gas to a
tem'erature of +)**KC0 At this tem'erature the tars are removed almost com'letely
leading to a very lo> tar concentration @M+** mgBm
7
A and tar de> 'oint @M+*KCA0
-hermal cracking take 'lace in the gasifier >hich o'erates +)**KC, such as entrained(
flo> slagging gasifiers0 ,t is not 'ractical to set u' thermal cracking outside the gasifier0
Catalytic tar cracking: A catalytic tar cracker does not heat u' the 'roduct gas
and thus eliminates the disadvantages of a thermal cracker0 -here are a large number of
different catalysts that have been used to eliminate the tars in the 'roduct gas from the
gasification 'rocess0 -he t>o most researched grou's are 4i(based catalysts and
dolomites0 When 4i(based catalysts are used, tar concentration in the 'roduct gas can be
reduced significantly by means of reforming but since this 'rocess is endothermic, a 'art
of the chemically bound energy of the gas has to be burned to sustain this 'rocess0 -his
effect leads to a decreased efficiency of the gasification 'rocess0 ,n contrast, >hen so
called tar cracking catalysts such as dolomite are used, the only thing that is reformed is
the tar itself >hile lo> hydrocarbons e0g0 methane, ethane and 'ro'ane are left intact0 -ar
cracking can be defined as a 'rocess that breaks do>n the larger, heavier and more
com'leC hydrocarbon molecules of tar into sim'ler and lighter molecules by the action of
+;
heat and aided by the 'resence of a catalyst but >ithout the addition of hydrogen0 ->o
>ell kno>n tar cracking catalysts are naturally occurring mineralsD dolomite and olivine0
Tar removal by aueous scrubbers: Aueous tar removal systems cool do>n the
'roduct gas and remove the tars by condensation0 ,n most aueous systems dust and tars
are collected simultaneously0 -he 'roduct gas is cooled do>n and aerosols of dust and
tars are collected0 -o avoid tar condensation and fouling of 'i'ing the gas should not
cool do>n0 ,n the aueous scrubber system a tarB>ater 'roblem is created0 MiCing
@heavyA tars >ith >ater >ill lead to o'erational difficulties in the scrubber and huge
maintenance costs0 -he most im'ortant disadvantage is formed by >aste >ater handling0
Waste >ater handling is often so eC'ensive that the 'lants economical feasibility is at
stake0
/C4 and 5ahlman "ilter -echnology develo'ed the oil based tar removal system
.%&A0 ,n .%&A the tars are removed by condensation and by absor'tion0 -he
tem'erature remains above the >ater de> 'oint to avoid miCing of dust and tar >ith
>ater0 5ue to the absor'tion ste' in .%&A the tar de> 'oint is decreased far belo> the
o'erating tem'erature of .%&A, ty'ically belo> +*KC0 -he total tar concentration is
reduced to )** mgBm
7
0 -ars do>nstream @.%&A 'rocessA are com'osed of light
com'ounds like 2ylene and ,ndene0 -hese com'ounds do not cause fouling 'roblems in
the do>nstream system0 Phenols are almost com'letely removed in .%&A to avoid the
'roduction of ha$ardous condense >ater and eC'ensive >aste>ater cleaning0
#a> bio('roduct gas or biosyngas can be converted to methaneBrene>able natural
gas0 /C4 is eCtensively >orking in this area0 -he flo>chart of the 'rocess of making
rene>able methane from biomass via gasification is given in "igure 80 After ra> 'roduct
gas cleaning a catalytic methanation ste' is included to convert hydrogen and carbon
monoCide to methane0 -he last ste' of gas u'grading involves the removal of >ater, C.
)
to meet the natural gas s'ecifications0 ,t also might include com'ression0 Biosyngas
cleaningBtreatment information are available from /C4 @van #ee, )**7 and /C4A and the
book on &asification by @Higman and van der Burg, )**7A is an eCcellent basic book on
this sub6ect0
+<
Fi,%*) 7. Process "lo>chart of the SyntheticB#ene>able 4atural &as @S4&B#4&A
Production from Biomass0
3.2. SEPARATION
Se'aration technologies can be considered to belong to one of these four
categories @Kohl and #iesenfeld, +=<9F !ang, +=<;F and Wong et al0, )**)AD
%iuid absor'tion ( chemical and 'hysical absor'tion
Solid 'hysical adsor'tion ( 'ressure s>ing and tem'erature s>ing adsor'tion
Membrane se'aration
Cryogenic se'aration0
+=
3.2.1. Li.%i/ A$#*0&i'
%iuid absor'tion is a method commonly used to remove or se'arate gas
com'onents by a chemical solvent >hich selectively reacts or 'hysically bonds >ith
some gas com'onents0 By dissolving the reacted gas com'onents in the liuid 'hase and
the un(reacted gas com'onents remaining in the gas 'hase, the gas stream can be
se'arated efficiently0
-he main advantages of liuid absor'tion 'rocesses areD
Availability of many different solvents for reuired gas stream se'arations,
including alkanolamines, alkaline salt solutions and many other tailor(made
solvents for different gas se'arations0
&as se'aration efficiency is high0 By selecting a suitable absorbing liuid and
gas se'aration columnF the gas se'aration efficiency can be as high as ==0=E0
-he most common liuid absor'tion 'rocess is using alkanolamine solvents to
remove C.
)
and H
)
S from natural gas0 -he C.
)
and H
)
S level in the final gas
'roduced must meet the regulatory and industry reuirements0 -y'ically the
H
)
S level is less then 8 ''m and C.
)
level is less then )E @vBvA0
-he 'rocess relies on conventional 'ack columns to 'rovide the gas liuid surface
contact area0 -he solvent regeneration cycle consumes large amounts of energy0
-herefore the high ca'ital and o'erational costs become its disadvantage >hen com'ared
>ith other gas se'aration technologies0 -his 'rocess is more economically suitable to
large scale gas se'aration and 'urification @Mimura et al0, )**+F ,dem et al0, )**+F
#ochelle at al0, )**)F and Mari$, +==<A0
Although the liuid absor'tion 'rocess is the most mature technology for gas
se'aration, the ongoing research and develo'ments includesD
,m'roving the solvent formulation to boost reaction kinetics and reduce
regeneration energy0
Column 'ack to 'rovide bigger surface to im'rove the mass transfer and reduce
o'erational related 'roblems such as flooding, channeling0
,m'roving the 'rocess control0
)*
3.2.2 S+i/ P(-#i1"+ A/#*0&i'
-he solid 'hysical adsor'tion is based on the conce't of using micro('orous
materials as sorbents for gas 'urification and se'aration0 Most commonly used materials
are activated carbon, synthetic and natural $eolites, silica gel and activated alumina
@!ang, +=<;A0 -he 'ast t>o decades have seen a large gro>th in adsor'tion se'aration
'rocesses0 Most of these 'rocesses em'loy 'ressure(s>ing adsor'tion cycles0 1sing
PSA for gas se'aration >ill continue to increase >ith the develo'ment of ne> adsorbents
and im'roved 'rocess configurations @Kohl and #iesenfeld, +=<9 and &as Processes,
+==<A0 "or 'roduction of oCygen or nitrogen from air, it is already sho>n that it is more
economical to use PSA than cryogenic means for a 'roduction rates belo> 7* metric tons
'er day0 A similar situation also eCists for hydrogen 'roduction0 High('urity
@==0====EA hydrogen can be 'roduced by the PSA se'aration of steam reformer
'roducts0 PSA can be used for bulk gas se'aration or gas 'urification de'ending on the
selection of different absorbents and 'rocess cycles0 4e> a''lications >ill also emerge
as ne> or im'roved adsorbents are develo'ed @4atcogrou'A0 Se'aration of carbon
dioCide from methane or from hydrocarbons is also 'ossible >ith the develo'ment of
ne> adsorbents0
-he main advantage of 'hysical adsor'tion over chemical or 'hysical absor'tion
is its sim'le and energy efficient o'eration and regeneration, >hich can be achieved >ith
a 'ressure s>ing or tem'erature s>ing cycle0 -he concerns over this technology are
scale u' and the need for further develo'ment and im'rovement of the selectivity of the
adsorbent for different gas se'aration >hich includes the adsorbent s'ecific for C.
)
removal from the 'ost combustion flue gas, landfill gas and biogas streams0
3.2.3 M)!$*"') S)0"*"&i'
Membrane technology, as a''lied to gases, involves the se'aration of individual
com'onents on the basis of the difference in their rate of 'ermeation through a thin
membrane barrier0 -he rate of 'ermeation for each com'onent is determined by the
characteristics of the com'onent, the characteristics of the membrane and the 'artial
'ressure differential of the gaseous com'onent across the membrane0 Since se'aration is
)+
based on a difference in the rate of 'ermeation rather than on an absolute barrier to one
com'onent, the se'arated com'onent that flo>s through the membrane @the 'ermeateA is
never +**E 'ure0 Also, since a finite 'artial 'ressure differential is reuired as the
driving force, some 'ortion of the 'ermeating com'onent remains in the residue gas, and
+**E recovery is not 'ossible0 As these generali$ations >ould suggest, the 'rocess is
'articularly suitable for bulk removal o'erations rather than for the removal of trace
im'urities from gas streams0 ,t is 'ossible to reach high 'urity recovery gas >ith the hel'
of membrane module configurations andBor combined >ith other technology, such as
liuid absor'tion 'rocess @Mulder, +==:F /cht, )**)F and SrikanthA0
-he membrane based 'rocesses for gas se'aration com'etes >ith technology
alternatives such as adsor'tion, cryogenic and liuid absor'tion 'rocesses in niche
a''lication areas0 Membrane gas se'aration technology has its o>n advantages that
make it attractive to many industries and some large gas su''ly com'anies as >ell0
Based on the conce't of membrane gas se'aration the follo>ing four key factors can
influence the membrane se'aration 'erformanceD
membrane selectivity to>ards the gases se'arated
membrane fluC or 'ermeability
the life of the membrane
maintenance and re'lacement costs
-he membrane gas se'aration 'rocess has been used for hydrogen se'aration and
recovery, ammonia 'urge gas se'aration, refinery hydrogen recovery, syngas se'aration
in 'etro(chemical industry, C.
)
enhanced oil recovery and natural gas 'rocessing0
A commercial 'rocess for C.
)
removal from natural gas stream uses a combination of
membrane and liuid absor'tion 'rocesses0 -he membrane 'rocess is used to remove
bulk C.
)
to reduce the C.
)
level in the gas stream, >hile the liuid 'rocess is used after
the membrane 'rocess to further remove C.
)
to the reuired level0 4A-C. &rou'
started initial a''lication of this system in +=<7 including t>o membrane 'rocess 'lants
of 9* mmscfd and )9 mmscfd ca'acities to remove a bottleneck in the Benfield 'rocess, a
conventional liuid absor'tion 'rocess0 -he 'lants >ere designed to reduce the C.
)

