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**the Toll Motorway
**

Houda Mehri

*

Taouﬁk Djemel—

**

*

Research Unit in Logistics, Industrial Management and Quality

(LOGIQ) - ISGI-Sfax. BP nˇ r954-3018 Sfax-TUNISIA.

mehri.houda@gmail.com

**

GIAD Laboratory, University of Sfax, FSEG,

Route de lŠAerodrome, km 4, BP 1088, 3018 Sfax, Tunisia .

djemel.taouﬁk@fsegs.rnu.tn

ABSTRACT. Adjustment tests in a case study show that arrival times and service times in a

motorway queuing system led to the model M/Γ(α, β)/c. There are no analytical formula

to calculate performance measures of such a model. In this article, we generalize Pollazeck-

Khitchinne’s formula to establish approximate formula of these measures and we present a

simulator that calculates performance measures of A/B/c queuing system where A, B can be

one of the following distributions: determinist, exponential, Erlang or Gamma. We verify the

theory according to which the type of organization of the queue (an unique queue for all the

servers or multiple queues where each server has his/her own queue) does not inﬂuence the

performance measures of the queuing system.

RÉSUMÉ. Des tests d’ajustement sur les intervalles de temps entre les arrivées et les durées

de service d’une étude de cas ont abouti au modèle M/Γ(α, β)/c. Il n’existe pas de formules

analytiques pour calculer les mesures de performance d’un tel modèle. Nous généralisons la

formule de Pollazeck-Khitchinne pour établir des formules approximatives de ces mesures et

nous présentons un simulateur pour calculer les mesures de performance des modèles de ﬁle

A/B/c où A, B appartiennent à l’ensemble des distributions {Déterministe, Exponentielle, Er-

lang, Gamma}. Nous vériﬁons la théorie selon laquelle le type d’organization de la ﬁle (une ﬁle

unique pour tous les serveurs ou multiple ﬁles avec une ﬁle devant chaque serveur) n’inﬂuence

pas les mesures de performance du système d’attente routier.

Studia Informatica Universalis.

Queuing Theory in Toll Motorway 97

KEYWORDS: Queues, statistical analysis, multi agent simulation, exponential distribution,

Gamma distribution.

MOTS-CLÉS : Files d’attente, analyse statistique, simulation multi agent, distribution expo-

nentielle, distribution Gama.

1. Introduction

The queueing theory is an operational research technique that models

a system allowing queue, calculates its performances and determines its

properties in order to help managers in decision making. Results and

theoretical formulations are established for queue models with Poisson

arrivals and exponential service durations (M/M/c) [31], [24]. It is not

the case for all systems with the Poisson arrivals and non exponential

service duration M/G/c whose analytical survey is very complex.

We suggest in this paper a generalization of Pollazeck-Kitchinne for-

mula to set the performance measures of the model M/G/c. Our nu-

meric application of data collected is based on a case study of a toll

motorway. The statistical tests on arrivals and service duration show

that the distribution is respectively Poisson and Gamma. Hence, an

M/Γ(α, β)/c model.

We present a multi-agent simulator that covers any queue whether

A/B/c or A, B belonging to the distribution set {Determinist, Expo-

nential, Erlang, Gamma}.This simulator is used to check the hypothe-

sis that the queue type in a toll motorway (an unique queue for all the

servers or multiple queues where each server has his/her own queue)

does not inﬂuence the performance measures. To conclude this in-

troduction I will map the overall geography of this article. Section 2

sketches brieﬂy toll motorway queues, section 3 is a case study fol-

lowed in section 4 by a generalization of Pollaczeck-khitchinne formula

to performance measures of models M/G/c. The simulator is presented

in section 5. Section 6 computes and interprets the results, and section

7 concludes the study.

98 Studia Informatica Universalis.

2. Queues

2.1. Description of Queues

The ﬁeld of study which would attract the attention of theorists was

Queuing Theory which would develop over the past century by leaps

and bounds. The analytical investigation of stochastic processes has

continued unabated up to the present time.

The literature study on queues contains references to the deﬁnition

and historical perspective of the modeling approach. Queueing theory

has been a well-researched topic for many years and much published in-

formation is available. The literature study will give an overviewsample

of Queueing Theory. An important source of information is by Gifﬁn

[13].

Queues are not an unfamiliar phenomenon. To deﬁne a queue

requires speciﬁcation of certain characteristics which describe the

system:

– An input process: This may be the arrival of an entity at a service

location. The process may involve a degree of uncertainty concerning

the exact arrival times and the number of entities arriving. To describe

such a process the important attributes are the source of the arrivals, the

size of each arrival, the grouping of such an arrival and the inter-arrival

times.

– A service mechanism: This may be any kind of service operation

which processes arriving entities. The major features which must be

speciﬁed are the number of servers and the duration of the service.

– The queue discipline: It deﬁnes the rules of how the arrivals

behave before service occurs.

– The queue capacity: Finite or inﬁnite

Queuing Theory in Toll Motorway 99

Examples of input and output processes which are as follows:

Situation Input Process Output Process

Bank Entities arriving Tellers serve entities

Toll Plaza Vehicles arriving Toll money is paid

Call Centre Incoming Call Call dealt with

Ferris wheel Tourists arrive Tourists are served

Intermittent Service Channel Entities arrive Entities are served intermittently

Naval Harbour Ships that must unload Unloading of ships

Table 1: Examples of Queuing Systems

The presence of uncertainty makes these systems challenging in respect

of analysis and design. The input rate/arrival rates together with the

output rate/service rate mostly determine whether there are entities in

the queue or not. These factors also determine the length of the queue.

In practice the arrival rate may be measured as the number of arrivals

during a given period. The service rate can be measured in the same

way. This is usually done for a system that has progressed from a tran-

sient state to a steady state. Most of these systems are described by

arrival and service rates. It is however important to also focus on the

transient characteristics of the system.

2.2. Historical Perspective

The ground work for many of the earliest techniques of analysis in

queuing theory was laid by A K Erlang, father of queueing theory, be-

tween 1909 and 1929. He is given credit for introducing the Poisson

process to congestion theory, for the method of creating balance state

equations (Chapman-Kolmogorov equations) to mathematically repre-

sent the notion of statistical equilibrium. Pollaczek [26] began studying

non-equilibrium queueing systems by looking at ﬁnite intervals. How-

ever, the ﬁrst truly time dependant solutions were not offered until Bai-

ley [5] using generating functions and Lederman and Reuter [30], using

spectral theory and Champernowne [8], using the combinatorial method

found such solutions. Kendall [21] introduced his method of imbedded

Markov Chains in analyzing non-Markovian queues. The important

technique, known as the supplementary variable technique was intro-

100 Studia Informatica Universalis.

duced by Cox [10].

