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Arabic for Life

A Textbook for Beginning Arabic




Bassam K. Frangieh
Claremont McKenna College



Yale University Press
New Haven and London
Copyright © 2011 Yale University


Section One
ٷڇلا ټَٲٹا




Sounds and Letters of the
Arabic Language



Arabic calligraphy: Knowledge is light - ٌٍن ڂڀ٬ٿح
Copyright © 2011 Yale University
Sounds and Letters Section 1

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Section One
Sounds and Letters of the Arabic Language
Contents

Unit One - ىٹڇلا حلؽڈٹا
I. The Arabic Alphabet شْثخـيٿح ٱًَلٿح
The Arabic Alphabet in Its Traditional Order
II. Letters ع ص د
III. The Long Vowels ُ ً ح - Activity 1 – 2
IV. The Short Vowels صخٻَلٿح - Activity 1 – 3
V. Sukuun ٿح ــټـٔ څٌ - Activity 1

Unit Two - خٍځبضٹا حلؽڈـٹا
I. Letters ً ى - Activity 1
II. Letters ُ ٍ - Activity 1
III. Letters م ف ؽ - Activity 1

Unit Three - خضٹبضٹا حلؽڈٹا
I. Letters ٕ ّ
II. Letters ٵ ٱ - Activity 1
III. Letters ٽ ٹ - Activity 1

Unit Four - ش٬رحَٿح سيكٌٿح
I. Letters څ ځ - Activity 1
II. Nunation نٌّنظٿح - Activity 1 – 4
III. Alif Maqsura سٌٍٜٸڃ ٲٿأ - Activity 1




Copyright © 2011 Yale University
Section 1 Sounds and Letters
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Unit Five - شٔڃخوٿح سيكٌٿح
I. The Letter ڃ - Activity 1
II. Taa` Marbouta ٌرَڄٿح ءخظٿح ش٣ ( س ) - Activity 1
III. Letters ٭ ٩ - Activity 1 – 3

Unit Six - خٍكبَٹا حلؽڈٹا
I. Letters ٝ ٙ - Activity 1 – 2
II. Letters ٥ ١ - Activity 1 – 4
III. Emphatic Letters (٥ ١ ٝ ٙ)

Unit Seven - خ٦ثبَٹا حلؽڈٹا
I. Double Consonants سّ يــَ٘ٿح ( ـّ ــ ) - Activity 1 – 2
II. Hamza (ء) سِڄيٿح - Activity 1 – 2
III. Madda ( ) سَ يـڄٿح - Activity 1
IV. Dagger Alif سَْٜٸٿح ٲٿٕح
V. Hamzat al-Wasl or Wasla شڀٌٛٿح ًأ پٌٛٿح سِڄى - Activity 1

Unit Eight - خـڂٽبضٹا حلؽڈٹا
I. The Definite Article (ـٿح) ٲَّ٬ظٿح سحىأ
II. Moon Letters ََّڄٸٿح ٱًَلٿح ش - Activity 1
III. Sun Letters ٔڄَ٘ٿح ٱًَلٿح شَْ - Activity 1

Unit Nine - خـ٦ٍبزٹا حلؽڈٹا
I. Arabic Script and Calligraphy
II. Printed Styles of Arabic Script
III. Handwriting Samples
IV. Arabic Calligraphy
V. Reading Practice


Copyright © 2011 Yale University
Sounds and Letters Section 1

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Unit One
ىٹڇلا حلؽڈٹا

This section introduces the Arabic sounds, letters, and scripts and covers the
basic phonological system of the Arabic language.

Arabic has twenty-eight characters: Twenty-five are consonants and three are
long vowels. Arabic also has several symbols, signs written above or below the
letters, that affect pronunciation and grammatical structures.

Arabic is written from right to left, and there are no capital letters. Below is a
chart of the Arabic alphabet. Look at it as a whole, and listen to the
accompanying audio of the alphabet being read. After you listen to the alphabet
several times, click on the disk to watch and listen to a student sing the alphabet.

I. The Arabic Alphabet
خٍئبغچٹا ٫ڇوؾٹا

ؿ ػ ط س د ة ا
ٓ ُ ً ى ه م ك
ٯ ٫ ٧ ٣ ٟ ٛ ٗ
ي ڇ ڃ ٿ ٻ ٷ ٳ

Now, look at the chart below, the name of each letter, and the way each
letter is written. Letters are written in four positions: initial, medial, final
position (connected), and final position (unconnected).

Letters are connected in both printed and handwritten forms. They are
joined by connecting strokes with the preceding and/or following letters.

When we begin a word in Arabic we write the first letter in initial form and
the last letter in final form. Any letters between them appear in medial
form. Medial and final letters may or may not be connected to the letter
preceding them, depending on whether the preceding letter is a connector.
There are six letters ح ً ُ ٍ ً ى that are not connectors; they do not connect
on the the left side. If the final letter is not connected, then the letter is
written in its independent isolated form.


Copyright © 2011 Yale University
Section 1 Sounds and Letters
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The Arabic Alphabet in Its
Traditional Order
خٍئبغچٹا ٫ڇوؾٹا
Final
Medial Initial
Name of
Letter
Independent
Unconnected Connected
ا خـ خـ ح ٲٿأ ا
ة ذـ ـزـ ـر ءخر ة
د ضـ ـظـ ـط ءخط د
س غـ ـؼـ ـػ ءخػ س
ط ؾـ ـــ ـؿ ڂْؿ ط
ػ قـ ـلـ ـك ءخك ػ
ؿ نـ ـوـ ـه ءخه ؿ
ك يـ يـ ى ٽحى ك
م ٌـ ٌـ ً ٽحً م
ه َـ َـ ٍ ءحٍ ه
ى ِـ ِـ ُ ُحُ ى
ً ْـ ـٔـ ـٓ نْٓ ً
ُ ٖـ ـ٘ـ ـٗ نْٗ ُ
ٓ ٚـ ـٜـ ـٛ ىخٛ ٓ
ٗ ٞـ ـ٠ـ ـٟ ىخٟ ٗ
ٛ ٢ـ ـ٤ـ ١ ءخ٣ ٛ
ٟ ٦ـ ـ٨ـ ٥ ءخ٧ ٟ
٣ ٪ـ ـ٬ـ ـ٫ نْ٫ ٣
٧ ٮـ ـٰـ ـٯ نْٯ ٧
٫ ٲـ ـٴـ ـٳ ءخٳ ٫
ٯ ٶـ ـٸـ ـٷ ٱخٷ ٯ
ٳ ٺـ ـټـ ـٻ ٱخٻ ٳ
ٷ پـ ـڀـ ـٿ ځل ٷ
ٻ ڂـ ـڄـ ـڃ ڂْڃ ٻ
ٿ نـ ـنـ ـن څٌن ٿ
ڃ وـ ـيـ ـى ءخى ڃ
ڇ ٌـ ٌـ ً ًحً ڇ
ي ِـ ـْـ ـّ ءخّ ي
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II. Letters س د ة




Calligraphic image of the letter ة


The letter د is similar to the English letter b in pronounciation, as in „bat.‟

ة تـ ـجـ ـث

This is how the letter د is written by hand:





Calligraphic image of the letter د


The letter ص is similar to the English t in pronunciation, as in „tab.‟

د ذـ ـزـ ـر

This is how the letter ص is written by hand:



Copyright © 2011 Yale University
Section 1 Sounds and Letters
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Calligraphic image of the letter س


The letter ع is pronounced like the English th, as in „thunder.‟

س شـ ـضـ ـص

This is how the letter ع is written by hand:



These three letters have the same shape in all positions: initial, medial, and
final. They differ in the number of dots and the placement of these dots.
The د has one dot below, the ص has two dots above it, and the ع has three
dots above. In handwritten form, any two dots can run together to form a
short line and any three dots can run together to form a triangle, as you see
in the examples above.

These letters are connectors, which means they connect on both sides with
other letters.

Look at the shapes and examples of the letters. Read aloud.

س

د

ة
Example Shape Example Shape Example Shape
ص ةب ـػ ر ةب ـط ـث ةب ـر
ث ـضـ ةب ـؼـ ث ـزـ ةب ـظـ ث ـجـ ةب ـزـ
ث شـ غـ ـث ذ ضـ ث تـ ذـ
بث س ع بر د ص بث ة د

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Compare letters and words in their printed and handwritten forms.

ةبص ةبر ةبث شث ذث تث



تثبث ةبجث ةبزث ةبضث دبر سبث







III. The Long Vowels ي ڇ ا



There are three long vowels: the ح and ً and ُ. Keep in mind, the ً and the
ُ can be used as both vowels and consonants.


Calligraphic image of the letter ح


The alif (ح) is the first character in the Arabic alphabet. It is a long vowel
and sounds like a long aa, as in „cat.‟ The ح is also the bearer of the hamza
(ء), as in أ and ا (we will learn more on this later). The long vowel alif (ح),
which is pronounced as a long aa, is written from top to bottom.
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Section 1 Sounds and Letters
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ا بـ بـ ا

This is how the letter ح is handwritten:




Calligraphic image of the letter ڇ


The ً is a long vowel. It is similar to the English pronunciation oo as in
„boot.‟

ڇ ڈـ ڈـ ڇ

This is how the letter ً is handwritten:






Calligraphic image of the letter ي


The ُ is a long vowel. It sounds like ee and is similar in pronunciation to
the English word „street.‟

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ي ًـ ـٍـ ـٌ
This is how the letter ُ is handwritten:




Again, to repeat, the ح sounds like aa, the ً sounds like oo, and the ُ sounds
like ee.