))
content in the 'roduced gas from a range of 89E to :9E do>n to about 7*E0 -his >as
sufficient to kee' the Benfield 'lant >ithin its 'rocess limitations0 Change in field
'roduction and develo'ment in membrane technology have changed the 'lant
considerably0 By the year )**:, membranes have re'laced the Benfield 'rocess and the
'lant is currently 'rocessing u' to +<*mmscfd of 'roduced gas from <9E do>n to +*E
C.
)
0 -he do>nstream cold 'lant has been re'laced >ith a more efficient cryogenic 'lant
and a small amine unit 'rocesses the hydrocarbon stream of +*E C.
)
coming from the
membrane unit into sale gas0 4o> o>ned by Kinder Morgan, SAC#.C can recover
+9* mmscfd of C.
)
for rein6ection >hile also 'roducing sale gas and recovering 4&%
liuids0 -he membrane unit itself has been online =;0=E of time and 'rocess ready for
==E of its nearly )* years in service0 -he most im'ortant factor in 'ro6ect success is the
life cycle of Cynara membrane element >ith 'ro'erly designed 'retreatment0 Careful
'rocess design kee's cost >ell belo> other C.
)
removal technologies @Parro, +=<9A0
&as 'urification and se'aration by membrane 'ermeation has many advantages
includingD
%o> ca'ital investment
/ase of o'eration, 'rocess can be o'erated unattended
&ood >eight and s'ace efficiency
/ase of scale u'
Minimal associated hard>are, no moving 'arts
/ase of installation
"leCibility and module design
Minimal utility reuirement
%o> environmental im'act
#eliability
/ase of incor'oration of ne> membrane develo'ment0 1ser can install the
neCt generation of membranes into eCisting eui'ment at the scheduled
membrane re'lacement time0
)7
-he main disadvantages areD
A clean feed is reuired0 Particulates and entrained liuids must be removed0
"iltration to remove 'articles do>n to one micron in si$e is 'referred0
Because membrane uses 'ressure as the driving force of the 'rocess, there
may be a considerable energy reuirement for gas com'ression0
1sing the mechanism of 'olymeric membrane 'ermeation to the se'aration of
gases started as early as +<7+0 /arly industrial membrane 'rocesses >ere using rubber
membrane for the se'aration of .
)
from air and recovery of helium from natural gas0
Ho>ever, the selectivity and 'roduction rates of the membranes available at the time
>ere 'oor, and the need for the reuired large membrane areas made membrane
'ermeation economically unattractive0 ,m'rovements in manufacturing methods have
resulted in im'roved membrane 'erformance and economics0 -he develo'mental and
commercial successes of the early +=<*s and the eCisting large market attracted many
large com'anies into this field0
-he a''lication area includes air se'aration, hydrogen se'aration, and C.
)
H
)
S
and >ater se'arations from methane and other hydrocarbons in different 'rocesses from
the .il O &as and Petrochemical industries0 C.
)
removal from landfill gas >as
successively demonstrated in +=<:0 -he landfill collection gas had to be com'ressed to
9)9 'si and the organics and condensed liuids had to be removed before the gas >as
sent to the membrane unit for se'aration of C.
)
and methane0 Advantages of this
membrane system for landfill gas se'aration are claimed to be lo> ca'ital and o'erating
cost, sim'licity of o'eration and maintenance, com'act si$e and modular construction0
-here are many future im'rovements related to membrane 'erformance that are
available for research and develo'ment @Carolan et al0, )**)F and 3u et al0, )**)A0 -hese
include the follo>ing areasD
#eduction of the membrane o'eration 'ressure >ould all for better economics
for many gas streams that are generated at lo> or ambient 'ressures, such as
)8
'ost combustion flue gases, landfill gas and biogas generated from anaerobic
digesters0
,ncrease in the membrane o'eration tem'erature >ould allo> for the
se'aration of high tem'erature gas streams >ithout a significant tem'erature
dro' or heat loss0 -he develo'ment of inorganic based ceramic and carbon
fiber membranes might be germane for these ty'es of a''lications0
,ncrease in the membrane selectivity >ould increase the se'aration efficiency0
Many research grou's are active in the areas of selecting and develo'ing
different ty'e of membrane materials and in im'roving the 'hysical and
chemical 'ro'erties of the membranes0
3.2.7 C*-,)'i1 G"# S)0"*"&i'
Cryogenic se'aration involves cooling the gases to very lo> tem'eratures so that
some gas com'onents can be liuefied and thus se'arated from the gas 'hase0 -he most
'o'ular a''lications that are using this technology are in the 'roduction of liuid oCygen
and liuid nitrogen0 -he technology reuires a large 'lant to cool air to several hundred
degrees belo> $ero in order to se'arate the com'onent gases0 4itrogen and oCygen are
then distributed to customers in liuid form using tanker trucks0 Com'ared >ith other
se'aration technologies, cryogenic se'aration tend to use more energy unless the
concentration of easy liuefied gases are much higher >hich avoids cooling large
amounts of un(liuefied gas com'onents0 -his method is >orth considering >here there
is a high concentration of C.
)
gas streams0 -he advantage is that it 'roduces a liuid
C.
)
ready for trans'ortation by 'i'eline0 -he disadvantage is that it reuires high energy
in'uts to reach cryogenic tem'eratures0 Cryogenics are normally used for high 'ressure
gases such as 're(combustion decarboni$ation 'rocesses @Wong et al0, )**)A0
3.2.8 S%!!"*-
-he above stated four main technologies for gas se'aration and 'urification are all
actively used by many different industries0 -hey all have their o>n advantages and
disadvantages0 Sometimes a combination of these technologies can be used, for eCam'le,
)9
a membrane 'rocess and a liuid absor'tion 'rocess can be used together to economically
remove C.
)
from natural gas stream0 Ho> to select a suitable technology for each gas
stream is de'endent on the com'osition of the gas stream, the tem'erature and 'ressure
of the gas stream, the se'aration and 'urification reuirements, and most im'ortantly the
economic viability based on the ca'ital and o'erating costs and other market related
factors0
Among these technologies, the membrane technology is relatively ne> and there
is great 'otential for research and develo'ment in terms of membrane materials and
im'rovement of membrane fabrication and membrane module design0 "or 'ressure(
s>ing adsor'tion technology, the develo'ment of the ne> adsorbent material >ould also
have high 'otential to become a great candidate for the demanding gas se'aration and
'urification market0
):
80 PRODUCTION OF BIOGAS, SYNGAS AND RENEWABLE NATURAL GAS
FROM CANADIAN WASTES
Canadian >astes that are amenable to 'roducing #4& are those containing
significant amounts of biomass and are mostly generated by the agricultural, forestry and
munici'al sectors0
7.1. AGRICULTURAL WASTES
Agricultural >astes containing significant biomass are mostly made u' of cro'
residues and animal manures0 -hese >astes can be converted to biogas and syngas
through anaerobic digestion and gasification0 -he 'roduced biogas can be cleaned u' of
'otential contaminants and se'arated into CH
8
and C.
)
both of >hich can be sold as
#4& and industrial grade C.
)
0 Syngas can be cleaned u', methanated and then
se'arated into CH
8
and C.
)
0
7.1.1. C*0 R)#i/%)#
Canadian cro' residues amenable for 'roducing #4& vary bet>een 'rovinces and
regions and are made u' of the unused 'art of the cro's0 We estimated cro' 'roduction
@e0g0 grainA for the ma6or cro's gro>n in Canada using Statistics Canada data @Statistics
Canada, )**;aA for each 'rovince and for the >hole country @-ables + to ++A0 5ry matter
content of the re'orted cro's >ere estimated from assumed >ater contents as
recommended by #alevic and %ay$ell @)**:A and re'orted in -ables + to ++0 -he unused
'arts of the 'lants >ere estimated from the harvest indeC for each cro' @#alevic and
%ay$ell, )**:A and the amount of removable residues >as assumed to be 9*E of the
unused biomass @-ables + to ++A0 -he harvest indeC is defined as the ratio of cro'
'roduction over the total biomass @cro' 'roduction and unused 'art of the 'lantA0
);
T"$+) 1. C"'"/i"' 299: C*0 P*/%1&i' "'/ E#&i!"&)# 2 C*0 R)#i/%)#
C*0

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1


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P*/%1&i'
1

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2

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P*/%1&i'
3

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7

T&"+
R)#i/%)
8

R)!4"$+)
R)#i/%)
;

(1999(") (<&) (=) <&(/*-) (=) <&(/*-) <&(/*-)
W()"& <,:7: )*,*98 +:E +:<89 9*E +:<89 <8)7
O"&# +,<+: 8,:=: +:E 7=89 9*E 7=89 +=;)
B"*+)- 7,==< +*,=<8 +:E =)): 9*E =)): 8:+7
G*"i' C*' +,7:= ++,:8= +:E =;<9 9*E =;<9 8<=)
Mi5)/
G*"i'# =: ):7 +:E ))+ 9*E ))+ ++*
C"'+" 9,=++ <,;9+ +:E ;79+ 9*E ;79+ 7:;9
S-$)"'# +,+;) ),:=: +:E )):8 9*E )):8 ++7)
F+"5#))/ 9)8 :78 +:E 97) 9*E 97) )::
R-) +*= )77 +:E +=: 9*E +=: =<
T"!) H"- ;,8:< 7*,)89 7)E )*9:: =9E +*<) 98+
F//)* C*' )7* <,+7; ;*E )88+ =9E +)< :8
T&"+ 3132> ?>379 :33:2 818:; 28:>>
1 Statistics Canada0 )**;a0 "ield cro' re'orting series0 Catalogue no0 ))(**)(2,/, 3ol0 <:, no0 <
2 Assumed values @#alevic and %ay$ell, )**:A
3 Calculated as Production 2 @+(>ater contentA
7 Assumed values @#alevic and %ay$ell, )**:A0 -his is the ratio of 'roduction @e0g0 grainA over total biomass
8 Calculated as @5M 'roductionBharvest indeCA(5M 'roduction
; Assumes 9*E of total residue can be removed as a bioenergy feedstock @#alevic and %ay$ell, )**:A
T"$+) 2. N)62%'/+"'/ "'/ L"$*"/* 299: C*0 P*/%1&i' "'/ E#&i!"&)# 2 C*0 R)#i/%)#
C*0

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1


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1

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2

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3

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7

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R)#i/%)
8

R)!4"$+)
R)#i/%)
;

(1999(") (<&) (=) <&(/*-) (=) <&(/*-) <&(/*-)
W()"&
O"&#
B"*+)-
G*"i' C*'
Mi5)/
G*"i'#
C"'+"
S-$)"'#
F+"5#))/
R-)
T"!) H"- :0+ );0) 7)E +<09 =9E *0=; *08=
F//)* C*' ;*E * =9E * *
T&"+ ;.1 2:.2 1>.8 9.?: 9.7?
)<
T"$+) 3. P*i'1) E/6"*/ I#+"'/ 299: C*0 P*/%1&i' "'/ E#&i!"&)# 2 C*0 R)#i/%)#
C*0

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2

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P*/%1&i'
3

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7

T&"+
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8

R)!4"$+)
R)#i/%)
;

(1999(") (<&) (=) <&(/*-) (=) <&(/*-) <&(/*-)
W()"& +*09 77 +:E )< 9*E )< +8
O"&# 80; +)0+ +:E +* 9*E +* 9
B"*+)- 7)0< =709 +:E ;= 9*E ;= 7=
G*"i' C*'
Mi5)/
G*"i'# 70< <0< +:E ; 9*E ; 8
C"'+"
S-$)"'# 809 ++0+ +:E = 9*E = 9
F+"5#))/
R-)
T"!) H"- :+0+ 7*+0) 7)E )*80< =9E +*0;< 907=
F//)* C*' )08 ;*0< ;*E )+ =9E + +
T&"+ 11?.> 839.8 38?.2 178.97 :2.82
1 Statistics Canada0 )**;a0 "ield cro' re'orting series0 Catalogue no0 ))(**)(2,/, 3ol0 <:, no0 <
2 Assumed values @#alevic and %ay$ell, )**:A
3 Calculated as Production 2 @+(>ater contentA
7 Assumed values @#alevic and %ay$ell, )**:A0 -his is the ratio of 'roduction @e0g0 grainA over total biomass
8 Calculated as @5M 'roductionBharvest indeCA(5M 'roduction
; Assumes 9*E of total residue can be removed as a bioenergy feedstock @#alevic and %ay$ell, )**:A
T"$+) 7. N4" S1&i" 299: C*0 P*/%1&i' "'/ E#&i!"&)# 2 C*0 R)#i/%)#
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7

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R)#i/%)
8

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;

(1999(") (<&) (=) <&(/*-) (=) <&(/*-) <&(/*-)
W()"& +09 9 +:E 8 9*E 8 )
O"&# ) 809 +:E 8 9*E 8 )
B"*+)- )0: :0= +:E : 9*E : 7
G*"i' C*' 70< );0< +:E )7 9*E )7 +)
Mi5)/
G*"i'#
C"'+"
S-$)"'#
F+"5#))/
R-)
T"!) H"- ;)0< 7;90: 7)E )9908 =9E +7088 :0;)
F//)* C*' 8 ;)0: ;*E )) =9E + +
T&"+ >;.: 7?2.7 317.3 81.:2 28.>;
)=
T"$+) 8. N)6 B*%'#6i1< 299: C*0 P*/%1&i' "'/ E#&i!"&)# 2 C*0 R)#i/%)#
C*0

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1

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3

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7

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8

R)!4"$+)
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;

(1999(") (<&) (=) <&(/*-) (=) <&(/*-) <&(/*-)
W()"& +0< 908 +:E 9 9*E 9 )
O"&# <09 )8 +:E )* 9*E )* +*
B"*+)- +70) 8907 +:E 7< 9*E 7< +=
G*"i' C*' )0: +=0) +:E +: 9*E +: <
Mi5)/
G*"i'#
C"'+"
S-$)"'#
F+"5#))/
R-)
T"!) H"- ;)0< 7;90: 7)E )9908 =9E +7088 :0;)
F//)* C*' )0< 9<0+ ;*E +; =9E + *
T&"+ 191.: 82:.; 381.: ?3.27 7;.;2
1 Statistics Canada0 )**;a0 "ield cro' re'orting series0 Catalogue no0 ))(**)(2,/, 3ol0 <:, no0 <
2 Assumed values @#alevic and %ay$ell, )**:A
3 Calculated as Production 2 @+(>ater contentA
7 Assumed values @#alevic and %ay$ell, )**:A0 -his is the ratio of 'roduction @e0g0 grainA over total biomass
8 Calculated as @5M 'roductionBharvest indeCA(5M 'roduction
; Assumes 9*E of total residue can be removed as a bioenergy feedstock @#alevic and %ay$ell, )**:A
T"$+) ;. @%)$)1 299: C*0 P*/%1&i' "'/ E#&i!"&)# 2 C*0 R)#i/%)#
C*0

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1


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P*/%1&i'
1

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2

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P*/%1&i'
3

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I'/)5
7

T&"+
R)#i/%)
8

R)!4"$+)
R)#i/%)
;

