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Limits and Derivatives Formulas
1. Limits
Properties
if lim ( )
x a
f x l

= and lim ( )
x a
g x m

= , then
[ ] lim ( ) ( )
x a
f x g x l m

± = ±
[ ] lim ( ) ( )
x a
f x g x l m

⋅ = ⋅
( )
lim
( )
x a
f x l
g x m

= where 0 m ≠
lim ( )
x a
c f x c l

⋅ = ⋅
1 1
lim
( )
x a
f x l

= where 0 l ≠
Formulas
1
lim 1
n
x
e
n
→∞
 
+ =
 
 

( )
1
lim 1
n
x
n e
→∞
+ =
0
sin
lim 1
x
x
x

=
0
tan
lim 1
x
x
x

=
0
cos 1
lim 0
x
x
x


=
1
lim
n n
n
x a
x a
na
x a



=


0
1
lim ln
n
x
a
a
x


=

2. Common Derivatives
Basic Properties and Formulas
( ) ( ) cf cf x

′ =
( ) ( ) ( ) f g f x g x

′ ′ ± = +
Product rule
( ) f g f g f g

′ ′ ⋅ = ⋅ + ⋅
Quotient rule
2
f f g f g
g
g

′ ′   ⋅ − ⋅
=
 
 


Power rule
( )
1 n n
d
x nx
dx

=

Chain rule
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
d
f g x f g x g x
dx
′ ′ =

Common Derivatives
( ) 0
d
c
dx
=
( ) 1
d
x
dx
=
( ) sin cos
d
x x
dx
=
( ) cos sin
d
x x
dx
= −
( )
2
2
1
tan sec
cos
d
x x
dx
x
= =
( ) sec sec tan
d
x x x
dx
=
( ) csc csccot
d
x x
dx
= −
( )
2
2
1
cot csc
sin
d
x x
dx
x
= − = −
( )
1
2
1
sin
1
d
x
dx
x

=


( )
1
2
1
cos
1
d
x
dx
x

= −


( )
1
2
1
tan
1
d
x
dx
x

=
+

( )
ln
x x
d
a a a
dx
=
( )
x x
d
e e
dx
=
( )
1
ln , 0
d
x x
dx x
= >
( )
1
ln , 0
d
x x
dx x
= ≠
( )
1
log , 0
ln
a
d
x x
dx x a
= >

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3. Higher-order Derivatives
Definitions and properties
Second derivative
2
2
d dy d y
f
dx dx dx
 
′′ = −
 
 

Higher-Order derivative
( ) ( )
( )
1 n n
f f


=
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
n n n
f g f g + = +
( )
( )
( ) ( )
n
n n
f g f g − = −
Leibniz’s Formulas
( ) 2 . f g f g f g f g
′′
′′ ′ ′ ′′ ⋅ = ⋅ + ⋅ +
( ) 3 3 f g f g f g f g f g
′′′
′′′ ′′ ′ ′ ′′ ′′′ ⋅ = ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( ) 1 2
1
...
1 2
n n n n n
n n
f g f g nf g f g fg
− −

′′ ⋅ = + + + +


Important Formulas
( )
( )
( )
!
!
n
m m n
m
x x
m n

=


( )
( )
!
n
n
x n =
( )
( )
( ) ( )
1
1 1 !
log
ln
n
n
a
n
n
x
x a

− −
=


( )
( )
( ) ( )
1
1 1 !
ln
n
n
n
n
x
x

− −
=
( )
( )
ln
n
x x n
a a a =
( )
( ) n
x x
e e =
( )
( )
ln
n
mx n mx n
a m a a =
( )
( )
sin sin
2
n n
x x
π  
= +
 
 

( )
( )
cos cos
2
n n
x x
π  
= +
 
 