These three vowels have different abilities to connect with other letters. The
ُ is a connector that connects on both sides, but the vowels ح and ً are not
connectors (they do not connect on the left side). When they fall in the
middle of the word, the letter after the ح or ً must be written in the initial
position.

Look at the shapes and examples of the vowels (ُ ً ح). Read aloud.

ي

ڇ

ا
Example Shape Example Shape Example Shape
ٌ ةب ـّ ڇ ةا ً ا ة ح
ث ـٍـ ةب ـْـ ـث ڈ د ٌـ ث بـ تث خـ
جـٍـث ًـ ِـ ث ڈـ ث ڈ ٌـ جـٌڇ بـ خـ
كڈـث ي ُ كڈث ڇ ً لـٍـث ا ح



Drill 1: Copy. Pronounce the letters and each word as you write.

ضـْرخر
____
دخر
_____
ٌرٌر
_____
ذْر
____
خرخر
_____
د
____
خطٌط
_____
صخط
_____
ٌطٌط
_____
ضْط
____
خطخط
_____
ص
____
خرخطٌػ
_____
عخػ
_____
ٌػٌػ
_____
غْػ
_____
خػخػ
_____
ع
____
Copyright © 2011 Yale University
Section 1 Sounds and Letters
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Activity 1: Read each word aloud then click, listen, and repeat.

ذـْـر ِر دٌر ٌـر دخر خر
ضـْـط ِط صٌط ٌـط صخط خط
غـْـػ ِػ عٌػ ٌـػ عخػ خػ



Activity 2: Read each word aloud then click, listen, and repeat.

ِـػ ٌـػ خـػ ِـط ٌـط خـط ِـر ٌـر ـر خ
ِـؼـْـػ ٌػٌػ خػخػ ِـظـْـط ٌطٌط خطخط ِزـْـر ٌرٌر خرخر
غْػ عٌػ عخػ ضـْـط صٌط صخط ضـْـر صٌر صخر



Drill 2: Copy the handwriting style below and read aloud as you write.


_________

_________

__________

_________

_________

________


_________

_________

_________

_________

_________

_________




Drill 3: Copy. Pronounce the letters and each word as you write.

عخر
_____
صخط
_____
عخػ
_____
ٌر ع
_____
دخر
_____
ا
____
ٌرخط
_____
دٌػ
_____
صٌط
_____
خطٌط
_____
عٌر
_____
ڇ
____
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رخّ ِ
_____
ضـْـط
_____
خـؼـْـػ
_____
ضْر
_____
ّ ٌ ص
_____
ي
____



Drill 4: Copy the handwriting style below and read aloud as you write.


____________

____________

____________

____________

___________

___________

___________

____________






IV. The Short Vowels: fatha, damma, kasra
دبٵوؾٹا : حوَٶٹاڇ خپٚٹاڇ خؾزٮٹا

In addition to the three long vowels (ُ ً ح), there are also three short
vowels. These short vowels are not letters. They are signs placed above or
below the letters. Their pronunciation is equal to half the long vowels‟
pronunciation. These short vowels are fatha ( ـَــ), damma ( ـُــ), and kasra
( ـِــ). Each short vowel corresponds to a long vowel: fatha corresponds to
ٲٿٕح, damma corresponds to ًحٌٿح, and kasra corresponds to ءخْٿح.





Copyright © 2011 Yale University
Section 1 Sounds and Letters
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Fatha - خؾزٮٹا

 

The fatha (ـَــ) is a sign placed above a letter to represent the short vowel a.
The combination of the letter د and the fatha sign (ـَــ) above it is
pronounced َ د „ba.‟ The long vowel alif (ح) represents the long vowel aa.
Thus, the combination of the letter د and the long vowel ح is pronounced خر
„baa.‟



Activity 1: Read each word aloud then click, listen, and repeat.

َصخـط خـط َـط َدخَر خـر َـر
ًَحً حً َ ً َعخػ خـػ َـػ
ٌرخر خرخر دخر ًًحً ًُحً حًحً



Drill 1: Copy.

خر
_____
َ ع
_____
َ ص
_____
َ د
_____
ػ ــ َذـَْ
_____
َصٌَـَر
_____
ــَ ّ َدخ
_____
ــَ ّ خ
_____








Copyright © 2011 Yale University
Sounds and Letters Section 1

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Damma - خپٚٹا

 

The damma (ـُــ) is a sign placed over a letter to represent the short vowel u.
The combination of the letter د plus the damma sign (ـُــ) is pronounced ُ د
„bu,‟ as in „put.‟ The long vowel ً represents the long vowel uu. Thus, the
combination of the letter د plus the long vowel ً is pronounced ٌـر „buu‟ as
in „boot.‟





Activity 2: Read each word aloud then click, listen, and repeat.


ٌُرٌُر ُدٌُر ٌـر ُـر
طٌـُـط ُ ـ ٌ ُصٌـُـط ٌـط ُـط
ػٌُــػ ُ ـ ٌ ُعٌُــػ ٌـػ ُـػ
ٌٌُّـُـّ ٌُُـُـّ ٌـُّ ُ ُ


Drill 2: Copy.

ـُّ صٌ
______
ُر ٌـ ص
______
ُع
_____
ُص
_____
ُد
_____
دٌـُـظـَّ
_____
خر د
_____
صٌـُر
_____
ُصخَ زَـػ
_____
َدخػ
_____



Copyright © 2011 Yale University
Section 1 Sounds and Letters
15
Kasra - حوَٶٹا

 

The kasra (ـِــ) is a sign placed below a letter to represent the short vowel i.
The combination of the letter د and the kasra sign (ـِــ) is pronounced „bi‟ as
in „bit.‟ The long vowel ُ represents the long vowel ee. Thus, the
combination of the letter د and the long vowel ُ is pronounced ِـر „bee‟ as
in „bead.‟



Activity 3: Read each word aloud then click, listen, and repeat.

ًُ

ِػ ِ ع

ِ ص ِر ِ د
ِؼـْـػ ظْر ِ ً ُدح حً ً ُ ِــرخَر ـط صٌ ـَّ ػخ ِ ِـطخّ



Drill 3: Copy.

ِضَـر
_____
ِ ع
_____
ِ ص
_____
ِ د
_____
ــَ ّ دخ
_____
ِعخر
_____
ّ عخ
_____
خر ص
_____





Copyright © 2011 Yale University
Sounds and Letters Section 1

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V. Sukuun ٹا ٿڈُــٶـَ

 ـ ـ ـ ْــ ـــ 

Sukuun (څٌټٓ) means „silence.‟ It is a sign placed above a letter to indicate
the absence of any vowel. For example the letter د sounds „ba‟ with fatha,
„bu‟ with damma, and „bi‟ with kasra. But with sukuun, the „b‟ has no
vowels.

Drill 1: See the short vowels and sukuun. Repeat out loud.

َ ً َ ع َ ص َ د ــَـــ
ُ ً ُ ع ُ ص ُ د ــُـــ


ِ ع ِ ص ِ د ــِـــ

ًْ ْع ْص ْد ــْـــ




Drill 2: Copy and read aloud as you write.

ْصٌـُر
_____
ْع
_____
ْص
_____
ْد
_____
ُر ُصٌـ
_____
ْعخؼـَر
_____
ْصخَ زَـػ
____
ـَّ خ ًُ
____



Drill 3: Copy the handwriting style below and read aloud as you write.


_______

_______

______

______

Copyright © 2011 Yale University
Section 1 Sounds and Letters
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_______

_______

_______

_______



Drill 4: Join the letters into words. Include the vowels.

= ص + ُْ + َ د
6 - = ْع + ً + ُع ُد +
1 -
= َ د + ح + َ ص
7 - = ُص + ً ُص +
2 -
= ُد + ح + َ د
8 - = ُ + ِ د + ًْ َ ع +
3 -
= ُ + + ح + َ ً
9 -

= ُص + ِ د + ح َ ع +
4 -
= ُ + د + ح + د
10 - = ْص + ً + ُُ ُد +
5 -



Activity 1: Read each word aloud then click, listen, and repeat.

خـَرخـَر ٌُرخـَر ِرخـَر ُدخـَر َ ر ْْ ُ ض ْصٌُر ْصخَر
ُضـرخـػ ُصخَر صٌُزـُــػ حً ػ ِ ر ًُخ حٌَر ر ِ ِــِطٌـُْـُر
َدخـػ ـػ َ ـ رٌْـ ِ ِدٌَْــػ َدٌَْــػ ُدٌَْــػ ْدخـَْـِػ ْدحٌََــػ


Love - تُؾٹا
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Sounds and Letters Section 1

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Unit Two
خٍځبضٹا حلؽڈـٹا

I. Letters م ك




Calligraphic image of the letter ك

The letter ى sounds similar to the English letter d. The difference is that the
tip of the tongue touches the upper teeth to pronounce properly.

