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Pb. D.
Department of Egyptology,
University C ollege, Lorulon.
Although women are acknowledged to have played an important role in
affairs domestic, religious, and even political in ancient Egypt, very little
work has been done to evaluate their actual rights, powers, and influence.
The studies whichhave appeared tend to be either of a general nature,
spanning events from the First Dynasty down to the Roman Period, or specialise
commentaries upon a single document or group of similar documents, dealing
only with one aspect of the subject.
There are many aspects of the lives of women in ancient Egypt which
would reward detailed examination, but the evidence is voluminous and widely
scattered, and ranges over a time span of three thousand years. This thesis
investigates the role played by woman in their families and in the community
as a whole during the Middle Kingdom, which for the purposes of this work is
defined as Dynasties Eleven, Twelve and Thirteen.
The world's great collections of Egyptian stelae have been relatively
well published, and these fors the basis of the evidence utilised in the first
two of the five sections. Section I examines the nature of the evidence to
be ate:Du:citron stelae, discusses the multiplicity of meanings of Egyptian
kin-terms, ani assembles all the examples of possible consanguineous marriages
of various types.
Section II is devoted to a detailed analysis of all individual stelae
of interest, and to the reconstruction of the family trees thus revealed.
The third section, presents a comprehensive collection of the titles
and professions of women of all classes, excluding the royal family, and
their consequent standing in the community, as revealed by paintings, reliefss
artefacts, and the comments of the Egyptians themselves in the writings of
the sages and in other literary texts.
- ii -
The fourth section reviews the legal position of weeny and hare
the paucity of evidence necessitated the inclusion of material from other
periods of pharaonic history. The individual documents have been examined
by many scholars, who were interested in Egyptian laws and legal practice,
but I have attempted to re-analyse the documents to ascertain the extent at
women's rights and duties, the degree to which they were dependent on their
male relatives, and in what fields they could act on their own initiative.
This review relies mainly upon secondary sources and doss not depend, as do
the other sections, upon re-analysis of the original evidence.
The final section deals with the costumes worn by women during the
Middle Kingdon and examines how far they can be shown to reflect their age,
status, wealth and nationality, because it has long been my belief that many
orour sources fail to convey a full and accurate picture of the variety of
colour and styles worn during life.
The results show that, though still relatively rare during the Middle
Kingdom, most degrees of consanguineous marriage were entered into by non-
royal personages, and that, while women awed Obedience to their husbands,
they could still exert and have considerable authority in certain spheres.
Rank and status among Egyptian VOMOn were well-defined by a variety of
distincticor and usages, and this thesis shows the nature and extent of their
legal status, what offices they might hold, and what powers they could
Ihile none of the results Obtained are entirely novel, the examination
and analysis, in part statistical, of this large body of evidence, have given
them greater emphasis and definition. This treatmentogombined for the first
tine with the various aspects of the social role of women, gives better
historical perspective to the character of the Middle Kingdom.
- iii -
I should like to express my appreciation to the staff, past and
present, of the Department of Egyptology of University College, Imam, for
their patience and assistance, and, above all, I thank my supervisor,
Professor H.S.Smith, for the interest he has taken in my work, and for his
=failing kindness.
I am indebted to Mr. TAX. James, Keeper of Egyptian Antiquities at
the British Mus0.--.1 for allowing me to consult the manuscript of the Corpus
of Biersg4yphic Inscriptions in the Brooklyn Museum, prior to publication;
to Dr. Abdel Kafir Selig, the Director of the Cairo Museum and Mme. Samiya
Abd-el-Aal, the Keeper, Who helped me to locate some unpublished stelae; to
Miss J.D.Bourriau of the Fitswilliam Museum, Cambridge, who allowed me to
consult the records of the excavations of the Metropolitan Museum at Art, New
York, at Lisht, an whichshe is working, and to Mr. P. Johnson of University
College, London, who is preparing a doctoral thesis on The Instruction Genre
in Ancient Egyptian Idterature, and with whom I have had many interesting
discussions on the interpretation of the wisdom texts.
I am very grateful to the Keepers of the Egyptian collections or the
Louvre, Geneva and Bolton Museums, to Mr. P.A.Clikyton, Managing Editor of the
British Museum Publications, and to the late Mr. John Keane, who all generouslj
helped ma to obtain photographs of Objects to assist my studies.
Finally, I thank my parents for the encouragement, understanding and
support that they have given me over the years.
Volume I:
List of abbreviations at jour nals  viii
List of abbreviations of stelae publications   ix
List of abbr eviations of tomb publications  
List of abbreviations of other publications   xi
Kay to symbols used in the figur es and in the family tr ees  xii
Seotion I - Family Affiliations as revealed by the stelae of the
Middle Kingdom,
Par t 1 - The Natur e and Limitations of the Evidence  
Par t 2 - Kinnhip terminology:  6
a) Alternative translations of mwt andt   I_ & &  10
b) Alter native tr anslations of sn(t) ,   • •
a) Alter native tr anslations of s3(t)   18
d) hat and nbt pr ,  19
e) pinms(t), im(t) and. 13m  20
Par t 3 - Consanguineous Marriagps
• ***  21
a) brother/sister  
10 mother /son  31
c) father /daughter   
d) aunt/nephew and unoleiniece   OO   36
e) fir st cousins   
f) in-laws  
 • 39
Section II - Analysis of the Family Trees recorded on the  
stelae of the Middle Kingdom  4.2
Volume II:
Section III - Rank and Office. Status and Employment ...  259
Groups 1 and 2 -The aristocracy and the upper middle
classes: 261
A) Non-religious titles and epithets   262
B) Religious titles   279
C) Representations of women of Groups 1 and 2   290
Group 3 -Concubines  ••••••• 294.
Group 4
- Wives of artisans, soldiers, eta  
Group 5 -The higher household servants  
Group 6 - lesser household servants  
•4... 319
Group 7 -Household servants for heavy work  329
Group 8 - Field workers   333
Group 9 -C hildren.    337
Section IV- The legal Position of Women   345
Rights of inheritance  
The right to make a will  353
The appointment of a male guardiaa   355
Women's rights to administer their own and their
children's property   359
The right to cceduct business deals   
Women as witnesses:  375
a) in court  375
b) to contracts  
••••• 376
- Ti -
P a g e
Women as principals in lawsuits   377
a) as de fe nda nts   377
b) as plaintiffs  ..•380
Ma rria g e s 384-
a ) Esta blishing the bond
b) Fina ncia l position during ma rria g e  386
c) Corre ct tre a tme nt a nd be ha viour of a wife   39(
d) Polygamy  
e) Widowhood  •.. 396
Divoroe •  397
g ) Adoption  400
The rights of concubines a nd the ir childre n   402
Se ction V- Costume a nd its re fle ction of ra nk a nd
occupa tion during the Middle King dom  405
Dre sse s, skirts and cloaks  406
Ha ir styles   439
Crowns, fille ts, le we lle ry a nd insig nia •
Sa nda ls •
Excursus A - The pre fe re nce for the ma te rna l line ,
displa ye d on ste la e of the Middle King dom  469
Excursus B - The re-use of names within the family during the
Middle Kingdom and its bearing on consanguineous marriages 473
Excursus 0 - Offe ring formula e on ste la e of the
Middle King dom  488
- vii -
Excursus D - The location of lTrives on stelae at
the Middle Kingdom  
Volume III
Notes: Section I  ....  
Section II  
Section III   
Section IV  
Section. V  O O O • .  
Excursuses  579
Bibliography (a) Publications of Stelae   ... 583
(b) O ther Works consulted  
Index of stelae   612
Index of names O f important individuals   618
Charts: 1  •  620
2   • O O O • • • 621
I The Royal Family of the Fourth Dynasty.
II The family O f Sbi of Deir el Gebrawi,
III The family of Hnm(w)-ttp II of Beni Hasani.
IV The family of Pbwty-htp of el Bershelu
V The family of 11)1,-11tp VI of Meir.
VI The families of S3-Rnpwt II of Elephantine and 'nh-tify O f Motalla.
VII The family O f Sbk-nrkt at el Kab.
VI10231111 Family trees from Middle Kingdom stelae.
LIDXCV/CIII Middle Kingdom costumes.
CIV/CIVI Middle Kingdom jewellery.
Ann. du Serv. Annales du Service des Antiquite's de l'igypte.
B.I.F.A.O. Bul.letin. de Institute frangais d' archirologie oriental..
Bulletin of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.
Bulletin of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.
Journal of the American Oriental Sooiety.
J.A.R.C.E. Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt.
J.E.A, Journal of Egyptian Archaeology.
Journal of Near Eastern Studies.
Liverpool Annals Annals of Archaeology and. Anthropology of the Institute
of Archaeology, University of Liverpool.
Mitteilungen des Deutsohen, Archaologschen Institute
Abteilung Kairo.
M6moires publiel par les nerabres de l'Institut frenais
d'archgologie oriental. du Cairo.
Proceedings of the Society of Biblical Archaeology.
Rec. de Tray. Reoeuil de Travaux relatifs 1. la Philologie et I
l'Archgologie igyptiennes et Assyria:mos.
Zeitschrift ft:r Agyptische Sprache.
Rev. d Igg. ROVUOd'iigyptologie.
Stelae publications:
Alnwiok Castle - Birch, Catalogue of the Collection of Egyptian Antiquities
at Alnwick Castle.
Athens - P8rizier, Aegyptische Grabs tome und Denksteine aus Athen und
- ix -
xammuTioNs -
Berlin - Aegyptiadhe Inschriften aus dem Oniglichen Musson ma
Bibliothaque Nationals - Legpain s Les Monuments Egyptians do la
BibJ.iothquo Nati anale•
Bologna - Kminek-Szedlos Catalog° di AntichitilEgis ie. Mus ao Civic° di
Bolton - DonOhue s The Egyptian Collection. Bolton Mus eum and Art Gallery.
Britis h MUBOUM- Halls Hieroglyphic Texts from Egyptian Stelae etc. In
the Britis h Mus eums vas.I/IV.
Cairo - Lange and Schafer, Grabe - undDenks teine des Mittleren &dohs ,
vols . I/IV.
Carls berg - Mogens en, La GlyptotEeque ny Carlsberg. La Collection
Cinquantenaire - Gaparts Muses Royaux du Cinquantenaire Brus s els .
Copenhagen- Mogens ens Ins criptions Hieivglyphiques du Mus ge National
de Copenhagus .
Field - Allen, Egyptian Stele in Field Mus eum of Natural History.
Florence - Bos ticcos Le Stele Egizianes v01.1.
Guimet - Morets Annales du Mus e; Guimets Calorie igyptiennes Sieless
Bas -reliefs s Monuments divers.
Hanover - Crsmers lgyptische Denkmaler des Xestner Mus eums in Hanover,
193 6 ,
 ps .81/108.
Heidelberg - Cttos Werke der Rundst in Heidelberg.
Leiden. 9 Boes ers Bes chreibung der AegyptischanSammlung des Niederlindiselum
Reichsmuseums des altertdmer in Leiden. pie EenkMLer der Keit
swisdheadasialtentund mittleren reich und des mittleren reiches.
- -
L o u v r e - G e , y e t , M u s ge d u L o u v r e . S t i l e s d o l a M a e d y n a s t i c , .
S t . P e t e r s b e r g - L i e b l e i n , D i e A e gy p t i s c h e n Denkmller in
S t . P e t e r s b e r g,
He l s i n gfo r s , Up s a l a u n d Co p e n h a ge n .
S t o c kh o l m - M o ge n s e n t S t e l e s ggy p t i e n n e s a u M u s fi e Naticnal de Stockholm.
S t i d d e u t s c h e n Sammlungen - A e gy p t i s c h e G r a b s t e i n e u n d D e n ks t e i n e a u s
s ' i d d e u t s c h e n S a mml u n ge n , vol.I b y S p i e ge l b e r g a n d
VOrtner, vol.11 b y D y r o ff a n d P Or t a e r .
V e r s c h i e d e n e n S a mml u n ge n . - W i e d e ma n a n d POrtner, Aegyptiache G r a b s t e i n e u n d
D e n ks t e i n e a u s v e r s o h i e d e n e n S a mml u n ge n .
V i e n n a - W r e s z i n s ki , A e gy p t i s c h e I n s c h r i f t e n s u e d e m K . K . Ho fmu s e u m in W i e n .
Z a gr e b - S a l e h , . l e e A n t i q u i t e s fg y p t i e n n e a d e Z a gr e b .
P u b l i c a t i o n s o f t o mb s :
A n t a e o p o l i s - P e t r i e , A n t a e o p o l i s . Th e To mb s o f Qa u .
A n t e fo ka r - d e G a r i s D a v i e s a n d . G a r d i n e r , Th e To mb o f A n t e fo ka r , Vizier o f
S e s o s t r i s I , , a n d o f h i s w i fe , S e n e t ( n o . 6 0 ) .
B e n i Ha s e n - N e w b e r r y , B e n i Ha s a n , vols.1/IV.
el B e r s h e h - N e w b e r r y a n d . G r i ffi t h , e l B e r s h e h , v o l s . 1 / 1 2 .
D e i r e l G e b r a w i - d e G e n e D a v i e s , Th e Ro o k To mb s o f D e i r e l G e b r i w i ,
E l e p h a n t i n e - M kL l e r , Die Felsengraber V011 Elephantine.
Five Theban Tombs - de Garin Davies, Five Theban Tombs.
el Kab - Ty l o r , Th e To mb o f S e b e kn e kh t . W a l l d r a w i n gs and mo n u me n t s o f
e l B a b .
M e i r - B l a c kma i l , The Ro o k To mb s o f He i r ,
l i o v alla - Vandier, Mo'alla. La tombs d'InIchtifi e t l a t o mb s d e S e ‘ b e kh o t e p .
S i t a n d Ri f g h - G r i ffi t h , Th e I n s c r i p t i o n s o f S t i l t a n d a i r Ri fgh .
Otherworks whose titles a r e a b b r ev ia ted in the tex t:
Ab yd os - Petrie, Ab yd os, v ols.I a n d II, a n d Cur r e lly, Ayr tc w. a n d We iga lt
Abydos, volan.
el Ar a b a h - Ga r sta n g, el Ar a b a h: A ce me te r y of the MiddleKingdom;
Survey of theOld Kingdom Temenos; Gr a ffiti from theTemple
a t Se ty.
Br ooklyn. Muse um - Ja me s, Cor pus of Hie r oglyphic Inscr iptions in the
BrooklynM u seu m : , vol.I.
Br ooklyn Pa pyr u s - Ha yes, A Papyrus of the la te Middle Kingdom in the
Br ooklyn Muse um (Pa pyr us Brooklyn35.1446).
The Elev en th Dyn a sty Tem ple - Sa v ille, The Elev en th Dyn a sty Tem ple a t
Deirel Bahari
Ka hun. Pa pyr u s - Gr iffith, Hier a tio Pa pyr i fr om Ka hu n a n d Gu r ob ,
pr in c ipa lly of the M id d le Kingdom.
Koptos - Pe tr ie , Koptos.
Sa r copha ge s - 141.08.U. Sa r a opha ge s a nt(r ie ur s a u Nouvel Empire, vols.I/II.
Sce pte r of Egypt - Hue s, M e Sc epter of Egypt, vols.]/II.
Tombs of the Cou r tier s - Petr ie, Tom b s of the Cou r tier s a n d Ozgr b ,yn khos.