(1999(") (<&) (=) <&(/*-) (=) <&(/*-) <&(/*-)
W()"& 9:0) +;70; +:E +8: 9*E +8: ;7
O"&# +*= )<* +:E )79 9*E )79 ++<
B"*+)- =809 7*< +:E )9= 9*E )9= +)=
G*"i' C*' 88= 8+** +:E 7888 9*E 7888 +;))
Mi5)/
G*"i'# )709 ;* +:E 9= 9*E 9= )=
C"'+" = += +:E +: 9*E +: <
S-$)"'# +;909 8;) +:E 7=: 9*E 7=: +=<
F+"5#))/
R-)
T"!) H"- <77 8,*7=0;* 7)E );8;0* =9E +8809< ;)0)=
F//)* C*' 8:09 +,<;=0;* ;*E 9:8 =9E 7* +9
T&"+ 1:?8.: 11371.; :>;8.; 7:2>.?1 23;7.78
7*
T"$+) :. O'&"*i 299: C*0 P*/%1&i' "'/ E#&i!"&)# 2 C*0 R)#i/%)#
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1


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1

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2

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P*/%1&i'
3

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I'/)5
7

T&"+
R)#i/%)
8

R)!4"$+)
R)#i/%)
;

(1999(") (<&) (=) <&(/*-) (=) <&(/*-) <&(/*-)
W()"& 7+70: +,88)08* +:E +)+) 9*E +)+) :*:
O"&# 7:08 <;0= +:E ;8 9*E ;8 7;
B"*+)- ::0< )+;0; +:E +<7 9*E +<7 =+
G*"i' C*' <7+0: :,=<907* +:E 9<:< 9*E 9<:< )=78
Mi5)/
G*"i'# 9*0: +8; +:E +)7 9*E +)7 :)
C"'+" +8 );0< +:E )7 9*E )7 +)
S-$)"'# =**08 ),***07* +:E +:<* 9*E +:<* <8*
F+"5#))/
R-) )* 870) +:E 7: 9*E 7: +<
T"!) H"- +*+90< 9,)+:07* 7)E 798;0+ =9E +<:0:= =7078
F//)* C*' +)+08 7,==+0:* ;*E ++=; =9E :7 7)
T&"+ 33:1.9 2918?.8 13?73.? ?77?.9; 7:27.83
1 Statistics Canada0 )**;a0 "ield cro' re'orting series0 Catalogue no0 ))(**)(2,/, 3ol0 <:, no0 <
2 Assumed values @#alevic and %ay$ell, )**:A
3 Calculated as Production 2 @+(>ater contentA
7 Assumed values @#alevic and %ay$ell, )**:A0 -his is the ratio of 'roduction @e0g0 grainA over total biomass
8 Calculated as @5M 'roductionBharvest indeCA(5M 'roduction
; Assumes 9*E of total residue can be removed as a bioenergy feedstock @#alevic and %ay$ell, )**:A
T"$+) >. M"'i&$" 299: C*0 P*/%1&i' "'/ E#&i!"&)# 2 C*0 R)#i/%)#
C*0

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1


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P*/%1&i'
1

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2

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P*/%1&i'
3

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I'/)5
7

T&"+
R)#i/%)
8

R)!4"$+)
R)#i/%)
;

(1999(") (<&) (=) <&(/*-) (=) <&(/*-) <&(/*-)
W()"& +,+;709* 7,)++08* +:E ):=< 9*E ):=< +78=
O"&# 7=<0: +,)*809* +:E +*+) 9*E +*+) 9*:
B"*+)- 7<*08 +,+=907* +:E +**8 9*E +**8 9*)
G*"i' C*' ;<0= 8=709 +:E 8+9 9*E 8+9 )*;
Mi5)/
G*"i'# 8 807 +:E 8 9*E 8 )
C"'+" +,+8+0)* +,;+80:* +:E +88* 9*E +88* ;)*
S-$)"'# =+0+ )+)07 +:E +;< 9*E +;< <=
F+"5#))/ ;<0= +*908 +:E <= 9*E <= 88
R-) ))07 970= +:E 89 9*E 89 )7
T"!) H"- =9=0+ 7,97<0** 7)E )8*90< =9E +):0:) :707+
F//)* C*' )807 <+:09 ;*E )89 =9E +7 :
T&"+ 7382.3 1287?.: ?837.> :923.7> 3811.:7
7+
T"$+) ?. S"#<"&1()6"' 299: C*0 P*/%1&i' "'/ E#&i!"&)# 2 C*0 R)#i/%)#
C*0

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1


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P*/%1&i'
1

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2

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P*/%1&i'
3

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I'/)5
7

T&"+
R)#i/%)
8

R)!4"$+)
R)#i/%)
;

(1999(") (<&) (=) <&(/*-) (=) <&(/*-) <&(/*-)
W()"& 8,;:)07* =,*9<08* +:E ;:*= 9*E ;:*= 7<*9
O"&# =<908 ),8*+0)* +:E )*+; 9*E )*+; +**=
B"*+)- +,:9=0)* 7,=890)* +:E 77+8 9*E 77+8 +:9;
G*"i' C*'
Mi5)/
G*"i'# :0+ <08 +:E ; 9*E ; 8
C"'+" ),=+70;* 7,=8<09* +:E 77+; 9*E 77+; +:9<
S-$)"'#
F+"5#))/ 877 9++0< +:E 87* 9*E 87* )+9
R-) 9*0: ==0+ +:E <7 9*E <7 8)
T"!) H"- +,;<80;* 9,9++0+* 7)E 7;8;09 =9E +=;0)8 =<0:)
F//)* C*'
T&"+ 128?8.9 287>3.: 29827.8 1;?:7.22 >7>:.11
1 Statistics Canada0 )**;a0 "ield cro' re'orting series0 Catalogue no0 ))(**)(2,/, 3ol0 <:, no0 <
2 Assumed values @#alevic and %ay$ell, )**:A
3 Calculated as Production 2 @+(>ater contentA
7 Assumed values @#alevic and %ay$ell, )**:A 0 -his is the ratio of 'roduction @e0g0 grainA over total biomass
8 Calculated as @5M 'roductionBharvest indeCA(5M 'roduction
; Assumes 9*E of total residue can be removed as a bioenergy feedstock @#alevic and %ay$ell, )**:A
T"$+) 19. A+$)*&" 299: C*0 P*/%1&i' "'/ E#&i!"&)# 2 C*0 R)#i/%)#
C*0

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1


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P*/%1&i'
1

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2

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P*/%1&i'
3

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I'/)5
7

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R)#i/%)
8

R)!4"$+)
R)#i/%)
;

(1999(") (<&) (=) <&(/*-) (=) <&(/*-) <&(/*-)
W()"& )7**0; :,*;:0+* +:E 9+*8 9*E 9+*8 )99)
O"&# )9*0= :);08 +:E 9); 9*E 9); ):8
B"*+)- +,;)<0** 9,++807* +:E 8)=: 9*E 8)=: )+8<
G*"i' C*' )0< ))0= +:E += 9*E += +*
Mi5)/
G*"i'# <0+ )80+ +:E )* 9*E )* +*
C"'+" +,<*80=* ),==70;* +:E )9+9 9*E )9+9 +)9;
S-$)"'#
F+"5#))/ +) +:07 +:E +8 9*E +8 ;
R-) +: 7:0< +:E 7+ 9*E 7+ +9
T"!) H"- ),):*0)* =,);:0** 7)E :7*;0; =9E 77+0=< +:90==
F//)* C*' )*0) <7=0+* ;*E )9) =9E +7 ;
T&"+ >797.1 2892;.: 1?9>8.2 12>:9.?> ;738.7?
7)
T"$+) 11. B*i&i#( C+%!$i" 299: C*0 P*/%1&i' "'/ E#&i!"&)# 2 C*0 R)#i/%)#
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1

W"&)*
C'&)'&
2

D*- M"&&)*
P*/%1&i'
3

H"*4)#&
I'/)5
7

T&"+
R)#i/%)
8

R)!4"$+)
R)#i/%)
;

(1999(") (<&) (=) <&(/*-) (=) <&(/*-) <&(/*-)
W()"& +:0) 8<0:* +:E 8+ 9*E 8+ )*
O"&# )*0) 980; +:E 8: 9*E 8: )7
B"*+)- )*0) 9;0; +:E 8< 9*E 8< )8
G*"i' C*' +:E * 9*E * *
Mi5)/
G*"i'# +:E * 9*E * *
C"'+" )< 8;0: +:E 8* 9*E 8* )*
S-$)"'# +:E * 9*E * *
F+"5#))/ +:E * 9*E * *
R-) +:E * 9*E * *
T"!) H"- 7=80: +,9;<09* 7)E +*;708 =9E 9:08= )<0)9
F//)* C*' <0+ 8*<0)* ;*E +)) =9E : 7
T&"+ 7>:.; 21?8.3 13:1.1 23>.1; 11?.9>
1 Statistics Canada0 )**;a0 "ield cro' re'orting series0 Catalogue no0 ))(**)(2,/, 3ol0 <:, no0 <
2 Assumed values @#alevic and %ay$ell, )**:A
3 Calculated as Production 2 @+(>ater contentA
7 Assumed values @#alevic and %ay$ell, )**:A 0 -his is the ratio of 'roduction @e0g0 grainA over total biomass
8 Calculated as @5M 'roductionBharvest indeCA(5M 'roduction
; Assumes 9*E of total residue can be removed as a bioenergy feedstock @#alevic and %ay$ell, )**:A
-he total Canadian residues for each cro' available for anaerobic digestion and
gasification are sho>n in "igure 90 -he data sho>s that the largest available cro'
residues are those from >heat @78EA follo>ed by grain corn @+=EA, barley @+<EA, canola
@+8EA and oats @<EA0 -hese 9 cro' residues make u' =7E of the available Canadian total0
Any effort to harness this resource for #4& 'roduction >ill have to take into account the
geogra'hic distribution of these cro's0
Conversion of available cro' residues to methane is sho>n in -able +)0 -he data
sho>s the 'otential 'roduction of methane from biogas through anaerobic digestion @A5A
and from syngas through gasification of the residues not consumed in the A5 'rocess0
Biogas generation from the cro' residues assumes that only )*E of the material is
amenable to digestion and that 7** Mm
7
CH
8
Bdry Mt of residues is 'roduced @Wiese and
Ku6a>ski, )**;A0 &asification of the cro' residues assumes a 'rocess conversion
77
efficiency of :9E according to the follo>ing reaction >here ) moles of carbon are
reuired to 'roduce + mole of CH
8
and + mole of C.
)
D
)C J)H
)
. T CH
8
J C.
)

-he combined gasification and methanation 'rocesses reuired to convert
biomass to methane are re'orted to have efficiencies that vary from :8 to ;=E
@Mo$affarian et al, )**9 and U>art and #abou, )**:A0 We chose to use an efficiency of
:9E as a conservative value0
-he data sho>s that the greatest 'otential for 'roducing #4& from cro' residues
is through gasification @"igure : and -able +)A as it consumes most of the biomass >hile
anaerobic digestion is limited to about )*E of that biomass0 -he largest amounts of
'otentially available cro' residues and 'otential #4& 'roduced are in the Prairie
Provinces, in 'articular, Saskatche>an and Alberta @"igure :A due to the large 'roduction
of >heat, barley and canola0 Smaller amounts are 'otentially available in .ntario and
?uebec due to significant 'roduction of grain corn0 -otal Canadian 'otential #4&
'roduction from cro' residues is estimated to be +0*9 M- CH
8
Byr from anaerobic
digestion and 80=* M- CH
8
Byr from gasification for a combined total of almost : M-
CH
8
Byr0 Although this 'otential total 'roduction of #4& is technically feasible, one
needs to take into account the economic factors of this 'roduction, in 'articular the costs
of collection and trans'ortation of the residues to the 'lant@sA and the market 'rice of
natural gas derived from fossil fuel sources0
78
T"$+) 12. P&)'&i"+ M)&("') P*/%1&i' 2*! C"'"/i"' C*0 R)#i/%)#.