ك لـ لـ ك

This is how the handwritten letter looks:





Drill 1: Copy and read aloud as you write. Read aloud.

ىحى
______
ِ ى
______
ُى
______
َ ى
______
ْى
______
ْعحى
______
َذـََّى
______
َيـْْـَر
______
ُىٌـُر
______
يّى
______
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Section 1 Sounds and Letters
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ًََيَر
______
خرًى
______
ًىًى
______
ُى ُصً
______
خزّى
______


Calligraphic image of the letter م

The letter ً represents the same sound of the voiced English th, as in „this.‟

Both letters ى and ً are not connectors (they do not connect on the left side).
Therefore, when they are in a middle position the letter that follows must
be in the initial position.

Both letters are similar in writing and have the same shape. The only
difference between them is the dot on the top of the letter ً.

م نـ نـ م

This is how the handwritten ً looks:





Look at the shapes and examples of letters ى and ً. Read aloud.

م ك
Example Shape Example Shape
م ةا ً ك ةا ى
ـث ن ڇ م ٌـ ُـث ل ڇ ك يـ
ـٍـث ن ٌـ ٍـث لـ يـ
بث م ً بث ك ى
Copyright © 2011 Yale University
Sounds and Letters Section 1

20
Activity 1: Read each word aloud then click, listen, and repeat.

ِيـّى ُىًى َىحى ِ ى ُ ى َ ى
ُىحى ُ ى خرً ُىًَْى ُيّى ًىًى حىحى

ًُحً ًًً ًحً ِ ً ُ ً َ ً
ًُ ًً ُ دخرُ ً ًٌُّ ًًًً حًحً



Drill 2: Copy. Pronounce the letters and each word as you write.

ٌـُر
______
ٌـَر
______
ًً
______
حً
______
ًُِ
______
ٌــَ ّ
______
ٌِــَ ّ
______
ًِخـَـّ
______
ُىخر
______
ًٌُّ
______
ًًُى
______
حًحً
______
ًٌُـَّ
______
ُىحىًَ
______
ُِىحٌـَر
______



Drill 3: Join the letters into words and include all the vowels.

= ُ + ى + ُ + ى
6 - = ُى + ً + ح + َ ى
1 -
= َ د + ح + ً
7 - = ى + ً + ُى
2 -
= َ ى + ح + َ د
8 - = د + ً + ً
3 -
= ُ + ِ ى + ح + َ ً
9 - = د + ح + َ د + ُ ً
4 -
= ح + د + ح + د
10 - = ى + ُ + د
5 -




Copyright © 2011 Yale University
Section 1 Sounds and Letters
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Drill 4: Copy the following handwritten words. Read aloud as you write.


______

______

______

______


______

______

______

______




II. Letters ى ه





Calligraphic image of the letter ه

The Arabic consonant ٍ is not like the English r. It is produced by a quick
succession of several flaps with the tip of the tongue turned back. It is
similar in pronunciation to the Spanish „r‟ as in „caro‟ (expensive).

ه وـ وـ ه

This is how the handwritten ٍ looks:


Copyright © 2011 Yale University
Sounds and Letters Section 1

22
Drill 1: Copy and read aloud as you write.

ٍحٍ
______
ٍ
______
ٍُ
______
َ ٍ
______
ٍْ
______
خرحٍ
______
ًًٍٍ
______
َذـٍََّ
______
ٍُْ ًٍَ
______
ٍّ َ
______



Calligraphic image of the letter ى


The Arabic consonant ُ is pronounced like the English z as in „zoo.‟

ى يـ يـ ى

This is how the handwritten ُ looks:





Drill 2: Copy and read each word aloud.

يـَُّْ
______
َُّ
______
ًُ
______
حُ
______
ُُ
______
ُخر
______
ُِّ
______
ُُ ٍْْ
______
ًٍُ
______
حُحُ
______
Copyright © 2011 Yale University
Section 1 Sounds and Letters
23
Both letters ٍ and ُ do not connect on the left side. They are like the non-
connector letters ى ً ا and ً; when they are in a middle position they must
be followed by a letter written in the initial position.

Both ٍ and ُ are similar in writing and have the same shape. The only
difference between the two letters is the dot on top of ُ.

While the ى and ً turn down and finish along the line, the tail of the letters ٍ
and ُ is below the line.

Compare the shapes and examples of the letters ٍ and ُ. Read aloud.

ى ه
Example Shape Example Shape
ى ةا ُ ه ةا ٍ
ُث يـ ڇ ى ِـ ُـث و ڇ ه َـ
ٍـث يـ ِـ ٍـث وـ َـ
بث ى ُ بث ه ٍ



Activity 1: Read each word aloud then click, listen, and repeat.

َـٍّ ًٍٍ ٍحٍ

ُ ٍ َ ٍ
ٍُحٍ خرًٍُ ًٍٍَُْ ٍَُّ ًًٍٍ حٍحٍ

ُُحُ ًُُ ُحُ ُ ُ َ َ ُ
ُُ ًُ خرًٍُُ ُُِّ ًًُُ حُحُ





Copyright © 2011 Yale University
Sounds and Letters Section 1

24
Drill 3: Join the letters into words and include all vowels.



=
َ ٍ
+
ح
+
َ ُ
6 -

=
ٍ
+
ح
+
ٍ
1 -


=
َ د
+
ح
+
ً
7 -

=
ُ
+
ً
+
ٍ
2 -


=
َ ى
+
ح
+
ُ
8 -

=
ٍ
+
ًْ
+
َ ُ
3 -


=
ُ
+
ح
+
ُ
9 -

=
ُ
+
ح
+
َ د
4 -


=
ص
+
ح
+
ُ
10 -

=
ُ
+
ُ
+
ُ
5 -



Drill 4: Copy the handwriting style below and read aloud as you write.


______

______

______

______

______

______

______

______

______

______




III. Letters ؿ ػ ط




Calligraphic image of the letter ط

Copyright © 2011 Yale University
Section 1 Sounds and Letters
25
The letter ؽ is pronounced like the English letter „j‟ as in „judge.‟ However,
there is a slight variation in the pronunciation. The pronunciation of the
letter ؽ is found in a mix of the English letters „j‟ as in „judge,‟ „s‟ as in
„pleasure,‟ and „z‟ as in „azure.‟ In most parts of Egypt ؽ is pronounced „g‟ as
in „girl.‟

ط ظـ ـغـ ـع

See how the letter is handwritten:




Drill 1: Copy and read each word aloud.

ِؿحى
______
ؽٌٍؿ
______
ٌؿ
______
ٍُخؿ
______
خؿ
______


Calligraphic image of the letter ػ


The letter ف has no equivalent in English. It is a voiceless consonant, in
which the vocal cords do not vibrate. The h in English is closest in sound to
the letter ف. The ف is referred by students as the „big h‟ because it is similar
to the letter „h‟ but starts further back in the throat.

ػ ؼـ ـؾـ ـؽ

Copyright © 2011 Yale University
Sounds and Letters Section 1

26
See how the letter is handwritten:







Drill 2: Copy.

ِكحى
______
صٌك
______
ٌك
______
ىخك
______
خك
______


Calligraphic image of the letter ؿ


The letter م has no equivalent in English. It is similar to the German „ch‟ as
in „Bach.‟ It is formed in the uvula and the back of the tongue.

ؿ ــ ـقـ ـف

See how the letter is handwritten:





Drill 3: Copy.

ِهحى
______
ٌٍه
______
ٌه
______
مخه
______
ه خ
______
Copyright © 2011 Yale University
Section 1 Sounds and Letters
27
Compare the shapes and examples of the letters م ف and ؽ.

ؿ

ػ

ط
Example Shape Example Shape Example Shape
ف هب ـه ؽ هب ـك ع هب ـؿ
ث ق وـ ـوـ ث ؾ وــ ـلـ ث ـغ وـ ـــ
ـٌك ـ نـ ـٌك ؼ قـ ـٌك ظ ؾـ
اك ؿ م اك ػ ف ع ب ط ؽ



Activity 1: Read each word aloud then click, listen, and repeat.

ؽٌٍؿ ٌؿخؿ ؽٌر دٌؿ دخؿ خؿ
َ ر ْل َـ ِكخك فٌط صٌك صخك خك
ٌٍُه ِوْه مٌػ عٌـه عخه خه



Drill 4: Join the letters into words and include all vowels.

= ُ + ٍ + ً + ُم
6 - = ُ + ٍ + ح + َ ؽ
1 -
= د + ح + َ ف + َ ٍ
7 - = ؽ + ٍ + ً + ُؽ
2 -
= َ ع + َ ٍ + َ ف
8 - = ص + ً + ُف
3 -
= ٍُ + ُْ + َ م
9 - = ٍ + ُ + ِ د + َ م
4 -
= َ ف + ح + َ ٍ
10 - = ؽ + ح + َ ؽ + َ ى
5 -








Copyright © 2011 Yale University
Sounds and Letters Section 1

28
Drill 5: Copy the handwriting style below and read aloud as you write.


______

______

______

______

______

______

______

______

______

______






Passion - خجؾٽ
Copyright © 2011 Yale University


Section Two
ټَٲٹا ًځبضٹا



Lessons 1 - 21



Arabic calligraphy: Knowledge is light - ٌٍن ڂڀ٬ٿح

Copyright © 2011 Yale University

88



Lesson One

Where Are You From?