Ma n
0 Wa na n
cm Insufficient da ta supplied to determine sex.
• n•  
Married to.
The marriage symbol crosses a line of a ffilia ticnt and two lines
of a ffilia tion moss.
A possible marriage.
An unidentified spouse.
XAn alliance with_ a W011821 who is not a n acknowledged wife.
I Possible child of a marriage.
Descendan.ta of a marriage • not listed individually.
Indica tion of the location of figures on a stela , a nd the
direction in which they a re fa cing.
Probably the sa me person, who ha s been na med twice.
There are also stelse, which are discussed indivicbmily inSeot'on II,
where the words an and snt are applied to the children of a sister of the
owner 0 ( 1 5 ) . Either these children were barn of a father/daughter marriage
( sea fig. 9) , or it must be concluded that, in this context, sn( t) must be
translated as nephew and niece in English.
Fig 4 . 9 = 0
sn. f snt. f( )  ( ) snt. . f 6, Owner
To these already numerous alternative translations for n( t) must be
added at least two more.
On Cairo stela 20 24 5 , the brother of the mother of the wife of the
owner is referred to as sz _a&( see fig. *. To be the actual brother of the
owner, this man would have to have been born of an otherwise unrecorded
marriage between the father of the owner and the maternal grandmother of
the wife or the owner ( see fig. 1 1 ) .
Fig .10

A an. f Fig al
I =A Owner and' LS Owner A=== C)
this is not impossible, it is more reascnkble to accept that sn( t) could
be used. of anuncle or aunt by marriage, a relative.
On Cairo stela 20457 and Florence 2546, the foster-brot era of the
respective owners are each said to be sajt . . . 1 . Lj t. S z  can therefore also be
used for foster-brothers and foster-sisters, but since a wet-nurse/also
have been her master's concubine, her children could actually be the half-
brothers and half-sisters of her nursling.
There are stelae *( 1 6) where three generations of men and women are
all referred to as being the sn( t) , of the owner. It might just be possible
to imagine a situation where enough consanguineous marriages had taken
place to produce blood relationships of this complexity, but it is unlikely
in the extreme. The reasonable alternative is that sn(t) was being used to
express some of the differing degrees of kinship discussed above.
Sister-in-law and brother-in-law are unlikely to be alternative
translations for ant and an as it was customary to refer to the brother
and sister of a wife as Ari l and entas, her brother and. her sister. The
wife of the brother of the owner was alwe,ya referred to by her relationship
to her husband, not to the owner of the stela, so either she would be
designated hmt sn.f.the wife of his brother, or her name would follow that
of her husband, as in the following typical pattern:
X born of Y.
His wife A born of B.
His brother Z born of Y.
His wife C born of D.
In order to identify the husband of his sister, the owner of the
stela. would either sham the figure of his sister in close proximity to that
of an otherwise unidentified man, *lose children were born of her, or would
name his sister twice, once as his sister, and. once as the other man's wife,
as in the following example:
X born of Y.
His wife A born of B.
His sister Z born of Y.
C born of D.
His wife Z born of I.
In conclusion, there is one meaning of an (t), involving the use of
multiple kin-terms, which deserves special consideration, and this
is the
question of whether there is any significant difference of meaning
F i g . 1 2
between s (t) mwt. f (or ha!) and sn(t) n(t) mwt. f ( o r IIA) an the one
hand, and sn(t). f mwt. f (or i tAt) and sni t/&ti Ls l_rwtf (or Li t) o n the
other, or whether they ar e var i ants of the same term.
The terms sn(t) mwt.f (or IIJ1) and LL_Itlii sntrwrtf (or 11A) are
clearly to be understood as referri ng to the maternal or paternal aunt or
uncle of the owner, but i t i s co ncei vable that sn(t). f mwt. f (or ILI) and
snft). f n(t) mwt. f ( o r li lt) wer e i ntended, to i denti fy the belt-br o ther o r
half-si ster o f the owner, that i s the chi ld o f the parent menti oned, by
another marri ag e. Thi s would be i n keepi ng wi th the Eg ypti an preference for
menti oni ng a parent's second marri ag e by i ndi rect mane.
She co nclusi ve evi dence concerni ng the meani ng of sn(t). f mwt. f
(or hut) and sn(t). f n(t) mwt.f (or 1..61) is to be found am only two stelae,
wher e detai ls ar e gi ven whi ch favo ur the uncle/aunt i nter pr etati o n.
In the fi r st case 4 1 ( 17), the man referred to as sn. f n Litt i s sai d
to be born of the known paternal g randmother of the mi ner. Thus sn.f n
must mean paternal uncle (see below fig.12), unless a mother/son uni on i s
to be postulated.
sn.f n it.f
A Owner
On the second stela *(1 8), set out i n fi g ure 1 3, the w an who i s sai d
to be nt f nt mwt f was born of the maternal gr eat-gr andmo ther o f the o wner .
Unle s i t i s sug g ested that a woman had a chi ld by the husband of her own
g randdaug hter, a hi g hly unli kely coati ng ney, i t must be accepted that
snt f nt mwt f could be used of a maternal g reat-aunt.
F i g •1 3
 snt. f nt mwt.f
011 the basis of this evid noes it will be asaumed that n(t).f,
(t) mwt.f, (or t.f1) and -LI° mwt.f (or itjf are vani ts of Lo_ziti
mwt f (or it,^) and sr (t) mwt.f (or ha), and. they will be translated as
maternal or paternal, aunt cr uncle, as appropriate .1 (13) in the discussion
of individual stelae in Section II.
c) The Usual tion of s3(t).
The Egyptian kin-terms di cussed so far have each had more than one
meaning in English, but the words a and al appear never to have meant
anything other than on and d ughter respectively. There is no evidence to
show, for example, that th y were ever used of a sal-in-law or a d ughter-in -
lawnor were they used of grandchildren.
If the or of a stela wished to include the name of his daughter-in-
law, he would either e ploy the term s3.f, the wife of his son, or he
would. put her name directly after that of his on. For e mple:
His son X born of Y.
His wife A born of B.
There are very few examples cf stel e where the son-in-law of the owner
has be n specifically identified, and this was only a hieved by naming a
girl twice, ctice as her fthee sdaughter, then again as her husband's wife,
as in the following xampla:
A born of B.
• 3 wife C b rn fD.
As on E born of C.
iisd ughter P born of C.
Xbornof l.
His w-if F born of C.
There were three methods by which the owner of a stela could establish
the identity of his grandchildren. The figure at his daughter might be
followed by those of glaand atilt her son and her daughter, or the
granddhild night be said to be si(t) .3(t) f, the son ( or daughter) of
his, meaningthe owner' s son ( or daughter) . F inally a colibinatian of
k in- terms and. nothers' nanes might be used. F or example:
I:born of r.
His wife Aborn of B.
His son 0 born of A. C new becomes the subjeot of the inscriptions
and the following k in- terms are given is relation to him.
His wife I born of N.
His son D 1 born of M.
Mere are only two occasions (on Cairo stelae 2 3 7 3 3 and 2 07 4 .9) when
the tern s3 ( t) .f is used of a child born of a woman who is herself the
chili of the owner of the stela, and these are so unusual that they say
well represent oases of father/ daughter ' marriages ( see below ps.3 4 / 3 5 ) .
One stela $ ( 2 0) was dedicated by a man who is said to be both the
son ( 13 ) of the owner, and s3 an.f n mwt.f„ the son of his maternal uncle.
I t is clear that, as the first cousin ( see below fig.1 4.), and probably
nearest surviving male relative
of the deceased, this man was dedicating
the stela in the purely priestly role of
the *beloved son". NO
consanguineous marriage can possibly be involved, here
P ig .14
A.3 an.f a art.!
d) The translation ar MI and jibt vi.
The word written in hieroglyphs as Id ez, 9 , and not to be ocnfused
with Q t=1 , whioh is also transliterated kel; but means a female servant or
slave, was regularly used on stelae for wife.
A discussion of the significanoe of the title nbt pro the lady of the
house, is presented below (see Section III, po.262A64 Here it should be
noted that, for the purposes of reconstructing family trees in Section.
a nbt pr will be considered to be the wife of the owner, if she is said to
be the mother of his children, or is shown an the stela in a place normally
reserved for the wife of the owner (see Excursus
e) The use of ppas(t), 1 2E1 1 and 13a.
These terms oocur so infrequently an the stelae under review, that they
play no significant role in the reconstruction of family trees.
The usually accepted meaning of hnms(t) , is friend *(21 ), but there are
three stelae on which it was also applied to relatives of the owner. Che
example occurs on Cairo stela 20027, but, unfortunately, as will be explained
in the discussion on this stela on pa. 44/48, the exact relationship between
the man in question and the owner of the stela cannot be asoertainad, though
he may have been his nephew. Oh Cairo stela 20025, however, the mat can
positively be identified as the sister-in-law of the owner, and she is the
mother of his second wife as well (see below ps .46/47). The
to! on Cairo
stela 20713 is the brother-in-law of the owner.
On the basis of these three examples, it cannot be assumed that Anms(t)
had the seoondary meaning of a relatile or im-laws, for in each of the three
oases quoted above, friend or companion would be an acceptable translation.
I n regard to the words igaLti and LE, the prototypes for the Coptic
words for in-laws, only three e x a m p l e s survive fro* the Middle bingdom.
In one case 0 ( 22) , the figu re of the wife of the owner of the s te l a is
followed by that of a wa a a n s a id to be jt. Sin ce the two women are plaoee
so close together the second say be the mother of the first, and she wou ld
thu s be the aother-in-law of the owner. The second example secu re on a.
stela 0 (23) which bears an inscription but n o figures. The name of i(a_.f /It
is th e l a s t bu t one in the list, and as it comes after the Lane of one of
the sisters of the owner, Tti night have been her hu sband and consequ ently
the brother-in-law of the owner. Finally there is a tomb in which the term
LIN appears in a banqu eting scene $ ( 210 . The owner and his wife face their
gu ests, who are headed by a man and his wife. This cou ple are clearly
iaportant members of the family and are probably the sou and daughter-in-law
of the owner and his wife. Behind then, drawn on a slightly smaller scale,
bu t sitting on ch a irs , wh e re a s a l l the su meeding cou ples are seated on mats,
are another man and wife. The man is said to be ‘, 13m.f, bu t fu rther details
are not su pplied, so the exact relationship to the owner cannot be established
Part 3 - Consancru ineou s Mou Tiaxes.
The term consangu ineou s marriage is to be preferred to incestu ou s
marriage ill the present context, becau se incest is s ocia l l y defined in te rm s
a t a society' s k iaship system' and religiou s beliefs. The degrees of kin
forbidden sexu al intercou rse, and the savagery with which sometime are
imposed, vary from society to society.
The p re s e n t s tudy of consanguineous n a rria g e in Egypt has been limited
to the Middle l in g doa , a n d the e vide n ce is drawn from the stelae of this
period, occasionally augmented by details of family relationships recorded
in the tombs of the namarchs.
The tendency for stelae to =it the name of the father of the owner's
wife, and often the name ce the father of the owner as well (see Chart 1),
is a serious obstacle to progress in this natter because, in order to offer
incontrovertible proof of a. consanguineous marriage, it is necessary to
know the names of the parents of both contracting parties. Absolute proof
is therefore lacking, but it is hoped that strong inferential evidence can
be offered.
It is regretted that it has been necessary to snit any detailed exaain-
ation of the complexities of consanguineous marriage within the royal family,
but these require a separate study of their own, and. anyway, it would be
unwise to Lail:are royal marriage practices as evidence of the occurrence
at consanguineous unions in any other level of society, since the habits
and customs of a divine royal family may differ from the rules binding
their subjects *(1).
The classical authors and the Graeco/Ronan papyri attest the existence
of consanguineous unions at that late period, but the evidence for non-.
royal consanguineous unions in earlier periods has never been fully analysed;
though the existence of such marriages has often been accepted without
question. Some attention has been paid te the problem. The late Profossor
.6erni, for example, published an article cm the subject 0 (2), and
reference will be made to his findings, but the number of stelae he examined
was limited, and he was only considering brother/sister unions. Dr.
Margaret Murray also did research into the problem and made several publiehei
references to her conclusions '0(3).
It is proposed to consider the following types of consanguineous
marriages: (a) brother/Sister.
(b) mother/son.
(a) father/daughter.
(d) auat/nephew and uncle/niece.
(2) first cousins.
(a) Brother/sister marriages.
This is the type of consanguineous sarriage west commonly assooiated
with ancient Egypt. The Egyptians had good mythological justification
for such unions in the marriages of Shu and. Tefnut, Gob and Nut, Osiris
and Isis, and Seth as'! Nephthym.
The Pasraohs had imitated this divine example, at least free: the reign
of Huni *(4.), and. possibly fro* a such earlier period. Although it is the
stated policy of this work to avoid entanglements with the royal family and
its probably atypical customs, a family tree for the Pourth Dynasty has
been included (see pl.I), in order to give some indioation of the regularity
with which consanguineous marriages could and did occur, with noipparent
ill effects 4 1 ( 3 ) . Complex as this tree is, it is by no mans complete, and
ocncentrates only on the kings' immediate relations.
Unfortunately, there is far less detailed informatics: available concern-
ing the exact relationships of umbers af the royal families of the Eleventh,
Twelth, and Thirteenth Dynasties, though can be no doubt that the
practice of consanguineous marriage ocatinued. liebhepetre Mentuhotep of the
Eleventh Dynasty, for example, is known to have married his sister, rpm
• (6),
while Senusret I of the Teel* Dynasty serried his sister, another
atm 0(7) and Senusret II married his sister, MEI '0(8).
The evidence concerning consanguineous marriage outside the royal family
has agilely been drawn frank stelae, but it is augmented by information frog
toabs, offering tables and statues. • full discussion of eaoh stela of
interest is presented in Section II, so only ihe basic minima of detail wil.1
be supplied here.
1) British Muse= stela, yol.III, y1.7.
The owner and his wife are both said to be born of 1131-k3. If it is
accepted that 111311k-k3 represents one woman, rather than two, then the owner
married, his sister, or at least half-sister. This is one of the stelae en-
seined by &nil and aooepted by him as a probable brother/sister marriage.
2) British Muse= stela, vol.I17, p1.15
The owner of this stela was born of a wonan called Ex. Facing his, in
the area where one would normally find the wife, is the nbt Dr 'la mat n
nbt Kr. There are also five girls* all born of
3) British Museum stela, vol.IV, ple.36/37.
Both the owner and his wife are said to be barn of Ix.
4) Berlin stela, vol.I, no.13675.
The issue to be decided here is vg ther the phrase n s3t.f n snt.f Bb
to 'be translated "to his daughter and to his sister Bb" or to his
daughter of his sister Bb". If the first alternative is preferred, then it
is very strange that the inane of the daughter is omitted. It might be
argued that !It& was here being used for niece, but such a reading
is not
employed anywhere else. Admittedly* if the second translation is to be
preferred, the phrase ought to have read
n s3t.f nt snt.f, but the omission
of the feainine on stelae is too frequent an 000urrenoe to attach 'such
signifioanoe to it. 6erni was prepared to consider the posaibilitor
the implied consanguineous sarriage.
5) Louvre stela 0.3s pla.r7/7.
The owner of this stela is said to have a son, but no wife is named.
