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Math formulas
Chemistry formulas
In an x-y Cartesian coordinate system, equation
of the circle is:
(x-a)
2
+ (y-b)
2
= r
2

sin 0
°
= 0
cos 0
°
= 1 tan 0
°
= 0
sin 30
°
= 1/2 cos 30
°
= (√3)/2
tan 30
°
= 1/(√3) sin 45
°
= 1/(√2)
cos 45
°
= 1/(√2) tan 45
°
= 1
sin 60
°
= (√3)/2 cos 60
°
= 1/2
tan 60
°
= √3 sin 90
°
= 1
cos 90
°
= 0 tan 90
°
= ∞
sinq = 1/cosecq cosq = 1/secq
tanq = 1/cotq sinq/cosq = tanq
sin
2
q + cos
2
q = 1 1 + tan
2
q = sec
2
q
1 + cot
2
q = cosec
2
q sin( 90
°
- q ) = cosq
cos( 90
°
- q ) = sinq tan( 90
°
- q ) = cotq
sin( 90
°
+ q ) = cosq cos( 90
°
+ q ) = - sinq
tan( 90
°
+ q ) = - cotq sin( 180
°
- q ) = sinq
cos( 180
°
- q ) = - cosq tan( 180
°
- q ) = - tanq
sin( 180
°
+ q ) = - sinq cos( 180
°
+ q ) = - cosq
tan( 180
°
+ q ) = tanq
Pythagorean Theorem:
The square of the length of the
hypotenuse of a right triangle is equal
to the sum of the squares of the legs
a
2
= b
2
+ c
2

a,b - two sides of the triangle
connected by the right angle
c - hypotenuse of the triangle
circumference of a circle
circumference of a circle = 2 . π . r
where,
π = PI = 22/7
Area of Triangle
Area of Triangle = (1/2) . b . h
where,
h = height of triangle
b = the length of the base of triangle
Area of rectangle
Area of rectangle = l . b
where,
l = length of rectangle
b = width of rectangle
Area of circle
Area of circle = π . r
2

where,
π = PI = 22/7
Area of trapezoid
Area of trapezoid = (1/2) . (height). (base one +
base two)
Area of Ellipse
Area of Ellipse = π . r
1
. r
2

where,
r
1
r
2
Area of Cylinder (surface area)
Area of Cylinder (surface area) =
2 . π . r . h
where,
h = length of cylinder
Area of Cone (surface area)
Area of Cone (surface area) =
π . r . l
where,
l = length of side of the cone
Volume of cylinder
Volume of cylinder = π . r
2
. h
where,
π = PI = 22/7
h = length of cylinder
Volume of sphere
Volume of sphere = (4/3) . π . r
3

where,
π = PI = 22/7
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Volume of Cone
Volume of Cone = (1/3) . π . r
2
. h
where,
π = PI = 22/7
h = height of cone
sin(-x) = -sin(x)
cosec(-x) = -cosec(x) cos(-x) = cos(x)
sec(-x) = sec(x) tan(-x) = -tan(x)
cot(-x) = -cot(x)
sin( a + b ) = sina cosb + cosa sinb
sin( a - b ) = sina cosb - cosa sinb cos( a + b ) = cosa cosb - sina sinb
cos( a - b ) = cosa cosb + sina sinb
tan( a + b ) =
(tana + tanb)
(1 - tana
tanb)
tan( a - b ) =
(tana - tanb)
(1 + tana
tanb)
sin2a = 2 sina cosa
cos2a = cos
2
a - sin
2
a = 2cos
2
a - 1 = 1 - 2sin
2
a
tan2a =
(2 tana)
(1 -
tan
2
a)
sin3a = 3sina - 4sin
3
a cos3a = 4cos
3
a - 3cosa
For any triangle ABC with side lengths a,b,c
Law of Cosines
c
2
= a
2
+ b
2
- 2 a b cos C
b
2
= c
2
+ a
2
- 2 c a cos B
a
2
= b
2
+ c
2
- 2 b c cos A
Law of Sines
sinA/a = sinB/b = sinC/c
cos θ cos β =
cos(θ - β) + cos(θ + β)
2
sin θ sin β =
cos(θ - β) - cos(θ + β)
2
sin θ cos β =
sin(θ + β) + sin(θ - β)
2
sin
3
θ =
3sin θ - sin 3θ
4
cos
3
θ =
3cos θ + cos 3θ
4
sin
3
θ . cos
3
θ =
3sin 2θ - sin 6θ
32
sin
4
θ =
3 - 4 cos 2θ + cos 4θ
8
cos
4
θ =
3 + 4 cos 2θ + cos 4θ
8
sin
4
θ . cos
4
θ =
3 - 4 cos 4θ + cos 8θ
128
sin
5
θ =
10 sin θ - 5 sin 3θ + sin 5θ
16
cos
5
θ =
10 cos θ + 5 cos 3θ + cos 5θ
16
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sin
5
θ . cos
5
θ =
10 sin 2θ - 5 sin 6θ + sin 10θ
512
For the equation:
a x
2
+ b x + c = 0
the value of x will be
x =
- b ± √ (b
2
- 4 a c)
2 a
(a + b)
2
= a
2
+ 2 a b + b
2
(a - b)
2
= a
2
- 2 a b + b
2