Most of the pioneers of Queuing Theory were engineers seeking solu-

tions to practical real world problems. The worth of queuing analysis

was judged on model usefulness in solving problems rather than on the

theoretical elegance of the proofs used to establish their logical consis-

tency.

The focus of the non-research oriented engineer in this expansive

theoretical development was on techniques which demonstrated appli-

cations of the results of the theory. In Operations Research the only ﬁeld

that has few theoretical models with any useful applications is Queuing

Theory. One may speculate why this has occurred. The commonly

mentioned reason is that the equations resulting from many theoretical

investigations are simply too overly complex to apply. The practitioner

then often has to resort to simulation methods for analysis.

In practice common simple queues are scarce. Arrival and service

rates may be constantly shifting over time so it is important to describe

the distributions as functions of time. These systems are contrasted with

steady-state solutions in which the arrival and service patterns are usu-

ally such that the state probability distribution is stationary. Dynamic

systems require robust modeling that can provide useful results even

though the analysis may violate assumptions used in constructing the

model.

Most of the above discussion relates to what Bhat [6] refers to as be-

havior problems of the system. The focus is to use mathematical models

to seek understanding of a particular process. Other problems are statis-

tical and operational. "Statistical" refers to analysis of empirical data,

estimation of system characteristics and tests of hypotheses regarding

queuing processes. "Operational" refers to design, testing and control

of real life problem.

2.3. Review of Queuing Models and Their Modeling Approaches

Queuing theory is a general theory. It is about the behavior not only

of the queuing process, but also of the generalized symbolic model of

the process. The purpose of a symbolic model is to make predictions

Queuing Theory in Toll Motorway 101

possible about the behavior of processes under changing conditions or

sometimes about processes that do not yet exist.

Despite the apparent simplicity of having only 3 basic components,

queuing theory has a wide variety of applications and is the starting

point for many practical problems at all levels of complexity. For most

practical problems, one is not so much concerned with properties of a

single given queuing system as with the comparison between various

possible alternatives. In particular, one may wish to predict what effect

various changes in strategy might have on some existing systems. For

example, if there is a large family of possible designs and one wishes to

ﬁnd the optimal design according to some criteria, one is likely to get

a mixture of mathematical techniques ( including queuing theory) with

various optimization schemes (such as mathematical programming, dy-

namic programming, etc). Moreover, many design problems also con-

tain complex constraints. As a result, the system has to be carefully

designed so as to avoid certain highly undesirable or impossible situa-

tions.

In most queuing problems there is an implied cost associated with

waiting. Various types of service also have their cost, with the one giv-

ing the fastest service being the most expensive. The design problem is

to minimize the sum of waiting cost and service cost. In simple situa-

tions, the service facility can be designed to provide any rate of service

(at a price in toll station), but once designed the service is independent

of whether it is fully utilized or not. This is approximately the case

when the service is done by a machine of some sort. The optimal de-

sign is one that minimizes the cost of inadequate capacity during rush

hours and excess capacity at other times.

In most real life situations, there are certain emergency facilities that

can be brought into service when there is a heavy demand. Thus the ser-

vice rate can be considered as time dependent. This is obviously what is

done at banks, grocery stores, etc. where employees are borrowed from

other tasks to serve a rush hour demand.

When it is possible to increase the service rate by the addition of help

from other jobs, the number of parameters associated with any strategy

may become rather large. For example, the cost of adding temporary

102 Studia Informatica Universalis.

capacity usually has at least two parts. On the one hand, there is a

cost per unit of service such as labour cost, interest on investment, etc.

this may be overtime labour which has a higher rate than the regular

service. On the other hand, there is usually a ﬁxed cost associated with

the introduction of the extra service.

The dynamics of queues has been analysed by using steady-state

mathematics. Such queueing processes are described by using the

Kendall-Lee notation which uses mnemonic characters that specify the

queueing system

A/B/C/D/E/F

– A: Speciﬁes the nature of the arrival process.

– B: Speciﬁes the nature of the service times.

– C: Speciﬁes the number of parallel servers

– D: Speciﬁes the queue discipline.

– E: Speciﬁes the maximum number of entities in the system.

– F: Speciﬁes the size of the population from which entities are

drawn.

This notation is commonly used when deriving expressions for the aver-

age system length, number of entities in the queue, the average waiting

time, and many other features.

For queuing models, entity arrivals and service times are summa-

rized in terms of probability distributions normally referred to as arrival

and service time distributions. These distributions may represent sit-

uations where entities arrive and are served individually (e.g. banks,

supermarkets). In other situations, entities may arrive and/or be served

in groups. (e.g. restaurants). The latter case is normally referred to as

a bulk queue. A Poisson stream of entities arriving in groups is served

at a counter in batches of varying size under the general rule for bulk

service in which the server remains idle until the queue size reaches or

exceeds a ﬁxed number whereupon they are served.

Queuing Theory in Toll Motorway 103

2.4. Steady State Performance

In a steady state, the performance of a system is that any effects

from starting up with no customer present, or with a backlog of cus-

tomers who arrived before the server started working has been reduced

to negligible proportions (i.e. the system has been operating for a long

time sufﬁcient for a large number of customers to pass through it).

For queuing situations such as shops and banks, it may take a large

proportion of the working day before a steady state is achieved. For

mass transport utilities (e.g. MTR, bus, ferry, etc.), it may need only

two to three vehicles to bring the system to a steady state.

If a steady state cannot be assumed, then an analysis of transient

behavior is required. Transient states include not just start up, but tem-

porary periods of over-load such as rush hours. Analysis of transient

behavior is possible with queuing theory, but requires techniques (e.g.

ﬂuid approximation) that are unlikely to be used by non-specialists.

In this study, a queue is made up of customers demanding a service

to one or several servers and a waiting room. The rate of arriving cus-

tomers and the rate of service per time unit are respectively marked

λ and µ. A queue model is described according to Kendall-lee nota-

tion [31], [24] by A/B/C/Disc/N/P. A and B represent the laws

of arrivals process and the service duration, M stands for exponen-

tial, D determinist, Γ(α, β) Gamma of parameters α and β, and G a

general law (any), C the number of servers, Disc the service disci-

pline, N the system capacity and P the size of the source population.

When the last three optional parameters are omitted, they are considered

FCFS/∞/∞where FCFS i.e. First Come, First served.