R)!4"$+)
R)#i/%)
1

M)&("')
AD
2
G"#i2i1"&i'
3
T&"+
7

(<& /*-A-*) (M&A-*)
C"'"/" )9;<;0=< +0*9)+ 80=*79 90=99:
N)62%'/+"'/ "'/ L"$*"/* *08= *0**** *0***+ *0***+
P*i'1) E/6"*/ I#+"'/ ;)09) *0**7* *0*+7< *0*+:;
N4" S1&i" )90<: *0**++ *0**8= *0**:*
N)6 B*%'#6i1< 8:0:) *0**+= *0**<= *0*+*<
@%)$)1 )7:8089 *0*=:9 *088=: *098:+
O'&"*i 8;)8097 *0+=)< *0<=<8 +0*=++
M"'i&$" 79++0;8 *0+877 *0::;; *0<++*
S"#<"&1()6"' <8<;0++ *078:7 +0:+7< +0=:*+
A+$)*&" :87908= *0):): +0))7; +08<:7
B*i&i#( C+%!$i" ++=0*< *0**8= *0*)): *0*);9
1 Calculated as the sum of all cro' 'roduction
2 Calculated as cro' residue @dry ktByrAC+*
(7
@MtBktAC*0)C 7** @Mm7 CH8BMt dryA C *0***:< @Mt CH8BMm7 CH8A0
@Wiese and Ku6a>ski, )**;A0 Assume that only *0) @)*EA of the cro' residue is amenable to A50
3 Calculated as @dry k- residueByrAC+*
(7
@MtBktA C *09 @Mt CBMt residueA C @+: Mt CH8B )8 Mt CA C *0:90 Assumes
a gasification conversion efficiency of >aste carbon to CH8 and C.) carbon of :9E
7 Calculated as the sum of A5 and gasification methane
79
Available Canadian Crop Residues
Wheat
34%
Oats
8%
Barley
18%
Grain Corn
19%
Mied Grains
!%
Canola
14%
"oybeans
4%
Wheat
Oats
Barley
Grain Corn
Mixed Grains
Canola
Soybeans
Flaxseed
Rye
Tame Hay
Fodder Corn
Fi,%*) 8. Availability of Canadian Cro' #esidues for A5 and &asification
!
1
#
3
4
$
%
&' () &" &B *C O& MB "+ AB BC &, &- .+Canada
M, C/
4
0.r
(rovin1e
(otential (rodu1tion o2 R&G 2ro3 Canadian Crop Residues
A4
Gas
Fi,%*) ;. Potential Production of #4& from Canadian Cro' #esidues
7:
7.1.2. Li4)#&1< M"'%*)
Manure 'roduction on Canadian farms varies according to the ty'e of animals and
the animal 'o'ulation numbers0 -hese manures are amenable for 'roducing #4& and
tend to vary bet>een 'rovinces and regions0 We estimated manure 'roduction for the
ma6or animal 'o'ulations according to Statistics Canada data for cattle @Statistics Canada,
)**;bA, hogs @Statistics Canada, )**;cA, shee' @Statistics Canada, )**<A and 'oultry
@Statistics Canada, )**;dA for each 'rovince and for the >hole country @-ables +7 to +9A0
Manure 'roduction >as calculated using statistics Canada animal 'o'ulation numbers
and a s'ecific average daily manure 'roduction rate for each animal as suggested by
Klass @+==<A0 -he average manure 'roduction rates @kg dryBheadBdayA varied >ith the
animal ty'e from a high of 80:8 for cattle to *0*+*+ for turkeys @-ables +7 to +9A0 -he
manures available for #4& 'roduction are less than >hat is 'roduced as some of the
manures are already used for other 'ur'oses0 We estimated that the availability of cattle
manure >as )9E of the total cattle manure 'roduced >ith different availability indices
for hogs @<9EA, shee' @+*EA and 'oultry @<9EA0 -hese indices >ere used according to
the data 'ublished for a BC bioenergy inventory re'ort @#alevic and %ay$ell, )**:A0
-he total Canadian manure 'roduction from each animal ty'e available for
anaerobic digestion and gasification are sho>n in -able +: and "igure ;0 -he data sho>s
that the largest available manure residues are those from cattle @8<EA follo>ed by
chicken @78EA and hogs @+<EA >ith less than +E from turkey and shee' manures0 -he
cattle, chicken and hog manures make u' almost +**E of the available Canadian total0
Conversion of available manure residues to methane is sho>n in -able +: and
"igure <0 -he data sho>s the 'otential 'roduction of methane from biogas through
anaerobic digestion @A5A and from syngas through gasification of the manures not
consumed in the A5 'rocess0 Biogas generation from the manures assumes that
)9* Mm
7
CH
8
Bdry Mt of manure is 'roduced @/lectriga$, )**;A0 &asification of the
manure residues assumes a 'rocess similar to that for cro' residues at a conversion
efficiency of :9E and a manure carbon content of 8*E @Klass, +==<A0
7;
-he data sho>s that the 'otential for 'roducing #4& from manure residues is
slightly higher through gasification @"igure < and -able +:A than that for A50 -he largest
amounts of 'otentially available manures and 'otential #4& 'roduced are in the .ntario
and ?uebec @large hog and chicken numbersA and the Prairie Provinces @large cattle
numbersA, in 'articular, Alberta @"igure <A0 Smaller amounts are 'otentially available in
BC due to significant chicken 'o'ulation numbers0 -otal Canadian 'otential #4&
'roduction from manure residues is estimated to be +0+= M- CH
8
Byr from anaerobic
digestion and +0:= M- CH
8
Byr from gasification for a combined total of )0<< M- CH
8
Byr0
Although this 'otential total 'roduction of #4& is technically feasible, one needs to take
into account the economic factors of this 'roduction, in 'articular the costs of collection
and trans'ortation of the residues to the 'lant@sA and the market 'rice of natural gas
derived from fossil fuel sources0
7<
T"$+) 13. C"'"/i"' P*/%1&i' 2 C"&&+) "'/ H, M"'%*)#.
C"&&+) H,#
N%!$)*
1
M"'%*) P*/%1&i' N%!$)*
2
M"'%*) P*/%1&i'
(51999()"/) (<, /*-A()"/A/)
;
(/*- M&A-*)
:
(51999) (<, /*-A()"/A/)
;
(/*- M&A-*)
:

C"'"/" +9<<90* 80:8 :0;): +887;0* *09:8 )09):
N)62%'/+"'/ "'/
L"$*"/* +)09 80:8 *0**9 +0; *09:8 *0***
P*i'1) E/6"*/ I#+"'/ =*0* 80:8 *0*7< ++*08 *09:8 *0*+=
N4" S1&i" +*)0* 80:8 *0*87 <:0* *09:8 *0*+9
N)6 B*%'#6i1< <;0* 80:8 *0*7; =)0* *09:8 *0*+:
@%)$)1 +7=90* 80:8 *09=+ 8*;*0* *09:8 *0;+)
O'&"*i +=9709 80:8 *0<); 7;<=0= *09:8 *0::7
M"'i&$" +98*0* 80:8 *0:9) )=+*0* *09:8 *09*=
S"#<"&1()6"' 787*0* 80:8 +089) +78*0* *09:8 *0)78
A+$)*&" :8;*0* 80:8 )0;7= +=+*0* *09:8 *0778
B*i&i#( C+%!$i" <*90* 80:8 *078+ +);0* *09:8 *0*))
1 Statistics Canada0 )**;b0 Cattle Statistics )**;0 Catalogue no0 )7(*+)(2,/, 3ol0 :, 4o0 )
2 Statistics Canada0 )**;c0 Hog Statistics )**;, 3ol :, 4o 80 Catalogue no0 )7(*+*(2,/
3 Statistics Canada0 )**<0 Shee' Statistics )**;, 3ol ;, 4o +0 Catalogue no0 )7(*++(2
7 Statistics Canada0 )**;d0 Poultry and /gg Statistics, Guly to Se'tember )**;0 Catalogue no0 )7(*+9(2, vol0 8, no0 7
; Klass @+==<A
: Calculated as number @hA C manure 'roduction @kg dryBhBdA C 7:9 @dByrA C @kg recoveredBkgA C +*
(:
@MtBkgA0 #ecovered
manure >as assumed asD Cattle @)9EA, Hogs @<9EA, Shee' @+*EA and Chicken @<9EA @#alevic and %ay$ell, )**:A
T"$+) 17. C"'"/i"' P*/%1&i' 2 S())0 "'/ C(i1<)' M"'%*)#.
S())0 C(i1<)'
N%!$)*
3
M"'%*) P*/%1&i' N%!$)*
7
M"'%*) P*/%1&i'
(51999()"/) (<, /*-A()"/A/)
;
(/*- M&A-*)
:
(51999) (<, /*-A()"/A/)
;
(/*- M&A-*)
:

C"'"/" +*=90; *0;9: *0*7*) :)+;)90* *0*)9) 80<:+
N)62%'/+"'/ "'/
L"$*"/* 80) *0;9: *0***+ *0*)9) *0***
P*i'1) E/6"*/ I#+"'/ 70: *0;9: *0***+ *0*)9) *0***
N4" S1&i" ):0< *0;9: *0***; )+;)*0* *0*)9) *0+;*
N)6 B*%'#6i1< <0+ *0;9: *0***) +;:<<0* *0*)9) *0+7<
@%)$)1 )=90* *0;9: *0**<+ +:8=+70* *0*)9) +0)<=
O'&"*i 7*90* *0;9: *0**<8 )*))<90* *0*)9) +09<)
M"'i&$" ;*0* *0;9: *0**+= )=**=0* *0*)9) *0));
S"#<"&1()6"' +)*0* *0;9: *0**77 ));<;0* *0*)9) *0+;<
A+$)*&" )*90* *0;9: *0**9; 97<980* *0*)9) *08)+
B*i&i#( C+%!$i" 9<0* *0;9: *0**+: =<*+*0* *0*)9) *0;::
7=
T"$+) 18. C"'"/i"' P*/%1&i' 2 T%*<)- M"'%*).
T%*<)-
N%!$)*
8
M"'%*) P*/%1&i'
(51999()"/) (<, /*-A()"/A/)
;
(/*- M&A-*)
:

C"'"/" )++;+0* *0*+*+ *0*::7
N)62%'/+"'/ "'/
L"$*"/*
P*i'1) E/6"*/ I#+"'/
N4" S1&i" ;<=0* *0*+*+ *0**)9
N)6 B*%'#6i1< 7:90* *0*+*+ *0**++
@%)$)1 89:;0* *0*+*+ *0*+87
O'&"*i <=7=0* *0*+*+ *0*)<*
M"'i&$" +8+70* *0*+*+ *0**88
S"#<"&1()6"' <*)0* *0*+*+ *0**)9
A+$)*&" +:9+0* *0*+*+ *0**9)
B*i&i#( C+%!$i" ):8*0* *0*+*+ *0**<7
8 Statistics Canada0 )**;d0 Poultry and /gg Statistics, Guly to Se'tember )**;0 Catalogue no0 )7(*+9(2, vol0 8, no0 7
; Klass @+==<A
: Calculated as number @headsA C manure 'roduction @kg dryBheadBdA C 7:9 @dByrA C @kg recoveredBkgA C +*
(:
@MtBkgA0 -urkey
manure that can be recovered >as assumed to be <9E @#alevic and %ay$ell, )**:A
T"$+) 1;. P&)'&i"+ M)&("') P*/%1&i' 2*! C"'"/i"' M"'%*)#.
T&"+ AD
?
G"#i2i1"&i'
19
T&"+ M"'%*)
11
M"'%*)
>
M)&("')
(/*- M&A-*) (M&A-*)
C"'"/" +80)*= +0+<< +0:=* )0<;=
N)62%'/+"'/ "'/
L"$*"/* *0**: *0*** *0**+ *0**+
P*i'1) E/6"*/ I#+"'/ *0*9< *0**9 *0**; *0*+)
N4" S1&i" *0)7+ *0*+= *0*)< *0*8;
N)6 B*%'#6i1< *0+=7 *0*+: *0*)7 *0*7=
@%)$)1 )0:+9 *0)+= *07++ *097*
O'&"*i 70+*< *0):* *07;* *0:7*
M"'i&$" +07=8 *0++; *0+:: *0)<7
S"#<"&1()6"' +0<;+ *0+9: *0))7 *07;=
A+$)*&" 709*9 *0)=7 *08+; *0;+*
B*i&i#( C+%!$i" +0+7= *0*=9 *0+7: *0)7+
> Calculated as the sum of all manures @cattle, hogs, shee', chicken and turkeyA
? Calculated as total manure @dry MtByrA C )9* @Mm
7
CH8BMt dry manureA C *0***:< @Mt CH8BMm
7
CH8A @/lectriga$, )**;A
19 Calculated as @dry Mt manureByrA C *08 @Mt CBMt manureA C @+: Mt CH8B )8 Mt CA C *0:90 Assumes a gasification
conversion efficiency of >aste carbon to CH8 and C.) carbon of :9E
11 Calculated as the sum of A5 and gasification methane
8*
Canadian Manure "our1es Available 2or A4 and Gasi2i1ation
C"&&+)
7>=
H,#
1>=
S())0
9=
C(i1<)'
37=
T%*<)-
9=
Fi,%*) :. Availability of Canadian Manures for A5 and &asification0
(otential (rodu1tion o2 R&G 2ro3 Canadian Manures
!
!5#
!54
!5%
!58
1
15#
154
15%
158
&
'
(
)
&
"
&
B
*
C
O
&
M
B
"
+
A
B
B
C
&
,
&
-
.
+
C
a
n
a
d
a
(rovin1e
M
,

C
/
4
0
.
r
A4
Gas
Fi,%*) >. Potential Production of #4& from Canadian Manures
8+
7.2. FORESTRY WASTES
"orestry residues are made u' of forest o'eration residues and mountain 'ine
beetle @MPBA residues @due to MPB infestations of forests in BCA0 "orest residues are
generated during harvest o'erations and subseuent >ood treatment in either sa>mills or
'ul' and 'a'er 'lants0 MPB residues are those generated from the unused 'art of the
infested >ood due to harvest o'erations, unsuitability as a >ood source and >aste
materials generated during the >ood treatment 'rocesses in sa>mills and 'ul' and 'a'er
'lants0 Production of "orestry >astes >as estimated from the data re'orted in the
Canadian biomass inventory by Wood and %ay$ell @)**7A for >ood 'roduction in
Canada0 We assumed that )*E of the 'roduced round>ood can be available for
gasification into #4&F >hile 9*E of the non(stem >ood left on site can be collected and
used for gasification into #4&0 -hese estimates are similar to those suggested by Wood
and %ay$ell @)**7A for Canada and by #alevic and %ay$ell @)**:A for BC0 We also
estimated the forest residues from the MPB infestation and the eCtra materials it 'rovides
for gasification to #4& from the BC data re'orted by #alevic and %ay$ell @)**:A0 -he
MPB residues are estimated to last for )* years and our data is re'orted as the annual
residue for )* years only0 &asification of the harvested forest residues to #4& is
assumed to occur >ith a 'rocess efficiency of :9E as discussed in 'revious sections0
"orest residue data are 'resented in -able +; and sho>s that the 'otentially
available residues @minus MPB dataA are to be found mostly in BC @77EA, ?uebec @);EA
and .ntario @+;EA0 Adding the MPB residues increases the BC residues to 88E of the
Canadian total0 Potential 'roduction of #4& from these residues through gasification
@-able +; and "igure =A sho>s a similar 'attern as the residue distribution0 -he 7
'rovinces of BC, ?uebec and .ntario account for <+E of the total Canadian 'otential
#4& 'roduction >ith BC alone making u' almost half of that total0 -otal Canadian
'otential #4& 'roduction from forest residues is estimated as +)0<< MtByr offering a
significant addition of #4& to the current Canadian 4& resource inventory0
8)
Although this 'otential total 'roduction of #4& is technically feasible, one needs
to take into account the economic factors of this 'roduction, in 'articular the costs of
collection and trans'ortation of the residues to the gasification 'lants and the market
'rice of natural gas derived from fossil fuel sources0
T"$+) 1:. P&)'&i"+ P*/%1&i' 2 M)&("') 2*! C"'"/i"' F*)#&*- W"#&)#.