Figure 1.1 - Claremont McKenna College, California
Copyright © 2011 Yale University
Section 2 Lesson 1
89
Lesson One Contents

Vocabulary - صحىَٴڄٿح
Words and Expressions - صخڄڀٻ َْرخ٬طً
Basic Text - ِٓخٕٓح ٚنٿح
 Ilham and Abdulaziz - ځخيٿا يز٫ً ِِّ٬ٿح
Grammar - ي٫حٌٸٿح
1. The Definite Article - سحىأ ٲَّ٬ظٿح
Activity 1
2. Gender of Nouns - َٻٌڄٿح غنئڄٿحً
Activity 2
3. Independent Personal Pronouns - َثخڄٟ ٳَٿح ٪ شڀٜٴنڄٿح
Activity 3
Comprehension Text - دخ٬ْظٓلحً ڂيٴٿح
 Are You a Student? - ؟ذٿخ٣ ضنأ پى
Let‟s Speak Arabic - شػىخلڄٿح
 Food - ځخ٬٤ٿح
Window into Arab Culture - نڃ شٳخٸؼٿح شْرَ٬ٿح
 Arabic Love Poems - يثخٜٷ ذك شْرَ٫




Copyright © 2011 Yale University
Lesson 1 Section 2

90
داكوٮپٹا
Vocabulary

how ٻ َ ـ ْْ ـ َ ٲ what َ ڃ خ
from ْنِڃ Definite Article ـٿح
where ّْأ ـ َ ن hello َ ڃ َْ َ ك ًخز
in ِ ٳ ِ name ِ ح ْٓ ـ ٌڂ
yes ن َ ـ َ ٬ ڂ my name ِ ح ْٓ ـ ِ ڄ ِ
student (m.s.) ِٿخ٣ ٌذ I خنأ
student (f.s.) ِٿخ٣ ـ َ ز ش ٌ you (m.s.) َضنأ
what َ ڃ حًخ you (f.s.) ِضنأ
but ٿ ـ ِ ټ ـ ْن and َ ً
okay, agreeable ذِْ٣ thank you ُ ٗ ټ ْـ ًحَ
state ً َّل ش I go َىًأ ُ ذ
big, large َْزَـٻ - سَْزَـٻ professor ًخظٓأ - سًخظٓأ
kind ٲْ٤َـٿ - شٴْ٤َـٿ teacher ِّ ٍَ يُڃ - شٍَِٓيُڃ
city
شنّيَڃ
Interrogative
Particle
َ ى ـ ْپ



دبپٺٵ رڇ وٍثب٦
Words and Expressions

Welcome! Hello! ْىأ ل َ ً َ ٓ ْي ل
So long! َٿا ءخٸڀٿح
good-bye َ ڃ َ ٪ َٔٿح شڃل
What is your (m.s.) name? خڃ ْٓح ُ ڄ ؟َٺ
What is your (f.s.) name? خڃ ْٓح ُ ڄ ؟ِٺ
How are you? ٻ َ ـ ْْ ـ َ ٲ َلٿح ؟ُٽخ
very good, praise be to God َور ْْ ـ ،َ َلٿح ْڄ ـ ُ ي ل
delighted, honored ط َ ـ َ ٘ َ َ ٳ ْـ خن
excellent ُ ڃ ْڄ ـ ُخظ - ُ ڃ ْڄ ـ سُخظ
Copyright © 2011 Yale University
Section 2 Lesson 1
91
Where are you (m.s.) from? ِ ڃ ْن ّْأ ـ َ ن نأ ْـ ؟َض
Where are you (f.s.) from? ِ ڃ ْن ّْأ َ ن ؟ِضنأ
the state of California ًِ َّل ش نٌٍٴْٿخٻ خْ
United States of America ٌٿح ِ َّل ُصخ ُڄٿح ظ َ ـ ِ ل َ ي س ْڃٕح ِټَّ ـ َ ْ ش
I study economics خنأ ْىأ ُ ٍ ُ ّ لح ٷ ـ ِ ظ َ ٜ ىخ
Are you a student (m.s.)? َ ى ـ ْپ َضنأ ِٿخ٣ ٌذ ؟
Are you a student (f.s.)? َ ى ْپ ِضنأ ِٿخ٣ ـ َ ز ؟ش
What do you (m.s.) study? حًخڃ ط َ ـ ْي ُ ٍ ؟ُّ
What do you (f.s.) study? حًخڃ ط َ ـ ْي ُ ٍ ِ ٓ ـ ؟َنْ
international relations ُصخٷلَ٬ٿح ِٿًَُيٿح ـ شَْ
I am in a hurry خنأ َ ٫ ڀ َ َ ـ َ شڀَـَ٫
I am sorry (m.s.) خنأ ِٓآ ـ ٲ
I am sorry (f.s.) أ خن ِٓآ ـ شٴ
I must go now َ ّ ـ ِ ـ ُ ذ ْڅأ َىًأ َ ذ َڅٓح
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia ٿح َ ڄ ْڄ ڀ َ ـ ټ َ ـ ش َ٬ٿح َ َ َْر ش ُ٬ُٔٿح ِىٌ َ ّ ش
Jordan ٍْٕح ُ ى ُ څ
English literature َىٕح ُ د نٗح ْـ ِڀټ ـ ُِْ





God - لا



Copyright © 2011 Yale University
Lesson 1 Section 2

92
ًٍبٍلا ٔڂٹا : يٌي٦ٹا لج٥ڇ ٻبچٹإ
Basic Text: Ilham and Abdulaziz

ٻبچٹإ : َ ڃ َْ َ ك َ ز ـ ً خ .
لج٥ يٌي٦ٹا : َ ڃ َْ َ ك ز َ ـ ـ خ ، ْىأ ل َ ً َ ٓ ْي ل .
ٻبچٹإ : خڃ ْٓح ـ ؟َٺُ ڄ
لج٥ يٌي٦ٹا : خنأ ْٓح ـ ِ ڄ ِ يز٫ ِِّ٬ٿح . ِضنأً خڃ ْٓح ـ ؟ِٺُ ڄ
ٻبچٹإ : خنأ ْٓح ِ ڄ ِ ځخيٿا .
لج٥ يٌي٦ٹا : ط َ ـ َ ٘ ـ َ َ ٳ ْـ ن َ ـ ،خ ٻ َ ـ ْْ ـ َ ٲ َلٿح ؟ُٽخ
ٻبچٹإ : خنأ ر ِ ـ َ و ـ ْْ ـ ،َ َلٿح ـ ْڄ ـ ُي ِ ل ، َ ً ٻ َ ـ ْْ ـ َ ٲ َلٿح ـ ُٽخ ؟
لج٥ يٌي٦ٹا : َلٿح ْڄ ـ ُي ،ل ُڃ ْڄ ـ ،ُخظ ُٗ ټ ـْ ـ َ ً ح .
ٻبچٹإ : ِ ڃ ـ ْن ّْأ ـ َ ن ؟َضنأ
لج٥ يٌي٦ٹا : خنأ ِ ڃ ن َڄٿح ْڄ ڀ َ ـ ټ َ ـ ِ ش َ٬ٿح َ َ َْر ِ ش ُ٬ُٔٿح ِىٌ َ ّ ،ِش َ ً ْنِڃ َنّْأ ؟ِضنأ
ٻبچٹإ : خنأ ِ ڃ َّلٌٿح ن ِصخ ُڄٿح ظ َ ـ ِ ل َ ي ِ س ْڃٕح ِټَّ ـ َ ْ ِ ش .
لج٥ يٌي٦ٹا : ِ ڃ ْن ُِأ َّلً ـ ٍ ش ؟ِضنأ
ٻبچٹإ : خنأ ِ ڃ ْن ً َّل ـ ِ ش خْنٌٍٴْٿخٻ .
لج٥ يٌي٦ٹا : ِ ڃ ْن ُِأ َ ڃ ِ ي نّ َ ـ ؟ٍش
ٻبچٹإ : خنأ ِ ڃ ْن َ ڃ ِشنّي خظنخٓ خټْنٌڃ . پى َضنأ ِٿخ٣ ـ ؟ٌذ
لج٥ يٌي٦ٹا : ن َ ـ َ ٬ ،ڂ خنأ ِٿخ٣ ـ ٌ ذ ِټٿ ْن ، خنأ ِٓآ ـ ،ٌ ٲ خنأ َ ٫ َڀ ،شَـڀَـَ ٫ َ ّ ـ ِ ـ ُذ ْڅأ َىًأ َ ذ َڅٓح .
ٻبچٹإ : ،ذِْ٣ َٿا ِءخٸڀٿح .
لج٥ ٹا يٌي٦ : َٿا ِءخٸڀٿح ، َ ڃ َ ٪ َڃلـَٔٿح ِ ش .

