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Limits Formulae

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Limits and Derivatives Formulas

1. Limits

Properties

if lim ( )

x a

f x l

→

= and lim ( )

x a

g x m

→

= , then

[ ] lim ( ) ( )

x a

f x g x l m

→

± = ±

[ ] lim ( ) ( )

x a

f x g x l m

→

⋅ = ⋅

( )

lim

( )

x a

f x l

g x m

→

= where 0 m ≠

lim ( )

x a

c f x c l

→

⋅ = ⋅

1 1

lim

( )

x a

f x l

→

= where 0 l ≠

Formulas

1

lim 1

n

x

e

n

→∞

+ =

( )

1

lim 1

n

x

n e

→∞

+ =

0

sin

lim 1

x

x

x

→

=

0

tan

lim 1

x

x

x

→

=

0

cos 1

lim 0

x

x

x

→

−

=

1

lim

n n

n

x a

x a

na

x a

−

→

−

=

−

0

1

lim ln

n

x

a

a

x

→

−

=

2. Common Derivatives

Basic Properties and Formulas

( ) ( ) cf cf x

′

′ =

( ) ( ) ( ) f g f x g x

′

′ ′ ± = +

Product rule

( ) f g f g f g

′

′ ′ ⋅ = ⋅ + ⋅

Quotient rule

2

f f g f g

g

g

′

′ ′ ⋅ − ⋅

=

Power rule

( )

1 n n

d

x nx

dx

−

=

Chain rule

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

d

f g x f g x g x

dx

′ ′ =

Common Derivatives

( ) 0

d

c

dx

=

( ) 1

d

x

dx

=

( ) sin cos

d

x x

dx

=

( ) cos sin

d

x x

dx

= −

( )

2

2

1

tan sec

cos

d

x x

dx

x

= =

( ) sec sec tan

d

x x x

dx

=

( ) csc csccot

d

x x

dx

= −

( )

2

2

1

cot csc

sin

d

x x

dx

x

= − = −

( )

1

2

1

sin

1

d

x

dx

x

−

=

−

( )

1

2

1

cos

1

d

x

dx

x

−

= −

−

( )

1

2

1

tan

1

d

x

dx

x

−

=

+

( )

ln

x x

d

a a a

dx

=

( )

x x

d

e e

dx

=

( )

1

ln , 0

d

x x

dx x

= >

( )

1

ln , 0

d

x x

dx x

= ≠

( )

1

log , 0

ln

a

d

x x

dx x a

= >

www.mathportal.org

3. Higher-order Derivatives

Definitions and properties

Second derivative

2

2

d dy d y

f

dx dx dx

′′ = −

Higher-Order derivative

( ) ( )

( )

1 n n

f f

−

′

=

( )

( ) ( ) ( )

n n n

f g f g + = +

( )

( )

( ) ( )

n

n n

f g f g − = −

Leibniz’s Formulas

( ) 2 . f g f g f g f g

′′

′′ ′ ′ ′′ ⋅ = ⋅ + ⋅ +

( ) 3 3 f g f g f g f g f g

′′′

′′′ ′′ ′ ′ ′′ ′′′ ⋅ = ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅

( )

( ) ( ) ( )

( )

( ) ( ) 1 2

1

...

1 2

n n n n n

n n

f g f g nf g f g fg

− −

−

′′ ⋅ = + + + +

⋅

Important Formulas

( )

( )

( )

!

!

n

m m n

m

x x

m n

−

=

−

( )

( )

!

n

n

x n =

( )

( )

( ) ( )

1

1 1 !

log

ln

n

n

a

n

n

x

x a

−

− −

=

⋅

( )

( )

( ) ( )

1

1 1 !

ln

n

n

n

n

x

x

−

− −

=

( )

( )

ln

n

x x n

a a a =

( )

( ) n

x x

e e =

( )

( )

ln

n

mx n mx n

a m a a =

( )

( )

sin sin

2

n n

x x

π

= +

( )

( )

cos cos

2

n n

x x

π

= +

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