The performances measures of the queue model are: The average

time of a customer stay within the system (W), the average wait of a

customer (Wq), the average service time (Ws), the average number

of customers in the system (L), the average number of customers in

the queue (Lq), the average number of customers being served (Ls),

the usage rate of servers or trafﬁc intensity ρ =

λ

c.µ

(Where c is the

number of servers), the equilibrium probabilities noted P

n

(probability

of n customer in the system) and the wait probability Π

ω

(probability

of a coming customer waiting before being served). In toll motorways,

104 Studia Informatica Universalis.

two big schools share the queue organization [25], [11]

– Type1 an unique queue for all toll station thereby preventing cus-

tomers to train themselves queues

– Type 2 every toll station has its own queue enabling the customer

join the shortest queue.

3. Case Study

In a toll motorway station, the total cost of service contains not only

the cost of exploitation of server, but also the waiting cost of customer.

The knowledge of average waiting time of a customer by number of

servers in the system allows the administrators to choose the appropri-

ate number of servers which minimizes this total cost of service. The

other factors such as the utilization rate of servers, the average number

of customers in the system or in the queue, the equilibrium state prob-

ability of the number of customers in the system are also useful for a

good management. All these factors are characteristics (measures of

performance) of a queueing system.

During two weeks, we collected data related to cars arrivals and ser-

vice durations at Tunis-Msaken motorway. At the toll station of cars

to three available servers were our frameworks of study. Statistical

adjustment tests showed that per second, the arrivals were Poisson of

λ = 0.015 parameter and service duration Gamma of α = 2.42 and

β = 77.17 parameters. Contrary to multi servers with Poisson arrivals

and exponential service process M/M/c, random distribution models

are more complex to analyse [22]. There are no analytical formulae

to compute the characteristics of a M/G/c queueing system. The ap-

proximation formula of Pollaczek-Khintchine is only valid for M/G/1

models. For the M/G/c model [2], [4], Ivo Adan [2] has established

only an approximation formula for the average waiting time of a cus-

tomer in the system. Here, we give an approximation of Pollaczek-

Khintchine’s formula to establish approximation formulae for the other

performance measures of the M/G/c model. The only good theoretical

formulations encountered deal with models not allowing waiting that is

M/G/c/G

D

/c/∞ model with loss of customers and M/G/∞ model

with an inﬁnite number of servers [9], [22].

Queuing Theory in Toll Motorway 105

The equilibrium state probabilities of number of customers in the

system are computed with a simulator which we implemented. We were

then able to verify the theory according to which the conﬁguration of

the queue (single line or multiple lines, one for each server) does not

inﬂuence the queueing system performance.

3.1. Data Collection

The research goal during this collection was to get time intervals

between cars consecutive arrivals and service length. We take interest

to periods where each of the following events occurs: a car arrival, a

beginning of a service in a station, an end of service in a station. Data

collection has been completed thank to a perfected tool that take into

consideration the simultaneous appearance of many events .The main

functionality of this tool is to allow to pick up and save cars arrivals

schedules, beginning and ends of services thank to a simple click or

typing on the keyboard (see ﬁgure 1).

Figure 1: Queueing Data Collector

The two initial week’s period retained for the study was from July 17

to July 30, 2007. For some independent raisons from our will, July 24

and 25 were brought forward to July 15 and 16.The ﬁrst day of collec-

tion has allowed us to be in touch with work background and it was a

raison to reduce the period of collection into 2 hours. July 16 night was

punctuated during few minutes of little electricity break which disrupt

collection in that day. For necessity to control passengers’ behavior dur-

106 Studia Informatica Universalis.

ing crowded days, July 29 and 30 collections days were brought forward

to August 1 and 2.

3.2. Analysis of Data Collected

3.2.1. Gathered data presentation

Table 2 shows the arrivals effect size during the several days of the

collection period.

17/07/08 18/07/08 21/07/08 23/07/08 01/08/08 02/08/08

Arrivals 405 432 433 419 434 456

Services 401 426 431 403 403 435

Table 2: Arrivals and Service Duration’s effect Size

An attention has been concentrated on daily periods where we note

crowd. Table 2.2 shows the evolution of arrivals number noted in all

hours during the collection period. We notice that the most important

crowd is observed between 9h30 and 10h30 like the rush hours for mo-

torway. Conversely, the 17h30 to 18h30 period is marked as off period

of the day with 15 arrivals noticed on average.

Range 17/07/08 18/07/08 21/07/08 23/07/08 01/08/08 02/08/08

7’30-8’30 42 55 63 34 61 63

8’30-9’30 59 64 59 64 63 59

9’30-10’30 49 58 45 75 57 54

10’30-11’30 55 62 49 47 49 55

11’30-12’30 23 32 30 26 32 22

14’30-15’30 68 71 60 63 70 81

15’30-16’30 58 50 59 58 40 62

16’30-17’30 38 33 50 47 43 45

17’30-18’30 15 9 20 7 18 17

Total 407 434 435 421 433 458

Table 3: Arrivals Periodic Evolution during the Collection Period.

Our goal is to determine probabilities distribution that well-describe

time intervals between arrivals and noticed service durations in the sys-

tem under study. Starting from the curve pace of the noticed effect size,

Queuing Theory in Toll Motorway 107

we apply a chi-square test to ﬁt these data to a known theoretical distri-

bution have the same pace. We illustrate the procedure with data of July

17.

3.2.2. Arrivals Analysis

We are interested to time intervals between cars consecutive arrivals

(inter-arrivals). We have distributed data over the inter-arrivals into 30

seconds amplitude classes, starting from 0 to 300 seconds (0 to 5 min-

utes) and more

1

. Table 4 shows that inter-arrivals less than 30 sec-

onds constitute the distribution mode this means the class that occurs

the most frequently in a data set or a probability distribution . (0 −30)

class constitutes in itself 30% to 40% of daily effect size and (30 to 60)

represents about 20%. These effect sizes decrease to less than 10% to

each of more than 90 seconds classes (1 minute 30 seconds) however

other classes of more than 150 seconds (2 minutes 30 seconds) repre-

sent less than 5%. This explains the important decreasing incline of

several ﬁgure 2. A very light recovery were noticed for more than 300

seconds class (5 minutes) for bringing together all inter arrivals higher

than 5 minutes, 30 seconds amplitude is never considered in this case.

Figure 2: Inter arrivals Effects Sizes Curves

This table shows as well that inter arrivals effects sizes curves have a

decreasing pace. A negative exponential variation might be supposed

1. A class [a, b] will represent higher or equal inter-arrivals to a seconds and strictly lower

to b seconds.