Copyright © 2011 Yale University
Section 2 Lesson 1
93
ل٥اڈٲٹا
Grammar

1. The Definite Article - ـنا : فٌزعزنا حادأ

The definite article in Arabic is ـٿح, and it is written as the prefix of the word
it modifies. For example, an indefinite word like شنّيڃ „a city‟ becomes
definite شنّيڄٿح „the city‟ when prefixed by ـٿح.

All words with ـٿح are definite, but there are words without ـٿح that are also
definite. These include all proper nouns, names of cities, and names of
countries. For example ،ڂٓخؿ ،ڂٍّ ،صًَْر َٜڃ are all definite without the
definite article. Later, we will learn that nouns without the definite article
become definite in the idafa ) ح ٗ شٳخٟ ) construction.


Activity 1: Change all the indefinite nouns to definite by adding the
definite article. Listen and speak aloud.

ٿح ذٿخ٤ = ذٿخ٣ + ـٿح
ٿح شزٿخ٤ = شزٿخ٣ + ـٿح
لح ڂٓ = ڂٓح + ـٿح
ٿح ٽخل = ٽخك + ـٿح
ٿح شنّيڄ = شنّيڃ + ـٿح
ٿح شّلٌ = شّلً + ـٿح




2. Gender of Nouns - ثَؤًناو زكذًنا

Arabic nouns are either masculine or feminine. Arabic has no neutral
gender. The gender of each Arabic word must be learned and memorized.
In general, the feminine noun is formed from the masculine noun by
adding the feminine suffix (س) at the end of the word, such as:
Copyright © 2011 Yale University
Lesson 1 Section 2

94

Fem. Noun/Adjective Masc. Noun/Adjective
زٿخ٣ ش ذٿخ٣
ًخظٓأ س ًخظٓأ
ڀْڄؿ ش پْڄؿ
َْزٻ س َْزٻ

While it is very common to use the feminine suffix (س) to derive a feminine
noun from a masculine noun, there are some words that do not follow this
pattern. For example, some nouns are feminine without having the
feminine suffix, such as ٌځأ „mother‟ and ضهأ „sister.‟ There are also feminine
nouns with no masculine counterpart such as ِنآ َ ٔ ش „Miss‟ and masculine
nouns with no feminine counterpart like َڃا ځخ „Imam.‟

Many parts of the body that occur in pairs are feminine without a feminine
suffix, as in َ ٫ ْْ ٌن „eye‟ and َ ّ ـ ي „hand.‟ There are also words that are feminine
by usage, as in ٍخن „fire‟ and َ ك َْ د „war.‟

The feminine suffix (س) could occur in words which do not have a masculine
form, as in شنّيڃ „city,‟ and in words that are masculine, as in شٴْڀه „caliph.‟
Words that end with خـ ء , as in َ ٛ ْل ءحَ „desert,‟ or end in َـ, as in ِ ً ٍَٻ
„remembrance,‟ are usually feminine.

Learning the gender of Arabic nouns is important in order to speak and
write correctly. Feminine nouns require feminine pronouns and feminine
adjectives. Verbs that refer to a feminine subject must agree with the
feminine gender as well. For example:

ځخيٿا شزٿخ٣ أ شْټَّڃ ِىً ٍّيط شْرَ٬ٿح شٰڀٿح
Ilham a student (f.s.)
an American
(f.s.)
and she she studies
the Arabic
language
. Ilham is an American student; she studies the Arabic language

Similarly, masculine nouns are replaced by masculine pronouns and are
modified by masculine adjectives. Naturally, the verbs that refer to a
masculine subject must agree with the masculine gender as well.
Copyright © 2011 Yale University
Section 2 Lesson 1
95
Names of cities are all feminine, and names of countries are almost all
feminine with a few exceptions: ٵحَ٬ٿح „Iraq,‟ دَٰڄٿح „Morocco,‟ څخنزٿ
„Lebanon,‟ څىٍٕح „Jordan,‟ and څحىٌٔٿح „Sudan‟ are all masculine nouns.
(See Appendix for a full list of Arab countries and their capital cities.)

We will learn the Arabic nouns and their genders as we progress. For now,
let‟s learn how to use the feminine suffix (س) to derive a feminine noun from
the corresponding masculine form.

Activity 2: Change the masculine nouns to feminine nouns by
adding the feminine suffix.

زٿخ٣ ش = س + ذٿخ٣
ُ ڃ َ ي ٍِٓ ش = س + ُ ڃ َ ي ٍِّ
ًخظٓأ س = س + ًخظٓأ
ُخظڄڃ س = س + ُ ڃ ْڄ ُخظ
ْټَّڃأ ش = س + ِټَّڃأ
ْظٌّٻ ش = س + ِظٌّٻ
ٴْ٤ٿ ش = س + ٲْ٤ٿ





Figure 1.2 - Narrated by Abdulaziz Abu Sag and Dhekra Toumi

Copyright © 2011 Yale University
Lesson 1 Section 2

96
3. The Independent Nominative Personal Pronouns
وئبپٙ ٤٭وٹا خٺٖٮڂپٹا

Below is a complete chart of the independent nominative personal
pronouns in the Arabic language. Some pronouns have not been introduced
in this lesson but will be introduced in the next few chapters. It is best to
learn all the independent nominative personal pronouns together.

Activity 3: Repeat aloud all the pronouns and their examples.

Example Pronoun Meaning
ِڀ٫ ٌى ُ ى َ ٌ He
ڂٍّ ِى ِ ى َ ِ She
يڄلڃً ِڀ٫ خڄى ُ ى َ ڄ خ They (m. dual)
ٍّ خڄى ڂَّڃً ڂ ُ ى َ ڄ خ They (f. dual)
يٿخهً يڄلڃً ِڀ٫ ڂـى ُ ى ْڂـ They (m. plural)
شـّيهً شڄ٣خٳً ڂٍّ َنـى ُ ى َنـ They (f. plural)
ٽىخ٫ َضنأ َضنأ You (m.s.)
ڂَّڃ ِضنأ ِضنأ You (f.s.)
يڄلڃً ِڀ٫ خڄظنأ نأ ْـ ظ ُ ـ َ ڄ خ You (m. dual)
شڄ٣خٳً ڂٍّ خڄظنأ نأ ْـ ظ ُ ـ َ ڄ خ You (f. dual)
يڄكأً څخ٤ڀًٓ ِڀ٫ ڂظنأ نأ ْـ ظ ُ ـ ڂ You (m. plural)
شـّيهً شڄ٣خٳً ڂٍّ َنظنأ نأ ْـ ظ ُ ـ َ ن You (f. plural)
ِڀ٫ خنأ خنأ I
شڄ٣خٳً يڄلڃً ِڀ٫ ُنلن َ ن ْل ُ ن We



Figure 1.3 - Narrated by Hala Nazzal and Faisal Al-Salloum
Copyright © 2011 Yale University
Section 2 Lesson 1
97
ةب٦ٍزٍلاڇ ټچٮٹا : ؟تٹبٝ ذځأ ٸڅ
Comprehension Text: Are You a Student?

حوٍٽأ : َ ڃ َْ َ ك َ ز ـ خ .
ٷكب٥ : خزكَڃ ، خنأ ِڄٓح َ ٫ ِىخ ،ٽ خنأ َ ٛ ِ ي ُٶّ ِيز٫ ِِّ٬ٿح .
حوٍٽأ : ،خنٳَ٘ط خنأ ،سَْڃأ خنأ شٸّيٛ ُ ځخيٿا . َٲْٻ َلٿح ؟ُٽخ
ٷكب٥ : ُيڄلٿح ،ل خظڄڃ ،ُ َٲْٻً َ ك ِٺٿخ ؟
حوٍٽأ : خنأ ِٲٿؤر ه َ ـ ْْ ـ ،َ َلٿح ْڄ ـ ُي ل . ِ ڃ ْن ّْأ ـ َ ن ؟َضنأ
ٷكب٥ : خنأ ِ ڃ ن ضٌّټٿح . ِڃً ن َنّأ ؟ِضنأ
حوٍٽأ : خنأ ِ ڃ ن ِڅىٍٕح .
ٷكب٥ : ِ ڃ ْن ُِأ َ ڃ ؟ٍشنّي
حوٍٽأ : خنأ ِ ڃ ْن َ ڃ نّي َ ـ ِ ش څخـَ ڄَ٫ .
ٷكب٥ : َ ى ـ ْپ ِضنأ ؟شزٿخ٣
حوٍٽأ : ن َ ـ َ ٬ ،ڂ خنأ ،شزٿخ٣ َ ى ـ ْپ َضنأ ؟ٌذٿخ٣
ٷكب٥ : ڂ٬ن . خنأ ِٿخ٣ ـ ٌ ذ ِٿٌٻ َ ٺ . حًخڃ ط َ ـ ْي ٍُ ِ ٓ ـ ؟َنْ
حوٍٽأ : خنأ ْىأ ٍُ ُّ ِصخٷلَ ٬ٿح ُيٿح َ ً ِ ٿ ـ شَ ْ . َضنأً حًخڃ ط َ ـ ْي ٍُ ؟ُّ
ٷكب٥ : خنأ ْىأ ٍُ ُّ َىٕح َ د ُِْڀټنٗح .
حوٍٽأ : خنأ ِٓآ ـ ،شٴ خنأ َڀ٫ ،شڀَ ـَ ٫ َ ّ ْـ ُذ ْڅأ َىًأ ـ َ ذ َڅٓح .
ٷكب٥ : ِْ٣ ،ذ ِْ٣ ،ذ َٿا ڀٿح ءخٸ .
حوٍٽأ : َٿا ِءخٸڀٿح ، ٪ڃ َٔٿح ـ َڃل ش .


