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SPM

2008
SOALAN ULANGKAJI SPM 2008
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Kertas 1
Biology
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SPM
2008
SOALAN ULANGKAJI SPM 2008
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Kertas 1
Biology
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Soalan Butiran Markah
1(a)
(b)
(c)
2 (a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
3 (a)
(b)
SECTION A
An involuntary action that occurs automatically and spontaneously without conscious control towards
a stimulus.
P : Sensory receptor
Q : Afferent neurone
R : Interneurone
S : Efferent neurone
T : Effector (biceps)
• A sharp pin pierces the skin, causing the sensory receptors in the skin to generate nerve impulses.
• The nerve impulses are transmitted along an afferent neurone toward the spinal cord.
• In the spinal cord, the nerve impulses are transmitted from the afferent neurone to an interneurone.
• From the interneurone, the nerve impulses are transmitted to an efferent neurone.
• The efferent neurone carries the nerve impulses from the spinal cord to the effector (biceps muscle)
so that the pin can be pulled out from the skin immediately.
U : Avicennia sp.
V : Bruguiera sp.
W : Rhizophora sp.
X : Sonneratia sp.
• The pioneer species of a mangrove swamp are the Sonneratia sp. and Avicennia sp.
• As the time passes, the soil becomes more compact and frm. This conditions favours the growth
of the Rhizophora sp. The root system of the Rhizophora sp. and Bruguiera sp. traps silt and mud,
creating a frmer soil structure over time
• As more sediments are deposited, the shore extends futher to the sea. Over time, terrestrial plants
like nipah palm begins to replace the Bruguiera sp.
• The gradual transition and succession from a mangrove swamp to a terrestrial forest and eventually
to a tropical rainforest, which is a climax community, takes a long time.
• Soft muddy soil
• Waterlogged soil which lacks oxygen
• Seawater with high salinity (high salt content)
• Strong sunlight and extreme heat.
1. Pneumatophores – breathing roots.
2. Hydathode (pores) in the epidermis of leaves.
3. Thick cuticles and sunken stomata.
4. Viviparity seeds.
K : Tracheal system
L : Gills flaments
Q : Air enters Q through tiny opening.
T : To prevent the air tubes from collapsing or become
defated.
2 marks
5 marks
5 marks
4 : 2 marks
2 –3 : 1 mark
0 –1 : 0 mark
3 marks
2 marks
3 marks
2 marks
4 marks
SPM
2008
SOALAN ULANGKAJI SPM 2008
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Soalan Butiran Markah
(c)
(d)
(e)
4 (a)
(b)(i)
(ii)
(c)
(d)(i)
(ii)
• Air enters the tracheae through the spiracles and travels through the tracheoles to the fuid-flled tips.
• Oxygen in the fuid diffuses directly from the tracheoles into the cells, and carbon dioxide diffuses out
from the cells into the tracheoles.
• When an insect inhales, the abdominal muscles relax and P open. The increased air pressure forces
air out through P.
• The tracheal tubes carry oxygen from the air directly to body cells.
K L
The large number of tracheoles provides a large
surface area for the diffusion of gases
The large surface area of the flaments and
lamellae increases the effciency of gaseous
exchange in fsh.
A : Bone tissue
B : Muscle tissue
Tendon

Tendon


• The movement of the forelimb is brought about by the contraction and relaxation of a pair of
antagonistic muscles A and B.
• The arm is fexed by the contraction of the B muscle. The C muscle relax as the B muscle contract
causing the arm bent. The B muscle become thicker and shorter. Contraction of the B muscle pulls the
ulna up thus bending the arm at the elbow joint.
• To straighten the arm, the C muscle contract while the B muscle relax. Contraction of the C muscle
pulls the ulna down and the arm is straighten.
More effort is required.
So that a larger force is produced to lift the thing.
2 marks
2 marks
2 marks
2 marks
1 mark
1 mark
3 marks
1 mark
2 marks
Kertas 2
Biology
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SPM
2008
SOALAN ULANGKAJI SPM 2008
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Soalan Butiran Markah
5 (a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)(i)
(ii)
6 (a)
(b)
(c)
P is produced by an anther
Q is produced by a testis.
M : pollen tube
N : tail of the aperm
K : the generative nucleus
M : The pollen tube grows down through the tissues of the
style and enters the ovule through the micropyle.
N : The tail helps the sperm to propel towards the ovum.
The generative nucleus (K) divides by mitosis to form two male gamete nuclei while the tube nucleus
(L) disintegrates.
Double fertilization.
• The body needs a balanced diet which contains carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, mineral salts,
fbres and water in the correct proportion.
• A balanced diet sustains the body and maintains health and for growth and repair.
• Malnutrition is caused by an insuffcient intake o one or more nutrients in our diet.