T&"+
R%'/6/
1

N'BS&)!
R)#i/%)
1

G"#i2i"$+)
R%'/6/
2

G"#i2i"$+)
N'BS&)!
3

M%'&"i' Pi')
B)"&+) R)#i/%)#
1
T&"+
F*)#&
R)#i/%)#
7
T&"+ CH7
G)')*"&i'
8
(M& CA-*) (M&A-*)
NL *0:< *08+ *0+7: *0)*9 *078+ *0+8<
PE *0+: *0)+ *0*7) *0+*9 *0+7; *0*9=
NS +08; +0:8 *0)=8 *0<) +0++8 *08<7
NB )0;; 70=: *0998 +0=< )0978 +0*=<
@C +*079 ++0<7 )0*; 90=+9 ;0=<9 708:*
ON :0:= ;0;+ +077< 70<99 90+=7 )0)9*
MB *09) *07< *0+*8 *0+= *0)=8 *0+);
SC +0*< *09 *0)+: *0)9 *08:: *0)*)
AB 90)) +089 +0*88 *0;)9 +0;:= *0;:;
BC +<0:; +)0): 70;78 :0+7 9099 +908+8 :0:;=
NT *0*+ *0*+ *0**) *0**9 *0**; *0**7
NU *
YC *0*+ *0**) *0**) *0**+
C"'"/" 8;0:8 8*07; =09)< )*0+<9 790)9: +)0<;:
1 ?uoted from Wood and %ay$ell @)**7A and #alevic and %ay$ell @)**:A0
2 Assumed that only )*E of round>ood is available for gasification0 @Wood and %ay$ell, )**7 and #alevic and %ay$ell,
)**:A
3 Assumed that only 9*E of stem>ood is available for gasification0 @Wood and %ay$ell, )**7 and #alevic and %ay$ell,
)**:A
7 Calculated as the sum of gasifiable round>ood @column 8A, stem>ood @column 9A and mountain 'ine beetle residues
@column :A
8 Calculated as Column ; @Mt CByrA C @ +: Mt CH8B )8 Mt CA C *0:90 Assumes a gasification conversion efficiency
of >aste carbon to CH8 and C.) carbon of :9E
87
(otential R&G Generation 2ro3 Canadian 6orestry Wastes
0
2
4
6

!0
!2
!4
!6
!
&
'
(
)
&
"
&
B
*
C
O
&
M
B
"
+
A
B
B
C
&
,
&
-
.
+
C
A
&
A
4
A
C
/
4

7
M
t
0
y
r
8
Fi,%*) ?. Potential Production of #4& from Canadian "orestry Wastes0
88
7.3. MUNICIPAL WASTES
Canadian munici'al >astes considered as 'otential sources for #4& 'roduction
included solid >astes collected from homes and businesses by munici'alities @MSWA,
landfill gas recovered from closed landfills @%"&A, >aste>aters @WWA collected through
munici'al se>er systems, and the munici'al biosolids >hich are the solid materials
collected @through settlingA of the >aste>aters0
7.3.1. M%'i1i0"+ S+i/ W"#&)
MSW residues are made u' of >astes collected from residential areas
@householdsA, industrial and commercial and institutional @,C,A >astes, and construction
and demolition @C5A >astes0 Some of these >astes are collected by munici'alities >hile
others are collected by 'rivate com'anies0
-he amounts of various Canadian dis'osed MSW fractions are 'resented in
-able +< and "igure +* for the )**9 year @Statistics Canada, )**9A0 -he data sho>s that
7*E to 9;E of the total MSW is from household sources >ith higher values in the /ast
and lo>er values are in Western Canada0 ,C, >astes makes u' the highest fraction of the
total MSW >ith values ranging from 7;E to 98E >ith the higher values re'orted for
.ntario and Western Canada0 C5 >astes are the lo>est fraction and make u' from 9 to
))E of the Canadian total >ith higher values in BC and Alberta, likely due to increased
construction activity0
-he amounts of MSW that are amenable to A5 and gasification are re'orted in
-able +< and "igure ++0 We estimated that only )9E of the household >astes are
amenable to anaerobic digestion @.strem, )**8A0 4one of the other >astes >ere
considered to contain significant amounts of digestible >astes0 -his assum'tion
unfortunately underestimates the mount of digestible >aste by neglecting the amount of
food >astes dis'osed of from restaurants and institutional cafeteria0 -he gasifiable >aste
89
T"$+) 1>. A''%"+ C"'"/i"' M%'i1i0"+ S+i/ W"#&) (MSW) P*/%1&i' (2998).

W"#&) Di#0#"+
1
MSW O*,"'i1 F*"1&i' S%$D)1& &
R)#i/)'&i"+
I'/%#&*i"+,
C!!)*1i"+ E
I'#&i&%&i'"+
C'#&*%1&i' E
D)!+i&i'
T&"+ AD
2
G"#i2i1"&i'
3

(<&A-*) (/*- <&A-*) (/*- <& CA-*)
NL )+: +8* )* 7;; +<0= 990)
PE *0*
NS +;* +;; 87 7<= +80< 9)0=
NB )*8 +99 99 8+8 +;0< 9<0)
@C ),<;: ),):+ 8*; 9,988 )9+0; ;<=0)
ON 7,87< 9,+=7 +,*+8 =,:8: 7**0= +,)8=09
MB 8+7 8*: ;< <=; 7:0+ +)709
SC );= 88+ ;9 ;=9 )808 +*)09
AB <:: +,7<* :88 ),<=* ;90< 7:70=
BC =7; +,78; 8:+ ),;89 <)0* 7970:
NT
NU
YC
C"'"/" =,899 ++,9:8 ),<+; )7,<7: <);07 7,+:;0)
1 S&"&i#&i1# C"'"/". 29980 -his is the difference bet>een >aste generated and diverted0
2 Calculated as Column ) @tByrA C *079 @t solidsBtA C *0)9 @t ."MSW sub6ect to A5Bt solidsA0 (O#&*)!, 2997)0
@)9E of the #esidential >aste is amenable to Anaerobic 5igestion and the >astes contains 79E solidsA
3 Calculated as the MSW biomass fraction that >as not converted to biogas 'lus 9*E of the ,C, >aste
@9*E solidsA and 7*E of the C5 >aste @=*E solidsA0 0 Assumed the >aste biomass contains 8*E carbon0
uantities >ere assumed to consist of the undigestible biomass from household >astes,
9*E of the ,C, >astes and 7*E of the C5 >astes @mostly >ood 'roductsA0 -he >aste
uantities amenable to A5 ranged from 7 to 9E of the total dis'osed and the gasifiable
amounts from +7 to +9E0
&eneration of #4& from these >astes is 'resented in -able += and "igure +) and
it sho>s that gasification can 'otentially 'roduce +0); Mt of #4& annually @=) to =7E of
the total 'otential #4&A >hile A5 can 'roduce V *0+ MtByr @9 to <EA0

8:
T"$+) 1?. A''%"+ M)&("') P*/%1&i' 2*! C"'"/i"' M%'i1i0"+ S+i/ W"#&)# (2998).

M)&("')
AD
1
G"#i2i1"&i'
2
T&"+
3

(<&A-*)
NL )0)+ )70= ):0+
PE
NS +0;8 ))0= )80;
NB )0*< )90) );07
@C )=087 78)0* 7;+08
ON 790+= 98+08 9;:0:
MB 80)) 9709 9;0;
SC )0<9 8808 8;07
AB <0<; +9;0; +::0:
BC =09= +970) +:)0<
NT
NU
YC
C"'"/" =:0;: +,7;)09 +,8:=0)
1 Calculated as Column : @-able +<A @dry kt ByrA C +*
7
@dry tBktA +;) @m7 CH8AB@t dry A C *0***:< @t
CH8Bm7 CH8A C +*
(7
@kt CH8Bt CH8A0 @.strem, )**8A
2 Calculated as Column ; @-able +<A @dry kt CByrA C @ +: kt CH8B )8 kt CA C *0:90 Assumes a
gasification conversion efficiency of >aste carbon to CH8 and C.) carbon of :9E
3 Calculated as the sum of Methane generated by Anaerobic 5igestion @column )A and &asification
@column 7A
Most of the 'otential #4& 'roduced correlates >ell >ith 'o'ulation si$e making .ntario
and ?uebec the largest 'otential #4& 'roducers @"igure +)A0 -he 'otential lo>er #4&
amounts 'roduced from MSW is offset by the fact that the cost of >aste collection and
trans'ortation is borne by the munici'alities0 -his 'otential source of #4& is significant
because of the cost offset and high degree of technical kno>ledge found in munici'al
>aste 'lants0 Although this 'otential 'roduction of #4& is technically feasible, one
needs to take into account the economic factors of this 'roduction, in 'articular the costs
of gas cleaning and se'aration0
8;
Canadian Muni1ipal "olid Waste 4isposal
!
$!!!
1!!!!
1$!!!
#!!!!
#$!!!
3!!!!
&
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,ot
Fi,%*) 19. Canadian Munici'al Solid Waste 5is'osal @)**9A0
!
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1!;!!!
1$;!!!
#!;!!!
#$;!!!
3!;!!!
&'()&"&B
*CO&MB
"+ABBC&,&-.+
Canada
7dry 9t0yr8
Canadian Available M"W
A4
Gas
,ot
Fi,%*) 11. Availability of Canadian MSW for A5 and &asification as Com'ared to
-otal 5is'osed MSW0
8<
(otential R&G Generation 2ro3 Muni1ipal Wastes
!5!
!5#
!54
!5%
!58
15!
15#
154
15%
158
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Gas
Fi,%*) 12. Potential Production of #4& from Canadian Munici'al Solid Wastes
8=
7.3.2. W"#&)6"&)*
Waste>aters are the miCed liuid and solid >astes collected through se>ers and
delivered to a >aste>ater treatment 'lants0 -hese >astes can 'roduce #4& through
anaerobic digestion in large digesters >here some of the biomass solids are converted
into CH
8
and C.
)
0 -his 'ractice is common for larger munici'alities >here the original
aim >as to reduce the solids contents of the >astes before discharge form the 'lants0
We estimated the generation for >aste>aters for each 'rovince and the >hole
country from /nvironment Canada data @/nvironment Canada, )**+A for the Canadian
generation in +=== and the 'o'ulation si$es of 'rovinces and Canada in )**: @Statistics
Canada, )**;eA0 /nvironment Canada also re'orted that =;E of the Canadian 'o'ulation
is served >ith some form of >aste>ater treatment0 -able )* 'resents the data for
>aste>ater generation and 'redictably, the highest amounts correlate >ith the highest
'o'ulations, making .ntario and ?uebec the largest 'roducers of >aste>aters in the
country0
-he 'otential #4& 'roduced from the anaerobic digestion of these >astes is
'resented in -able )* and "igure +70 We estimated the 'roduction of #4& using data
re'orted for many .ntario >aste>ater anaerobic digesters by Wheeldon et al0 @)**9A,
>here the s'ecific methane 'roduction >as re'orted as *0*77: m
7
CH
8
Bm
7
>aste>ater0
-he total Canadian 'otential #4& 'roduction from >aste>aters is estimated to be V
*0+)8 MtByr and 'rovincial 'roduction correlates >ith 'o'ulation si$e0 -his #4& amount
does not look significant eCce't for the fact that many of these facilities eCist already and
the only cost incurred to 'roduce #4& is through cleaning of the 'roduced biogas and
se'aration of the CH
8
and C.
)
from this biogas0 -hus the cost of 'roducing #4& from
this source is relatively chea'er and technologically easier0
Although this 'otential 'roduction of #4& is technically feasible, one needs to
take into account the economic factors of this 'roduction, in 'articular the costs of gas
cleaning and se'aration0
9*
T"$+) 29. A''%"+ M)&("') P*/%1&i' 2*! C"'"/i"' W"#&)6"&)*# (299;)
P0%+"&i'
1
W"#&)6"&)* P*/%1&i' CH7 P*/%1&i'
(0)*#'#) (!3A/)
2
(M !3A-*)
3
(M !3A-*)
7
(<&A-*)
8