However, the owner does have a sister and she is shown standing ia the
place normally reserved for the wife. This cannot be regarded as proof or
a brother/sister marriage but it oertqln.1,y suggets the possibility.
6) Louvre stela 0.16/18, pls.14/1a-1.
The owner of these three stelae is shown on all three before a table
of offerings. Opposite his a wceuur called Dtt $ (9) is shown. On 0.16 she
is called hat.f nbt pr. , on 0.17 she is nbt pr onV, while on C.18 she is
snt.f nbt r, demi examined these stelae and concluded that "Since we have
founds on overwhelming evidences that wives were not called 'aisters'before
the New Kingdom, we are left with two alternatives: either we accept 'his
sister' on 0.18 as a simple aistalce for 'his wife% whioh is talikely, or
we are compelled to admit that Deto was Serevosret i s wife as well as his
sister*. •(10).
7) Louvre stela 0.179,
This stela is divided into two horizontally. In the upper half at the
owner and his wife are shown together with their son and their
daughter tpt. In the lower half of the stela a man called Ptb-ar nb, appears
together with his wife Htpt and their children. Ifs as is very likely, the
-Malab, and Htpt of the first register are the same two people who appear
ia the second, than this is another case of a brother and sister aarryings
and in this instance they are full brother and sister.
8) Louvre stela C.44.
This unpublished stela was quoted by 6ern36*(11) as a possible brother/
sister naming , an the g rounds that both spouses were said to be born of
S3t0Hthr. Corny acknowledg ed, however, that S3t-FIt1r was so common a MSS
that its re-appearance could be a simple coincidence.
9) Florence stela 2521, photog raph 33.
linw-htp, the owner of the stela, had a sister called who appears
to have born children to a. man g alled Blpy, iltpy is probably to be
identified as the half-brother of linw-htp and. nhti (see below p.170 ).
(10) Florence stela 2512, photog raph 45.
A. man and his wife, the parents of the owner, are both said to have
been born ofld, so they may have been brother and sister, as well as
husband and wife.
II) Bee. de Tray., 1882, vtl.III, p.122:27/911..
The parents of one man are desoribed as mwt.f Shtp-ib irt n S3t-Htbr
and it.f Shtp-ib ir n S3t4thr. The repitian of the name 33teHthr is not
conclusive, but, taken in conjunction with the fact that the budband and
vire also have the same name, there is a strong a priori case for a
brother/sister marriag e. For comments an the re-use of names within the
Eg yptian family, see Excursus B.
12) Bea. de Tray., 1887, vol., p.33:5423.
The parents of the owner appear to have been a brother and sister,
both being born of 83t-Snfrw.
13) Cairo steli20025.
The owner of this stela is a man called 13s1, and he had children by
his wife, ibt. However, he is also said to have a daug hter called Ni3ti
b o r n o f Mit The o n ly Nhti n amed o n the stela appear s to have also b een
his half -sister , so W3d must have mar r ied, Srat least had a child b y, his
14) Cair o stela 20138.
Two co uples are/represented at the to p o f this stela. The o wn er an d. his
wif e, an d DALE, ar e o n the lef t, f acin g an d Rhwt-twt. 0:12 an alo gy
with o ther stelae, the peo ple mo st likely to appear o n the r ight han d side
o f such a stela ar e either the par en ts o f the o wn er , o r his so n an d
daughter -in -law. an d Ripvt-twt can n o t b e the par en ts at  b ecause
elsewher e his mo ther is n amed as Htp, b At it is kn o wn that 1 Ikr had a so n
an d daughter n amed Hn w an d. Rir wt-twt. It is ther ef o r e po ssib le that the
b r o ther an d sister men tio n ed in co s place ar e the mar r ied co uple sho wn in
an o ther . It is also per f ectly po ssib le that i d Rhwt-twt wer e r elated
to  in so me o ther I nk y b ut, Si12130 this is a stela where kin ship ter ms ar e
car ef ully r eco r ded, it wo uld b e so mewhat perplexing that n o r ef er en ce was
made to the r elatio n ship b een tkr an d  un less it was the stated one
of f ather an d so n .
13) Cair o stela 20161.
This is a lar ge stela, r eco r din g sever al gen er atio n s o f o n e f amily b y
in scr iptio n with no acco mpan yin g f igur es. Amo n g tho se listed ar e a man an d
his wif e, b o th said. to b e b o r n o f Ipi, thus providing a peasib le example o f
a b r o ther / sister mar r iage.
F ur ther do wn , the stela r eco r ds the " L an es o f the f amily o f Hn sw-n ht.
He had a sister called laan d a wife galled lin mw-' 3, who was the mo ther
o f his so n . Hzuew-n t;t also had two daughter s, b ut their mo ther is said to
have b een II. Since sn(t). n o t s3(t) wer e the war ds used f o r a man ' s n ephew
and niece (see above p.15 ), it would appear that Ennw-nrkt had two wives
and that one of then was his own sister.
16) Cairo stela 20265.
S inc e all the wenn on this stela are called either gm or ' I rc ow-bto
it is inpossible to arrive at a satisf ac tory f amily twee. The prolif eratic
of these two names nay well conceal several consanguineous marriages of
varying degrees, but there is no way of proving this.
17) Cairo stela 2 0 3 17.
The owner of this stela had children, but did not mention his wife.
His sister, however, stands at his side in the plac e usually reserved
f or the wif e.
18) Cairo stela 2 0 3 4 1.
The wif e of the G inner is said to be ttnt.f s3 t n(t) ' wt.! Nbt, his
wif e, the daughter at his nether, Nbt (see below, Section II, p. 87 ).
The owner would theref ore appear to have married his sister, or perhaps
his half -sister.
19) Cairo stela 2 0 3 98.
This stela is divided horistnatally into three registers. I n the top
register the owner appears with his wif e S nt-it.s„ her daughter S t, and
his sonta
y, I n the third register there is a nen c alled  born of
S nt-I t .s and his wife S t. Thus ft would appear to have nan-ied his
sister or half -sister.
2 0 ) Cairo stelae 2 0 4 2 9/ 3 0 .
These two stelae ' belong to the sane nano who was the f ather of six
c hildren. Neither stele names his wife, but on both the owner' s sister
is shown in those areas usually reserved f or
the wif e, and sore aver, she
2 9
is the only woman on the stela to be entiticdpbt
2 1) Cairo stela 2 0482 .
The inscriptions an this stela are divided Into several groups, and
some of them are destreyed„ but from what remains, it is possible to re-
construct a plausible !mil, tree. A. full discussion appears Section II
(ps.103/104), so it is sufficient here to note that if, as seems likely,
there was only on woman named 'Id than a consanguineous marriage took
place, because It married. Waimea% 'Iti and S3t-R', and the son of 'Iti
married the daughter of  
22) Cairo stela 20518.
The owner of this stela is linmw-inht born of Ma and his wife is named
as =born of M. The variations in spelling are negligible 1 0 (12) and
this may he a brother/sister marriage.
23) Cairo stela 20535.
The owner of this stela had a sister called ma and a euneclarife of
the same name. Sinoe 12:is a common name, this may be a coincidence, or
he may have taken bis sister as his seoondwife. The name of the mother
of the secandwife is not recorded.
2 4) Cairo stela 2 0636.
This stela lists the members at the family of the owner without showing
the figures of any of them. The first person on the list is ant.f Nfr-'w
who was barn at gd'w and  also the mother .f his children. The name
of the mother of the owner is known to hale been Sh,3t-4r, so, since ant
is not used to mean 'wife" during the Middle Kingdom, this man must shave
married his half-sister.
25) At Elephantine (see p1.1I).
83-11nrwt the first of Elephantine was born of a woman called 83t-Tn and
married a wean of the sane name. Since names were cosacely re-used within
faaili•s he may well have been related to his wife by blood, but slaw her
parents are not named there is no way of proving this.
26) At Heir (see pl.V).
A.M.Blackman ' 0 (13) suggests that 1J-lytp, the fifth of his name, may have
married his sister, since the name of his mite is llny-hry-ho and it is known
that his parents, Mrs i and " V i t t A t t p the third, did have a child of that name
However, since the parents of Irny-hr7-ib are not named, t hi s must remai n
Blackman does not mention the possibility of a second brother/sister
marriage i n t he same generation. 14i rli t t p the fourth married a girl called
p lp rt y-t i t p who i s sai d to be the daughter of WhA t t p . Sinoe/%1‘IPourt h was
also the son of Mi and 1141-4tp, the third, and since t he mother of Erni is
also called Biatrla., there is a good chance that t he second Tj trort7-11tp was
related to her husband, and may have been his sister.
27) J.Z.A., 1938, vol.EnV, p lan.
The arguments ooncerning the complex family relationships recorded on
t he stela of sac . are set out in full on pa. 230/ 234. and there are two
marriages of particular interest to be considered.
The owner of akIt t was married to a woman called 83t -A nt i -kt y, and he
is also said. to have a sister at the same name. Thus
§k12. may have married
his sister, or at least a near relative.
The brother of 33-10 ,, called Sbk-bt p , married a woman called 83t-Sn-mri
• (14), who appears to have been the daughter of the *other of 9,3-11. and
Sbk-ktp by her second narriage. In
this oar*, therefore, Sbk-kttp married
his half-sister.
b) Evidence for nother/scn merriest's.
tm. .M.A.Murrey has argued for the occurrence of Bother/son marriages
in the various royal families aa the basis or the existence of the title
Infos King's Mother" assuning that the king referred to is the same
in both instances. This jean unacceptable bypothosis because several queens
bore tbe titles "Iines Daughter, King's Sister, King's Wife, King's Mother",
and lawman could stand in all these degrees of relaticoship to one man.
It is clear that these royal ladies simply added one title to another as
time passed and their status changed. Taus a 110111021 would begin life as a
"King's Daughter; become !King's Sister" and *King's Wife' at the accession
of her brother, ands if she were lucky, would end her days during the reign
of her son as "King's Mother". This in not to deny the possibility of
mother/son marriages, but merely to deny the validity of this particular
argument. Though there is no convincing evidence available to show that any
of the Egyptian Pharaohs married their mothers, some religious justification
for such unions might have been drawn from the concept of Kamutef, the !Bull
of his mother".
Attention has already been drawn (see above
p.14) to the fact that some
ma are said to have a "brother" or "sister", born of one of their grand...
nothers. The stelae involved are:
.n(t). born or
the paternal grandmother - Cairo stelae 20153 and 20549.
anal born of the maternal grandmother - Cairo stelae 20043, 20141,
20156, 20271, 20338 and 20431; Louvre, C187,
pl.XXXIX; Guinet, 0 6, p1.14
Stockhola, p. .3/5,
Mo.14; Verschiedenen Sammltmgen, p1.I, no.1; el Arabah,
not denying that these could be examples of men marrying and
having children, by their *others or nothers-in-law, it is nore likely that,
3 2
in such cases, an(t) should be t a v a s l a t e d into English as xmcle or aunt.
T he only inoontrav ertable p roof that coul d be offe re d f or a mother/scn
marriage w ould be the existence O f a child of the ow ner of a stela,
designated s3 (t).f and born of his 'other, w ho w ould hav e to be identif ied
by the inclusion of the name or her ow n mother, and such ev idence is not
f orthcoming.
T he Egy p tians sometines emp loy ed as names oombinatices of k in terms,
such as Ent-it.s "(15). If this n on e , which means "T he s i s t e r of hentather",
and others of the same ty p e, w ere to be interp reted literaLly , they w ould
imp ly that the bearer w as the of f sp ring at a oce s a n gui n e ous unian. In the
case quoted, that at the name Ent-N.', the WOMIL/1 w ould hav e been the
daughter of a nother/son marriage, but there is no indication of this e n
the stelae ' 0 (16 ) on w hich this /1111156 000urs. Such tenuous ev idence is in-
suf f ioient to substantiate t h e e x i s t e n ce of n on - roy a l con s a n gui n e ous
ma rri a ge s .
A n Egy p tian child w as named at birth, and. names of this ty p e
may ref lect no R are than a p ious hop e on the p art of the mother that the
inf ant w ould grow up to be a belov ed omp anion of its p rogenitor.
T here are a certain number of examp les of f amilies w here a man's w if e
and mother both had the same name, but, esp ecially w here the name concerned
is a comma one such as az, tt, Ba t or Ent, this is p robably no more than
a Bina" ooi n ci d e n ce .
T his is illustrated by C airo stelae 2 0 10 9 and 2 0 3 7 4 .,
w here the names of the w iv es and mothers of the resp ectiv e ow ners are the
same, but the n a me s of the mothers of all f our of these w omen are k now n and.
they a re
dif f erent, thus show ing that neither man married his mother.
Examp les of stelae on
w hich the w if e and. nether of the ow ner both hav e
the sane name may be f ound in Excursus B, but/these, only one deserv es
ocusideration as p ossible examp le of a nother/scn marriage.
In, the *mewl at Avignat there are three stelae belaiging to the same
man 0 (17). The name of the owner's mother is given as Nt-wi. Qs the third
of thallIO stelae the owner is again said to be born of Ntwi but no figure ar
her is shown. Mere is, however, a figure representing hatt.f Ntwi , . On Iwo
of these stelae the nbt r Nry is named and, ware it not for the presence of
bmt.f Nati, •would have been accepted as the wife ar the owner without
questice, and indeed, she probably vas his wife toe. However, Ntwi. is such
a. rare name 4 (18) that it is possible that the owner married his mother, ani
if not, at least a close relative.
Allowing for the fact that Egyptian girls probably married at a relatively
early age, there is no inherent difficulty in. the idea of a woman having a
child. by her own son, but, at the present time, there is so little evidence
to support such unions that either they did not take place at all, or they
were extremely rare events.
o) Evidence of father/daughter marriages.
There are no known examples of father/daughter marriages in the royal
families of the Old and. Middle Kingdom, but there is a reasonable amount of
evidence to suggest that, in the New Kingdom, Pharaohs such as Amenhotep
Akhenaten, and. Harnesses II each married one or sore of their daughters 4 1(19).
E.Ioung has also drawn attention to a non-royal father/daughter marriage
during the Ptolemaic Period *(20), and though evidence for earlier nal-royal
unicas of this type is difficult to find, a few possible oases may have
occurred in the Middle Kingdom.
It has already been noted that a man may have a sn(t), born of a woman
known to be his sister, and that such oases may represent examples of father/
daughter marriages (see above p. 15 and. fig.9), but it is equally possible
that, in these instances, Init./ was simply being used of nieces and nephews,
and that the words should be translated as such. This is the explanation
that has been adopted throughout this study. %ere are, however, some
stelae wh(oh do not belong to this category and deserve further consideration
1) Cairo stela 20453.
'Imns, the owner of this stela, names his two wives as limn born of Snt and
Nbt-sht-nt-R' born of nwt. Three of his daughters by Hnwt are said to have
been named Nbt-sht-nt-R e but, ihnfortunately, there is no indication as to
which was the first wife of If he married Nbt-sht-nt-r , first, then,
for some reason, he chose to name the daughters of his second marriage after
her, even though he had children by her, but there is also a strong
possibility that ..L.. y rt was the first wife and that, after her death,
married. one of their daughters, and she named one of her own daughters Jzii,
after her mother.
2) Cairo stela 20733.