108 Studia Informatica Universalis.

which leads to orientation for laws of probability with a negative

2

ex-

ponential, like the exponential law or Gamma

3

law.

Class Center(x

i

) Empirical Effect Size(n

i

)

0-30 15 163

30-60 45 73

60-90 75 68

90-120 105 35

120-150 135 18

150-180 165 18

180-210 195 6

210-240 225 7

240-270 255 4

270-300 285 5

>300 315 8

Total 405

Table 4: Statistic Table of July 17 Service Durations

Inter-arrivals ﬁtting to an exponential law

From this table we can conclude: The empirical average:¯ x =

n

i

x

i

N

=

68.185 seconds considered an arrival each the 1 minute 8 seconds. The

empirical variance:S

2

=

N

n

i

x

i

2

−(

x

i

n

i

)

2

N(N−1)

= 4778.691 Considering an

arrival each the 1 minute 8 seconds. This imply that in one second we

have ¯ x

−1

= 0.015 cars coming to the system per seconds. After ﬁtting,

thank to χ

2

test noticed data to an exponential law of the parameter

µ = 0.015, we get a distance χ

2

c

= 14.484. The number of classes

being r = 10 and as we estimated a parameter (the average µ), the

freedom degree is ν = 10 −1 −1 = 8.

ν = 8, χ

2

table gives as value not to exceed to the threshold

α = 0.05 the quantity χ

2

α

= 15.507. As χ

2

c

< χ

2

a

, with 95% of

conﬁdence degree, we admit the hypothesis according to which July 17

inter-arrivals undergo an exponential law with a parameter µ = 0.014.

shows the curve of noticed effect sizes and theoretical sizes according

to an exponential law.

2. Because it has paces with negative exponential function f(x) = e

−x

.

3. First, we had have proceed at the beginning to a ﬁtting to an Erlang law, k formestimation

provides us only integer values. That is why we go back to a ﬁtting of a Gamma law.

Queuing Theory in Toll Motorway 109

Figure 3: Theoretical and Noticed Effect Sizes Curve (Exponential

Law) of July 17 Inter arrivals

3.2.3. Service Duration Analysis

Gathered services durations have been also classiﬁed into amplitudes

of 60 seconds, starting from 0 to 600 seconds (0 to 10 minutes) and

more. According to table 4, we obtain the following characteristics: the

empirical average: ¯ x = 192.044 seconds considering one car served

each 3 minutes 12 seconds. The empirical variance σ

2

= 15948.80798.

Class Center (x

i

) Empirical effect size n

i

0-60 30 36

60-120 90 86

120-180 150 101

180-240 210 76

240-300 270 43

300-360 330 24

360-420 390 9

420-480 450 6

480-540 510 8

540-600 570 5

> 600 630 7

Total 401

Table 5: Statistic Table of July 17 Service Durations

110 Studia Informatica Universalis.

Fitting service durations to an Exponential law

In one second we have

1

¯ x

= 0.0052 served cars.

A ﬁtting test with χ

2

test to an exponential law of the parameter

µ =

1

¯ x

= 0.0052 gives a distance χ

2

c

= 125.72. Freedom degree of

theoretical χ

2

is ν = 8 (r = 10 classes), χ

2

table gives as value not

to exceed to the threshold α = 0.05 the quantity χ

2

a

(8) = 15.507. As

χ

2

c

> χ

2

a

; at 95% of the conﬁdence degree, we reject the hypothesis

according to which July 17 service durations undergo an exponential

law with a parameter µ = 0.0052.

Fitting service durations to a Gamma law

Gamma law is characterized by two parameters: α and β. Its av-

erage m = αβ and its variance ν = αβ

2

. The parameters α an β can be

estimated by:

α =

m

2

ν

=

192.044

2

15948.9

= 2.31 β =

ν

m

=

15948.9

192.044

= 83.04

After ﬁtting test with χ

2

test to a Gamma law of parameter α = 2.31

and β = 83.04, we obtain a distance χ

2

c

= 15.327. The classes number

being r = 11 and since we estimated two parameters ( α and β ); so

the freedom degree is ν = 11 − 2 − 1 = 8. For ν = 8, χ

2

table

gives as value not to exceed to the threshold α = 0.05 the quantity

χ

2

α

(8) = 15.507. As χ

2

c

< χ

2

α

; so at 95% of conﬁdence degree, we

accept the hypothesis according to which July 17 service durations

undergo a Gamma law with parameter α = 2.31 and β = 83.04. Figure

4 presents the noticed effect sizes curve compared to theoretical effect

sizes of service durations undergoing a Gamma law.

Queuing Theory in Toll Motorway 111

Figure 4: Theoretical and Noticed Effect Sizes Curve (Gama Law) of

July 17 Inter arrivals

3.3. Summary of Obtained Results

Tables 2.5 and 2.6 present respectively obtained results about cars

inter-arrivals and service durations for each of the collected days with

threshold α = 0.05

Table 2.5 shows that inter-arrivals are adjustable to an exponential

law for the majority of carried out collection days. Fitting service

durations to an exponential law causes negative result because, from the

totality of carried out collection days, none caused a result conclusive

with an approach to an exponential law. However 84% (5 out of 6)

of carried out collection days produced a satisfactory result for an

approximation of services durations to a gamma law.

Days ¯ x µ χ

2

c

ν χ

2

α

Results

17/07/08 68.18 0.014 14.48 8 15.507 We accept H

0

18/07/08 65.76 0.015 3.63 7 14.067 We accept H

0

21/07/08 69.73 0.014 13.36 8 15.507 We accept H

0

23/07/08 64.11 0.016 5.156 7 14.067 We accept H

0

01/08/08 67.53 0.015 12.82 9 16.91 We accept H

0

02/08/08 65.06 0.015 08.194 8 15.507 We accept H

0

Table 6: Result Recapitulation of Inter-arrivals Fitting to an Exponential Law

112 Studia Informatica Universalis.

Days ¯ x σ

2

α β χ

2

c

ν χ

2

α

Results

17/07/08 192.04 15948.80 2.31 83.04 15.327 8 15.507 We accept H0

18/07/08 184.78 13347.843 2.55 76.92 13.671 7 14.067 We accept H0

21/07/08 181.81 15484.87 2.11 90.91 28.71 7 14.067 We reject H0

23/07/08 184.39 15802.30 2.15 89.42 14.056 7 14.067 We accept H0

01/08/08 203.44 14715.18 2.81 76.41 5.273 7 14.067 We accept H0

02/08/08 179.16 11320.38 2.85 63.12 5.038 5 11.070 We accept H0

Table 7: Result Recapitulation of Service Durations Fitting to a Gamma Law

We have no elements to justify the fact that service durations of July

23 had not produced satisfactory results neither according to the

exponential law nor according to the Gamma law. This may be due to

some ﬁeld unforeseen that a study more extended on several months

even several years had allowed us to determine. May be it is important

to point out the anomaly noted in that day; the service was assured

during the ﬁrst minutes of the morning by only one station, the others

being started after 10 to 15 minutes.