• Malnutrition may be caused by eating too little, or overeating of certain types of food, which does not
supply a balanced diet.
• Eating habits refer to what a person eats, the frequency a person eats and the amount a person eats
automatically without thinking and without control.
• The meat-based fast food is not suitable for a teenager when consumed frequently for a long period
because it contains excessive amount of salts, fats, proteins and food additives.
• A balanced diet should contain seven classes of food in the correct proportions according to the age,
sex and the level of activities.
• Excess fats caused the cholesterol content in the blood to rise. This increase is likely to cause the
cholesterol to be deposited in the arteries. This can lead to cardiovascular diseases.
• Excess mineral salts increase the blood osmotic pressure. It can also lead to the formation of kidney
stones.
• Excess proteins can increase the uric acids content of the blood and lead to gout and kidney failure.
• Food favorings and colorings contain harmful chemicals that can cause cancer.
• Insuffcient fbre can lead to constipation and haemorrhoids.
2 marks
3 marks
2 marks
2 marks
2 marks
1 mark
8 Marks
2 Marks
10 Marks
Kertas 2
Biology
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SPM
2008
SOALAN ULANGKAJI SPM 2008
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Soalan Butiran Markah
7 (a)
8 (a)
• Distilled water is hypotonic to the cytoplasm of the red blood cells and the cell sap of the onion cells.
• During osmosis there is a net fow of water from the surroundings into the cell.
• The red blood cells will swell and eventually burst.
• The vacuoles in the onion cells expands and the plant cells become turgid.
• However, the cell wall prevents the onion cells from bursting because it is tough and rigid.
• Vegetables which are soaked too long in a salt solution will become soft because the salt solution is
hypertonic to the cytoplasm of the vegetable cells.
• Water fows out of the cells, causing the cytoplasm and the vacuoles to shrink.
• The plasma membranes pull away from the cell walls.
• In this condition, the cells are said to be plasmolysed.
• To make the vegetables crisp again, Puan Mashita can soak the drooped vegetables in water.
SECTION C
• Osmoregulation is the process of regulating the blood osmotic pressure by regulating the water
content and the concentration of salts in the body.
• The normal blood glucose concentration in humans is about 90 mg of glucose in 100 cm3 of blood.
• This level of glucose is regulated by the negative feedback mechanism controlled by hormones.
• Two organs are involved :
(i) Pancreas secretes the insulin directly into the blood.
(ii) Liver is the main target organ of insulin and glucagon.
• Insulin converts the excessglucose in the blood to glycogen. The conversion of glucose to glycogen
lowers the blood glucose concentration to its optimum level.
• In liver cells, the excess glucose in the blood will be converted to lipids.
• Glucagon converts the stored glycogen in the liver to glucose.
• The glucose then diffuse out of the liver cells into the blood.
• Glucagon also increases the conversion of glucose from amino acids in the liver cells.
• This increase the blood glucose concentration to its optimum level.
• Tropic response or tropism is controlled by auxins. Auxins are produced in the root tip in the cell
division zone.
• Response of root tip towards light:
i. When a root tip is exposed to light from one direction, the concentration of auxins is higher in the
shaded region.
ii. The high concentration of auxins in the shaded region of the root tip inhibits cell elongation.
iii. Cells in shaded region grow slower than cells in region exposed to light.
iv. Hence, the root bends away from the light showing negative phototropism.
Objectives of Environmental Education :
• Raising the awareness of society towards the environment and its problems.
• Helping society to change the attitude so that there will be more motivation in playing the respective
roles of shouldering the problems of the environment.
• Helping individuals to attain skills for solving environmental problems.
• Helping individuals to evaluate environmental education action and programmes.
Kertas 2
Biology
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SPM
2008
SOALAN ULANGKAJI SPM 2008
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Soalan Butiran Markah
9 (a) Objectives of Environmental Education :
• Raising the awareness of society towards the environment and its problems.
• Helping society to change the attitude so that there will be more motivation in playing the respective
roles of shouldering the problems of the environment.
• Helping individuals to attain skills for solving environmental problems.
• Helping individuals to evaluate environmental education action and programmes.
Formal environmental education:
• Students of primary and secondary schools be exposed through the Science and Biology syllabus.
Informal environmental education :
• Distribution of pamphlet and poster.
• Producing flms and magazines.
• Sponsoring exhibitions, talks and competitions on the environmental.
• Celebrating World Environmental Day.
• Collect and bury rubbish in a consistent and safe way.
• Treat human and animal waste before disposing them into the sea or river.
• Using biodegradable detergents.
• Recycle and reuse plastic, tin, aluminium materials and old newspaper.
• Educating and encouraging society on the importance of controlling pollution.
