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Mayo, George Elton 1


Human Relations Moement
!ro"essor George Elton Mayo #1$$%&1'(') *e+ame "amous as t,e lea-er in a
series o" e./eriments t,at *e+ame one o" t,e great turning&/oints in management
t,in0ing1 At t,e Ha2t,orne /lant o" 3estern Ele+tri+, ,e -is+oere- t,at 4o* satis"a+tion
in+rease- t,roug, em/loyee /arti+i/ation in -e+isions rat,er t,an t,roug, s,ort&term
Mayo5s im/ortan+e to management lies in t,e "a+t t,at ,e esta*lis,e- ei-en+e on
t,e alue o" a management a//roa+, an- style t,at, alt,oug, not ne+essarily an
alternatie to Taylor5s s+ienti"i+ management, /resente- "a+ts 2,i+, Taylorites +oul- not
T,e role t,at Mayo ,a- in t,e -eelo/ment o" management is usually asso+iate-
2it, ,is -is+oery o" so+ial man an- t,e nee- "or t,is in t,e 2or0 /la+e1 Mayo "oun- t,at
2or0ers a+te- a++or-ing to sentiments an- emotion1 He "elt t,at i" you treate- t,e 2or0er
2it, res/e+t an- trie- to meet t,eir nee-s t,an t,ey 2oul- *e a *etter 2or0er "or you an-
*ot, management an- t,e em/loyee 2oul- *ene"it1 T,is is /ointe- out in ,is *oo0s t,at
,e 2rote1
Mayo6s 2or0 +ontri*ute- to management t,eory t,roug, resear+, +on-u+te- at
3estern Ele+tri+6s Ha2t,orne 3or0s t,at too0 /la+e "rom 1'78 & 1'971 Mayo 2as also
a*le to /roi-e +on+rete ei-en+e to su//ort :ollet6s t,eory t,at t,e la+0 o" attention to
,uman relations,i/s 2as a ma4or "la2 in ot,er management t,eories1 #Rieger, 1'';, / 1)
Mayo, George Elton 7
He 2as a*le to /roe t,at em/loyees -i- rea+t *etter 2,en t,ey ,a- goo- relations,i/s
2it, t,e management t,at t,ey 2or0e- 2it,1 I" management 2oul- treat t,e em/loyees
2it, res/e+t an- gie t,em t,e attention at t,e 2or0 /la+e t,at t,ey nee-e-, t,en t,e
2or0ers 2oul- *e more 2illing to 2or0 ,ar-er "or t,e em/loyer1 T,e 2as not totally 2,at
t,e Ha2t,orn stu-y 2as loo0ing at "or t,ey 2ere "o+using on 2or0ing +on-itions su+, as
lig,ting t,at t,e 2or0ers 2or0e- in an- ot,er "a+tors t,at +oul- easily *e +,ange- 2it,
out management ,aing to -o mu+,1 T,e real solution 2as to ,ae management get more
inole- 2it, t,e 2or0ers1
George Elton Mayo 2as in +,arge o" +ertain e./eriments on ,uman *e,aior
+arrie- out at t,e Ha2t,orne 3or0s o" t,e General Ele+tri+ <om/any in <,i+ago
*et2een 1'7( an- 1'781 His resear+, "in-ings ,ae +ontri*ute- to organi=ation
-eelo/ment in terms o" ,uman relations an- motiation t,eory1
:lo2ing "rom t,e "in-ings o" t,ese inestigations ,e +ame to +ertain +on+lusions
as "ollo2s:
3or0 is a grou/ a+tiity1
T,e so+ial 2orl- o" t,e a-ult is /rimarily /atterne- a*out 2or0 a+tiity1
T,e nee- "or re+ognition, se+urity an- sense o" *elonging is more im/ortant in
-etermining 2or0ers6 morale an- /ro-u+tiity t,an t,e /,ysi+al +on-itions un-er
2,i+, ,e 2or0s1
A +om/laint is not ne+essarily an o*4e+tie re+ital o" "a+ts> it is +ommonly a
sym/tom mani"esting -istur*an+e o" an in-ii-ual6s status /osition1
T,e 2or0er is a /erson 2,ose attitu-es an- e""e+tieness are +on-itione- *y
so+ial -eman-s "rom *ot, insi-e an- outsi-e t,e 2or0 /lant1
<on-itions 2it,in t,e 2or0 /lant strong so+ial +ontrols oer t,e 2or0
,a*its an- attitu-es o" t,e in-ii-ual 2or0er1
T,e +,ange "rom an esta*lis,e- so+iety in t,e ,ome to an a-a/tie so+iety in t,e
2or0 /lant resulting "rom t,e use o" ne2 te+,ni?ues ten-s +ontinually to -isru/t
t,e so+ial organi=ation o" a 2or0 /lant an- in-ustry generally1
Mayo, George Elton 9
The Hawthorne Experiments
T,e original resear+, /lan 2as to stu-y t,e e""e+ts o" /,ysi+al +on-itions #lig,t,
noise, tem/erature) on /ro-u+tiity1 @ut 2,at t,e resear+,ers "oun- 2as t,at /ro-u+tiity