NL
9*=,:;; )77<89 <908 )0<; +0=9
PE
+7<,9+= :7998 )70) *0;;= *097
NS
=78,8*9 8)<;+8 +9: 90): 709<
NB
;8=,+:< 787;): +)909 80)) )0<;
@C
;,:9+,97+ 79+*9== +)<+ 870*9 )=0)<
ON
+),:<:,=9) 9<)*=** )+)9 ;+07= 8<098
MB
+,+;;,;:9 98*7;* +=; :0:7 809+
SC
=<9,7<: 89)+*9 +:9 9098 70;;
AB
7,7;9,;:7 +98<<78 9:9 +<0== +)0=)
BC
8,7+*,89) +=;;:;< ;)) )80)9 +:08=
NT
8+,<:+ +=)*: ;0*+ *0)7: *0+:
NU
7*,;<) +8+)7 90+9 *0+;7 *0+)
YC
7+,))= +87)< 90)7 *0+;: *0+)
C"'"/"
7),:)7,8=* +8=:;=<7 98:7 +<8 +)80<7
1 S&"&i#&i1# C"'"/". 299:).
2 Calculated as Column ) @'A C *0=; C *08;8 @m
7
BdB'A0 @,n +===, =;E of Canadians used Waste>ater
treatment facilities that 'roduced +8,8**,*** m
7
Bday @'o'ulation of 7*,8*8,***A or *08;8
m7B'ersonBdayA0 @E'4i*'!)'& C"'"/". 2991.)
3 Calculated as @Column 7 @m
7
BdA C 7:9 dByrAB@+****** m
7
BM m
7
A
7 Calculated as Methane 'roduction @at :*E of biogasA T Column 8 @M m
7
ByrA C *0*77: @m
7
CH8Bm
7

>aste>aterA @W())+/' )& "+, 2998A
8 Calculated as Column 9 @M m
7
ByrA C CH8 density @*0***:< tBm
7
A C +****** @m
7
BM m
7
A
9+
(otential (rodu1tion o2 R&G 2ro3 Canadian Waste<aters
!
#!
4!
%!
8!
1!!
1#!
14!
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Fi,%*) 13. Potential Production of #4& from Canadian Waste>aters0
9)
7.3.3 Bi#+i/#
Biosolids are the solids collected through solid liuid se'aration of the
>aste>aters before liuid discharge from the >aste>ater treatment 'lant0 Some of these
>aste>aters >ould have undergone anaerobic digestion 'reviously0 Currently, Biosolids
are dis'osed on land, landfills or com'osted0
We estimated the amount of Biosolids 'roduced in Canada from the 'o'ulation
si$e and the s'ecific Biosolids 'roduction rate of *0*:7 kg @dry BiosolidsAB'ersonBday
@Klass, +==<A0 -hus, Biosolids uantities correlate >ell >ith 'o'ulation si$e0
Production of #4& from Biosolids is through gasification of the dried Biosolids0
We assumed that the carbon content of the Biosolids to be 8*E according to Klass @+==<A
and that the gasification efficiency is :9E as discussed earlier in this re'ort0 -able )+
and "igure +8 sho> the data for Biosolids 'roduction and 'otential #4& generation from
these >astes0 -he total Canadian 'otential #4& 'roduction from biosolids is estimated
to be V *0+): MtByr and 'rovincial 'roduction correlates >ith 'o'ulation si$e0 -his #4&
amount does not look significant eCce't for the fact that many of these facilities eCist
already and the cost incurred to 'roduce #4& is through gasification, cleaning of the
'roduced syngas, methanation and se'aration of the CH
8
and C.
)
0 -hus, the cost of
'roducing #4& from this source is relatively chea'er due to the elimination of collection
costs0
Although this 'otential 'roduction of #4& is technically feasible, one needs to
take into account the economic factors of this 'roduction, in 'articular the costs of
gasification, methanation, gas cleaning and se'aration0
97
T"$+) 21. A''%"+ M)&("') P*/%1&i' 2*! C"'"/i"' Bi#+i/# (299;)
P0%+"&i'
1
Bi#+i/# P*/%1&i' CH7 P*/%1&i'
7

(0)*#'#) (<& /*-A-*)
2
(/*- <& CA-*)
3
(<&A-*)
NL
9*=,:;; ++07; 8099
+0=;
PE
+7<,9+= 70*= +0)8
*098
NS
=78,8*9 )*0<8 <078
70:+
NB
;8=,+:< +:0;+ :0:<
)0=*
@C
;,:9+,97+ +;*0:; :<0);
)=09<
ON
+),:<:,=9) )<)0=< ++70+=
8=0*9
MB
+,+;;,;:9 ):0); +*09+
8099
SC
=<9,7<: )+0=< <0;=
70<+
AB
7,7;9,;:7 ;907* 7*0+)
+70*9
BC
8,7+*,89) =:0+9 7<08:
+:0:;
NT
8+,<:+ *0=7 *07;
*0+:
NU
7*,;<) *0:= *0);
*0+)
YC
7+,))= *0;* *0)<
*0+)
C"'"/"
7),:)7,8=* ;);0:; )=+0*;
+):0+7
1 S&"&i#&i1# C"'"/". (299:)).
2 Calculated as Column ) @'A C *0=; C *0*:7 @kg dry biosolidsBdB'A C 7:9 @dByrA C +*
(7
@tBkgA0 @C+"##,
1??>A
3 Calculated as Column 7 C *08 @kt CBkt biosolidsA0 Assumed a 8*E carbon content for the Biosolids0
@E'4i*'!)'& C"'"/". 2991.) "'/ @C+"##, 1??>A
7 Calculated as Column 8 @dry kt CByrA C @ +: kt CH8B )8 kt CA C *0:90 Assumes a gasification
conversion efficiency of >aste carbon to CH8 and C.) carbon of :9E
98
(otential (rodu1tion o2 R&G 2ro3 Canadian Biosolids
!
#!
4!
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8!
1!!
1#!
14!
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Fi,%*) 17. Potential Production of #4& from Canadian Biosolids0
99
7.3.7 L"'/2i++#
%andfills have been the traditional re'ositories for Canadian solid >astes0 -he
large biomass uantities collected in these landfills after closure tends to anaerobically
digest naturally to 'roduce CH
8
and C.
)
0 Most of the 'roduced gases esca'e to the
atmos'here but in some landfills, are collected and harnessed to 'roduce 'o>er0
-able )) sho>s the data for the estimated methane generation from Canadian
landfills0 -he data also sho>s the amounts of methane ca'tured and by difference from
the generated values, the amount emitted to the atmos'here @-able )) and "igure +9A0
/mitted methane gas is considered a greenhouse gas >ith 'otential activity euivalent to
)+ times that of C.
)
0 -able )) sho>s the amounts of greenhouse gas emitted @as C.
)
e0A due to the release of methane from landfills0 Predictably, most of the generated
methane is found in .ntario and ?uebec, the largest 'rovincial 'o'ulations in CanadaF
smaller amounts are found in BC and Alberta0 Most of the ca'tured landfill methane is
found in .ntario @);E of the emittedA, ?uebec @7+EA, 4ova Scotia @+8EA, BC @+9EA and
Alberta @9EA >ith much lesser uantities @M +EA in the other 'rovinces0
-otal 'otential #4& generation from Canadian landfills is estimated at +089 MtByr
@-able ))A >ith only )+E ca'tured0 -he 'otential eCists to increase the ca'ture of the
generated methane due to the availability of established technology for landfill gas
ca'ture, cleaning and se'aration into CH
8
and C.
)
0
-his #4& amount is significant es'ecially >hen one considers that many of these
facilities eCist already >here the cost of >aste collection and 'lacement is already
incurred by munici'alities0 -he only cost incurred to 'roduce #4& is through cleaning
of the ca'tured landfill gas and se'aration of the CH
8
and C.
)
from this biogas0 -hus,
the cost of 'roducing #4& from this source is relatively chea'er and technologically
easier0
Although this 'otential 'roduction of #4& is technically feasible, one needs to
take into account the economic factors of this 'roduction, in 'articular the costs of gas
cleaning and se'aration0
9:
T"$+) 22. A''%"+ M)&("') G"# G)')*"&i' "'/ C"0&%*) 2*! C"'"/i"' L"'/2i++# (2998).

M)&("')
G)')*"&i'
1

GHG
G)')*"&i'
2

LFG
0*D)1&#
3

M)&("')
C"0&%*)/
3

M)&("')
E!i&&)/
7

GHG
E!i&&)/
2

(<& CH7A-*) (<& CO2 ).A-*) N%!$)* (<& CH7A-*) (<& CH7A-*)
(<& CO2
).A-*)
NL 7<09; <+* * *0** 7<09; <+*
PE :0:= +8+ * *0** :0:= +8+
NS 7=0:: <77 + 907= 780)< ;)*
NB 87078 =+* * *0** 87078 =+*
@C 8:=08: =,<9= +) +870=; 7)909* :,<79
ON 8:90+; =,;:= += +):0*= 77=0*< ;,+)+
MB 880+* =): * *0** 880+* =):
SC 870;+ =+< * *0** 870;+ =+<
AB +*7099 ),+;9 ) 907= =<0+: ),*:+
BC +<=0:* 7,=<) +7 );0<= +:+0;+ 7,7=:
NT )078 8= * *0** )078 8=
NU *0**
YC +0+9 )8 * *0** +0+9 )8
C"'"/" +,88;079 7*,7=8 8; 7*<0;8 +,+7<0:) )7,=++
1 -hom'son et al @)**:A
2 Calculated as methane generation C )+
3 /nvironment Canada @ )**;bA
7 Calculated as the difference bet>een the methane generated and ca'tured
9;
R&G (rodu1tion in Canadian 'and2ills
!
#!!;!!!
4!!;!!!
%!!;!!!
8!!;!!!
1;!!!;!!!
1;#!!;!!!
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Captured
)3itted
Fi,%*) 18. Potential Production of #4& from Canadian %andfills0
9<
7.3.8 T&"+ M%'i1i0"+ W"#&)#
A summary of the contributions of each munici'al >aste to the total munici'al
'otential #4& 'roduction is 'resented in @-able )7 and "igures +: to +<A0 -he data
sho>s that the largest sources of 'otential #4& are from solid >astes @MSWA and
%andfills0 MSW contributes +08; MtByr of #4& >hile %andfills contribute +089 MtByr
>ith V *0+7 MtByr each from >aste>aters and Biosolids @"igure +:A0 -his is
understandable considering the much larger solid 'roduction of >astes from the above
t>o sources0 Anaerobic digestion contributes slightly more #4& than gasification
@"igure +;A due to the 'roduction of %"&0 -otal 'otential #4& 'roduction is sho>n in
"igure +< and 'redictably, it sho>s a distribution similar to 'o'ulation si$e0 -he total
'otential #4& 'roduction for Canada is estimated at 80: MtByr, a 'otential significant
addition to the national 4& su''ly0
-his >aste source is additionally significant for the large contribution of A5 to
#4& 'roduction allo>ing for the use of established technologies >ith much easier
technology u'take and ada'tation0 Another attractive as'ect for using this >aste is the
lo>er cost of 'roduction due to the absence of >aste collection and trans'ortation costs
as they are usually incurred by the munici'alities0 -he most significant costs are those
associated >ith gas cleaning and se'aration0 Challenges eCist in ada'ting gasification to
munici'al >astes as fe> gasification 'lants eCist and those usually use the syngas only to
'roduce 'o>er0 Most thermal treatments of munici'al >astes have u' till no> tended to
favour incineration0
9=
T"$+) 23. A''%"+ P&)'&i"+ P*/%1&i' 2 M)&("') 2*! C"'"/i"' M%'i1i0"+ W"#&)#.
LFG MSW W"#&)6"&)* Bi#+i/# T&"+
AD G"#i2i1"&i' T&"+ AD G"#i2i1"&i'
(<&A-*)
NL
7<09; )0)+ )70=7 ):0+8 +0=9 +0=; =80<
PE
:0:= *0** *0** *0** *097 *098 ;0<
NS
7=0:: +0;8 ))0=7 )80:; 709< 70:+ =:0)
NB
87078 )0*< )90)+ );07* )0<; )0=* +*8
@C
8:=08: )=087 78+0=; 7;+08* )=0)< )=09< +,);+
ON
8:90+; 790+= 98+088 9;:0:) 8<098 8=0*9 +,;+:
MB
880+* 80)) 9709+ 9;0;8 809+ 8099 +:=
SC
870;+ )0<9 88088 8;0)= 70;; 70<+ +8:
AB
+*7099 <0<; +9;0;* +::09; +)0=) +70*9 8:7
BC
+<=0:* =09= +970)) +:)0<+ +:08= +:0:; 98<
NT
)078 *0** *0** *0** *0+: *0+: )0::
NU
*0** *0** *0** *0** *0+) *0+) *0)8
YC
+0+9 *0** *0** *0** *0+) *0+) +07=
C"'"/"
+,88;079 =:0;: +,7;)08; +,8:=0)8 +)80<7 +):0+7 8,:7;
(otential (rodu1tion o2 R&G 2ro3 Canadian Muni1ipal
Wastes
!
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4!!
%!!
8!!
1;!!!
1;#!!
1;4!!
1;%!!
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Bio"
Fi,%*) 1;. Potential Production of #4& from Canadian Munici'al Wastes0
:*
(otential R&G Generation 6ro3 Muni1ipal Wastes
!5!!!
!5#!!
!54!!
!5%!!
!58!!
15!!!
15#!!
154!!
15%!!
158!!
&
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7