10 marks
10 marks
Kertas 2
Biology
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SPM
2008
SOALAN ULANGKAJI SPM 2008
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Soalan Butiran Markah
1(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
SECTION A
(i) 29°C
(ii) W = 43°C
X = 54°C
Y = 78°C
Z = 60°C
(i) 1. The water temperature increase when it is heated/water becomes hot.
2. The food sample will become smaller and darker.
(ii) 1. Because heat from the food sample is transferred to the water.
2. Because the food sample will be burnt and chemical energy is converted to heat energy.
Variables Particulars to be implemented
Food sample The type of food sample which is used is
different.
Temperature changes High temperature of water is recorded.
Difference between highest temperatures
with initial temperature will give temperature
change.
-Mass of sample food/
-volume of distilled water/
-distance of food sample from test tube.
-mass of food sample weighed accurately 5.0 g
-Volume of distilled water is 20 ml
-Distance of burnt food sample from the base of
test tube is the same.
Content of chemical energy in food can be determined by burning method.
(i)
Food sample Increase in water temperature Energy value
W 14 20 x 4.2 x 14 J
5g
= 235.2 J/g
X 25 20 x 4.2 x 25 J
5g
= 420.0 J/g
Y 49 20 x 4.2 x 49 J
5g
= 823.2 J/g
Z 31 20 x 4.2 x 31 J
5g
= 520.8 J/g

5√ = 3m
4 – 3√ = 2m
2√ = 1m
0 – 1 √ = 0m
3m
3m
1√ = 1m
Total = 6 m
3m
4√ = 3m
3√ = 2m
2√ = 1m
0 - 1√ = 0m
Kertas 3
Biology
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SPM
2008
SOALAN ULANGKAJI SPM 2008
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Soalan Butiran Markah
(f)
(g)
(h)
(i)
(ii) Food Y has high energy value so that food Y may contains a lot of fats. // Food W contains high
carbohydrate but less fats.
1. The water in the boiling tube must be stirred during the experiment to ensure even distribution of
heat.
2. A shield must be used to enclose the boiling tube to minimize the heat loss to the surroundings.
The experimental energy value is different from the actual energy value of the food sample because of
the surroundings as heat energy and light energy.
Energy value is the amount of heat generated from the combustion of one gram of food sample. The
heat energy is absorbed by water thus increasing the temperature of the water.
Food samples with equivalent energy values
Carbohydrates Fats
Rice
Bread
Steamed potatoes
Butter
Palm oil
Groundnut
SECTION B
Problem Statement :
Does yeast carry out anaerobic respiration?
Aim : To investigate the process of anaerobic respiration
in yeast.
Hypothesis :
Yeast carries out anaerobic respiration and produces carbon dioxide, ethanol and heat.
Variables :
Manipulated variables : Presence of yeast
Responding variables : Carbon dioxide, ethanol and heat.
Controlled variables : Absence of oxygen
Technique used : Yeast cells are left to ferment in the absence of oxygen. The products of
fermentation, namely carbon dioxide, alcohol and heat are then detected using simple tests.
Materials/Apparatus:
Yeast suspension, glucose solution, limewater and paraffn oil, thermometers, boiling tubes,
test tubes, beakers, Bunsen burner, a tripod, wire gauze and stoppers with delivery tubes.
3m
3m
3m
3m
Title 1m
Each food
class = 1m
3m
3m
3m
Kertas 3
Biology
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SPM
2008
SOALAN ULANGKAJI SPM 2008
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Soalan Butiran Markah
Procedure :
1. Boil 100ml o water in a beaker, cool it and use it to prepare a 5% glucose solution (add boiled
water to 2.5 g glucose and bring it to 50 ml) and a 5% yeast suspension (add boiled water to 2.5 g
yeast and bring it to 50 ml).
2. Label the tubes as A and B.
3. Pour the 5% glucose solution to tubes A and B until 1/3 full. Add 5 ml of yeast suspension to tubes
A.
4. Add suffcient paraffn to tubes A and B, to form a layer covering their contents.
5. Connect both tubes with stoppers that have attached U-shaped delivery tubes and thermometer.
6. For each tube, dip the other free end of the U-shaped delivery tube into a test tube containing
limewater.
7. For each tube, record its initial temperature. Set both setups A and B aside at room temperature and
observe them again after one hour.
Results :
Boiling tube Initial temp (ºC) Final temp (ºC) Lime water Smell and appearence in
boiling tube
A 30 33 Chalky - smell of ethanol
- the solution in A is foamy
B 30 30 colourless - no smell
- solution looks clear
Conclusion :
Experimental results show that yeast carries out anaerobic respiration in the absence of oxygen,
producing heat and ethanol. Hypothesis accepted.
3m
3m
1m
1m
– complete
9 criteria
include
variables,
hypothesis
and
technique.
Biology
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Kertas 3