'Intro the son of the owner itintw-'3, does not name his wife, but he gives a
list of his children. The first four entries are quite straightforward and
simply name his three sons and a daughter, omitting the name of their mother,
though there is room for it. The last entry, concerned with the fetidly cd
? Litt reads - s3t.f Hat, ( and) LILL tt born of The use of the words
53(t) .f' alone was not the normal method of identify ing the grandchildren of
the owner or a. stela (see above I,. 18). Unless this, and Cairo stela 2074.9,
are the only two exceptions where gati: was used of granddaughters , it must
either be assumed that LIU was written in error for s3t.s, or that 'Intf
and. P3wnt, the owners of Cairo stelae 20733 and 2074.9, both had children by
their respective daughters.
3) Cairo stela 2074-9.
P3vnt„ the owner of this stela, is said to have a son and two daughters,
nam ed Pp - nfr, K 3- ns and ilat resp ectively, all born of his wife, Snbtisy.
I le had another daughter called " lw. s- n. , and although the nam e of her " ' other
has been destroyed, she too was p robably born of Snbtisy, for the hieroglyp hs
of this nam e would fit the sp ace available. There are two m ore women, also
said to be his daughters, but the nam es at their & others are given as 1 3- ns,
and ' B r. s- n. i, resp eotively. The p ossible ex p lanations far the use of at&
here have already been ex am ined in connection with Cairo stela 20733.
24 . ) R ec. de Tray. , 1 9 1 0, vol. 73302, p . 1 4 4 A vignon. no. 31 .
The owner of this m onum ent has several brothers, one of whoa is called N fr- i} tp
The figure after that of N fr- 4 tp is hat. f Ntrw irt n N er- htp m 3' - hrw, so it
would ap p ear that N fr- btp married his daughter, born of an unnamed m other.
5) B ritish Museum stela, vol. 1 , . s. J#6/s. 7 and C airo stela 20534 .
These two steles belong to a m an called  The B ritish Muse= stela gives
the nese of his wife as  and their daughter is called iffr- tw, but the
Cairo stela says his wife was N tr- tw and their daughter was 'Id,. I t is
p erfectly p ossible that the scribe who wrote out the inscrip tions, or the
sculp tors who carved them , m ade a m istalos, reversing the nam es of m other and
daughter of one stela, but it is also p ossible that these stelae record the
two m arriages of  are of which was to his own daughter. I t would not be
surprising if the daughter/wife *hose to nam e her own child after her m other.
6) Abydos, vol.111, pl.XIII.
I t has already been observed that names like Snt- it s cannot be tak en as
evident,e of a consanguineous marriage (se* above p . 32 ), but a nese of the
sam e typ e, Mwt. i- sntsi, * ( 2l), which wows on this stela, deserves som e
consideration. The details concerning the relationehip s within this fam ily
'rialto discussed later (see below pa. 2 53/ 2 57), but there is reason to
th ink th at th e owner, th e K ing 's M oth er twh t-lb, m ay have been married twine,
and on the basis of his study of the sonusents of this family, M.P.Laming
MacAdan *(2 2 ) is prepared to concede th e possibility th at Iih tpab m arried
h er own fath er, Sbk -ddw and th at Mwt I-snt I was the ch ild of th is union.
d) Evidence of aunt/Im m Oh ew and uncle/niece m arriag es.
One of th e best docum ented oases of a m arriag e between an uncle and a
niece occurred in th e roy al fam ily during th e Fourth Dy nasty wh en K h afre,
th e son of K h ufu, married Mr.i-i nhe th e th ird, th e g randdaug h ter of
K h ufu *(2 3).
T h e N ew K ing dom produced som e well-documented marriages between non-royal
uncles and. niem es *(2 4 ), but ex am ples h ave not h ith erto been q uoted for th e
M iddle K ing dom , th oug h a study of th e stelae h as revealed seven possible
oases wh ich deserve serious consideration as ex am ples of uncle/niece and
aunt/neph ew m arriag es.
T h ey are:
1) Cairo stelae 2 004 3 and 2 0681.
Cairo stela 2 0681 belong s to a m an called , born of ya!z. , and h is sister
is named as T 3-m tt-n/ born of yam. A ax ing th e m em bers of th e im m ediate
family also nam ed on th e stelae are snt.f Rn.s-'nhi born of got. and 630, 131./-k
Rn.s-'nl r cannot be th e aunt cram:and T 3-ntt-nl because neith er of th eir
g randnoth ers is called Sdb. N or can sh e be th eir niece or cousin, since th ey
h ave no sisters or aunts called Snb. T h e only reasonable alternative is,
th erefore, th at sh e was th eir h alf-sister.
T h e oth er stela, 2 004 3, belong s to 1311-k3, the won of En.s-'4 1. and th e
nam e of h is wife is given as T3-ntt-$ born of yam, wh o, an th e evidence
St th e oth er stela, was m ost probably h is aunt.
2 ) Cairo stela 2 007 9 . T h e paternal g randaoth er and th e m oth er-in-law St th e
owner are both said to be named ks, so he say have married his aunt. However,
) 1t is a not unoamson name, so this could be a simple coincidence.
3) Cairo stela. 20092.
Both the maternal grandsother and the mother-in-law of the owner of this
stela are nansd Da=hit, so he say have serried his aunt.
4) Cairo stela 20153.
The paternal grandsother and the mother-in-law of the owner or this stela
are both named as S3t-julit-kiar. The spelling of this nese varies from place
to place on this stela 10 (25) , but it is possible that they refer to the same
woman, and that the owner married his aunt.
5) Cairo stela 20535.
The owner of this stela was married twice. Clio wife, S3t-Wsrt, is portrayed
seated with her husband, while the other wife, tz, is shown standing behind
The owner also had several sisters, and Cie of these had a daughter named
ysz. Since Ez. is a common name, the re-appearance sigb.t be a coincidesoes
or the girl may have been specially named after the wife of her mole, but
it is also possible that there was only one Rezand that she became her
uncle's seoond wife.
6) Heidelberg stela, .560, p1.12.
The miner Rd.t.s *(26) , and his wife, 33t-rd.t.e, had two children - a girl
called Ib(w) -ddt and a boy called Ikusw-ddw, The wife of liamw-ddw is nsmed
as 83t-rdia born of
Naw) -ddt, so he was undoubtedly serried to his niece.
7) Florence stela 2521, photograph 33.
linw-btp, the nephew of the miser, who was also called linw-1;ttp, married and
had children by a woman called j. Sims D
eli would appear to have heini
h a . l f•sister of th e el der Enw-4tp (see bel ow p. 1
Enw-Il tp, th e yoUnger
ma rried h is a unt.
e) Evidence of First Cousin Ea rria a el .
1) Ca ir. stel a 20051 - a cross cousin ma rria ge.
Th e pa terna l gra ndf a th er a ux1 ma terna l gra ndmoth er se th e coiner were both
born of EL-33..', th us th e owner's pa rents were cross cousins.
Th ere is a l so a strcng possibil ity th a t th e owner a nd. h is wif e were
rel a ted in some wa y since h is pa terna l gra ndnoth er a nd h is wif e's ma terna l
gra nda oth er were coa l ed tic!. th e El der a nd'Il d respeotivel y. Th is is
strength ened by th e f a ct th a t th e moth er of "na th e El der, a nd th e da ugh ter
a nd gra nda oth er of tic.1 a l l sh a re th e sa me name. Thus th e owner a nd h is wif e
woul d be second cousins.
2) Ca iro stel a 20161 - a pa ra l l el cousin ma rria ge.
Th e a oth er a nd noth er-in-l a w of Dunv-ntt were sisters, th us libbl ma rried
h is cousin.
3) Ca iro stel a 20518 - a cross cousin ma rria ge.
Th e pa rents of 32i a nd Nf ry were broth er a nd sister, so th is ma n a nd h is wife
were f irst cousins.
ie. ) Fl orence stel a 2564, ph otogra ph 37 - a pa ra l l el cousin ma rria ge.
Th e na terna l a nd pa terna l gra nda oth ers of th e onier were both born of a woma n
ca l l ed E-s3. , th us h is pa rents were f irst cousins.
5) JJ1. 1. 1 1938, vol . XXIV, P1. 111 - a pa ra l l el cousin ma rria ge.
Th e discussion h ere is United to one register of th is interesting stel a . Ch
th e l ef t, f a cing inwa rds, a re f igures of S3-r, h is wif e, a nd son. Sea ted
opposite a nd f a cing h is is #.&, known to be th e broth er a t 83-r, a nd th e
wif e a nd da ugh ter of a. Th e dedica tion to th e group on th e l ef t is ma de by
s3 53.f s3-R', that is by .3. . . 1 1 1 the grandson of 33-Rt ., while the dedication
on the right is made by s3 53t.f S3-R', that is by 83-R' , the grandson of ga.
This particuxlar arrangement of figures, and the of a named spouse for
the son of one man and the daughter of the other, suggets that the two cousins
married each other and were the parents of the younger 83-R', who then made
dedications to both groups of grandparents.
6) British Museum stelae, vol.', p1.56 and vo1.11, pla.41/43 - a parallel
cousin marriage.
The many problems connected with the elucidation of the very extensive family
tree of SE are disousaed at length on ps. 1 39/1 42 0 and the details con-
cerning/rar:IMP oned usin nazriageirill be found there. If the inforsaticn
has been interpreted correct17, then the moths= of Ikr the Elder and his wife,
nsw-b. tp, were sisters, so the couple were first cousins.
7) At Moir - a parallel cousin marriage.
If the deductions of Blaclaaan are correct *(27), and Sal was a son of Snb
the first, then 1 41 and.lkk-htp the second were brothers. Mrs! the daughter
of Wir4tp the second married Mh-kttp the third, the son of Sal, who was thus
her first cousin.
8) B. 1 0. 1 . 0. ,
1 937 vol =Mt, P . 98fr
a parallel cousin marriage. The
Rather and. mother-in-law of the owner were sisters, so he married his first
9) Abydos, vol. III, p1 . 1 1 . 1 1 - a parallel cousin marriage.
If the informative given by this complex stela has been interpretted
carrect4 (see below, p•255), the parents of the MAT were first cousins,
born of two sisters.
f) Evidence for marriage among in-laws.
Though not strictly in the same category as the types of marriage discussed
so far, there are four well-documented cases of men marrying women related
to them by *amine, whioh deserve cctisideration here.
1) Louvre stela C.173 9 platlX.
The owner of this stela. had three nephews, one of whom married 'I born of
linkr-'n4.Since lint_w _ -t ng was also the mother-in-law of the brother of the
owner, it is clear that the uncle and nephew in question married two slaters,
see below, fig.13.

Fig .13 
tdw 0 Otcv ana o
a The owner.
2) Cairo stela 20023.
The caner of this stein, FM, appears to have been married more than owe.
The first wife was Snbt born of W. Her sister, referred to by the unusual
designation of bruast.f /wt.! (see above pa. 20 / 21), was Sbk-nht born of
/1.Va. The seoond wife of M is named as rbbt born of Sbk-nht, thus W3d
married his niece by marriage.
3) Cairo stela 20270.
The owner of this stela, Skttp-ib-le was married to 'nkt-rn born of Dhnt 41(28).
The next name to appear on the stela is that of s3t.f Prow born of Dhnt. From
the evidence as it stands, it would appear that S4tp-1b-R' had a daughter by
his mother-in-law *(29 ).
is.) B Tray ., 1903, vol.XIV, ps434/135, Toulouse 643(b).
The owner of this stela "Iy-snb, was the am of a woman called iiht-'n) and
was married to Tt. Tt had a brother called lintw-l}tp and he had a sal and two
daughters, all born or Pht-s nb,.
Of course, this might be a coincidence and
and two women called 2713t-'34 sky be Involved, but it not, then lintw-l)tp was
married to his sister's mother-in-law.
The evidence presented in Excursus B shows that the Egyptians made
regular pra.otioe of re-using names within their families. I am therefore
inclined to believe that, if a sans s wife beers the same name as one of his
female relatives, particularly if it is one at his grandmothers, then provide
naturally, it is not a very popular name like 'krt, there is a good chance
that there was some kinship tie between them, other than the bond of natriscav
though, in most oases, lack of information about the wife's parentage means
this is impossible to prove. Than several consanguineous marriages, par-
ticularly between first cousins, may have been unavoidably passed over in
the preoeeding survey.
The evidence as it has been accuaulated would suggest that, with the
exception of mother/son unions, all forms of 0011$01141112100US marriage were
permitted outside the royal family by the Middle K ingdom, though it can
hardly be said that they were common, for, am the present evidence, they
probably amounted for no more than 5% of the total.
A ccording to the amount of data they su pply ccacerning the famil ies of
the owners , Egyptian s tel ae of this period may be s aid to fal l into s ix main
categories :-
(1) Stelseihich record only the MAIM and titl es of the owner, together
with the etamiardOp di new formul a and prayers , and perhaps s ome added
detail s cancerninghis publ ic career.
(2) S tel ae which, whil e pres erving the form and content of the firs t
group, record in addition the name of the owner
% wife, or parents , or both.
(3) Stelae which name s everal men and women, but omit any kins hip
terminology ar
references to mothers ' name, thus rendering them us el es s for
the purpos es of this s tudy.
S tel ae owned by women. Thes e hardl y ever record s ore than the names
of the owner's mother and Chil dren, and, apart from aae or two exceptional
cas es , the exis tence of hus bands is total l y ignored. rae dedicatory prayers
from thes e s tel ae appear in trans l iteration and trans l ation in Excurs us 0,
S tel ae which record the names of the owner and his immediate famil y.
Cr thes e, s ome tend to concentrate on the parents and s ibl ings , whil e others
prefer the wife and chil dren. The
most interesting stelae are thos e which
combine the two groups .
S tel ae which record the names of an extended famil y group.
S ome
1 .500
s tel ae were examiaxldu ring the cours e of this s tudy and any
relevant information they yiel ded was notai and incl uded in the text and on
the charts (s ee pa. 620/627), where appropriate. S ome s tel ae are of l ittl e
interest and require no detailed explanations or discussion concerning
contents, but there are others, particularly those from the fifth and sixth
groups listed 'love, which are very informative and more difficult to interpret
so these will now be discussed in detail, and the conclusions incorporate'
into the charts.
To avoid the necessity of the read mr having to consult the original
publications of the more difficult stelae in order to appreciate the
organisation of their content, a stylised sketch of these stelae will appear
at the beginning of each separate discussion where require'. In the interests
of clarity, each figure, or group of figures, will be represented by numbers
only, with arrows to indicate the direction in which the figures are facing.
Throughout the text and on the plates, all names appear in transliteration,
except those of pharaohs, which are no familiar in Anglicised forma that
rendering them in transliteration would. be to no advantage. If the name of
any member of a family is not germane to the nain discussion, it will be
omitted, and that person will be represented on the family tree only by a
symbol appropriate to their sax. A list of the symbols used on the plates
appears on
Transliterated kinship terms are employed throughout the text, though,
with the exception of servants, titles have been omitted. , unless they
contribute to the identification of the bearer.
When interesting family trees can be reconstructed from the data thus
Obtained, they have been
set out
on plates VIII/LICOCIII, where the name of
the owner cnlywill be underlined.
Besides the stelae, imecriptioans from shrines, offering tables, statues
and graffit i have
oocesicna.Uy been included, if they happen to provide
I .

. a.
8. 7. 6. 3 .
FAB' I - •

Cairo stela 20022
Owner: 'au.
4 4 .
valuable information coneernin,g a particularly interesting fanny tree.