After a synthesis of obtained results over the analysis of all gathered

data during the collection, the result of arrivals average is 66.71 (= 1

minute 6 seconds) and the service durations average is 187.38 seconds

(= 3 minutes 7 seconds).

In the ﬁnal analysis of the carried out study, we come to the model

of the following queue: M/Γ(α, β/3/FCFS/∞/∞: Cars come to the

system following a Poisson distribution according to 53 cars per hour

(0.015 cars all seconds). The toll area has 3 data services with Gamma

service durations of parameter α = 2.42 and β = 77.17 (in seconds).

Service policy is the ﬁrst arrived the ﬁrst served. There no limits to

maximum cars number in the motorway as well as in its provenance

source.

For this system, we get the following performance measures:

Queuing Theory in Toll Motorway 113

Performance Measures Approximation

The traﬁc intensity ρ 93.5 %

Probability of having empty system Π

0

0.015

Probability of waiting before service Π

w

0.81

Time of average sojourn in the system W 778

Time of average waiting W

q

591.42

Time of average service W

s

186.61

Average number of cars in the system L 11.76

Average number of cars in the queue L

q

8.86

Average number of cars into service L

s

2.80

Table 8: Performance Measures of the Studied System

3.4. Results and Interpretations

In order to ameliorate results of its systems, motorways’ managers

often lead to ask several questions like:

1) What effect of stations number increase on systems performance?

2) How much stations are needed in order to get waiting average

time or the average number of waiting passengers lower at a certain

boundary?

3) What effect of the unavailability of one (or n) servers (s) on system

performances?

4) What is the probability that a car wait over a t instant in the queue?

5) What is the probability of more than one car in the queue?

6) How to optimize stations’ use rate or increase its efﬁciency if they

are too often unoccupied?

We suggest using queue theory techniques to help these managers in

their decisions. So we need to deﬁne the previous performances mea-

sures.

3.5. Used Methodology

The model M/Γ(α, β)/c is more complex than classical queuing

models with M/M/c exponential services’ durations and Poison ar-

rivals. So far, no theoretical result on performance measures calcula-

tion for non-exponential queue models has been formally established

114 Studia Informatica Universalis.

and proven [17]. Only approximations of some performances mea-

sures exist. In literature, several solution approaches were proposed.

A quite detailed of tasks retrospective which were made on queue with

arrivals or non-exponential service durations as well as authors who

introduced it, has been presented by Ivo Adan, W. A van of Waarsen-

burg and J. Wessels in [2]. But none of these results suit to what we

search. Authors think even that multiserver queue systems with arrivals

or non-exponential service durations are a typical example of convivial

or simple models at ﬁrst sight but which could not be analyzed with sat-

isfaction. This is because it is proving that the behavior of the system

is much more complex and that is a sign of its simple formulation. The

lack of works dealing with queue models with Gamma distributions in

literature, bring us to be oriented rather to a General distribution. An

analysis and measures’ determination and performance indicator has

been introduced in case of a unique server (M/G/1 model) since 1950;

the problem becomes difﬁcult in the (M/G/c) multi-servers case. Only

theoretical good approximations of multi-servers models with Poisson

arrivals and General service durations that we meet with, deal with

M/G/c/FCFS/c/ models which do not neglect customers who ﬁnd

the station service plenty and M/G/α models with unlimited number

of servers which do not ﬁt to our case. Works of Sadowsky J.S and W.

Szpankowskiy [27] about G/G/c models could supply us satisfaction;

but it focus only on maximum waiting duration and maximum number

of customers in the queue. A certain number of works exists about a

recent model of queue considering rejections and owning established

theoretical results. It is M/GI/c + GI or GI/GI/c + GI [32] but it

require a certain number of conditions that our models do not ﬁt like:

1) Big number of servers (50, 100even1000)

2) A system permanently in overloaded regime where arrivals rate is

upper to services’ rate (ρ =

λ

cµ

≥ 1.02) so the outﬂanking of what the

customers will be is included in rejections rate to bring the system into

a stable regime.

As an alternative solution, we opted to establish from Pollaczek- Khint-

chine formula and inspiring by the approximation of waiting average

duration in an (M/G/c) multiple servers system established by Ivo

Adan [1], the approximation of performance measures on waiting av-

Queuing Theory in Toll Motorway 115

erage durations (W

q

), of service (W

s

) and of sojourn in the system (W)

as well as the waiting average number of customers (Lq), in service

(Ls) and in the system (L).

We could not establish formula allowing us to ﬁnd approximate val-

ues for equilibrium probabilities on the number of customers present in

the system (Pn). Therefore, we used simulation to near it.

4. Approximation of the Performance Measures of M/G/c Models

According to the average value formula [2] of Pollaczek-

khintchinne, a new arriving customer should wait for a customer be-

ing served and all customers queuing behind before being served. The

average wait is calculated as follows:

W

q

= ρE(R) +L

q

E(B) (1)

R is the residual service time of a customer being served, B the ser-

vice time andρ =

λ

µ

the probability of ﬁnding a customer being served.

In accordance with Ivo Adan [2], we suppose that the time needed to

empty the queue with c servers is c times shorter than with one server.

Then, we get:

W

q

=

1

c

(Π

w

E(R) +L

q

E(B)) (2)

Here the probability of a customer waiting before being served is noted

Π

w

(The value Π

w

of the M/M/c model can be used as an approxima-

tion of Π

w

of the M/G/c model). R is the residual service time and B

the average service time. According to the theorem of Little L

q

= λW

q

,

since E(B) =

1

λ

, we get:

W

q

≈

Π

w

E(R)

c(1 −σ)

withρ =

λ

cµ

(3)

The average distribution of residual time [24], [31] is:

E(R) =

1

2

(c

2

B

+ 1)E(B)

Where c

2

B

is the coefﬁcient of variation of service durations (quotient of

the standard deviation from the average).

