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Matrices Basics

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You are on page 1of 25

**A matrix, in general sense, represents a
**

collection of information stored or arranged

in an orderly fashion. The mathematical

concept of a matrix refers to a set of numbers,

variables or functions ordered in rows and

columns. Such a set then can be defined as a

distinct entity, the matrix, and it can be

manipulated as a whole according to some

basic mathematical rules.

A matrix with 9 elements is shown below.

[ [[ [ ] ]] ]

− −− − = == =

= == =

8 1 9

6 4 7

2 5 3

A

33 32 31

23 22 21

13 12 11

a a a

a a a

a a a

Matrix [A] has 3 rows and 3 columns. Each

element of matrix [A] can be referred to by its

row and column number. For example,

6

23

= == = a

A computer monitor with 800 horizontal

pixels and 600 vertical pixels can be viewed as

a matrix of 600 rows and 800 columns.

In order to create an image, each pixel is

filled with an appropriate colour.

ORDER OF A MATRIX

The order of a matrix is defined in terms of

its number of rows and columns.

Order of a matrix = No. of rows

× ×× ×

No. of

columns

Matrix [A], therefore, is a matrix of order 3

× ×× ×

3.

COLUMN MATRIX

A matrix with only one column is called a

column matrix or column vector.

− −− − 3

6

4

ROW MATRIX

A matrix with only one row is called a row

matrix or row vector.

[ [[ [ ] ]] ] 6 5 3 − −− −

SQUARE MATRIX

A matrix having the same number of rows

and columns is called a square matrix.

− −− −

− −− −

9 4 2

4 3 5

7 4 2

RECTANGULAR MATRIX

A matrix having unequal number of rows and

columns is called a rectangular matrix.

− −− −

− −− −

13 1 4 5

8 2 9 2

1 7 3 5

REAL MATRIX

A matrix with all real elements is called a real

matrix

PRINCIPAL DIAGONAL and TRACE

OF A MATRIX

In a square matrix, the diagonal containing

the elements a

11

, a

22

, a

33

, a

44

, ……, a

nn

is called

the principal or main diagonal.

The sum of all elements in the principal

diagonal is called the trace of the matrix.

The principal diagonal of the matrix

− −− −

− −− −

9 4 2

4 3 5

7 4 2

is indicated by the dashed box. The trace of

the matrix is 2 + 3 + 9 = 14.

UNIT MATRIX

A square matrix in which all elements of the

principal diagonal are equal to 1 while all

other elements are zero is called the unit

matrix.

1 0 0

0 1 0

0 0 1

ZERO or NULL MATRIX

A matrix whose elements are all equal to zero

is called the null or zero matrix.

0 0 0

0 0 0

0 0 0

DIAGONAL MATRIX

If all elements except the elements of the

principal diagonal of a square matrix are

zero, the matrix is called a diagonal matrix.

9 0 0

0 3 0

0 0 2

RANK OF A MATRIX

The maximum number of linearly

independent rows of a matrix [A] is called

the rank of [A] and is denoted by

Rank [A].

For a system of linear equations, a unique

solution exists if the number of independent

equations is at least equal to the number of

unknowns.

In the following system of linear equations

2x - 4y + 5z = 36 … … (1)

- 3x + 5y + 7z = 7 … … (2)

5x + 3y - 8z = - 31 … … (3)

all three equations are linearly independent.

Therefor, if we form the augmented matrix

[A] for the system where

[ [[ [ ] ]] ]

− −− − − −− −

− −− −

− −− −

= == =

31 8 3 5

7 7 5 3

36 5 4 2

A

the rank of [A] will be 3.

Consider the following linear systems with 2

independent equations.

2x - 4y + 5z = 36 … … (1)

- 3x + 5y + 7z = 7 … … (2)

- x + y + 12z = 43 … … (3)

In the above set, Eqn. (3) can be generated by

adding Eqn. (1) to Eqn. (2). Therefore, Eqn.

(3) is a dependent equation.

Therefor, if we form the augmented matrix

[A] for the system where

[ [[ [ ] ]] ]

− −− −

− −− −

− −− −

= == =

43 12 1 1

7 7 5 3

36 5 4 2

A

the rank of [A] will be 2.

MATRIX OPERATIONS

Equality of Matrices

Two matrices are equal if all corresponding

elements are equal.

[A] = [B] if

ij ij

b a = == =

for all i and j

[ [[ [ ] ]] ]

= == =

8 7 3

1 5 9

3 4 2

A

[ [[ [ ] ]] ]

= == =

8 7 3

1 5 9

3 4 2

B

Addition and Subtraction

Two matrices can be added (subtracted) by

adding (subtracting) the corresponding

elements of the two matrices.

[ [[ [ ] ]] ] [ [[ [ ] ]] ] [ [[ [ ] ]] ] [ [[ [ ] ]] ] [ [[ [ ] ]] ] A B B A C + ++ + = == = + ++ + = == =

ij ij ij

b a c + ++ + = == =

Matrices [A], [B] and [C] must have the same

order.