Cairo stelae 20016/17. Owner:  
Both these stelae belamg to the same woman, and. they were dedioated to
her by her son. Though the nases of her nother, an unidentified woman, and
a servant are given, no reference is nada to her husband or father.
It is especially regrettable, in view of her interesting nano *(1), that
so little information is given about her family connections.
The prayers engraved on the two stelae are translated on ps.489 /4 90
Cairo stela 20018.
This stela, which comes fron North Abydos, was Jointly owned by
a group
of servants and their children. Twenty people are named altogether, but
there is no indication as to the name and. rank of their employer,
or as to
whether any of the servants named were married to each ether
1) the son
of I; E nnt and born of S3t2I ntr.
2) The wb3vto saidservant 16(2).
3) elaf_.
4 .) hatt.f nbt pr W34 -k3 - i.e. the wife of the owner.
5) An unidentified man.
-4 -44- <----
2. L3. 3. 4--
Cairo stela 20025.
Owner: 1. 1=.
6/8) Throe women, all said to be s3t.f - i.e. the daughters of 'lbw.
9) bint, the son of "lbw ath born of 'lid -i.e. the father of the owner.
Umt is
now established as the subject of the second half of the stela, so
the kin-terms are given with reference to him.
10) Ike wb3vt.
11/13) Three men, all said to be ALL -
i.e. the sons of Hnnt and. therefore
the brothers of the owner.
14) bet.f nbt pr 83t-tnit - i.e. the mother of the owner.
15/18) Pour women, all said to be p3t.f.
19) ant.f,
bona of Snbt. The mother of nnt has already been named as
so this woman can be no more than his half-sister.
20) A manservant and another ijed.
A) An inscription naning the owner as 'I= born of M.
1) The owner.
2) liska born of 3inoe he is so prominently placed, this may be the
father of the owner, or at least some very close relation, but in the absence
of any clear indication of his identity, he has been ositted from the family
3) OA.
4.) W 342 born of Iht-Mwt,
5) s3t.5 Elva. Since WM was the mother both of this woman, Nt . and of
the owner, Ims they aust be brother and sister. It was oustomary for the
kin-terms an(t).f to be eaployed far the siblings of the owner, so, the fact
that stress has been laid on her relationship to ns say mean that MA
stood in a slightly different relationship to the owner, and was his half-
sister, the child of W3•1 by a marriage to a Ran other than the father of )1.m.
6/8) snit and two men, both said to be !Ms all. born of Snbt.
9) tuit.f Snbt born of IVA.
10/3.3) Pour women, all said to be s3t.f, and all born of Snbt.
B) Eleven lines of inscription seeing several men and women. The titles of
all but one identify thee as servants and dependants of the family. The
exception is the first name on the list, that of flmst.f, art.f Sbk-nh,t born
of Htpt. litpt has already been naaed as the *other-in-1ov of the owner, so
Sbk-nht was his sister-in-laws and it is therefore of considerable interest
to find her called *his beloved companion".
110 hmt.f W'bbt born of Sbk-nht. Mere is no male figure to whoa this woaan
can be attached other than the owner, and her figure is shown directly under
that of the first wife, Snbt (see below, Excursus D, p.505 • Wo.7), se it
would seem likely that lm was married twice, and that the second wife was
the niece of the first.
15) ii3t.f Ehtl born of N. ti. Is with figure 14, the only man to whoa the
inscription can refer is the owner. The only woman en the stela. named Ebg
is the half-sister of the owner (figure 5), so may have had. a child by
her, but he does not call her his wife.
16) The tertvt, the adainistratrix *W. Behind the figure of this woman is
an inscription naming t3t.s Wt.
Cairo stela 20027.
O w n er:
1 7) m e r t . f litiw - * n la b orn e t ler- Ww . The iden tification of this wom an is un-
ce r t ain. She can n ot b e the n other or matern al gran dmother of the ow n er as
they hav e already b een n amed, an d if M al) - 1 1 w as the father of the ow n er, she
can n ot b e the patern al graixlsother either. M ax on ly reason ab le altern ativ e
left w ould then b e step- mother, b ut, in v iew of the un certain ty , she has b een
omitted from the featly tree. Behin d her is an in scription n amin g . /1 t- n ht an d
C) M ore serv an ts' asses an d pray ers.
This is a good e xam ple of a stela w here the om ission of kin-t e r m s f or
some figures, comb in ed. w ith the use of un usual one s f or others, make it
impossib le to arriv e at a w holly satisfactory in terpretation , an d the family
tree presen ted as pl. VIII only represen ts pn e ten tativ e solut ion.
A) An in scription nsuoing the ow n er kx bor n of H 3 and OA' b orn of Prt.
1 ) D3 f and the n b t pr Prt.
2) A san t presumab ly the son m e nt ione d in t he de dicat ion, m aking of f e r ings
to his paren ts.
3 ) hn ms.f b orn of Pit . If no ot he r wom an nam e d Pit appe ar e d on the stela,
this USA would e it he r have be e n ide nt if ie d as the "f r ie nd" pf the ow n er, an d
it w ould. hav e b een accepted as a coinoidenoe that his n ether an d the w ife ct
pa happened to have the same name, or he would have been identified as the
step-son of the owners born to Prt in a previous marriage. As it is, there
is another woman cal.led at on this stela (figure 4) I so considerable doubt
must remain as to this man's identity. In view of his prosinemt position on
the stela, he is, perhaps, more likely to have been the owner's step-sous
and he has been tentatively presented as such on the family tree. It must be
acknowledged, however, that, if he was the ohild of Ws one would have ex-
pected him to be designated ails rather than the "friend" of Pa.
4.) s3t.s Prt. The only female figure to have appeared cd the stela so far
is Evt, the wife of QM, so this is likely to have been her daughter, though
apparently not the child of her marriage to 123, f for then this girl would
have been designated 83t.f.
5) H3. H3 has already been named as tbm mother of Of . It is just possible
that she was the mother of figure
but it was the custom for the figures of
children designated s3(t).s to follows not precede, that of their mother,
6) An unidentified man. Siam his figure follows that of H3, and he bears
the same title as D3f, that of Laxarj2E, he may be meant to represent the
husband of H3, and so be the father of pa
7) sn.f Hm(w)n.i. This could be the brother of either Of or of the
preceding figures number 6. In the family tree he has been entered as the
brother of the owner.
8) Km(w) .n.i. born of Prt. There is little to indicate which of the two women
called was his mother, but he is placed nearer to the younger Prt on the
stela, so he has been tentatively entered as her son on the family tree.
Cairo stelae 2004.3 and 20681. Owners: 134-k3
and D
M. P1•11.
Though Drwy was the elder of the two, it is easier if the stela of
C a i r o s t e l a 2 0 0 4 3 .
I .
. 4 --
2 .
_ _ ),
5 %
_ _ _ . . . )„ ,
4 .
. . _ . . . . , . >
3 .

7 .
--, ,
C .
C a i r o s t e l a . 2 0 6 81 .
4 9
3 4 -k3 i s a na l ys e d fi r s t .
A) An inscription na m i ng t h e o w ne r a s 1 I 3 h -k3 b o r n o f R n. s -s nh
1) The o w ne r .
2) mita Klutborn of Bbw, Bbw i s l a t e r i de nt i fi e d a s the aunt of 1 1 3 h -k3 ,
so mitt here is to be translated as cousin.
3) aorta Itnes-tnil.
4 . ) Oi t a T3 -nt t -ni b o r n o f Et pw y. An examination of t h e i ns cr i pt i o ns o f
of Cairo stela 20681 will show that this woman was probab3y his aunt.
5) nit nt mwt.f 11311-k3-1w.f-embt.
6) ent f Bb, born o f W 3 h -I r 3 . 1 1 3 h -k3 i s t h e na m e of the mother, not the fatheri
since t h e w o r ds m 3 s t-hrw follow her name. It is therefore masa:table to assume
that 1 3 h -k3 w a s a shortened version of t h e na m e 1 1 3 h -k3 -fw . f-e nb t o and t h a t
Bbw was the a u nt of the owner.
1) T h e o w n e r , p r e y b o r n o f Htpwy.
2) sn.f Sbk-htp born of  T3-ntt-nt is late r  sh o w n to b e th e
si ste r o f D r o r y , s o a n a l her e wa s a ppa r en tl y bein g us ed o f a n ephew. This is
a per fec tl y a c c epta bl e tr an alati as for a n ( s ee a bo v e pc. 15 )9 tho ugh i t
is ve r y un us ua l fo r a n un c l e a n d n ephew to a ppea r a s v ir tua l c o -r e o f a
s tel a .
3) lta 'lbw born of Mr-rwil.
4 .)
-t.f litpwy b o r n o f The o w n e r ' s fa ther an d ma ter n a l gr a n dmo ther
bo th bea r the n a me -l bw but it is a popular n a me with bo th s exes an d i t do es
n et n ec es s a r il y mea n they w e r e r e late d i n s o me wa y whic h is n o t s pec ified
her e, tho ugh they ma y h ave b e e n .
5) /pita Ihrt-titp born o f  - i .e . the wife o f D r wy .
6 a n d 7) s n t.f T3-n tt-n 3. bo r n o f gama n d s 3t.s Twt. It is thus es ta bl is hed
tha t gr ey a n d T3-ntt-n1 wer e br o ther a n d s is ter , a n d tha t T3-n tt-n l . ha d two
c hil dr en , Sbk-l }tp a n d Twt. It wil l be observed tha t wher ea s So -b tp wa s
gi ve n a ki n -te r m r el a tin g to Dr w y , Twt wa s giv en o n e r el a tin g to her mo ther
a l o n e. This wa s pr o ba bl y because Sbk-littp wa s the v ir tua l c o -o wn er o f the
stela a n d wa s s ho wn with his un cle i n the fir s t r egis ter , whil e Twt is n o t
n a med un til the thir d. r egis ter , wher e her figur e fo l l o ws tha t at her mo ther .
8) N n.1 b o r n o f MIr t-htp. l iwt-ty tp
ha s a l r ea dy been n a med a s the wife o f pr iv y ,
s o N n .l . wa s pr es uma bl y their da ughter , tho ugh s he is n o t a c tua l l y s a id to be
da ughter o f Pr wy a n d might ther efo r e h ave b e e n his s tep-da ughter o n l y .
9) a n t.f Itn .s -' n hbo r n o f Alb, to gether with a 3.8 1 1 3h-k3. 1 1 1 31 1 -k3 a n d. his
mo ther l itn .s - t 43 a r e a l r ea dy kn o wn from s tel a 2 0 0 4 .3, wher e the n a me o f th e
&o ther o f Itn .s -' 4 2 , wa s wr itten o ut in ful l a s 1 1 3/1 -k3-tw.f-a n b. Sa t her e
c a n n o t mea n the a un t, niece, or c o us in o f D r wy , bec a us e he ha d. n either a
7. C.. S. 4
14. /5. 16 . 17. 
Ca i r o s t e l a 2 0 0 5 1 .
O w n e r 8 3 - 1 1 3 d - h 3 t
p1 .1
5 1
gr a n d mo t h e r , s i s t e r , n o r a n aunt called 11311-k3-1w.f-snb„ se it is likely
I t n .s - ° 414 w a s t h e h a l f- s i s t e r o f ity." a n d o f T 3 - n t t - n .t a s well. 1 V 3 1 1 - - k 3
thus married his aunt, and. was presumably the father of her two children,
Sbk-)$p and Twt.
Cairo stela 20045. r s  p1 .1 1 .
Only two figures are s h o w n o n t h i s s t e l a . Ckz the left is Nhri born of
E.. qe and on t h e r i gh t i s  - s ub * ( 4.) bo r n o f Hn w t . Un d e r t h e n i s a n
i n s cr i pt i o n n a mi n g n i n e pe o pl e .
1 , 2 a n d . 1 4.) T h r e e me n , a l l s a i d to be &IA.
3) s n t .f Kft bo r n o f Ma r /. I f Kft w a s t h e d a ugh t e r o f MA, i t is
reascnable to a s s ume that t h e t h r e e n e n w h o s e n a me s s ur r o un d h e r s w e r e also
t h e ch i l d r e n o f Npr , a n d t h a t t h e k i n t e r n s r e fe r ba ck t o  - s a f. As
s o me o f t h e br o t h e r s a n d . s i s t e r s o f  - s n bf a r e i d e n t i fi e d . by t h e i r
fathers' nano, while others a r e i d e n t i fi e d by t h e mo t h e r 's , o n e pa r e n t ma y
h a ve be e n s e r r i e d t w i ce .
5 ) A ma n born of
6) a a r t .f Enirt bo r n o f Mr-Irti-s7.
7) Bbi born of Nbt .
8) e3.f born of This establishes that If t was t h e h us ba n d o f B bl
9) An un i d e n t i fi e d ma n .
1) 33-13d-h3t born of tk. The mother at' the owner is later named as %EEL
so k must be his father.
2) al.
5) Pacing the owner is the seated figure of MEI born at Szai. Since %Ea
is later shown to be the nother of the owner l Ikt was his brother.
Behind,  facing in the opposite direction, is an inscription
naming ana S3-1113d-h3t born or 83t-Hthr-m3t • (5). This is clearly a close
relative at the owner to be named so early on the stela. The S3t-Htlar-n3t
who is later maned as the "wife of the brother of his (i.e. the owner's)
father" was probably the mother of this S3-1,13s1-43t, who was thus the cousin
of the Dauer.
11.) tuit.f nbt pr S3t-Ht1r-hntt born of S3t4t1r - i.e. the wife of the omaer.
5) mwt.f Tool born of likki-ny - i.e. the mother of the owner.
6) en It Snfre-latp born of ikf $ (6). If the paternal uncle of the owner
was born ofIls_j f, then presumably so was the father of the owner * and this is
confirmed by the next inscription.
7) mwt .t.f Mci the elder born of S3t-lithr.
8) ant It .r born of S3t-Titbr-m3t. The kin-tern Ant it,: might possibly be
understood to mean "the niece of his father", i.e. the cousin of the owner*
but the way to record a cousin was to give the kin-tarn in relation to the
owner* net to the owner's father * as with sna S3-W34-113t (see aXove figure 3)
Snt lt.f, should therefore be interpreted literally as "the sister (or * in this
case * half-sister) of his father* * which means that the paternal grandfather
of the owner was married more than cam. It also MOM that either there
were two women called S3t-1jthr-m3t * probably related to one another * or there
was only one woman of that name and that * on the death of her husband* she
married and had. children by, her step-son.
9) an it.f born of S5t-iltbr-.3t - i.e. the half-brother of the father of
the owner.
10) an It .t born at Snbtisy. Apparently the paternal grandfather of the
owner had children by three afferent women.
WU) Three men, all said to be Ls& and all born of Id.
14) FILL born of akpi.
15) mwt hat.f S3t-littIr born at ta. Thus the mother-in-law of the owner
was born of j, a name which has already occurred In the family of the
owner, and this belcegs to the sans generation as tki the elder, the
paternal grandmother at the owner. Since Egyptian custom allowed two or more
sisters to bear the same name, and since one of these women is specifically
said to be "the elder" it is most probable that the two were sisters. This
hypothesis is strengthened by the fact that 21k1 the elder is known to be a
daughter of a woman called S3t-lit1)r and this is the name of the daughter of
of the younger 151„ which would be in keeping with the Gunton of naming a
girl after her grandmother. If and. la the elder were sisters, then the
owner and his wife were second cousins.