2as largely -etermine- *y t,e so+ial +on-itions at 2or01 T,ese +on-itions are s,a/e- *y
t,e o//ortunities 2or0ers ,ae to "orge in"ormal allian+es1
T,e t,esis o" t,ese HR 2riters is a/tly +a/ture- *y Mayo #1'(;, /1 1%): A111
/ro*lems o" a*senteeism, la*or turnoer, 62il-+at6 stri0es, s,o2 t,at 2e -o not 0no2 ,o2
to ensure s/ontaneity o" +oo/eration> t,at is team2or01A T,ere"ore, A+olla*oration in an
in-ustrial so+iety +annot *e le"t to +,an+e111A
T,e single most im/ortant -is+oery o" t,e Ha2t,orne e./eriments 2as t,at
2or0ers ,a- a strong nee- to cooperate an- communicate 2it, "ello2 2or0ers1 In
Mayo6s 2or-s #1'(;, /1 117), A111 t,e eager ,uman -esire "or +oo/eratie a+tiity still
/ersists in t,e or-inary /erson an- +an *e utili=e- *y intelligent an- straig,t"or2ar-
management1A Moreoer, t,e *est stru+ture "or t,is 2as /roi-e- *y informal groups
#rat,er t,an "ormal 2or0 teams), as t,ey /roi-e- t,eir mem*ers 2it, t,e *asi+ nee- "or
+ommuni+ation an- +oo/eration1 Most im/ortantly, on+e "orge-, t,e grou/ maintaine- a
strong gri/ oer 2or0er *e,aiors an- attitu-es #/ro-u+tiity)1 In Mayo6s #1'(;, /1 8')
2or-s, At,e 2or0ing grou/ as a 2,ole a+tually -etermine- t,e out/ut o" in-ii-ual
2or0ers *y re"eren+e to a stan-ar-, /re-etermine- *ut neer +learly state-, t,at
re/resente- t,e grou/ +on+e/tion #rat,er t,an management6s) o" a "air -ay6s 2or01 T,is
stan-ar- 2as rarely, i" eer, in a++or- 2it, t,e stan-ar-s o" t,e e""i+ien+y engineers1A
Taylor strie- to minimi=e t,e li0eli,oo- an- e""e+t o" t,e in"ormal grou/, Mayo 2is,e-
to ,arness it #in a limite- 2ay), an- TBM e./erts ,ae "ormali=e- it1
Mayo, George Elton (
T,e Human Relations moement em/,asi=e- emotional as/e+ts in ,uman
*e,aior, yet still maintaine- t,e -iision o" la*or *et2een t,ose 2,o /lanne- an- t,ose
2,o e.e+ute-1 @eing intelle+tually +onseratie, Human Relations a-o+ates 2or0e-
"rom assum/tions o" un-erlying em/loyee&em/loyer ,armony1 T,ey attri*ute- restri+tion
o" out/ut to t,e /oor +ommuni+ation *et2een 2or0ers an- managers, an- ina-e?uate
attention to t,e ,uman si-e o" 2or0er1 T,e latter resulte- in a A"alse +ons+iousness,A
2,ere*y 2or0ers "aile- to a//re+iate t,at t,eir interests 2ere i-enti+al to t,eir managers61
To sole t,ese /ro*lems, managers s,oul- "a+ilitate t,e "ormation o" in"ormal grou/s an-
*e a++e/te- as "igures o" aut,ority #managers s,oul- *e+ome +ulture *uil-ers)1 :or t,is
/ur/ose, management 2as /roi-e- 2it, a ne2 set o" tools && so+ial s0ills #//1 1', 7%)1
Managers ,ae to *e /atient 2it, t,eir 2or0ers, listen to t,em, an- aoi- +reating
emotional u/sets #//1 1%$&')1
"Authority therefore in actual exercise demands a capacity for vision and
wise guidance that must be re-achieved daily: since the cooperation of others is a
vital element in it, social understanding and social skill are involved equally with
technical knowledge and capacity. ...we do nothing whatever to develop social
insight or to impart social skill. ndeed we provide an education that operates to
hinder the development of such skills. And the general public, business leaders, and
politicians are left with the implication that mankind is an unorgani!ed rabble upon
which order must be imposed" #/1 ;%)1
Managers s,oul- learn t,at em/loyees6 so+ial nee-s 2ere no less im/ortant t,an
em/loyees6 e+onomi+ nee-s an- t,at t,e logi+ o" +ost e""i+ien+y s,oul- gie some room
to t,e logi+ o" ,uman sentiments1 T,e goo- manager 2as t,e one 2,o 2as a*le to *len-
te+,ni+al e./ertise 2it, so+ial +a/a*ilities1 T,e su++ess"ul manager listene- to ,is