116 Studia Informatica Universalis.

Then we get:

W

q

=

1

cµ

Π

w

2(1 −ρ)

(c

2

B

+ 1). (4)

Hence

W

s

= E(B) =

1

µ

(5)

W = W

s

+W

q

=

1

µ

+

1

cµ

Π

w

2(1 −ρ)

(c

2

B

+ 1) (6)

L

q

= λW

q

= λ

1

cµ

Π

w

2(1 −ρ)

(c

2

B

+ 1) (7)

L

s

= λW

s

= ρ =

λ

µ

(8)

(Not to confuse to the use rate

λ

cµ

).

L = L

s

+L

q

=

λ

µ

+λ

1

cµ

Π

w

2(1 −ρ)

(c

2

B

+ 1) (9)

Since we cannot elaborate formulae to work out approximate values for

the equilibrium state probabilities of the number of cars present in the

system (Pn), we simulated them.

Derivation of Π

w

:

To Ivo Adan [1] the value of Π

w

of M/M/c model can be used as an

approximation of Π

w

of the M/G/c model. In M/M/c model, Π

w

is

the probability for a customer to wait before proﬁting from the service,

with c servers we have Π

w

= P

c

+P

c+1

+P

c+2

+. . . . but for the M/M/c

model:, with , this imply that P

c+n

= ρ

n

P

c

, with ρ =

λ

µ

, this imply that

Π

w

=

P

c

1−ρ

Case of a unique queue

The statistic analysis of the set of global data allows us to conclude that

the cars’ arrivals are Poisson with a rate λ = 0.015 so the average

1

λ

=

66.71 seconds and that service durations are Gamma (with parameter

α = 2.42 and β = 77.17) of an average

1

µ

= 187.38 seconds and of

variance σ

2

= 14461.96. The number of servers is c = 3.

Table 8 gives us the obtained values of performance indicators. The last

column shows the results produced by the simulator.

The following ﬁgure illustrates equilibrium probabilities to get n cars

Queuing Theory in Toll Motorway 117

Performance Measures Approximation Simulation

ρ 93.7 % 93.5%

Π

0

0.015 0.014

Π

w

0.87 0.80

W 786.107 744.073

W

q

608.727 557.463

W

s

187.38 186.61

L 11.941 11.576

L

q

9.13 8.770

Ls 2.81 2.805

Table 9: Performance Measures of the Studied System

Figure 5: Equilibrium Probabilities to get n Cars in the System

in the system P

n

according to n.

Case of multiple queues

Theoretical models, which include all aspects of this approach, do not

exist. Results obtained at the end of several simulations of different

durations but under the same initial conditions as the results for a unique

queue.

5. Simulation

Multi-agent simulation aims at creating an artiﬁcial world in which

interact agents evolving in an environment[19].

118 Studia Informatica Universalis.

5.1. Functionality

The simulator programmed in Java is multi-agent. It implements

both types of organization of toll motorway queues A/B/c models

where A, B belong to the set of distributions {Determinist, Exponen-

tial, Erlang, Gamma}. The simulator input parameters are: the type of

organization of the queue of the simulated model, the simulation dura-

tion, the distributions of services and arrivals durations and the number

of tollbooths. The simulator releases the model performance measures.

Figure 6 gives an idea about the simulator.

Figure 6: Glimpse of the Simulator

5.2. Description

The agent is represented by an independent thread, the know-how by

a method, the state by the set of values of its features and its behavior by

the Run method of the thread. The agents are endowed with two facul-

ties: Perceive and Act. The agent should ﬁrst perceive one’s surround-

ings before acting. The system has three types of agents: customers,

tollbooth staff and the head agent who supervises and coordinates the

simulation process.

The choice of time units and working out the dependant values is

important. The time unit is governed by the service and arrival rates.

Queuing Theory in Toll Motorway 119

These rates are stated in relation to the same time unit. If for example

the arrivals rate is stated according to the number of arriving customers

per hour, then the service rate should be stated in terms of the number

of served customers per hour. The simulation duration should also be

stated in the same time unit.

In type 2, when a customer chooses a queue, s/ he remains there un-

til being served. The simulator uses the reverse transformation method

[9] to generate the random variables. To validate the simulator, we com-

pared the output to the known theoretical results.

5.3. Performance Measures Calculation

Calculation of L, L

q

and L

s

We use two tables of integers L

q

[ ] and L

s

[ ]. A simulation step cor-

responds to 100ms (1/10second). At the i

iem

step we assign to L

q

[i]

(respectively L

s

[i]) the number of customers in the queue (Q size) (re-

spectively the number of customers being served S size). At the end of

the simulation we get:

L

q

=

T

p

i=1

L

q

[i]

T

p

; L

s

=

T

p

i=1

L

s

[i]

T

p

; L = L

q

+L

s

. (10)

T

p

is the total number of simulation steps. If T is the simulation dura-

tion then T

p

= 10 ∗ T.

Calculation of W, Wq and Ws

We use also two integers tables W

q

[ ] and W

s

[ ] corresponding respec-

tively to the wait and service time of customers in the system. Each

customer agent has two variables Date (creation date D

c

and service

starting date D

d

) and a service duration variable D

s

. Upon creation of

the customer, its creation date is updated to the current date and the

computer generates the time before creating the next customer accord-

ing to the distribution of time intervals among arrivals. The created

customer will be served if a tollbooth is free. Otherwise; it is attributed

a position P

os

= Q

size

+ 1 in the queue (the shortest in the case of sev-

eral queues) that is decremented as far as a tollbooth is freed (its own

queue in the case of multiple queues). When the i

iem

customer occupies

position1 and a tollbooth is freed (its tollbooth in the case of multiple

120 Studia Informatica Universalis.

queues), it joins the tollbooth , the service starting date D

d

is updated

to the current date and the computer generates the service duration D

s

according to the service durations distribution. Then, we update:

W

q

[i] = D

d

−D

c

and W

s

[i] = D

s

. (11)

At the end of simulation we get:

W

q

=

N

q

i=1

W

q

[i]

N

q

; W

s

=

N

s

i=1

W

s

[i]

N

s

; W = W

q

+W

s

. (12)

N

s

is the total number of served customers during the simulation and

N

q

the total of customers having waited (the sum of the number of cus-

tomers already served and the number of customers being served).

Calculation of the equilibrium probabilities

We use an integer table P[ ] where the 200 ﬁrst components are ini-

tialised at 0 (P[i] = 0, for 1 < i ≤ 200). At each simulation step, we

increment P[j] of 1 if j = Q

size

+ S

size

. At the end of the simulation

we get:

P

n

=

p[n]

T

p

(13)

T

p

representing the number of simulation steps.