16) it a ita Vicki born of 33t-Et.
17) ft wt .f td born of la *(7). Since it was not unusual for several
children, both male and female, to bear the same WM. it is possible that
this was the brother of 'Ski and the elder. la would then be the
husband of the eldest 83t-tIthr and this line of the family would be traced
from a man and woman, and not from a man alms, which is very unusual. This
would mean that a brother and sister, 'al and IA the elder, married a sister
and brother, ykki-ny and El . c ..1_, ct and the parents of the owner would be related
twice over through these marriages. Attractive as this theory is, it cannot
be proved and has not been included in the family tree an pla.
18) mwt nt mwt.f gkirl-ny born or s3t-R'. It is thus established that the
paternal grandfather and the maternal grandmother of the owner were brother
and sister, so the parents of the owner were first cousins.
19) hat an t.f S3t-1Ithr-m3t, the wife of the brother of his (i.e. the
owner's) father. Since she
is the only aunt of the owner to be named, it is
to assume that this was the wife of Snfrw-ttp, the full brother
of the owner's father, rather than of one of the half-brothers. Though
there were probably two women called 83t-Hthr-m3t, it is possible that
Snfrw-btp married and. had children by, his step-mother.
20) Anbt
or born of 83t-Htar. This is more likely to be the sister-in-law
of the owner than his great-aunt.
21) An unidentified. woman.
—) —) —)
3. 2. I.
Cairo stela 20057.
Owners: Nhtl amityL
A) An offering formulae made co behalf of Nhti born of 83tAn1r, all his
children (101rwa nhw), an3.born of Ngm-ddt. It was usual for this type
of stela to
be jointly dedioated to a father and son, but, in the absence
of kin-terms it is difficult to decide which is the father.
The stela is said to be dedicated by 83 X l'i. CUthe evidence of
this inscription, 'EL might be the son of either &Li or but but la
bears the title sty n s3, the Controller at a (priestly) phyla, and he appears
again on the stela as sty n 5 3 11• 7 born of 83t- " I nhr, prov ing that he w as the
brother of Nhti, and so they were presum ably' the scan of 13w1. 3wf also is
entitled sty n s3, and it is is keeping w ith the Egyptian ideal that la
should hav e inherited his office fro& his father.
1) Nyti born of S3t-tniir. Although the dedicatory inscription mantic:run the
children of ati, they are nev er nam ed individually on this stela.
2) la born of Ni(m - ddt - i.e. the brother of 1,and the uncle of RAI
and the younger 'tr.
3) sj aLf_ born of S3t2I nbr - i.e. the brother of MI.
B) It n it.f 'Pry - i.e. the paternal grandfather of Nati and ta the ycx nager,
4 .) The mtv n s3_ t i v born of S3t 2I 4 r - i.e. the dedicator of the stela.
5) /pitaipi, born of
6) m w ta S3t-1114 .r born of nw t.
Three m en, all said to be alf. - i.e. the inns of 'Ia. How ev er, one
if not tw o of these sacs is said to hav e been born of  w hile the other is
said to have been born of Ii1t-'24). ith,t-s n,h, appears now here else on the stela,
and no sention is nada of her status, but both the nother- in- law of taand a
nurse are named Hp,. Thus, though la appears to have had no children by the
oily woman said to be his w ife, he did hav e children by tw o other Tow n,
w hose identity is uncertain, thcugh one of them m ay have been either the
sother of his w ife or a servant. I t w ould certain3y be in keeping w ith the
general practice of the M iddleo East for a aan to have children by a servant,
I .
n • -• IS.

IS -2.0.
Cairo stela 2006 2.
Caner: 1"3-nty-ni.
5 6
if his wife were barren (see Section IN, p. 401 ), but the endow° hare
is inconclusive.
1041 Two women, both said to bejztA sborn of S3tt.n4r.
12) The ELL nurse '0 (8). Am.
1) P3-nty-ni born of Rsw-nfr *(9).
2) An unidentiftwiman.
3) The figure is that of a woman but the i nsc ri p ti on names a man born of
4. and 5 ) Allman born of and s3t.s  There i s no i ndi c ati on
of how these women were related to the fami ly. unless Rn.s-snb is the sane
woman who married the brother of the ywner (see fi g ures 1 3 and 1 4. below).
6) An unidentified man.
7) p bt p rEnn , born of Shtp-lb. Iron her ti tle (see Sec ti on III, p . 26 2 )
and position an the stelao(see Excursus D. p. 503) there can be little
doubt that this woman is the info of the owner.
8 and 9) The figures are those of a man and &woman, but the inscriptions
refer to both amrs3t.s. Sinoe they are said to be the children of 151/1 anly,
they may be her c hi ldren by 0. previous marriage.
1 0) s3.f Rna-'nh '0(1 0) the young er. Thi s is p resumably the son of
P3-• ntv-n1 andEnn.
nand 12) Bn.r-i nt, the elder and hat.f Rawnfr. It has already been
establi shed that i tsw- nfr , was the mother of P3- nty- n, so Brut...2 2 h was hi s
13) sn.f Er born of Raw- nfr - i.e. the brother of the owner.
14) hat..? Rn.s- snb. T he fi g u re rep resenti ng this woman stands as the
beginning of a registers facing the owners so she may well be his wife. Cta
the other hands it was usual to show the wives of the owner in close promtnity
whereas here they are sep arated by a wh ole register * Rn a-snb may therefore
be the wife of H r., even though his figure is shown ea the preceding lines and
she has been tentati vely entered as su oh on the fami ly tree.
19 ) born of Raw- nfr.
16) an f Rn f- snb born of Ia. T hi s man cou ld be the half- brother of the
owner as they were born of di fferent mothers.
17) tukt.f - i.e. the wi fe of Rn f- snb.
18) An unidentified woman.
19) iat,f bornof Shtp-lb. Besides being the si ster of Knn this woman
ni g ht also have been the wi fe of the owners since she fovea hi s and there is
no other male fi g u re i n trai t of hers bu t her lowly p osi ti on on the stela.
makes thi s lost u nli kely*
20) A man born of bat Althou g h it is more u su al for the fi g u re of a
hu sband to p recede thai t of a wi fe, thi s is p robably the husbani of figure 19,
wh o was given precedence over his because of her relatioaship to ICnn and
thu s to the owner.
21) EA& barn of Raw- nfr.
C a i r o s t e l a 2 0 0 7 9 .
Ome r : Sbw.
Pl a l •
A) An inscription naming:
Sbw born of kitt-'n. Sbtf born if Presueab]y the name of the mo t h e r was
It o r s o me t h i ng s i mi l a r .
s 3t
it.f S3-t a h r bo r n o f It . As the paternal grandmother sad the mother-
in-law of the owner appear t o h a v e be e n bo t h c a l l e d Ix, Sbw may have
married his aunt, but the name is a common one and the re-appearance could
be a coinoidenoe.
'arta 74kt- I nh born or .11Ez.
EUbo r n or N 4 t -' 2 2 4 .
hata IA bo r n of t a n-d a t - i.e. t h e wi fe o f 2 3-t o n.
1) A seated couple mho must represent Sbw and Sbtf.
2 ) Th e s ma l l s t a nd i ng fi gur e if 03.f tm-sw bo r n o f az, A l i ne o f
i ns c r i pt i o n und e r t h e fi gur e o f t a k -s w, me nt i o ns /pita t fp( y ) bo r n o f 2 , 1 w4 t -i b.
- i.e. the second wife of Sbw and t h e mo t h e r o f h i s s o n. Si nc e she ha.s the
s a me name as the maternal gr a nd no t h e r o f t h e o wne r , l i py ma y h a v e been
related to h e r h us ba nd by bl o o d . .
3) The minute figure of 1:3t.f 1E3-1.r-lb born of Sjam. This is clearly the
daughter of Sbw, for she is portrayed holding his leg, and. the inscription
naming her is placed under his chair. She nay have been the daughter of
Eb, 'despite the variation
of spelling, but she soy also have been the
daughter of Sbw by yet another wife or a concubine.
14.) A line of inscription naraing s3t.s )14t-ib born of Ep(y). This is the
child of the second wife of the owner, but not necessarily of the owner
. .
" 4 >
2 . 1 .
<- •4 '•
. 7 .  tr.
-34 4-----
A 4-. 3. 9 -II. 2
4-4 4-
4. .5-. 1 2.-1 +•
C airo stela. 20 0 91 .
Owners: Nb-itf and Inpw-htp.
pl. LEI.
1 ) Nb-itr.
2) 4st.! 83t-mIct.
3 ana 4) 113.f Sblc-enkr and hst.f (i.e. the wife of the son) Hlyt.
s5t.f S3t-mIrt born of Nwyt.
6) OA born of S3t-mkt - i.•, another son or Nb-itf.
8) hada linmi born of lik:ga.
9) fla, born of !Innis
10) nrt.f .417 $(11).
11) OA born of Una,
Cairo stela 20092.
Owner: S n m w - h t p .
12) 63. f S lum born of gn at .
13) h m t . f ( i.e. t h e w i fe of S n rov ) 33t - k3 born e f
14) OA' born of H n m i.
Th e li n k be t w e e n the two groups is provided by in scription s • and Bpwhich
were bot h de di cat e d by a m an caLle d Nt L,r31. Inscription A, w h i ch refers to
Nb-lit sinee it is behind his fi gure , s ays t h at t h e de di cat or i s t h e 63 aul. f,
i.e. his nephew, while inscription B calls the dedicator the brother (g_0 1of
'in pw-littp. Th us , i f t h e de di cat or s n e ln p w - h t p w e re brot h e rs , and the form e r
w as t h e n e p h e w of Nb- i t f, )in pw-htp must have been h i s n e p h e w als o.
A) An in scription n am in gthe own er Enmw-htp born of 1St and t h e n bt p r Maw
born of ttf-t 3. Pros h e r position on the stela, M n i w w ould. n orm ally be
judged to be the w i fe of Bn m w-htp, but it will be s e e n (s e e below, in scriptior
B) that iin zw-1;tp had. children by t t f- 1 3, s o h e r daugh t e r Mniw is likel$ to be
the daughter of H n m w-A;ttp as well.
1) Th e ow s le r.
2) 5 _ 3. f 3It t - 9 3 born of j. It m ay be con s i de re d a li t t le un us ual. for a
man's son by on e wom an to bear the SAM name an h i s fi rs t w i fe , but this may
be a fam i ly name, an d one or bot h w i v e s m i gh t also be related to linmw-htp
by blood.
3) *2 _1.5 presumably, since the figure appears under the inscription naming
4 .) nbt  Her position and title would confirm her suggested role
as one of the wives of linsw - htp.
B) A long inscription containing the following dedicaticoss
nbt rk r Y ol born of linsw - nht. has already been named as the mother of
the ow ner's son, and her title w ould indicate that she w as his wife. There
is no determinative af ter the name of her parent, so it is diffieult to
decide w hether gnmw - mht w as a man or a w oman. The w ords f or 'born of used.
throughout are ir n f or the tw enty- three men and w csen named. As the phrase
is definitely followed by the nother t s name in tw enty oases it w ould sees
reasonable to assume that the other three, all born of linsw - ntt w ere similarly
being identif ied by their mothers' name.
A man born of Id, presumably another son of the ow ner.
The imy-r pr 4tp born of Itf-9 3 9 presumably another son of the owner.
The nbt pr  born of
s5t in3r - r 'or S nb born of ttf-'3 - i.e. the daughter of the stew ard, S nb born
of ttf-'3 . This is an unusual w ay of expressing k inship, but the meaning is
reasonably clear, if one can identify the isy-r pr in question. Mere are
only tw o men so far named w ho bear this title. (he is the ow ner and the other
is the third man named in inscription B. The latter, how ever, is himself
said to be born of [tf - '3, so unless a mother/son union is postulated, the
ow ner, linnw - htp must be the f ather of this girl, and also ofI L s r w ho w as
also said to be born of  
s3t Isy-r pr gnaw - 4 0 born of Itf-'3.
amt.! N ht.1 -' n1 3 and Bata ty, both ' horn of )Z21. As Id. is Imam to have been
the mother of ate of the owner's I Cral it is a little surprising to find
others of her children being referred to as his "sisters*. QC course, the
umuused father of linmw-htp might have been married to a woman called
before or after his marriage to 'nht, the mother of Ensw-htp, in which case,
it must be accepted that, by coincidence, father and son both married twice,
and each had a wire called Id, which was, after all, a common name. However,
the mother of ki and the owner's maternal grandmother were both named
linner-nht, it is possible that "Ipi. and Ermw-htp were aunt and. nephew. If she
had. been married to another, unnamed man, before linaw-htp, the two daughters
born of the first union would then be the cousins of Ilnaw-htp and the Egyptian
kin-term ant would be used to describe them.
Two unidentified. men.
born of linawr-nht. There is no doubt concerning the sex of this Hum-WA
as the female determinative, is used here.
Ley-r yr Itf-'3 born of In view of his title, his name, and the fact it
is recorded directly after that of the known mother of the owner, it is
possible that this is his otherwise unidentified father. A man and a woman
born of Thusw-s'n‘h< - i.e. the brother and sister of ttf- 9 3, the wife of the
Two men, both said to be a3 imv-r TV and born of 2 Itf-'5, so they too must be
sons of the owner.
man born of Mniw.
Two men born of ihuaw-n4t.
L2.3. 3. 4.
-> -, ---).
.  ' 7 . G. S.
--- -÷-->< --
I I . II.  l o  9 .
Cairo stel a 20123.
Owner: .1,.
1) Pp/ bo rn o f Sat.
Cairo stel a 20105. Owners: ' b-k3w and Htp.
' 13-k3w said Htp were bro thers, o r at l east hal f-bro thers since they were bo th
bo rn o f the same mo ther. What makes this stel a unusustl is that they were
al so bo th married to Wo rt. This is such a rare name *(12) that it wo ul d
seem l ikel y that o ne man married his bro ther' s wido w.
There is no kno wn
co mpul so ry l aw of l evirate in Egypt, but this case sho ws that marriage to a
bro ther' s wido w was no t pro hibited.
Cairo stel a 20109 . Owner: kuLtl.  ph.30:1„
This stel a bears inscriptio ns ectl y.
Nfrt bo rn o f Tt.
hat.f Tt./ bo rn o f 'In.
it.f ' I bo rn o f Dd./.
mwt f Tt bo rn at Htpt.
sn f qw bo rn o f Tt.
mwt nt ao rt.f Htpt bo rn o f PA. .
sn : _n_t i f
vrt bo rn o f •..... The name is il l egibl e but is presumabl y Htpt.
ant wt .t Ali bo rn o f tpt.
ant .f met .f  
The name is partial l y il l egibl e but ends in n.
ant.s bo rn o f Alla - i.e. the niece o f the preceding wo man.
, T bo rn o f wajm.
2) Mnt born of 1m. One owuld usually expect to find the figure of the
owner's wife or mother here, but this is an exceptional case, for Mnt is
later shown to be the maternal grandmother of pti.
3) 2I tf born of lint.
An unidentified man.
5 and 6) Sn-Wsrt born of 1ft and Slat born of Mnt. This couple face each
other and as Sod has already been named as the mother of the owner, Sn-Wsrt
may be identified as his father. All the other figures on this stela are
identified by their mothers' names, so  the parent of Sn-Wart, was
probably his mother, rather than his father.