(
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A5
&as
Fi,%*) 1:. Potential #4& Source of Production from Munici'al Wastes0

(otential ,otal (rodu1tion o2 R&G 2ro3 Canadian
Muni1ipal Wastes
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Fi,%*) 1>. Potential -otal Production of #4& from Canadian Munici'al Wastes0
:+
8. PRODUCTION OF METHANE FROM CANADIAN WASTES
-his section >ill address the technical feasibility of 'roducing #4& from
Canadian >astes and an economic analysis of it0
8.1 TECHNICAL FEASIBILITY
We define technical feasibility as the 'otential to reali$e a 'roduct based on the
availability of resources and the 'rior kno>ledge and eC'erience of using similar
'rocesses for 'roducing similar 'roducts0 Production of #4& from Canadian >astes >as
sho>n to arise from the a''lication of t>o >ell used and understood 'rocessesD
Anaerobic digestion and gasification0
Anaerobic digestion is a naturally occurring 'rocess that has been used
industrially to 'roduce biogas from agricultural, munici'al and industrial 'rocess @food
'rocessingA0 Production of #4& adds the 'rocesses of biogas cleaning and gas
se'aration to the anaerobic digestion 'rocess0
&asification is an old industrial 'rocess that has been used mainly to 'rocess coals
into gaseous 'roducts and to further use these gases to 'roduce energy0 &asification of
coal into #4& has been demonstrated in the 1S and /uro'e0 -he a''lication of the
technology has until recently been limited by the lo> 4& 'rices0 &asification of >astes
is an established 'rocess >here the 'roduced syngas is used to 'roduce energy0
/Cam'les of using this technology for various >astes are found mostly in /uro'e and to a
lesser degree in 4orth America0 Syngas is made u' of hydrogen, carbon monoCide and
smaller amounts of methane0 Production of #4& through gasification thus reuired the
cleaning of the syngas, methanation and further se'aration into methane and carbon
dioCide0 Methanation has been industrially a''lied in /uro'e for coal but much less for
>aste gasification0 -he 'rocesses of gas cleaning and se'aration are common to both
anaerobic digestion and gasification0 &as cleaning is de'endent on the nature of
contaminants to be removed and thus the source of the biogasBsyngas0 Most
contaminants can be removed by eCisting 'rocesses that have been a''lied industriallyF
the challenge is to integrate these technologies into the #4& 'roduction chain0 Similarly,
:)
gas se'aration has been 'racticed for many industrial 'rocesses and the challenge is to
ada't the eCisting technologies into the #4& 'roduction 'rocess0
Based on our findings, it is envisioned that anaerobic digestion 'rocess >ill be the
main source of #4& in the neCt 9 to +* years >ith gasification contributing after>ards0
-his is based on the availability of the technologies, 'rior use and acce'tance by industry
and the need for further technology develo'ment activities0
A summary of all 'otential #4& that can be 'roduced from Canadian >astes is
'resented in -able )8 and "igure +=0 -he data sho>s that a 'otential total of )80= MtByr
of #4& can be 'roduced Canadian >astes0 "orestry seems to have the 'otential to
'roduce +)0= MtByr @9+E of totalA, follo>ed by <0< MtByr @7:EA from agriculture and
70) MtByr @+7EA from munici'al >astes @"igure )*A0 -his data sho>s the great 'otential
of forestry >astes to 'roduce #4&0
-he use of gasification has the 'otential 'roduce most of the #4& in Canada as
>e estimated that )+ MtByr @<8E of totalA can be 'roduced by this 'rocess @"igure )+A0
Anaerobic digestion has the 'otential to 'roduce 70= MtByr @+:E of totalAF >hile this
'rocess seems to be significantly less than gasification, it is still significant because of the
technology availability and lo>er cost0
We com'ared the relative si$e of our 'otential #4& estimates to the current 4&
use for the residential and commercial sectors and the results are 'resented in -able )9
and "igure ))0 -he 'otential Canadian generation of )80= MtByr of #4& corres'onds to
an energy value of +08 -GByr or 7<=,9)< &Wh of electricity @-able )9A0 #4& 'roduction
can account for a significant amount of the 4& use @"igure ))A, >hereby as little as 9:E
of the residential and commercial use can be 'roduced in .ntario and as high as 77:E in
?uebec0 4ationally, our estimate is that +7*E of current 4& residential and commercial
use can be re'laced by the 'roduced #4& based on the technical #4& 'otential0
:7
T"$+) 27. P&)'&i"+ M)&("') P*/%1&i' 2*! C"'"/i"' W"#&)#
A,*i1%+&%*) W"#&)# F*)#&*- M%'i1i0"+ W"#&)# T&"+
M"'%*) C*0# R)#i/%)# MSW L"'/2i++ WW Bi#+i/#
AD G"# AD G"# G"# AD G"# AD AD G"#
(M&A-*)
NL
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+
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8 *0*7=
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PE
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*0**
;
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7
*0*+
8 *0*9= *0**;
*0**
+ *0**+ *0*=:
NS
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<
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+
*0**
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NB
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7
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=
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= *0*7* 9087:
ON
*0):
*
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*0+=
7
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< )0)9*
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+ *08:9
*0*8
= *0*8= 90+++
MB
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*0+8
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< *0+);
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BC
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:8
A=ri1ulture A4
#5#4
9%
A=ri1ulture Gas
%5$9
#%%
6orestry Gas
1#588
$1%
Muni1ipal A4
15%>
>%
Muni1ipal Gas
15$!
%%
(otential Canadian R&G (rodu1tion 2ro3 Wastes
Fi,%*) 1?. Potential Production of #4& from Canadian Wastes0
:9
A=ri1ulture
8583
3%%
6orestry
1#588
$1%
Muni1ipal
351>
13%
Contribution o2 Wastes to R&G (rodu1tion
Fi,%*) 29. Contribution of Wastes to #4& Production0
359
#15!
#459
!5!
$5!
1!5!
1$5!
#!5!
#$5!
3!5!
A4 Gas ,otal
C/4 7Mt0yr8
Contribution o2 R&G ,e1hnolo=y to R&G (rodu1tion
Fi,%*) 21. Contribution of #4& -echnology to #4& Production0
::
T"$+) 28. P&)'&i"+ RNG "# " F%'1&i' 2 E')*,- P*/%1&i' "'/ C%**)'& NG
C'#%!0&i'