5.4. Random Variables Generation

During the simulation, the computer generates time intervals before

the next arrivals of customer as well as service durations according to

given distributions: Gamma, Erlang, Exponential and Determinist dis-

tributions. The simulator uses the inverse transformation method in or-

der to generate random variables. The inverse transformation method

[5] [10] goes in fact that if F(X) = Y is a cumulative distribution func-

tion of a given distribution, so F

−1

(Y ) follows the said distribution. It

is necessary then to generate a random variable r representing Y and

following an Uniform distribution

4

(because Y ∈ [0; 1[) then to return

the F

−1

(r) value. As well as:

4. The quasi totality of programming tools includes a function allowing to generate a real

random according to an uniform distribution that is to say is comprised between 0 and 1.

Queuing Theory in Toll Motorway 121

• For the Exponential distribution with λ average, the simulator gen-

erates an uniform random number r and returns the

−1

λ

In(r) value.

• For an Erlang distribution with k form and µ average, the simulator

generates k random numbers r

1

, r

2

. . . r

k

and returns the amount

5

of

distributed exponential random numbers k with the average

1

µ

, that is to

say, the value

−1

λ

In(r

1

, r

2

, . . . , r

k

).

• For a Gamma distribution, we will use the Erlang distribution that

is one of its special case

6

. we used as well the acceptance and rejec-

tion method algorithm [6] which consists on identifying an ζ quantity

(which corresponds to the contribution of the decimal part of α noted δ)

using the generation of a variable Γ(δ, 1) (with 0 < δ < 1). Then we

apply an "α-addition" with an Erlang random variable corresponding to

the entire part of α. So the generated value is:

1

β

(ζ −ln(U

1

U

r

2

. . . U

[α]

))

That follows a distribution Γ(α, β)

5.5. The Use of Simulator

Our simulator contains several functionalities distributed over four

panels namely:

Data Panel

It gives the user controls allowing entering simulation data mainly: Re-

spectively three unrolling lists for the approach choice, the arrivals dis-

tribution, and that of services as well the parameters that characterize it.

Texts’zones for stations number and the simulation duration. A box to

tick for the inﬁnite mode

7

Progress Check-up Panel

It displays dynamically during the simulation: The number of arrived

cars, the number of served cars, the number of busy server, the number

of free servers and the queue size.

Chart Panel

It gives panels showing graphics and end of simulation results. The

displayed graphics show: the queue size, the average duration of wait-

5. We saw before that an Erlang random variable with a k form is in fact the amount of k

exponential random variables.

6. When α is an integer then the Gamma distribution reduces to an Erlang distribution.

7. In inﬁnite mode, the simulation has not a limited duration; it runs until the user stops it.

122 Studia Informatica Universalis.

ing cars, the number of busy servers, the average duration service. The

presented results at the end of the simulation are the following: The av-

erage number of cars in the system L, the average number of cars in the

service L

s

, the average number of waiting cars L

q

, the average duration

of sojourn of a car in the system W, the average duration that one car

passes in the service W

s

, the average time that one car passes to the

queue W

q

and the equilibrium stationary probabilities P

n

.

The Control Panel

It gives a certain number of orders allowing controlling the simulation

progress like: Run to start the simulation, Pause to interrupt shortly

a simulation in progress and see current results, Resume to take again

after an interruption, Reinitialise to take again data and graphics within

sight of a new simulation, Stop to stop the simulation, it allows also to

choose the mode of graphics display (curves or areas).

5.6. Simulator Validation

The results of our simulator are valid thanks to some comparisons

with known theoretical results. For exponential queues, the simulation

results were compared to obtained results analytically. For queues of

one server with Poisson arrivals and non exponential services’ dura-

tions (Erlang, Determinist or Gamma), results concerning performance

measures were compared to that of the Pollaczek-Khintchine formula.

For the other cases, the analytical results are not available.

6. Results and Interpretation

For type 1, we used the approximations made in section 3 and

simulated the equilibrium probabilities. For type 2, there are no

theoretical models that take in charge all the aspects of this approach.

The results were simulated under the same initial conditions.

Initial data

The statistical analysis of the set of collected data in our study led

to a model M/Γ(α, β)/3 and enabled us conclude that car arrivals

are Poisson with the rate λ = 0.015 per second and that the service

Queuing Theory in Toll Motorway 123

durations are Gamma with the average

1

µ

= 187.38 seconds and the

variance σ

2

= 14461.96. Thus α = 2.42 and β = 77.17.

Results

Table 4 shows the values of performances indicators from both cases.

Performance Measures A single queue Multiple queues

ρ 93.7 % 93.5%

Π

0

0.015 0.015

Π

w

0.87 0.81

W 796.107 778

W

q

608.727 591.42

W

s

187.38 186.61

L 11.941 11.76

L

q

9.13 8.86

Ls 2.81 2.80

Table 10: Comparative Performances Measures of Both Approaches

Figure 7 shows the equilibrium probabilities varying according to n for

both types of queue organization.

Figure 7: Equilibrium Probabilities for Both Types of Queue Organiza-

tion

We notice that the intensity of service is high because tollbooth staff

are busy more than 93% of their working hours which ensures a full

usage of the motorway resources. Practically there are always three

cars being served (exactly 2.81). There are on average 12 cars in the

124 Studia Informatica Universalis.

system with a bit more than 9 cars on average queuing. A car remains

on average 13 minutes 16 seconds in the at the tollbooth 10 minutes

8 seconds of which queuing. A new coming car 80% chance to wait

before being served. Notice that both approaches give practically

the same results. We can then conclude that there are no signiﬁcant

differences between both queuing schemes if not from an organization

(order, comfort and spaces). In fact the single queue model has certain

advantages:

(i) for the tollbooth, the existence of zero or an unique queue ensures

order and comfort of passengers and making the most of space;

(ii) for the passengers, the numbering system does not require a

physical presence in the queue. So, they can sit and wait or keep

oneself busy while waiting.

But if we vary the number of stations?

If it is a factor that motorway managers can easily act on, so it is the

number of available stations for the service.

Table 5 shows us performance measures for conﬁguration to 2, 4 then 5

stations. With two stations, an overloaded system will explode. In this

case, the performance measures do not exist because we cannot obtain

exploited stations over a 100% use rate and cars arrivals rate higher than

the maximum capacity of service.

With a 4 stations conﬁguration, the servers are busy during 70% of its

availability time; the service duration remains unchanged while passen-

gers go fewer than a minute in the queue. We have permanently on

average 4 cars in the system, less than one car is in the queue. For a

passage to 5 stations, these last stations pass practically the half of its

empty time. We get on average, few than three cars in the service and

an almost empty queue. The waiting cars stay in the queue on average

11 seconds.