7 and 8) Two men, both barn of Mnt.
9) A man born of D'i.
10) I tf born of Mwt, whose identity is uncertain. ttf might be one of the
grandfathers of the owner, possibly the maternal grandfather because the
maternal uncle of the owner is also named -tfb.
11) A. woman born of Smi.
12) D'i born of Mnt i.e. the aunt of the owner.
I . 2..
Cairo stela 20126
Owner: Vr?
--> 4--
9. 8.
7. 10.
i)  born of Ktms.
2) a3.f born of Kici.
3) The nbt p r lad born of S3t.41L
4) S3t11 born of §ki.
5, 7, 8 and 9) One man and three women, all born of 33t41.
6 and 10) A man and a woman born at Kia,
Although HA is the owner of this stela, the interest is focused almost
entirely on the family of him wife.
Cairo stela 20154.. Owner:
Though a considerable amount of information may be gathered from the
inscriptions on this stela, because the names of the mothers of the various
people mentioned have been included, nevertheless, the omission of all kin-
terms has rendered a complete reconstruotion of the family tree impossible.
The names are recorded on this stela in four groups, and though those in
the third column have been written the wrong way round, it is quite clear
what was intended, for any interpretation, other than the one presented. here,
would be unsatisfactory.
First group: Snb.f born of Hri.
Ijr1 born of Mntw-htp.
born of 33t,-Pth. Since his name follows direotky after
the name of the mother of the owners it is Feasible that IA was the father
of the owner.
Ptyt and another woman, both born of HA.
Second group: An unidentified man.
Two men born of Ism?.
Two unidentified men.
Cairo stela . 20138.
Owner: tsr.
Third group: A woman barn of Mntw-kttp.
An unidentified man.
Two men, both born of itntw-latn.
An unidentified woman.
Wi37t born of 83t-Pth.
tsni born of ILA.
A woman born of tsni.
In unidentified woman.
Fourth group: flri the younger born of Mntw-htp.
A man born of Ptyt.
A man born of ilbyt.
An unidentified man.
A man born of Ptyt.
No woman is said. to be the wife of Snb.f, but families are recorded
for his sister 1 2 .1 zi and for his paternal aunts giy_t.
1 and 2 ) 3Ilix born of Htp and hmt.f Dd.a.
3) Ind,
1. arid 5) ljnnw and hat.f Ethwt-tvrt.
6) 1 2 3A.
Cairo stela 2 0 1 5 9 .
Owner: 35 -Zdit.
pl. XIV.
T h e r e s t o f th e s te l a is 000upied by the figures and names of eleven
people, each said to be s 5 (t). f . Since th e y a l l f a ce in th e s a me direction
of lat, they may all be his children.
Among those named are Hnnw and Felport-twt. I f th e s e a r e identified a s the
same people as figures 4 and 5, then this is an example as a brother/sister
marriage. Vnnw and Rhwt-twt cannot be the parents of thsr because the mother
af'Ikr has already be e n na me d a s Htp. Hnnw co ul d be th e br o th e r aftkr, but
in that case, it is s tr a nge th a t no kin-te r m wa s given and the name of Htp
wa s no t r e pe a te d. T h e s e omissions would be accounted for is Hnnw and R h wt. . ta l
were the son and daughter oft4:r whose names, but not figures, appear else-
where on the stela.
1 a nd 2 ) S3-Ddit bo r n of S3t-Wsr and hmt.f Mkt.
3) maltA
4/6) Three men, all said to be OAinoluding one called Sbk-nt•
7 and 8) 1161:and
9 ) Sh k-nh t. T h is is pr e s uma bl y th e s o n o f th e owner, na me d above, who now
give s de ta il s o f h is o wn f a mil y. He is shown with h a t. f Nbt-itf .
1 0 ) h mt. f Myt - i.e. th e s e co nd wif e o f Sbk-nt:t.
85.f S5 -Ddit a nd h mt. f Htpt - i.e. ti e son of ShIc-nht, though by which
w i f e i s n o t s t a t e d . .
12) The figures of s3t.r and pad.
The s i bli n gs o f Sbk-n t ha ve
already been named as the sons of the elder 93-Dd i t , these children and
brother are therefore almost certainly t o be co n n e ct e d with the younger
83-Dd i t .
Cairo stela 20141.
Otaier Sn-mr-i-13pr-k.3-Rt.
pl . XIV.
1) 8n-ari-hpr-k3-10 born ce H3t-gpsort.
2) EL& bo rn o f 113t 4ps w t .
3) 4, 3t -Ipe rw t , born of It.
Fort nt stwt.f 117.
5) a n bo rn o f IL. Unless It had. a child by her son-in-law, !Li tt must be
understood. to Mall *his unole" here*
6) A r_ L I ti bo rn o f Bbw . Thi s ma n ca n be n o sore than the half-brother of the
ornery in which case, the unnsuaed father of the owner must have been married.
twice, or perhaps had a concubine.
7) FA& born o f mw t . s . Thi s mi ght be another child o f Bb _Lp r but i n s uf f i ci e n t
data is supplied.
Cairo stela 20153.  Ow n e rs Pt h-s i n hrn . t .  pl. XIV.
C i 3ly f i gure s o f the owner and his wife a re s ho w n a t t he t o p o f t he stela.
Cairo stela 20156.
pl. IT.
The other a:labors of the famay are recorded by mama on1y:
PtIrs'nh-ni born of 83t-sn.
hmt.f Nfrt-iw born of S3t4int1 -kty.
bit:born of S3t-hiti-hty *(13). Since the mother-in-law and the paternal
grandmother of the ownerbain the same name, there is a possibility that he
married his aunt, or at least that he was related to Rfrt-lw by blood as
well as by marriage.
mwt.f S3t-sn.
Three women, all said to be s3t.f, and a man said to be gm.
..121szborn of 83tolOpti-hty. On the family tree this man has been shown as
the uncle of the owner, but he might be his brother-in-law.
Awoman born of S3to.hnti-hty. This woman is not said to be the !at of the
owner, so she has been entered in the family tree as his sister-in-law,
rather than his aunt.
1) SbkAltp barn of Mr-sxr.
2) 4t.f gnms , born of I3-nk-k3.
3) !cwt.! Mr-s born of Hpwy.
Cairo stela 20158.
Owner: Nfr-r.
pl. V.
4.) ant f Katn born at Mr-52r.
5 and 6) Two men, both said . to be El& and both born of Ihn - sar.
7 and . 8) Two women, both born of Katn.
9) ant. f Bbi born of - i. e. the aunt of the owner.
10) Rau' born of Hbi. - i. e. the cousin of the owner.
11) antsf Nfrw born of Hpwy - i. e. the aunt of the owner.
The owner of this stela does not mention the existenoe of a wife or
child ren * and interest is focused on the families of his mother and . sister.
No husband is named for his sister Ha _iLn• although her two daughters are
includ ed .
1) Nfr-rwd born of M.t.p..
2) The 1 3 mt 2I y-m-tttp. *WO
3 and 4.) Two men, both said to be LaRL, cmie of whom was named 13 4-k3 .
5) 4mt.f nbt pr iftpt. Sims litp(t) is a very common name there is no
reason to suppose that the owner's wife and mother were the saw woman,
though they may have been related .
6) s3 .f Htz r.
7 and 8) Two women, both said to be ant. f, coe born of Tt t the other of
Rn-s'nh. Since neither of the owner's grandmothers I s named,
it is inpossibi.
to decide whether these two women were his half-sisters Or his aunts, or
some other relation. However, one is called W3-k3, the name of one of his
sons so clearly she must have been a close relative of Mr-mil for him to
name a child after her.
9) nbt pr Hty born of Htpt. Since this is a stela where kin-terms were
regularly Iasi, it is probably of some importance that this one woman is
identified by her mother's name only. She might well be tbe child. of the
owner's wife $ (15) by a previous husband, whom he did not choose to name.
10 and 3.3.) Two women, both said to be s3t.f. one of whom is named Htp.
Cairo stela. 20159.
Owner: Mai.
pl. IV.
1) Mat born of
2) The nbt pr 'ski born of Rs-snbtis7. By position and title, this woman
is to be identified as the wife of the owner.
3 and JO it.f 33-Sbk and the nbt r Pr3rt - i.e. the parents of the owner.
Inscription A: Five men and a woman, all born of
A man born of S3-Sbk. The fact that this man alone is
identified by the name of his father, suggests that he stood in a different
degree of kinship to the owner from his other brothers and sister, and is
probably to be identified as a half-brother, the child of a concubine or
previous marriage of S3-Sbk.
A man born of lia-snb. Rs-snb is presumably a shortened
writing of Rs-snbtis3 e , so this is the brother-in-law of the owner.
Inscription Bs Bbi born of Ns-anb, together with /la.
A man and woman born of al - i.e. the children at the owner.
An unidentified man and his two sons.
A man born of S nbtis3r . This is presumably another writing
of the name Its-snbttax .
Cairo stela 20161.  
Owners Name destroyed. pie .XVI/XVII.
This stela bears 68 lines of dedications,
unfortunately, the stela had been damaged and
passage4 including the crucial opening lines,
to reconstruct parts of the family tree. Cte
be traced back through seven generations, but
the groups were roughly contemporary branches
arranged in two columns. Most
there are several illegible
so it has only been possible
of the groups thus formed can
it is impossible to say whether
of the family, or whether they
were successive generations. If the latter is the correct ex planation then
the fsusily would have traced their ancestors back for something like twenty
generations, which is, perhaps, a little unlikely.
Column As
1) Name destroyed.
2) it.rname destroyed.
3) at&born of Hnsw-nht. The name of the owner's wife must, therefore,
have been LILIBIWEO
4 . suad 5) Two men, both said to be LUborn of linmw-nhyt.
6) LII.f. born of Htpi. If this was the son of one of the
owner" 111eantl*
Htpi would have been named separately as his wife. The wall this is arranged
here suggests that this is the son of the owner by a seccnd wife or ccooubine,
7) s3t.f born of Eta.
8) A new subject Is now introduoed with the im3txy imy-r pr, the revered. one,
the steward, 11 barn of IAD whose relation to the first group is xmknown.
9) tusta nbt pr l'y born of There is thus the strong possibility that
married her brother or half-brother.
10) s3t.f 'Ip born of
11) s3t.f Bbi born of tz.
12 and 13) Two men, both called. gnmw-nht, and. both said to be EU born of
34) hat.eib born of  The rest of the mother's name has been
destroyed, but, as one of the granddaughters of this wcsan is called linnw,
this was probably the reading of this name.
The introduction of the new wife probably indicates that she is to be
ass ooiated with Hnmw-nht, rather than with his father Nht.
19/20) Three women named IA, Annw and tz, all said to be a3t41 and. all
born of 'lb. Also three men, all said. to be OAborn of tb • The third son
is another Ifnmw-nht.
21) hat.f linz w6 -'3 born of Nn! - i.e. probably the wife of Linmw-nht born of
22) s3.1' Nht born of Hnsw-'3,
23) 53ta Bb3 born of la. No clear change of subjeot has been introduced
and la is not said. to be the wife of anyone. Bbi is probably therefore to
be identified as the child. of linmw-nht rather than of SI. The last woman
to be named as 1.12 was the sister of Knaw-rht, so he may have had children
by her as well as by Hnzw-'3.
24 and 25) Two women, both said to be a3tos tpi born of Bbi.
26) 113.8 gnaw-nljt born of B.
27) s3t.f Ddw born of tit - i.e. another child of Finaw-ntt and his sister.
28) The subject now changes to la33w linaw-nht born of Bbi the revered one
jrnaw-nlat born of p_ti, who has already been mentioned cam in line 26.
29) hat.f tpi born of Ddw. Ddw and Bbi were sisters (lines 23 and 27 above)
so Idand. her husband were first cousins.
30 and 31) OA and s3t,f , both born of "al.
32) The subject changes again to the im3Wrt Ddw born of The repetiticc
of mons already popular in this family, shows that the following group
were related to them, but how, is wicertain.
33 sind 34.) s3t.s rb born of' Pd ...25 and. 33.8 lilt born of  name destroyed.
Column Bs
1) Partially destroyed, but the last name is ALBw born of Mrr(t).
2) Also partially destroyed. There is a woman born of  then s3.11 H nmw-nj
born of /E(mw).
3) Ddw born of Dclw and linmw-nht born of Kmw.
4.) 0_,A born of Ddw, a man born of Dm, and a man born of Tt-nfrl.. This
last man cannot be identified * but he is probably the husband of one of
the women.
5) Two men born of Da, and KW respectively.
6) Another daughter of Mira also called Ddirt and an unidentified man born
of S3t-fm, who was probabty the husband of cae of the women, but there is
no indication as to which.
7) A man and woman born of Paw. There is nothing to indicate that all
these men and women who are said to be born of Ddw were not the children
of Ddw born of Kmw and they have been entered as such in the family tree on
p1.3711. Mere is a possibility, however, that one or two may have been
born of the two daughters of Ddw, who are both called Ddw.
8) imy-r pr finnw-nht born of Ddw - presumably one at the two sons of the
elder Dairy two of whom were called Hruaw-40. Mere is also an inscription
naming S3t-la born of Nit.
9) s3.f Finnw-nht born of' Hht and MI born of Nb-m-...., name destroyed.
10) s3t.f paw born of Nht and MI born of
11) 53t.f tb born of NI3t and a man born of Ddw.
12) s3.f Rat born of Nht and. a man born of Maw.
13) S3t-* born of Ddw and an unidentified man.
lines 14128 contain too many lacunae to sake a reconstruction possible.
29) in3hyt tpi born of ).1.v., and an unidentified man.
30) s3t.3 Sn.i-'2313, a man born of Sn.i.-'nh, and a man born of
31) 'az born at  and. ILI born of Bnyt. The man must be the son of one
of the men named in line 30.
Lines 32/34 refer bank to people mentioned in the illegible passage, so they
cannot be fitted into the tree.
On the basis of the names, I an inclined to believe that this is another
branch at the family. who owned Cairo stela 20092 ( see above po. 60/62),
but no individual can be shown to appear od both.
Cairo stela 20167. Owners
This stela bears a single column of inscriptions.
/ult.! Sn.nw born or tb.
Prt born of 112.
An unidentified man, possibly the husband of Prt.
Pn f-snb born of ..t and Rn f-finb born of Sn.nw.
Two women born of Snb.s, cne called Att.
Two women and four men, all unidentified.
IRE born of ant_mr and kunt.f T.ri born of 'nh.s.
An unidentified man*
fri born of Titi.
Prt born of Titi and ki born of Prt,,
Two unidentified man.
'nh.s born of Prt.
Sbk-htp born of Snnw.
Although these names are not presented in. any particular sequence,
many of them are identified. by the names of the mothers ancl they form an
important female line of five generations, culminating in the daughter-in-
law of knesw.
Of the unidentified men, several were probably married to the women
of the family, but in the absence of kin-tents, there is no way of
clarifying the relationships.
Cairo stela 20219. Owner: Blurt.
This stela was dedicated to the nbt pr Hnwt by her son. There are
also reference to her six daughters (s3t.^ ), four granddaughters Oat
s3t ts), and one grandson (11153t. ^ ), but no husband. is named for Hmrt or
any of her daughters.
The dedicatory prayer appears on p. 4.90.
1 1 .