[ [[ [ ] ]] ]

= == =

33 32 31

23 22 21

13 12 11

A

a a a

a a a

a a a

[ [[ [ ] ]] ]

= == =

33 32 31

23 22 21

13 12 11

B

b b b

b b b

b b b

[ [[ [ ] ]] ]

+ ++ + + ++ + + ++ +

+ ++ + + ++ + + ++ +

+ ++ + + ++ + + ++ +

= == =

33 33 32 32 31 31

23 23 22 22 21 21

13 13 12 12 11 11

C

b a b a b a

b a b a b a

b a b a b a

Multiplication by a scalar

If a matrix is multiplied by a scalar k, each

element of the matrix is multiplied by k.

[ [[ [ ] ]] ]

= == =

33 32 31

23 22 21

13 12 11

A

ka ka ka

ka ka ka

ka ka ka

k

Matrix multiplication

Two matrices can be multiplied together

provided they are compatible with respect to

their orders. The number of columns in the

first matrix [A] must be equal to the number

of rows in the second matrix [B]. The

resulting matrix [C] will have the same

number of rows as [A] and the same number

of columns as [B].

[ [[ [ ] ]] ]

= == =

23 22 21

13 12 11

A

a a a

a a a

[ [[ [ ] ]] ]

= == =

32 31

22 21

12 11

b b

b b

b b

B

[ [[ [ ] ]] ] [ [[ [ ] ]] ][ [[ [ ] ]] ]

= == = = == =

32 31

22 21

12 11

23 22 21

13 12 11

B A C

b b

b b

b b

a a a

a a a

[ [[ [ ] ]] ]

+ ++ + + ++ + + ++ + + ++ +

+ ++ + + ++ + + ++ + + ++ +

= == =

32 23 22 22 12 21 31 23 21 22 11 21

32 13 22 12 12 11 31 13 21 12 11 11

C

b a b a b a b a b a b a

b a b a b a b a b a b a

∑ ∑∑ ∑

= == =

= == =

m

k

kj ik ij

b a c

1

where m is the number of columns in [A] and

also the number of rows in [B].

Example:

[ [[ [ ] ]] ]

= == =

4 7 5

1 3 2

A

[ [[ [ ] ]] ]

= == =

6 5

4 1

3 2

B

[ [[ [ ] ]] ]

× ×× × + ++ + × ×× × + ++ + × ×× × × ×× × + ++ + × ×× × + ++ + × ×× ×

× ×× × + ++ + × ×× × + ++ + × ×× × × ×× × + ++ + × ×× × + ++ + × ×× ×

= == =

6 4 4 7 3 5 5 4 1 7 2 5

6 1 4 3 3 2 5 1 1 3 2 2

C

[ [[ [ ] ]] ]

= == =

67 37

24 12

C

Try the following multiplication:

[ [[ [ ] ]] ]

− −− −

= == =

5 2 4

2 3 1

4 1 2

A

[ [[ [ ] ]] ]

= == =

1 5

2 1

3 4

B

[ [[ [ ] ]] ] [ [[ [ ] ]] ][ [[ [ ] ]] ]

= == = = == =

13 39

11 17

12 29

B A C

Transpose of a Matrix

The transpose

[ [[ [ ] ]] ]

T

A

of an n m× ×× × matrix

[ [[ [ ] ]] ] A

is

the m n× ×× × matrix obtained by interchanging

the rows and columns of

[ [[ [ ] ]] ] A

.

[ [[ [ ] ]] ]

− −− − = == =

= == =

6 9 2

7 1 3

2 5 4

A

33 32 31

23 22 21

13 12 11

a a a

a a a

a a a

[ [[ [ ] ]] ]

− −− −

= == =

= == =

6 7 2

9 1 5

2 3 4

A

33 23 13

32 22 12

31 21 11

T

a a a

a a a

a a a

Transpose of a sum

[ [[ [ ] ]] ] [ [[ [ ] ]] ] ( (( ( ) )) ) [ [[ [ ] ]] ] [ [[ [ ] ]] ]

T T

T

B A B A + ++ + = == = + ++ +

Transpose of a product

[ [[ [ ] ]] ][ [[ [ ] ]] ] ( (( ( ) )) ) [ [[ [ ] ]] ] [ [[ [ ] ]] ]

T T

T

A B B A = == =

Numerical example of the product rule

[ [[ [ ] ]] ]

= == =

1 5

4 0

3 2

A

[ [[ [ ] ]] ]

= == =

3 5 1 2

1 0 3 4

B

[ [[ [ ] ]] ][ [[ [ ] ]] ] ( (( ( ) )) )

= == =

8 12 11

5 20 15

16 4 9

22 8 14

B A

T

[ [[ [ ] ]] ] [ [[ [ ] ]] ] ? A B

T T

= == =

Symmetric Matrices

A matrix

[ [[ [ ] ]] ] A

is said to be symmetric if

ji ij

a a = == =

for all i and j.