Copyright © 2011 Yale University
Lesson 1 Section 2

98
وٍثب٦رڇ دبپٺٵ
Words and Expressions

one thousand
أ ٿ ْـ ٌٲ
I am very well
ه ِٲٿؤر خنأ َ ـ ْْ ـ َ



Drill 1: Fill in the blanks with the correct words from the comprehension
text.


ٽىخ٫ ٌى _____ يز٫ ِِّ٬ٿح . ٌى نڃ _____ . سَْڃأ ِى شٸّيٛ _____
ِىً نڃ _____ څخّڄ٫ ِٳ _____ . سَْڃأ ِى شزٿخ٣ ، ِىً ٍّيط _____ .
ٽىخ٫ ٌى _____ ٺٿٌٻ ٌىً ٍّيّ _____ ِٳ خټَّڃأ .



Drill 2: Translate into English.

1 - ضٌّټٿح ِٳ ضٌّټٿح شنّيڃ نڃ ٌى ٽىخ٫ .
2 - ِڅىٍٕح ِٳ شنّيڃ ِى څخَڄ٫ .
3 - ّيٛ ٌى ٽىخ٫ ِِّ٬ٿح يز٫ ٶ .
4 - ُِْڀټنٗح َدَىٕح ُُّ ٍْيَّ ٌىً ،ذٿخ٣ ٌى ٽىخ٫ .
5 - ؟ذٿخ٣ َضنأ پى
6 - ؟ٍُُّيط حًخڃ
7 - ؟َضنأ َنّْأ ْنِڃ
8 - ِشّىٌ٬ُٔٿح شَْرَ٬ٿح شټڀْڄَڄٿح نِڃ خنأ .



Drill 3: Translate into Arabic.

1. Ameera is Ilham's friend.
2. Ameera is a student; she studies international relations.
Copyright © 2011 Yale University
Section 2 Lesson 1
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3. She is from the city of Amman in Jordan.
4. I am in a hurry.
5. I have to go now.
6. Hello, welcome.
7. What is your name?
8. I am from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.



خصكبؾپٹا
Let’s Speak Arabic
Food - ٻب٦َ ـٞٹا

Repeat aloud the following question:

What did you (m.s.) eat? ٻأ حًخڃ َ ـ ڀ ْـ ؟َض
What did you (f.s.) eat? ٻأ حًخڃ َ ـ ڀ ْـ ؟ِض

Now repeat aloud the following answer:

I ate (the) hummus ٻأ َ ـ ڀ ْـ ُُلٿح ُض ُ ڄ ٚ

Next, repeat aloud the sentence and substitute the following words for
ُلٿح ُ ڄ ٚ :

(the) falafel
ٴٿح َ ـ ِٳل ـ پ
(the) cheese
ُـٿح ـ ْز ـ ن ش
(the) chicken
َيٿح َ ؿ ؽخ
(the) cereal
ُلٿح ـ ُ ز ـ دٌ
(the) bread
وٿح ـُـ ْز ـ ِ

Practice the dialogue with a classmate.



Copyright © 2011 Yale University
Lesson 1 Section 2

100
Homework - تعاڈٹا

1. Listen to the vocabulary and expressions. Repeat aloud after listening to
them in the basic text and the comprehension text.

2. Compose a simple dialogue between you and one of your friends. Turn it
in to your teacher after you present it in class.

3. Compose five sentences using vocabulary from the lesson.






اڈ٭هب٦زٹ ٸئبجٱڇ ًبثڈ٦ّ ټٵبڂٺ٦عڇ
And we made you into nations and tribes so you get to know each other
Copyright © 2011 Yale University
Section 2 Lesson 1
101
خٍثو٦ٹا خ٭بٲضٹا ڀٽ

Window into Arab Culture
Arabic Love Poems


Figure 1.4 - Nizar Qabbani

Arabic poetry is a political, social, and ethical compass in Arab culture.
Poetry has represented and helped to preserve Arab identity throughout the
ages. The complex and refined poetic arts eloquently express, report, and
document the news, events, and wars of the Arabs, in victory or defeat,
glory or decline. Above all, poetry has been a great manifestation of artistic
creativity, engendering the emotional and spiritual power that unified the
Arabs into a community of nations long before Islam.

Below are a few verses of modern Arabic love poetry by the Syrian poet
Nizar Qabbani (1923-1998).* Identify as much of the vocabulary as you can,
memorize the verses that you like most, and enjoy the reading.

Nizar Qabbani was known for the beauty of his handwriting and for his
impressive calligraphy skills. In the right hand column is the handwritten
version of these verses, written by the poet himself.

The verses are read by Lebanese journalist Joumana Nammour, a popular
anchorwoman on Al-Jazeera Satellite Channel.



Copyright © 2011 Yale University
Lesson 1 Section 2

102

ُصَْـَـټـٳ ْــْڃأ ِ ، ِـِـزـُلر ِٺـٿ
ُصَْــَـٻٌَـط سؤـــْـَـٳ ً
ِصحَـَـ٤ـَـٷ پــَٔـَ ٬ٿح َــڀ٫ ِٺــْْـَــظـَـٴـَـٗ
ُضــْٔـَلـَـڀـَـٳ ََـَــټــُٔٿح ن٫ څحٍْيــُؿ ِــِـطَـِٻحً




ِٳ ځخَّأ ٿح ِٲـْْـَٜ
ُىَّيـڄطأ َڀ٫ ٽخڃٍ ءَِ ٣خَ٘ٿح
ٍُّخڃأً شَّحٌِى َْټٴظٿح ِٺر
ٌٿ ِِ نَـنأ ُ ٽٌٷأ َـْلَزڀٿ خڃ َُـُ٬ٗأ ِوِــر ِٹٌَْلَـن
َٹَََـظٿ ُوَـجـِ٣حٌَٗ
ُوَـٳحيْٛأً
ُوَـٻخڄـْٓأً
ِـِنــَ٬ـِـزَـطً



َڅٕ َځلٻ ْْڃحٌٸٿح ْصخڃ
َڅٕ َځلٻ ِذْطخټڄٿح ْصخڃ
َڅٕ َځلٻ ِصخّحًَٿح ْصخڃ
ُيٍّأ َٱخِ٘ظْـٻح شٸَّ٣ ٶـِْ٘٫
ِٺـُزِكأ خيْٳ لر ْصخڄِڀـَـٻ





Copyright © 2011 Yale University
Section 2 Lesson 1
103
ِِ نُـٿؤـَْٔـط ِظزْزك
خڃ ُٵََْـٴٿح خڃ ِنْر خڃً َنْر ؟خڄٔٿح
ُٵََْـٴٿح خڃ خَڄُـټـَـنْر
ِٺـَـنأ ْڅا ِضـْـټـِلَـٟ خّ ِظزْزك
َــٔنأ خڄــٔٿح





ٱخهأ

ُٱخهأ څأ َٽٌٷأ ِظڀٿ خيُزـِكأ
" خيُزـِكأ " .
َُْڄـَوٿخٳ ِٳ خىٍحََِـؿ
ط ََُٔـوـ َْْٗ ـ ،ًخج خڃين٫ خيُزـُٜـن .




* Nizar Kabbani. Arabian Love Poems. ed. and trans. Bassam K. Frangieh & Clementina Brown. Lynn Rienner Publishers,
Boulder, London, 1999, pp. 116, 102, 24, 20, 219.