Figure 8 shows the equilibrium probabilities according to that we had a

3, 4, or 5 servers conﬁguration. We consider that curves increase at the

beginning then collapse later. Yet, we notice a pic on 4 and 5 stations

curves with a number of cars included between 3 and 5. In 3 stations,

Queuing Theory in Toll Motorway 125

P M c = 2 c = 3 c = 4 c = 5

ρ 1.4 93.7 0.70 0.56

Π

0

- 0.049 0.057 0.015

Π

w

- 0.87 0.40 0.18

W - 796.107 (13 min,16 sec) 232.244 (3 min,52 sec) 198.41 (3 min,18 sec)

W

q

- 608.727 (10 min,8 sec) 44.864 (0 min,44 sec) 11.03 (0 min,11 sec)

W

s

- 187.38 (3 min,7 sec) 187.38 (3 min,7 sec) 187.38 (3 min,7 sec)

L - 11.941 3.48 2.97

L

q

- 9.13 0.67 0.16

Ls - 2.81 2.81 2.81

Table 11: System Performance Measure for 2, 3, 4 and 5 Servers

it is possible to see at a given time 30 cars and more, present in the

system as it will be less likely to see more than 11 cars for a 4 stations

conﬁguration and more than 9 cars for a 5 stations conﬁguration. This

explains the fact that the curves of 4 and 5 stations conﬁgurations col-

lapse quicker than the 3 stations one.

Figure 8: Equilibrium Probabilities for 3, 4 and 5 Servers

And if the service durations are exponential?

Despite the fact that the data analysis has shown us that the services’

durations do not follow an exponential distribution, we noticed the sys-

tem behavior if it has been considered as exponential, to gauge the im-

pact that such consideration had on results. Table 6 contains the ob-

tained performance measures values. We can note that the average du-

ration of service and the average number of cars in service are still the

126 Studia Informatica Universalis.

same as well as the stations’ use rate. Yet, we can remark a notable dif-

ference in comparison to results of non-exponential service durations.

Mainly on waiting average duration (more than 4 minutes) and the av-

erage number of cars waiting (around 3 cars). These differences affect

logically the average duration of sojourn of a car in the system and the

average number of cars in the system. In the absence of theoretical

formulations for the (M/G/c) models, these results conﬁrm us in our

decision not to choose as approximation by the M/M/c models.

ρ Π

0

Π

w

W W

q

W

s

L L

q

L

s

0.93 0.015 0.82 1061.56 874.18 187.38 15.92 13.11 2.81

(17 min,41sec)(14min,34sec)(3min,7sec)

Table 12: Performance Measures when Services’ Durations are Considered Exponentials

Performance measures vary considerably when passing from 3 to 4 or 5

stations. Cost knowledge related resources’ exploitations to the func-

tioning of a station would allow determining optimal conﬁguration.

Given the fact that for 4 or 5 stations, the performance measures are

practically in the same order, the crossing from 4 to 5 stations would

not be proﬁtable in the motorway. When we increase the number of

stations to 4, the number of waiting customers and the average duration

of waiting collapse very strongly, consequently in one side, it assures

certainly the comfort and the satisfaction of customers, in other side,

with trafﬁc decrease, the servers become underused. To decide if it is

necessary to increase or not the number of stations, we have to take into

account cost related to a station functioning and to non-comfort and to

non-satisfaction of customers.

7. Conclusion

The queue theory is a technique of optional research that allows mod-

eling a system assuming a waiting phenomenon, calculating its perfor-

mance measures and determining its characteristics to help managers in

their decisions. theoretical results and formulations are well-established

for multi-servers queues models with Poisson arrivals and M/M/c ex-

ponential services durations. But not to all systems such as those with

Queuing Theory in Toll Motorway 127

Poisson arrivals and M/G/c non-exponential service durations whose

analytical study is complex.

We used in this study the Pollaczek-Kitchinne formula to suggest

formulas that enable approximations of the performances models of the

M/G/c queue models. We set a multi-agent simulator that measures

the performances of A/B/c models where A, B are distributions of the

type Determinist, Exponential, Erlang or Gamma. The numeric appli-

cations with data from a case study at Tunis-Msaken motorway were

used to check the theory according to which in a tollbooths system the

type of organization of the queue (a single queue for all toll booths or

multiple queues one per tollbooth ) does not inﬂuence the performance

measures of the system.

In conclusion, the time that customers spend in a service queue has

an important impact on their evaluations of the provider’s overall qual-

ity. By causing anger and uncertainty, the perceived duration of a wait

appears to be more inﬂuential than the quality of service delivered. Ser-

vice managers should do all they can to manage customers’ responses

to queues, such as offer explanation and apology. However, to the cus-

tomer faced with high waiting costs, perception management techniques

in isolation from actions that actually reduce the queue are akin to re-

arranging deck furniture on a sinking ship. Waiting time should be re-

duced in reality as well as in customer perception.

Acknowledgements

I am heartily thankful to each person whose encouragement, guidance and support

from the initial to the ﬁnal level enabled me to develop an understanding of the paper.

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Houda MEHRI is doctoral student in operational research at the National School of Engineers

(ENIM). Its research ﬁeld is the study of chaotic queue within the framework of congestion and

large scale integer programming problems, especially arising from transportation and logistics

applications. She is is more speciﬁcally interested in the transition behaviour of a dynamic

system using the mathematical devices of the theory of CHAOS. Holding a Master’s degree in

Operational Research and Production Control (2006) from the University of Sfax in Tunisia

(FSEGS). She was also an assistant teacher of the Linear Programming course. She took part

in the drafting of some cases and teaches the course of Statistical and numerical systems. She

has also taken part in several national and international scientiﬁc conferences and seminars on

various topics of scientiﬁc research.

Taouﬁk DJEMEL Professor at the University of Tunis (El Manar), holder of a doctorate (Ph.D)

from "Graduate School of Business, University of Wisconsin At Madison", former director of

the department of Management at the Faculty of Economic Sciences and Management of Tunis,

Teaching several courses in several Tunisian and foreign university institutions for several lev-

els. He carried out and published several studies and research pieces. He also wrote a book

of statistics in 3 volumes. Currently, He is supervising a group of assistant-teachers preparing

their doctoral theses. He was several times rapporteur of thesis and viva member or president.

Previously, He was the ﬁrst director of the Department of the Quantitative Methods and Data

Processing at the Faculty of Economic Sciences and Management of Sfax. He was named pres-

ident or member of several national juries for the recruitment of teachers in management and

quantitative methods on several levels.

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