(a + b) . (a - b) = (a
2
- b
2
)
Arithmetic progression: Arithmetic
progression is a sequence of numbers
such that the difference of any two
successive members of the sequence is a
constant.
For example: Suppose a
1
, a
2
, a
3
, a
4
,
...... , a
n-1
, a
n
are in sequence of
arithmetic progression
Then the first term of an arithmetic
series is a
1
and assume that the common
difference of successive members is d,
then the n
th
term of the sequence is:
a
n
= a
1
+ (n - 1).d
The sum of all the components of an
arithmetic series is:
S
n
= a
1
+ a
2
+ a
3
+ ....... + a
n-1
+ a
n

i.e. S
n
= (n).(a
1
+ a
n
)/2
Calculator for solving arithmetic series
Geometric progression: geometric progression OR
geometric series is a sequence of numbers such
that the quotient of any two successive members
of the sequence is a constant. The ratio of two
successive number is called common ratio. The
constant ratio must not be equal to 0.
Example of geometric series :
ar
1
, ar
2
, ar
3
, . ....... ., ar
n-1
, ar
n

The n
th
term of the geometric series can be
defined as:
a
n
= a r
(n - 1)

r is called common ratio and n must be greater
than 0:
Calculator for solving geometric series
Logarithms:
log
b
1 = 0
log
b
b = 1
log
b
(X . Y) = log
b
X + log
b
Y
log
b
(X / Y) = log
b
X - log
b
Y
log
b
(X
n
) = n . log
b
X
log
m
n . log
n
m = 1
dC
= 0
dx
d(Cu)
= C
du
dx dx
d(u + v)
=
du
+
dv
dx dx dx
d(u . v)
= u
dv
+ v
du
dx dx dx
d
(
u
) =
v (du/dx) - u (dv/dx)
dx v
v
2
d
( u
n
) = n u
n-1

du
dx dx
d
( x
n
) = n x
n-1

dx
d
( C
u
) = C
u
ln(C)
du
dx dx
d
( e
u
) = e
u
du
dx dx
d( ln(u))
=
1du
dx udx
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d( sin(u))
= cos(u)
du
dx dx
d( cos(u))
= - sin(u)
du
dx dx
d( tan(u))
= sec
2
(u)
du
dx dx
d( cosec(u))
= - cosec(u) . cot(u)
du
dx dx
d( sec(u))
= sec(u) . tan(u)
du
dx dx
d( cot(u))
= - cosec
2
(u)
du
dx dx
d(sin
-1
u)
=
1 du
dx dx
d(cos
-1
u)
=
-1 du
dx dx
d(tan
-1
u)
=
1 du
dx
1 +
u
2
dx
d(cot
-1
u)
=
- 1 du
dx
1 +
u
2
dx
d(sec
-1
u)
=
1 du
dx |u| dx
d(cosec
-1
u)
=
-1 du
dx |u| dx
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