Figure 1.5 - Narrated by Joumana Nammour



Copyright © 2011 Yale University

104





Lesson Two

In Claremont



Figure 2.1 - Claremont McKenna College, California

Copyright © 2011 Yale University
Section 2 Lesson 2
105
Lesson Two Contents

 Vocabulary - صحىَٴڄٿح
 Words and Expressions - صخڄڀٻ َْرخ٬طً
 Basic Text - ٚنٿح ِٓخٕٓح
 In the Street - ٶَّ٤ٿح ِٳ
Grammar - ي٫حٌٸٿح
1. The Interrogative and Question Particles - صحًىأ ځخيٴظٓلح
 Activity 1
2. The Interrogative Particles with Prepositions
صحًىأ ځخيٴظٓلح ٪ڃ ٱًَك َـٿح
 Activity 2
 Comprehension Text - ڂيٴٿح دخ٬ْظٓلحً
 In the Library - شزظټڄٿح ِٳ
 Let‟s Speak Arabic - شػىخلڄٿح
 Weather - ْـٸَـ٤ٿح
 Window into Arab Culture - نڃ شٳخٸؼٿح شْرَ٬ٿح
 The Holy Qur`an - څآَٸٿح ڂَّټٿح





Copyright © 2011 Yale University
Lesson 2 Section 2

106
داكوٮپٹا
Vocabulary

road, street
٣ َ ـ ٌٶَّ / ٌ٩ٍخٗ
when
َ ڃ ـ َظ
Vocative Particle
خّ
year
َ ٓ ـ ن َ ـ ش
this (m.s.)
َ ى ـ حٌ
beautiful
َ ؿ ِ ڄ ٌپْ - َ ؿ شڀْڄ
this (f.s.) َ ى ـ ِ ٌ ِ ه very, much ّيؿ ح
difficult
ٌذْ٬َٛ - َ ٛ ْ٬ ز َ ـ ش
easy
ٌپـْيَٓ - َ ٓ ْي ـ شڀ
work, job
َ ٫ َ ڄ ـ ٌپ
house, home
َ ر ْْ ٌض
economy,
economics
ِ ح ٷ ـْـ ِ ظ َ ٜ ىخ
wonderful,
admirable
ٌ٪ِثحٍ - َ٬ِثحٍ ش


دبپٺٵ وٍثب٦رڇ
Words and Expressions

hello, welcome ْىأ ـ ل ْىأ ، ـ ل
In which university do you (f.s.) study? َؿ ُِأ ِٳ ِڃخ َ ٬ ط ٍش َ ـ ْي ُ ٍ ِ ٓ ـ َنْ ؟
I came َ ك َ ٠ َْ ُ ص
Really! Truly! َ ك ـ ٸ ّــ ـ خ
this is a beautiful coincidence َ ى ِ ٌ ِ ه ُ ڃ َ ٜ َىخ ٳ َ ـ َؿ ش ِ ڄ ـ شڀْ
Will I see you (m.s.) tomorrow? َ ى ـ ْپ حيـٯ َٹحٍأ
yes, I will see you (f.s.) tomorrow َ٬ن حيـٯ ِٹحٍأ ،ڂ
God willing ْڅا َءخٗ لح
laboratory وُڃ ـْـ ظ َ ـ َ ز ـ ٌَ
Masters in Business Administration ؿخڃ ِ ـ ْٔ ـ ٍَحىا ِٳ َْظ ْ٫ٕح س َ ڄ ـ ٽخ
mosque َ ڃ ْٔ ـ ـ ِ ـ ٌي
homework, duty ؿحً ـِـ ٌذ ؽ . ؿحً ــ َ ز ـ ٌصخ
Future Particle ــَٓ
I go َىًأ ـ ُ ذ
you do (m.s.) ط َ ـ ٴ ْـ َ ٬ ـ ُ پ
you do (f.s.) ط َ ـ ٴ ْـ َ ٬ ـ ڀ ـ َنْ
Copyright © 2011 Yale University
Section 2 Lesson 2
107
ًٍبٍلا ٔڂٹا : ٌٰوٞٹا ً٭
Basic Text: In the Street

ٻبچٹإ : َ ڃ َْ َ ك َ ز ـ ً خ ٫ خّ ـ ٬ٿح يز ـ ِّ ـ ِ .
يٌي٦ٹا لج٥ : ْىأ ،ځخيٿا خّ ًخزكَڃ ـ ْىأ ،ً ل ـ ً ل .
ٻبچٹإ : َ ى ـ ِ ٌ ِ ه ُڃ َ ٜ َىخ ٳ َ ـ َؿ ش شڀْڄ . َؿ ُِأ ِٳ ِڃخ َ ٬ ـ ط ٍ ش َ ـ ْي ٍُ ؟ُّ
يٌي٦ٹا لج٥ : ْىأ خنأ ٍُ َؿ ِٳ ُّ ِڃخ َ ٬ ـ ُڃَْڀٻ ِ ش ضنٌ . َؿ ُِأ ِٳ ِضنأً ِڃخ َ ٬ ْيط ٍ ش ٍُ ْٓ ـ ؟َن
ٻبچٹإ : ْىأ خنأ ٍُ ُڃَْڀٻ ِ ش٬ڃخؿ ِٳ ُّ ِٿٌٻ ضنٌ َ ٺ .
يٌي٦ٹا لج٥ : َ ك ًخٸ ! حٍ حٌى ٌ٪ــِث ! َنٍْٓيط حًخڃ ؟
ٻبچٹإ : ْىأ خنأ ٍُ ٍَحىا ِٳ َْظٔؿخڄٿح ُّ ْ٫ٕح ِس َ ڄ ٽخ .
يٌي٦ٹا لج٥ : حٌى َ ٛ ْ٬ ٌ ذ .
ٻبچٹإ : ل . َٓ حٌى ـ ْي ـ َؿً ٌپ ـ ٌپْڄ . ٍُيط حًخڃ َ ضنأً ؟ُّ
يٌي٦ٹا لج٥ : ْىأ خنأ ٍُ ٷلح ُّ ـْ ـ ِ ظ ـ َ ٜ ىخ .
ٻبچٹإ : َك َظڃ َ ٠ َْ ُٔٿح نڃ َ ص ـ ُ٬ ِىٌ َ ّ ؟ش
يٌي٦ٹا لج٥ : َك خنأ َ ٠ َْ ٷ ُص َ ـ ْز ـ َٓ َپ ـ ن َ ـ ٍ ش . ِټٿ ْن ِٓآ خنأ ، َ٫ خنأ ،ٌ ٲ َّ ،شڀَ ـَ ٫ َڀ ـ ِ ـ ْڅأ ُذ َىًأ ـ َذ
َڅٓح .
ٻبچٹإ : َ ى ـ ْپ ٯ َ ٹحٍأ َ ـ ؟َحي
يٌي٦ٹا لج٥ : َ٬ن ٯ ِ ٹحٍأ ،ڂ َ ـ ْڅا ،ً حي ءخٸڀٿح َٿا ،لح َءخٗ .
ٻبچٹإ : َڃ ،ءخٸڀٿح َٿا َ ٪ َٔٿح ـ ِشڃل .




Copyright © 2011 Yale University
Lesson 2 Section 2

108
ل٥اڈٲٹا
Grammar

1. The Interrogative Particles - وبهفزسلا داودأ

Below are the most frequently used particles for asking questions. You have
not been exposed to all of these question particles, but it is better to learn
them all at once.

Interrogative Particle
َ ى ـ پ
Interrogative Particle
أ
What? (used without verbs)
خڃ
What? (used with verbs)
Why?
حًخڃ
حًخڄٿ
Who?
َ ڃ ـ ن
Where?
ّْأ ـ َ ن
How?
ٻ ـَـ ْْ ـ َ ٲ
When?
َ ڃ ـ َظ
How many? How much?
ْڂـَـٻ
Which? What?
ُُأ (f. شَّأ)

Note: ُُأ is often used as common gender, and its feminine شَّأ is usually neglected.




Figure 2.2 - Claremont, California
Copyright © 2011 Yale University
Section 2 Lesson 2
109
Activity 1: Read the question particles and their examples aloud.
Repeat several times until you speak smoothly.

Meaning
Ex. with
feminine
Ex. with
masculine
Question
Particle
Are you a student?
پى ِضنأ ؟شزٿخ٣ پى حٌى ذٿخ٣ ؟ پى
Are you a student?
أ ؟شزٿخ٣ ِضنأ أ حٌى ذٿخ٣ ؟ أ
What is your name?
خڃ ْٓح ؟ِٺُڄ خڃ ْٓح ـ َٺُڄ ؟ خڃ
What do you study?
حًخڃ ٍُيط ِ ٓ ؟َنْ حًخڃ ٍُيط ؟ُّ حًخڃ
Who are you?
ْنَڃ ؟ِضنأ ْنَڃ ؟َضنأ َ ڃ ْن
Where do you study?
ّْأ ـ َ ن ٍُيط ؟َنْٓ ّْأ ـ َ ن ٍُيط ؟ُّ ّْأ ـ َ ن
How are you?
َٲْٻ ؟ِٺٿخك ٻ َ ـ ْْ َ ٲ َ ك ؟َٺٿخ ٻ َ ـ ْْ َ ٲ
Why did you come?
حًخڄٿ َ ك َ ٠ َْ ؟ِص حًخڄٿ َ ك َ ٠ َْ َ ص ؟ حًخڄٿ
How many students do you know?
ْڂَـٻ ً شزٿخ٣ ؟َنْٳَ٬ط ْڂَـٻ ًخزٿخ٣ ؟ُٱَ٬ط ْڂـَـٻ
Which student?
ُُأ ( شَّأ ) ؟ٍشزٿخ٣ ُُأ ؟ٍ ذٿخ٣ ُُّأ


Drill 1: Compose five new sentences using the question particles in the
above chart.