T&"+ P&)'&i"+
CH7 G)')*"&i'
E')*,- E+)1&*i1i&- NG C'#%!0&i'
T&"+ P&)'&i"+
CH7 G)')*"&i'
(M&A-*) (PJA-*) (GW() (M&A-*) (= 2 NG)
NL
*0)+<
+)0); 7,8*<
PE
*0*=:
907<
NS
*0:*;
780)) =,9*9
NB
+0))8
:=0*+ +=,+:=
@C
9087:
7*:08* <9,++* +0:) 77:
ON
90+++
)<<0*; <*,*+= =0+< 9:
MB
+077)
;90*; )*,<98 *0;7 +<7
SC
)0:8*
+8<0;= 8+,77* +0*8 )99
AB
70)9=
+<70;+ 9+,*7+ 8079 ;9
BC
;07)7
8+)0;; ++8,:9= )07* 7+<
NT
*0**:
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NU
*0***
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C"'"/"
)80<;<
+,8*)07* 7<=,9)< +=0)+ +7*
33%
$%
183
#$$
>$
318
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Canada
7% o2 &G -se8
(otential R&G (rodu1tion as a 6ra1tion o2 &G -se
Fi,%*) 22. Potential #4& Production as a "unction of 4& 1se0
:;
8.2 ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY
We have used A#C 'ro'rietary economic models to evaluate 8 different scenarios
involving the 'roduction of biogasD
+0 An industrial scale anaerobic biogas 'lant hy'othetically situated near
%ethbridge 'rocessing feedlot manure from 9:*,*** head of cattle annually
and 'roducing 'i'eline grade natural gas0
)0 -he same 'lant but >ithout u'grading the gas and 'roducing only 'o>er0
70 A gasification 'lant 'rocessing forest biomass @slash, bug kill, fire kill etcA
and 'roducing 'o>er and heat for an ad6acent 'ul' mill0 -his model could
'otentially be ada'ted to agricultural cro' residues as >ell0
80 A large landfill near /dmonton 'roducing biogas for 'o>er generation0
-he models are constructed based on a series of assum'tions on revenues, ca'ital
costs and o'erating costs to calculate /B,-5A @/arnings Before ,nterest, -aCes,
5e'reciation and Amorti$ationA as >ell as 're( and 'ost(taC 'rofit and rates of return0
-he models are intended to 'roduce a Qsna'shotR of a ty'ical yearHs o'eration and are not
reflective of ongoing changes to the business during a full business cycle0 .ur intent is to
refine the information and eC'and the models accordingly to im'rove their utility as an
analytical and decision making tool0
,tems like de'reciation are estimated based on a very rough estimate of the ca'ital
cost asset classes for each 'lant0 ,t also assumes straight line de'reciation versus
declining balance0
-he model assumes +**E debt financing for each case >ith interest at :E0 So a
'ro6ect that returns a 're(taC return of *E is actually generating a Q-rueR rate of return of
:E0 -he /B,-5A value is em'loyed so that rates of return can be com'ared inde'endent
of de'reciation schedules and financing charges0 A 8*E /B,-5A is considered as ideal
and 7*E /B,-5A as being the minimum acce'table return0
:<
8.2.1 E#&i!"&i', &() E1'!i1"++- R)14)*"$+) R)#%*1)
With good assum'tions about the state of technology and thereby the ca'ital and
o'erating costs, as >ell as revenue and ra> material costs, >e can determine the o'timal
'lant si$e to eC'loit the available resource0 While >e have estimates on the total landfill
gas resource, as an eCam'le, >e >ould need to kno> >hat the o'timal si$ed 'lant >ould
be that can generate a satisfactory investor grade return for a minimal si$ed landfill0 We
can then assume that any larger landfill >ill generate even better returns and calculate a
Qrecoverable reserveR value0 Similarly, >e >ill be able to assess ho> this economically
eC'loitable reserve increases as gas andBor 'o>er 'rices change due to market forces or to
changes in 'ublic 'olicy >ith res'ect to subsidies0
8.2.2 Pi0)+i') 4)*#%# P6)*
5evelo'ing these basic s'readsheets highlights the com'leCity around a
fundamental uestion0 ,s it better to 'roduce 'o>er or a 'i'eline grade gasW At the
moment, there is very little data on the cost to clean gas to a 'i'eline grade0 But if this
ca'ital cost is lo>er than the cost of installing 'o>er generation eui'ment, then it may
be 'referable to make gas rather than 'o>er sub6ect of course to the 'rice of QgreenR gas
being higher than QgreenR 'o>er and sub6ect to there being available customers for
'o>er0
What information >e do have about gas cleaning costs suggests that the best use
for biogas given the current state of the technology is for 'o>er generation0 A study by
/lectriga$ -echnologiesD X"easibility Study ( Anaerobic 5igester and &as Processing
"acility in the "raser 3alley, British ColumbiaX uotes a biogas u'grading cost of
Y809 million for a =9,*** &GByear 'lant0 -his is eual to Y8;B&G0 A study by the 1S5/
QBiogas Multi(!ear ProgramR states that in the case of a forest biomass gasification
'lant, biogas u'grading costs are eC'ected to be t>o times higher than the cost of
feedstock 'rocurement and gasification itself0 ,n other >ords, converting biogas to 'o>er
rather than u'grading to 'i'eline grade gas results in a 'roduction cost 6ust over one third
less0
:=
-he economics around this uestion are critical as it >ill dictate >hether QgreenR
gas 'lants >ill ultimately be tied into the electrical grid or the natural gas grid0
-his underlines the need to develo' biogas cleaning technologies that lo>er
ca'ital costs by an order of magnitude over the current state of the art0 #ather than
effectively tri'ling the cost of a 'ro6ect, gas cleaning costs should strive to add less than
7*E to the cost of a 'ro6ect if these 'ro6ects are to be com'etitive >ith 'o>er 'roduction0
A second alternative is to look at building biogas 'ro6ects ad6acent to sour gas or
acid gas 'i'elines 'rior to midstream natural gas cleaning 'lants0 ,f the biogas is
com'atible >ith this gas line infrastructure, it can be run through this eCisting system at
minimal cost0
We have attem'ted to address this uestion on the t>o largest scenarios @the
industrial scale manure digesterA by assuming that gas cleaning infrastructure >ould cost
the same as electrical generating infrastructure and observe the difference in financial
returns0 While this 'articular model sho>s a continued 'reference for 'roducing gas, this
is entirely de'endent on the assum'tions being used0 ,t sho>s that given current
assum'tions on 'rice of Y*0+)Bk>h versus Y+8Bmcf that returns are t>ice as high for
'o>er 'roduction versus 'i'eline grade gas 'roduction but are adeuately 'rofitable in
either case0
Additional ca'ital costs associated >ith gas cleaning drives out 'rofitability as the
follo>ing chart demonstrates0 A 9*E increase in ca'ital associated >ith cleaning biogas
i0e0 an increase in ca'ital costs from Y))* million to Y77* million >ould drive the 'ro6ect
to a net $ero 'rofit 'osition0
;*
Return on :nvest3ent vs Capital Cost? 6eedlot Bio=as to (ipeline Grade
"1anario
"6#0
"4#0
"2#0
0#0
2#0
4#0
6#0
#0
200 2$0 %00 %$0 400 4$0
Capital Cost 73illion @8
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Fi,%*) 23. /conomic Analysis of "eedlot Biogas to Pi'eline &rade #4&
;+
8.2.3 Ri#< S)'#i&i4i&- "'/ Mi&i,"&i' A'"+-#i#
-hese models >ere hel'ful in eC'loring risk sensitivity analysis in the different
scenarios0 "eedlot manure 'lants, for eCam'le, are highly eC'osed to trans'ortation costs
on manure >hich in turn have relatively lo> biogas yields0 -his sensitivity has been
tested for financial im'act0 %andfill gas, >ith no trans'ort costs is very highly and
favourably leveraged >ith natural gas 'rices0
8.2.7 C!0"*i', &() F%* S1)'"*i#
Based on our assum'tions, landfill gas is a clear >inner due to the lo> ra>
material and ca'ital costs involved0 #ates of return are s'ectacular and it is easy to see
>hy this technology has been uickly embraced0 -he same conclusions can be dra>n
from >aste>ater treatment 'lant digester gas >hich >ould have similar economics0
-he forest biomass gasification to 'o>er model @>hich could include agricultural
>astes like stra> after ad6usting for feedstock costsA came u' >ith an /B,-5A of )<E
and an after taC return on ca'ital of +E @but ;E in real terms assuming +**E debt
financing at :EA0 -his scenario assumed a 'o>er 'rice of Y*0*:Bk>h0 With QgreenR
'o>er 'ricing of say Y*0+)Bk>h, /B,-5A >as at <*E0 /ven if there are errors in the
ca'ital and ra> material cost assum'tions, these are interesting financials0
,n com'aring the t>o industrial scale feedlot manure biogas 'lants, >e have
assumed euivalence in ca'ital cost for gas cleaning to achieve 'i'eline grade versus
'o>er generation0 -he model results in an /B,-5A of 7+E and an after taC return of ;E
assuming a QgreenR gas 'rice of Y+8Bmcf0 Producing 'o>er results in an /B,-5A of
77E and an after taC return of <E assuming a QgreenR 'o>er 'rice of Y*0+)Bk>h0
-his model highlights the need to develo' ca'ital and o'erating cost euivalent
gas cleaning technologies and to ensure that market demand and 'rice structures can best
su''ort the investment0
;)
-he follo>ing table summari$es the economics revie>ed aboveD
T"$+) 2;0 /conomic Analysis of #4& Scenarios
;7
L"'/2i++ G"# EBITDA P#& T"5 R)&%*'
Ca'ital Cost @million YA 80<9
Po>er Price @YBk>hA *0*:
Bi!"## G"#i2i1"&i'
Ca'ital Cost @million YA +<09)
Po>er Price @YBk>hA *0*:
F))/+& Bi,"# P6)*
Ca'ital Cost @million YA ))*
Po>er Price @YBk>hA *0+)
F))/+& Bi,"# Pi0)+i')
Ca'ital Cost @million YA ))*
&as Price @YBmcfA +8
770+E <08E
7+0+E ;0*E
:+07E )808E
);0:E +0+E
;. GREENHOUSE GAS IMPACT OF METHANE CAPTURE FROM
CANADIAN WASTES
-he 'roduction and ca'ture of #4& from Canadian >astes contributes to &H&
reduction through t>o 'rocessesD emission reduction and fuel substitution0 /mission
reduction can be achieved through the ca'ture of the emitted methane from landfills and
the anaerobic digestion of animal manures, in 'articular hog manures0 "uel substitution
a''lies to the use of #4& to re'lace any 4& 'roduced from fossil fuels0 -able ); sho>s
the results of our estimates >here >e assigned a value of )+ times C.
)
for the methane
emission reductions and a value of )0<; @4& &H& intensity, t C.
)
eBtA for fuel
substitution0 -he value of )0<; >e used for fuel substitution is similar to the value of
)0;= used in a recent BC re'ort @/lectriga$ -echnologies, )**<A0
-otal &H& reductions >ere estimated as+*; Mt C.) eByr for Canada >ith the
largest amounts found for ?uebec, .ntario and BC0 -he 'rovincial estimated ranged
from *087 for P/, to ):08 Mt C.
)
Byr for ?uebec0 "uel substitution seems to contribute
more &H& reductions than emission reduction eCce't for those 'rovinces >ith large
forestry >astes such as BC @"igures )8 and )9A0 Almost 77E of the Canadian &H&
reductions arise from emission reductions, >hile the rest @:;EA are from fuel substitution0
#4& 'roduction from >astes seems to contribute significant amounts of &H&
reductions and thus carbon credits0 -his might alleviate the cost of #4& 'roduction if
one factors in the sale of the 'roduced C.
)
and its carbon credit0
;8
T"$+) 2:. GHG R)/%1&i'# D%) & P*/%1&i' 2 R)')6"$+) N"&%*"+ G"#
M)&("') GHG
E!i##i' F%)+ E!i##i' F%)+ T&"+
8
E!i##i' F%)+
R)/%1&i'
1
S%$#&i&%&i'
2
R)/%1&i'
3
S%$#&i&%&i'
7
R)/%1&i'
;
S%$#&i&%&i'
;
(M&A-*) (M& CO2 ).A-*) (=)
NL
*0*7= *0)+< *0<+ *0:7 +087; 9:09 8709
PE
*0**< *0*=< *0+: *0)< *088 7:08 :70:
NS
*0*88 *0:+8 *0=+ +0;: )0:< 780) :90<
NB
*0*8; +0)7* *0=< 7097 809+ )+0; ;<07
@C
*09+7 9097< +*0;< +90<= ):0:; 8*08 9=0:
ON
*09+; 90)9< +*0<: +90*= )90=9 8+0= 9<0+
MB
*0*:; +08+: +08) 80*: 908< )90< ;80)
SC
*0*;9 )0<*7 +09; <0*8 =0:) +:08 <70:
AB
*0+:) 7088* 708+ =0<; +70)< )90; ;807
BC
*0)*= ;077; 807< )+0*: )9088 +;0) <)0<
NT
*0**) *0**: *0*9 *0*) *0*; ;90* )90*
NU
*0*** *0** *0** *0** *0* +**0*
YC
*0**+ *0**) *0*) *0*+ *0*7 ;<0< )+0)
C"'"/"
+0:<9 )90:*: 7907= ;708=
+*<0<
< 7)09 :;09
1 Calculated as the CH8 generated in landfills 'lus )*E of the CH8 generated from manure through A5
2 -his is the total amount of 'otential CH8 generated from all >astes
3 Calculated as column ) C )+ @&WPA
7 Calculated as column 7 @Mt CH8ByrA C )0<; @Mt C.) eBMt CH8A
8 Calculated as the sum of columns 8 and 9
; Calculated as a 'ercent of the total &H& @column :A
;9
!
1!
#!
3!
4!
$!
%!
>!
8!
&' () &" &B *C O& MB "+ AB BC &, &- .+Canada
G/G 7Mt CO# eA0yr8
(rovin1e0,erritory
(otential G/G Redu1tions 4ue to R&G (rodu1tion
)3ission Red5
6uel "ubst5
Fi,%*) 27. Potential &H& #eductions 5ue to #4& Production0
!
#!
4!
%!
8!
1!!
1#!
G/G 7% o2 total8
(rovin1e0,erritory
Relative (otential G/G Redu1tions 4ue to R&G (rodu1tion
)3ission Red5
6uel "ubst5
Fi,%*) 28. #elative Potential &H& #eductions 5ue to #4& Production0
;:
:. CONCLUSIONS
Production of #4& from Canadian >astes >as sho>n to arise from the
a''lication of t>o >ell used and understood 'rocessesD anaerobic digestion and
gasification0 Based on our findings, it is envisioned that anaerobic digestion 'rocess >ill
be the main source of #4& in the neCt 9 to +* years >ith gasification contributing
after>ards0 -his is based on the availability of the technologies, 'rior use and acce'tance
by industry and the need for further technology develo'ment activities0
Canadian >astes that are amenable to 'roducing #4& are those containing
significant amounts of biomass and are mostly generated by the agricultural, forestry and
munici'al sectors0
-he analysis sho>s that a technical 'otential total of )80= MtByr of #4& can be
'roduced from the total Canadian >astes revie>ed0 "orestry seems to have the 'otential
to 'roduce +)0= MtByr @9+E of totalA, follo>ed by <0< MtByr @7:EA from agriculture and
70) MtByr @+7EA from munici'al >astes0 -he use of gasification seems to have the
'otential to 'roduce most of the #4& in Canada as >e estimated that )+ MtByr @<8E of
totalA can be 'roduced by this 'rocess0 Anaerobic digestion has the 'otential to 'roduce
70= MtByr @+:E of totalAF >hile this 'rocess seems to be significantly less than
gasification, it is still significant because of the technology availability and lo>er cost0
We com'ared the relative si$e of our 'otential #4& estimates to the current
natural gas use for the residential and commercial sectors0 -he 'otential Canadian
generation of )80= MtByr of #4& corres'onds to an energy value of +08 -GByr or
7<=,9)< &Wh of electricity0 #4& 'roduction can account for a significant amount of the
natural gas use0 4ationally, our estimate is that +7*E of current 4& residential and
commercial use could theoretically be re'laced by the 'roduced #4&, on a technical
'otential basis0
We develo'ed several scenarios using 'ro'rietary s'readsheets develo'ed >ithin
the Alberta #esearch Council, to highlight the com'leCity around the economics issue0
.ur analysis sho>s that to lo>er the cost of #4&, then the technology costs for cleaning
the biogas needs to be reduced0 At the moment, there is very little data on the cost to
clean gas to a 'i'eline grade0 Ho>ever, the economic models >hich have been 'resented
;;
evaluated different scenarios >hich included eCam'les of #4& used to 'roduce 'i'eline
grade natural gas, or #4& used in 'o>er 'roduction0 -he economics underlines the need
to develo' biogas cleaning technologies that lo>er ca'ital costs by an order of magnitude
over the current state of the art0
-he 'roduction and ca'ture of #4& from Canadian >astes contributes to &H&
reduction through t>o 'rocessesD emission reduction and fuel substitution0 /mission
reduction can be achieved through the ca'ture of the emitted methane from landfills and
the anaerobic digestion of animal manures0 "uel substitution a''lies to the use of #4&
to re'lace any natural gas 'roduced from fossil fuels0
-he total technical 'otential &H& reductions >ere estimated as +*; Mt C.
)
eByr
for Canada >ith the largest amounts found for ?uebec, .ntario and BC0 "uel
substitution seems to contribute more &H& reductions than emission reduction eCce't for
those 'rovinces >ith large forestry >astes such as BC0 Almost 77E of the Canadian
&H& reductions arise from emission reduction, >hile the rest @:;EA come from fuel
substitution0
-he 'otential #4& 'roduction from >astes can contribute a significant amount of
&H& reductions and thus carbon credits, >hich may alleviate the cost of #4& 'roduction
if factoring in the sale of the C.
)
'roduced and the value of its carbon credit0
;<
<0 RECOMMENDATIONS
.n going for>ard, the recommendations >hich >e offer from com'leting this
'ro6ect include several initiatives >hich address 'olicy or technical develo'ment issues0
>.1 POLICY DEVELOPMENT
#efine the analysis on the 'otential of #4& to become a significant energy
source in Canada by estimating the useful 'otential of #4&, taking into
account s'atial infrastructure and economic constraints0
Promote the 'roduction and use of #4& through increased interactions >ith
and collaboration bet>een various levels of governments, institutions and
associations0
/ngage governments in discussions in order to have #4& included in a listing
of a''roved clean energy fuel sources0
Convene a meeting of all stakeholders to develo' a de'loyment roadma' and
strategy at the national level for the develo'ment of #4& as a rene>able fuel0
>.2 TECHNICAL DEVELOPMENT
,dentify the 'riority >aste materials >hich are amenable for use in #4&
'roduction by collecting more detailed data about the >aste0
5evelo' economically viable technologies for the cleaning and se'aration of
biogas, >ith detailed costing information0
5evelo' im'roved gasification technologies for a >ider range of biomass
materials0
;=
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<7