[ [[ [ ] ]] ] [ [[ [ ] ]] ]

T

A A = == =

Example:

[ [[ [ ] ]] ]

= == =

0 7 2

7 5 3

2 3 4

A

DETERMINANT OF A MATRIX

Why determinants?

In some forms of solutions for systems of

linear equations, determinants appear as

denominators in a routine manner.

In a system with 3 unknowns, the

determinant may appear in the solution in the

following way.

D

D

z

D

D

y

D

D

x

z

y

x

= == = = == = = == =

33 32 31

23 22 21

13 12 11

a a a

a a a

a a a

D = == =

33 32 31

23 22 21

13 12 11

a a a

a a a

a a a

D = == =

33 32 31

23 22 21

13 12 11

a a a

a a a

a a a

D = == =

33 32 31

23 22 21

13 12 11

a a a

a a a

a a a

D = == =

23 22

13 12

31

33 32

13 12

21

33 32

23 22

11

a a

a a

a

a a

a a

a

a a

a a

a + ++ + − −− − = == =

( (( ( ) )) ) ( (( ( ) )) )

( (( ( ) )) )

22 13 23 12 31

32 13 33 12 21 32 23 33 22 11

a a a a a

a a a a a a a a a a

− −− − + ++ +

− −− − − −− − − −− − = == =

6 5 3

2 4 1

4 3 2

D − −− −

− −− −

= == =

2 4

4 3

3

6 5

4 3

1

6 5

2 4

2

− −− −

− −− −

+ ++ +

− −− −

− −− −

− −− −

= == =

( (( ( ) )) ) ( (( ( ) )) ) ( (( ( ) )) )

76 30 38 68

4 4 2 3 3 5 4 6 3 1 5 2 6 4 2

= == = − −− − + ++ + = == =

× ×× × − −− − × ×× × + ++ + × ×× × − −− − × ×× × − −− − − −− − × ×× × + ++ + × ×× × = == =

Find the determinant:

5 0 7

1 2 6

4 1 3

− −− −

= == = D

Important Properties of Determinants

1. The value of a determinant is not altered if

its rows are written as columns in the same

order.

5 1 4

0 2 1

7 6 3

5 0 7

1 2 6

4 1 3

− −− −

= == =

− −− −

2. If any two rows ( or two columns) of a

determinant are interchanged, the

value of the determinant is multiplied

by –1.

5 0 7

4 1 3

1 2 6

5 0 7

1 2 6

4 1 3

− −− −

− −− − = == =

− −− −

3. A common factor of all elements of any row

( or column) can be placed before the

determinant.

3 3 1

2 1 5

1 2 3

4

3 3 4 1

2 1 4 5

1 2 4 3

3 12 1

2 4 5

1 8 3

− −− −

= == =

− −− − × ×× ×

× ×× ×

× ×× ×

= == =

− −− −

4. If the corresponding elements of two rows (

or columns) of a determinant are

proportional, the value of the determinant

is zero.

0

8 7 2

10 4 6

5 2 3

= == =

Meaning: Row 2 ( Row 1) is linearly

dependent on Row 1 ( Row 2). Therefore,

the linear system with three unknowns does

not have a unique solution.

5. The value of a determinant remains

unaltered if the elements of one row (or

column) are altered by adding to them any

constant multiple of the corresponding

elements in any other row ( or column).

5 0 7

1 2 6

1 2 4 2 2 1 6 2 3

5 0 7

1 2 6

4 1 3

− −− −

× ×× × + ++ + × ×× × + ++ + × ×× × + ++ +

= == =

− −− −

6. If each element of a row ( or a column) of a

determinant can be expressed as a sum of

two, the determinant can be written as the

sum of two determinants.

5 0 2 5

1 2 3 3

4 1 4 1

5 0 7

1 2 6

4 1 3

− −− − + ++ +

+ ++ +

+ ++ + − −− −

= == =

− −− −

5 0 2

1 2 3

4 1 4

5 0 5

1 2 3

4 1 1

− −− −

+ ++ +

− −− −

− −− −

= == =

= - 49

7. Determinant of a product of matrices

[ [[ [ ] ]] ][ [[ [ ] ]] ] ( (( ( ) )) ) [ [[ [ ] ]] ] [ [[ [ ] ]] ] B A B A D D D = == =

[ [[ [ ] ]] ]

− −− − = == =

1 2 4

3 1 1

4 3 2

A

[ [[ [ ] ]] ]

− −− − = == =

4 1 3

5 6 4

3 2 1

B

[ [[ [ ] ]] ] [ [[ [ ] ]] ][ [[ [ ] ]] ] B A C = == =

[ [[ [ ] ]] ]

− −− −

− −− −

= == =

26 3 15

10 11 6

37 10 26

C

[ [[ [ ] ]] ] [ [[ [ ] ]] ][ [[ [ ] ]] ] ( (( ( ) )) ) 1505 B A C = == = = == = D D

[ [[ [ ] ]] ] [ [[ [ ] ]] ] 35 B and 43 A = == = = == = D D

[ [[ [ ] ]] ] [ [[ [ ] ]] ] 1505 35 43 B A = == = × ×× × = == = D D

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