2. The Interrogative Particles with Prepositions
داودأ وبهفزسلا عي فوزح زجنا

Some prepositions are used with the interrogative particles to form
questions. The prepositions must precede the interrogative particles. Please
learn the following prepositions:

for
ِـٿ
to
َٿا
with, in
ِـر
from
ْنـِڃ
in
ِٳ
with
َ٪ـَڃ


Copyright © 2011 Yale University
Lesson 2 Section 2

110
Activity 2: Below are the question particles used together with a
preposition. Read aloud and repeat.

Meaning
Preposition together
with Particle
Preposition + Particle
From where? ْنـِڃ َنّأ ْنـِڃ + َنّأ
In which? ِٳ ُِأ ِٳ + ُِأ
From which? ِ ڃ ْن ُِأ ْنِڃ + ُِأ
With whom? َ٪َڃ ْنـَڃ َ٪ـَڃ + ْنـَڃ
To where? َٿا ّْأ ـ َ ن َٿا + ّْأ ـ َ ن
Why? For what? ِ ٿ َ ڄ حًخ ِـٿ + َ ڃ حًخ
With what? In what? ِـر َ ڄ حًخ ر ِ ـ ـ + َ ڃ حًخ
To who? For whom? ْنَڄِٿ ـِٿ + ْنَڃ


Drill 2: Compose five sentences using the question particles with the
prepositions.



Drill 3: Fill in the blanks with the correct words from the comprehension
text.


ٽىخ٫ هين٫ ــ ــــ ـــــــ سَْؼٻ . ي٬ر َزظوڄٿح ذىٌْٓ َٿا ــــ ــــ ــــــ ڂػ ذىٌْٓ َٿا ــ ـــ ـ ــــ ــ
ِٳ شنّيڃ ـــ ــــ ــــــ . ضٿخٷ سَْڃأ : ـــــ ــــ ــــ ؟دخظټٿح ٽخٷ ٽىخ٫ : حٌى ـــــ ــــ ـــــ ـــ ــــ ـــــــ
ڂَّټٿح . ٽخٷً ٺٿٌٻ : ـــ ــــ ــــــ ًخزَّٷ ، خّ سَْڃأ . سَْڃأ ذىٌظٓ َٿا ــ ــــ ـــــ ضٿخٷً : ِٳ
ـ ــــ ــــ ــــ ــــ ــــ ــــــــ ــــــ خّ ٽىخ٫ .





Drill 4: Compose six sentences using the question particles with
prepositions. Also, use the question particles with prepositions in a
conversation with one of your classmates.


Copyright © 2011 Yale University
Section 2 Lesson 2
111
ةب٦ٍزٍلاڇ ټچٮٹا : خجزٶپٹا ً٭
Comprehension Text: In the Library

ٷكب٥ : ُځلَ ٔٿح َ ٫ ْْڀ ټ ُـ ڂ .
حوٍٽأ : َ ً ٫ ـْ ْـڀـَ ـ ټ ُـ ڂ َٔٿح ـ ـ ،ځل َٲْٻ ؟شَ لِ ٜٿح
ٷكب٥ : ُيڄلٿح ،ل ِٲٿؤر ه َ ـ ْْ ـ ،َ َٲْٻً َلٿح ُٽخ خّ ؟سَْڃأ
حوٍٽأ : ،َْور ٗ ـ حَټ . حًخڃ ُپ٬ٴط ؟څٓح
ٷكب٥ : ِ ٫ ـ ُين َ ٫ ْڄ ـ ٌ پ ِٳ ُڄٿح و ـْ ـ ظ َ ـ َ ز َ .
حوٍٽأ : حًخڃ َ ٓ ـ ظ َ ـ ٴ ْـ َ ٬ ُپ َ ر ْ٬ َ ي ِٿً ؟َٺ
ٷكب٥ : َ ٓ َىًؤ ُذ َٿا َڄٿح ْٔ ـ ِيـ ، ڂػ َ ٓ ُذىًؤ َٿا ِضْزٿح .
حوٍٽأ : َڄٿح ْٔ ـ ُيـ ؟ ّْأ ـ َ ن َڄٿح ْٔ ـ ؟ُيـ
ٷكب٥ : َڄٿح ْٔ ـ ُيـ ٌى ِٳ ِشنّيڃ ُڃَْڀٻ ضنٌ .
حوٍٽأ : پى ِ ٫ ن ْـ َ ي ٹ ٌصخزؿحً ؟ځٌْٿح
ٷكب٥ : َ٬ن ،ڂ ِٳ ِشٸْٸلٿح ، ِ ٫ ُين ٌصخزؿحً َْؼٻ س ًحيؿ .
حوٍٽأ : خڃ حٌى ؟ُدخظټٿح
ٷكب٥ : حٌى ٌى ُڅآَٸٿح ُڂَّټٿح . ِضنأً حًخڃ ؟َنْڀ٬ٴظٓ
حوٍٽأ : َ ٓ ُذىًؤ َٿا شزظټڄٿح .
ٷكب٥ : ِٹحٍأ ًخزَّٷ خّ ،سَْڃأ َٿا ءخٸڀٿح .
حوٍٽأ : ِٳ څخڃأ ِ ،ِ لح خّ ٽىخ٫ . ٪ڃ شڃلَٔٿح .




Copyright © 2011 Yale University
Lesson 2 Section 2

112
وٍثب٦رڇ دبپٺٵ
Words and Expressions

now َڅٓح
May God protect you ِٳ َڃأ څخ ِ ِلح
How is your health? ِٜٿح َٲْٻ ـ شَل
The Holy Qur‟an ُڅآَٸٿح ُڂَّټٿح



Drill 5: Translate into English.

1 - ؟شَلِٜٿح ٲْٻ ،سَْڃأ خّ ،ڂټْڀ٫ ځلٔٿح .
2 - ٽىخ٫ ِڄٓح خنأ . ل يڄلٿح ،َْه ٲٿؤر خنأ .
3 - ځٌْٿح سَْؼٻ صخزؿحً ُين٫ ،
4 - ضْزٿح َٿا ذىًؤٓ خنأ
5 - شزظټڄٿح َٿا ذىًؤٓ ڂػ .
6 - ؟څٓح ُپ٬ٴط حًخڃ
7 - ٔڄٿح ـ ضنٌڃَْڀٻ ِشنّيڃ ِٳ ٌى ُ يـ .
8 - ؟ُدخظټٿح حٌى خڃ
9 - شڃلٔٿح ٪ڃ ،سَْڃأ خّ لح څخڃأ ِٳ .



Drill 6: Translate into Arabic.

1. This is the Holy Qur`an.
2. I will go to the mosque.
3. Then I have to work in the laboratory.
4. What will you be doing, Ameera?
5. See you soon, so long.
6. Do you have homework today?
7. Where is the mosque?
8. What is this book?



Copyright © 2011 Yale University
Section 2 Lesson 2
113
خصكبؾپٹا
Let’s Speak Arabic
Weather - ٌـٲَ ـٞٹا

Repeat aloud the following question:

How is the weather? ٻ َ ـ ْْ ٤ٿح َٲ َ ـ ـ ٸ ْـ ُ ْ ؟

Now repeat aloud the following answer:

The weather is sunny ٤ٿح َ ـ ـ ٸ ْـ ُ ْ ُ ڃ ْ٘ ـ ِ ڄ ـ ٌْ

Next, repeat aloud the sentence and substitute the following words for
٘ڃ ـ ْڄ :

hot َك ـ ٌٍخ
cold َر ـ ٌىٍخ
rainy
ُ ڃ ْڄ ـ ِ ٤ ـ ٌَ
cloudy
ٯ َ ـ ِثخ ـ ٌڂ
humid
ٌذـْـ٣ٍَ

Repeat this dialogue with a classmate.



Homework - تعاڈٹا

1. Listen to the vocabulary and expressions. Repeat aloud after hearing
them in the basic and comprehension texts.

2. Compose a dialogue between you and one of your classmates. Turn it in
to your teacher after you present it in class.

3. Compose five sentences using vocabulary from the lesson.

4. Using the question particles, compose an original dialogue between you
and one of your friends.
Copyright © 2011 Yale University
Lesson 2 Section 2

114
٦ٹا خ٭بٲضٹا ڀٽ خٍثو


Window into Arab Culture
The Holy Qur’an

The Qur‟an is the first book of prose written in the Arabic language, and it is
a great source of pride and inspiration for Muslims and Arabs alike. It is
one of the most widely read books ever written, and has been translated
into almost every language. However, many experts believe that only the
Arabic language fully captures its religious power and literary beauty. As
the Qur‟an itself reveals: “We have made it an Arabic Qur‟an that you might
understand.” (The Qur‟an: 43:3)

While most non-Muslims are aware that the Qur‟an is the religious text of
Islam, its significance also extends beyond the spiritual realm to other
aspects of Islamic life. The Qur‟an demonstrates the remarkable depth and
richness of the classical Arabic language. The Qur‟an has also served as the
textbook for Muslim students beginning their study of theology and
jurisprudence.

Listen to the Qur‟anic verses from Sura (93), Ad-Duha „the Glorious
Morning Light,‟ recited by Sheikh Abdul Basit Muhammad Abdul Samad.
Listen to the Sheikh and read the text of the Qur‟anic verses he recites. Try
to identify a few of the vocabulary words and memorize a few verses, but
most importantly, listen attentively to appreciate the aesthetic aspect of the
verses.



Copyright © 2011 Yale University