em/loyees, intro-u+e- t,em to t,eir ne2 +om/anions, an- trie- to get t,em +ongenial
2or0 asso+iates #/1 1%$)1 Cu+, managers 2ere a*le to "a+ilitate t,e "ormation o" informal
Mayo, George Elton ;
groups an- gain t,e cooperation o" t,eir 2or0ers #*e a++e/te- as "igure ,ea-s an-
lea-ers #Mayo, /1 ')1
Li0e Taylor, t,e Human Relations a-o+ates 2ante- to rationali=e management in
or-er to in+rease 2or0ers6 e""ort at 2or01 Ho2eer, t,eir un-erlying assum/tions 2ere
?uite -i""erent1 Taylor *eliee- in t,e Ara**le ,y/ot,esisA && Natural so+iety +onsists o" a
,or-e o" unorgani=e- in-ii-uals> eery in-ii-ual a+ts in a manner +al+ulate- to se+ure
,is sel"&interest> eery in-ii-ual t,in0s logi+ally, to t,e *est o" ,is a*ility, in t,e seri+e
o" t,is aim1 T,is is 2,y t,e *est 2ay to in-u+e 2or0ers to 2or0 ,ar-er is to o""er t,em
more money1
Human Relations 2riters, on t,e ot,er ,an-, -ismisse- t,e +entrality o" t,e +as, an- instea- em/,asi=e- /o2er, status, an- grou/ +o,eren+e as t,e -eterminants o"
2or0er /er"orman+e1 Mayo +laime- t,at t,e ra**le ,y/ot,esis t,at gui-e- neo&+lassi+al
e+onomists is *ase- on a non&normal situation o" total so+ial -isintegration #//1 (%&(()1
T,e /ro/onents o" t,e ra**le ,y/ot,esis A,ae small knowledge-of-acquaintance #as
o//ose- to knowledge about) o" arious so+ial situations, a negligi*le e?ui/ment o"
so+ial s0ill, an- are a*le to ignore t,e "a+ts o" ,uman organi=ation, an- t,e e.treme
im/ortan+e o" t,ese "a+ts "or ,im 2,o 2oul- -ire+t t,e 2or0 an- t,oug,t o" ot,ersA #/1
In Mayo6s #1'(;, /1 111) 2or-s,
""an#s desire to be continuously associated in work with his fellows is a strong,
if not the strongest, human characteristic. Any disregard of it by management or any ill-
advised attempt to defeat this human impulse leads instantly to some form of defeat for
management itself."
Mayo, George Elton D
!eo/le resort to sel"&interest 2,en so+ial asso+iations ,ae "aile- t,em #(9)1 In s,ort,
Taylor6s e+onomi+ man gae 2ay to t,e so+ial man 2,ile t,e ultimate target remaine-
inta+t && t,e rationali=ation o" t,e managerial /ro"ession1
To sum u/, Mayo *eliee- t,at in-ustriali=ation an- -estru+tion o" +ra"t systems
,a- +ause- so+ial -isintegration an- normless, mala-4uste- *e,aior1 At 2or0, t,e
2or0er&management a-ersarial relations,i/ stemme- "rom 2or0ers6 misun-erstan-ing
an- -istrust o" management1 Management +ontri*ute- to t,is situation *y *eing more
+on+erne- 2it, e+onomi+ e""i+ien+y t,an 2it, so+ial soli-arity, t,ere*y -riing alienate-
2or0ers to see0 asylum in in"ormal 2or0 grou/s1 T,ese grou/s 2ere t,en use- to
un-ermine management1 Mayo6s /rognosis 2as t2o"ol- && management s,oul- a+?uire
so+ial s0ills, an- use t,em to se+ure 2or0ers6 +oo/eration1 T,e /rimary e,i+le to its
a+,ieement is in"ormal grou/s1 T,us, nurturing su/erisors +an a-4ust 2or0ers to
*ureau+rati+ li"e *y "a+ilitating t,e +reation o" in"ormal 2or0 grou/s, an- t,en ta0ing
+ontrol oer t,em1 Eentually, i" /ro/erly -one, management s,oul- *e a*le to align
2or0ers6 interests 2it, management6s1 3or0ers 2oul- *e+ome +onin+e- t,at managers
2ere on t,eir si-e, an- t,at organi=ational *ureau+ra+ies 2ere +ommunities o" /ro-u+ers1
T,is s,oul- result in 2or0ers ,aing a sense o" /arti+i/ation, a "eeling o" release "rom
+onstraint, an- a -esire to a-an+-e t,e organi=ation6s #i1e1, management6s) interests1 @ut
s/e+iali=e- 4o*s an- e.isting /o2er stru+tures 2oul- remain inta+t1 3or0ers 2oul-
/arti+i/ate only in marginal -e+isions, in +,oosing su+, t,ings as t,e +olors o" restroom
2alls, not in any strategi+ -e+isions1