1 1 1 n1 >
1 0 .
5 . ( . . 4.
- - >
9 .
- - - >
Cairo stela 20 245 .
pl. XVIII.
Cairo stela 20 242.  Owner: S3- Hpsw.
This is a typical example of a stela where a potentially interesting fanilj
tree cannot be reconstructed because of lack of detailed information. There
are ten men and nine woolen on the stela* but half of them are said only to be
born of swt. f or av rt. s * and there are no kin- terms. Ev en so * of the renaining
figures * one line can be traced through four generations.
Cairo stela 20 244.  Owner: Sbk- rdi( ori) .
Shk- rdi( orl) born of Tit and Inny born of S3t- Entw. No kinship term is giv en*
but his prominent position suggests that lmt was the father of the owner.
S3t- Entw born of
mny born of S3t- Hthr and. 83t- Hthr born of Hsi.
Two men born at Hsi and a man born of S3t- Entw.
If Imt the son of S3t- Entw has been correctly identified * then the
interest here is centred on the paternal line * but only on the women * since
the names of their husbands hav e been omitted. ,
1) 7 11.:1.1
born of Elrb-htp and hat.f Ty3 born of Nht3..
2) 53.f Mrs": and s3t. f Nwt- htp.
3) s3t.f Twt and an f Ersw born of Nbt- ftf. Since the names of the mothers
of the owner and this "brother" are different* they can only be half-brothers,
4) Lliti b o r n o f 'Ini - i.e. the mo ther -in -law o f the awners and Snit born
o f lad* who * b y his po sitio n * must be r egar ded as the husb an d o f Nhti.
5/8) Po ur wo men , all said to b e b o r n o f Sn-'n. Sin ce all the o ther peo ple
cm this stela ar e identified by their mothers' names * these may b e the half -
sister s o f al, b o r n o f a marriage to a woman other than Nhti.
9) sn.f Twt, b o r n of Mwt-ttp - i.e. the b r o ther o f the o wn er * an d sn f M rsw
b o r n o f j. The po ssessive pr o n o un s ar e still r ef er r in g b ack to the o wn er *
so EA' is also b ein g used o f the umole of the o wn er 's wif e.
16)an d 11) Mr svr b o r n o f ..m1 an d two men * b o th said to be hnms.f
Since the n ame Mr sw is found in the f amilies o f the o wn er mid his wif e*
they may b e r elated in so me way o ther than the o n e given her e.
-4 4--
1. 2. 3. 4.
... 4,,,  4—
6% C, 7. ar.
Cairo stela 20255.
Own er : Bbi.
pl. XLE.
1) Bbl born of Itt
By this inscription is another * naming
born of Stt.
2) Unsling b ef o r e him is an unidentified man.
3 and 4) ita Tm4 b o r n o f Bbi and liat.rtte.4-tr t, b o r n o f Mn t.
5 an d 6) Two men * both said to be sn.f, b ut born of two unidentified women*
so they can only be his Ralf-brothers.
!pat.! Bb b o r n o f L..
8) a n t f t f Bbi born of it f(.4-'n h.
9) ELIA born of Bbl. This is t he d a u g ht e r of his first wife .
10) a n_ t a l . ' born of It t (00-'n h.
11) 4ma t . f St t born of Man- i. e. t he seca mil dia of t he owner a nd t he
'ot he r of his son .
12) a 3t . a born of St t . St t ma y ha ve be e n ma rrie d prior t o he r ma rria g e t o
j which wou ld a ccou n t f or t his girl n ot be in g ca lle d t he d a u g ht e r of t he
own e r.
Ca iro st el a 2 02 5 7.
Own e r: 83t Ht hr.
The own e r of t his st e la wa s a sin g e r, 1 syt , a n d she re cord s t he n a me s
of he r t wo d a u g ht e rs (a t ..), he r son (s3.8), a n d t wo wome n , whose rel a t ion-
ship is n ot d e fin e d . The re is no me n t ion of a hu sba n d .
The d e d ica t ory pra ye r a ppe a rs a n p. 490.
C a iro st e la 2 02 6 0.  Own e r: Sn n w.
Sn n w born of
Thre e me n , a ll sa id t o be !LI:, a n d a ll born of Wit . NO ot he r re fe re n ce
is ma d e t o lit on the st e la .
ha t s34 Hdrt born of 13dt . There is no indica t ion, which of t he t hree sons
wa s ma rried t o Hdrt .
s3t 634 born of Hd rt - i. e. t he g ra n d d a u g ht e r of t he own e r.
ha t 83.f.
C a iro st el a 2 02 6 5 . Own e r: Na me il l egibl e.
In t he dozen l ines of inscription on t his st el a , every ma n a nd Ima m,
wit h on ly t wo exceptions, is ca lle d e it he r Ht y, Ht y- I n h, or t n pw-ht p,
Raking it i m p o s s i b l e to re co ns truct the fam i l y tre e .*
C ai ro s te l a 2 02 7 0.  Owne r: Shtp -i b -a t .  p 1 .1 1 3 4
Shtp -l b -R ' b o rn o f T i tf.
hm ta i nht-rn b o rn o f thnt.
O t A f Pp w b o rn o fDl unt.
A m an b o rn at ' nh-rn.
T wo m an b o rn o f Dhnt ams ot ldvxm, l i ke the o wne r, i s cal l e d Shtp -i b -1 /2 .
T he nam e Dhnt i s s p e l t thre e di ffe re nt ways an thi s s te l a ' 0 ( 1 6 ) , b ut they
are aily vari ants o f the s am e nam e . Acco rdi ng to R anks 1 0 ( 1 7 ) , the nam e i s
no t a co m m o n o ne .
T he l as t two m e n, who are sai d to b e b o rn at ans. 4 m ay b e the b ro the rs
o f ' nh-rn, b ut the re al p ro b l e m is p re s e nte d by t he girl 1 1 5 who i s said to
b e the daughte r o f the o wne r, and ye t i s born o f Dti nt. Ei the r S4 tp -i b -r had
a daughte r b y hi s m o the r-i n-l aw, o r hi s s e co nd wi fe was the daughte r o f hi s
fi rs t wi fe , and m aN y o r m ay no t have b e e n his daughte r to o , o r, o n the e vi de nce
o f the unus ual nam e , hi s s e co nd wi fe m us t have b e e n cl o s e l y re l ate d i n s o m e
other way to hi s fi rs t wi fe .
C ai ro s te l a 2 02 7 1 .  Owne r: 8b k,-/I tp .
Sb k-4 tp b o rn o f N fr-h' y.
m wt.f N e r-h' y b o rn o f M wt-ddt.
hm ta
s 3 t.s M i t-di l t. T he nam e o f thi s gi rl ap p e ars i n the m i ddl e o f a gro up o f
chi l dre n, all o f who m , e xce p t fo r thi s gi rl , are s p e ci fi cal l y s ai d to b e the
sons and daughters of the owner. This girl, however, is identified as the
daughter of the wife of the owner, so she maybe the child of j, born to
a husband other than Sbk-htp. It is taus that she boars the same name as
the maternal grandmother of Sbk-tttp, but it is not an uncommon name and
could be coincidenoe, though Ddi might herself have been descended from
Mwt-ddt in some way not recorded here.
gad:born of ,Nfr-'y.
aulm&both born of Mat-Iltp - i.e. the maternal aunt and uncle of
the owner*
Cairo stela 20273. Omer: go:. plaX.
gab= of 13d-wi-sY.
hmt.f and s3s Snbi. As Shbi is specifically said to be the child
of, he may have been born to her in a previous marriage.
hmt.f Bbl. This could be the wife of either gmor sal, but gm is more
likely, sinoe Snbi is not given enough prominenoe to warrant a change ef
ant.fPntlt and mwt.s Nb(w)-ddt. Phdt can anly be the half-sister of
as they have different mothers.
Cairo stela 20287. Owner: Sbk-ddw.
This stela is
divided horizontally into two. In the top register there
Cairo stela 20296.
Owner: bitt
are dedications to Sbk-ddw born of 9EL his wife and sac,. The lower register
names another wife, three sisters, and two brothers. If this seamed wife had
any children, their names are not recorded an this stela.
Cairo stela 20290. Owner: 83-13dyt-iw-sUb.
This stela shows the owner, who was born or 'w tIto together with his three
sons. All these men are said to be born of 441 11-btp, but she is not shown on
the stela, nor is she said specifically to be his 'wife.
JO The dedication was made to Sub born of Hpw by 83.f born of S3t,War.
85t-War is not mentioned again an the stela, though there is a wife called
S3t-§nd shown with Sub.
1) Sub and hmta S3t-gai born of Tti.
2 and 3)Hftn born of mwt.f and tusibt pr Hpw. Hpw is known to be the
mother of Sub so Hftn is to be identified as his father. With Hpw is 63.8
who may be the Child of another marriage.
4) Kit born of Hpw.
5/1 )A. woman and two men born of Kat.
8) A man born of Hpw.
9) A. list of unidentifimdrelatives and servants. It is Feasible that the
husband of Kat is among these names.
Cairo stela 20307.  Owners 'In(?)-am.
The interesting feature at this small stela is that it was dedicated to
'In(?)-Taw, by his sister *48).
Cairo stela 20310.
Owner: lyt-hr-nrft.
. 2 3
S. .
9 .
4— *-
12. 10 U.
1) )Iy-hr-nfrt born of Hpaw.
2) A man born of Sbk-m-sls. Sbk-a-s3

; is no where referred to as the wife
of the owners but no kin-terms are used on this stela at all. Her son is
standing where one would expect to find either the son or father of the owners
and since her other children play suchan important role an the stela, they
are likely to be the children of the owners rather than his aunts and uncles.
3 and 4) Two unidentified mens presumably closely related to the owner.
5 and 12) A man and woman born of S3t-Hthr.
6) Sbk-m-s30 born of Hp.
7, 9 and 10) Three mens all born at Sbk-a-s3.s.
8) 83t-Hthr born of Sbk-m-s3.s.
11) An unidentified man.
Cairo stela 20140 also belonged toly-hr-nfrt s but it gives no further
details concerning the family.
I .
5 - r.
4 1 - 1 1 .
i s.
—. -->
14 -
IL .
Cairo SWAL 20313.
Owner: Khk-mwt. f.
1) Khkmwt. f barn of Sbk-htp.
2) hmt..f bbt pr Uwyt born of 10,. .
3) s3t. snhy, perhapsher child by a previous husband because isnot
said to be the daughter of the owner.
4 ) ILL born of Em2.
5/10) •
man, and hiswife, and her two sonsand two daughters. These
people cannot be integrated into the family of the owner on the informatioa
supplied here, but their prominent position on the stela indicatestheir
importance to Khic-mwt. f.
103) Three men, all born of Etyl.
1 4) Nwt-htp born of I fni. As Nni is °lay a variant of ftz*(1 9), this is
a granddaughter of &qt.
1 5) An unidentified man, possilAy the husband at MI or liwt-htp.
16) A man born of Nwt-htp -i. e. the great-grandson of POyt.
Cairo stela 20325.  Owner: gnti-hty-htp.  plan.
Apart from the owner and hisbrothers, no men are mentionAan this stela
which bears inscriptions only.
gpti-hty-htp born of 83tp-hjiti-hty.
83tInti-hty born of Mkt.
Awoman whose name is illegible, born of 311. , and a woman born of her and
called S3t-bnti4ty. In view of their important position on the stela, and
the fact that the girl is named after the owner's mother (for the signifioanoe
of this, see Excursus 8, p.4.73 ), it is most likely that these were the
owner's wife and daughter.
An unidentified woman.
Awoman born of Mkt.
Two men, and a woman called Moj all born of S3t0hnti-hty.
Awoman born of Mkt.
A woman born of Mss and an unidentified woman.
4 ,---
2 . I .
---> 4—
5. C .
---> .*--
2r . 7.
Cairo stela 2 0331.
CWner: I nbr.
pl. IETI.
1) e nh4f born of Nbt-iwnt.
2 and 3) A man born of Mwtihn l .i and the nbt pr mirt-tin t .i born at Kan, 1.
prominent position occupied by these two figures, the woman's title,
and the fact that the man is making an offering, all combine to make it
certain that these are the wife and son of the owner.
4/6) Two man and a woman, all born of
Cairo stela 20338.
Owner: tmpy.
pl. MI.
and 8) A man born of Rn.s-snb and Rn s-snb born of Rn s-anb. There is no
information given as to how these two were related to the rest.
1) born of It.
2) it.f Snfrw born of /Sm.
3) Imx born of 'It - i.e. the brother of the owner.
A) Eight lines of inscription naming:
mwt.f tt barn of W..
Three women, all said. to be s3tos and two men said to be 0.0_.
It is more usual for the siblings of the owner to be designatrsd (t) .t, so
these five may be the children if "It by another marriage.
Two men, both said to be and and both born of art. Unless a marriage is
proposed been Snfrw and. his mother-In-law, sulti_ here means "maternal uncle",
Ilt.Aborn of Lm.
Al]. the other kin-terms refer back to the owner, so this
is presumably his daughter. Em is not mentioned anywhere else on the stela,
but, as she bears the same name as the owner's paternal grandmother (see
&curing; 13 9 p. 1.73), she may hams been a relative of his, as well as bearing
him a child.
it.f limy and 1?mt.f art. It has already been established that the father of
thf owner was Sart , and that art was the maternal grandfather, so it& here
means "his grandfather".
a .
a 3t. s a nd s3. s - i.e. the Children or Nrt, though not necessa rily by SE&
Several unidentified men tumi women, a nd a ma n born of 'Xt.
Ca iro stela 20341.
Cwner: Nht-'nhl.
pl. XXII.
1) Nht-'4,1 born of '3-k3. s.
2)mrt. f  - i.e. his beloved gdi. This is not his wife, a nd she is na med
nowhere else on the stela a nd. given no kin-term, so it is possible tha t she
wa s a concubine (see below, Section III, ps. 294/303). At her feet is a n
inscription na ming a n otherwise unidentified woma n, whose name has the
determinative cf a kneeling, pregoantwasan.
A) Inscriptions na ming:
it. f 'alborn of Ne-Pt4,
rwt. f  of_al.
s3t. f Vtp-a nt born of 83t n(t) mwt. f Nb(0.
s3t. f '3-k3. 6 a nd a L f/Iimmy.
s3t. f S3t-itty.
bmt. f s3t n(t) mwt. f Nb(t). Ra nks *(20) rea ds the na me a s S3t-nt-mwt. f , a nd
omits the Nbt, but he is evidently unha ppy with tha t solution a nd puts a
question ma rk beside it. The word Nb(t) is followed by the fema le
determina tive, ma king it clea r tha t, though the t ha s been omitted, a s
ha ppens severa l times on this stela , Nbt wa s pa rt of, or the whole, na me.
After the na me come the words m3 . (074rwnb(t) Lo(yt). If Nbt is the na me
then the preoeding inscription may be intended a s a litera l cement on the
sta tus of this woma n, who bore 1111;t-'ne.  (continued on next pa ge)
—> —> --). 4—
3 . 2.. I . 4.
--> --, 4C-- *-
et . I S . b. 7 .
i5.1*.ls.12..ii .10.
--> ---> --*--*
N.  I S .
I -a .
I .
Ca iro stela 203 4. 6.
Owner: 83 -h4-htp.
pl. Ma ll.
a t lea st one child, a nd she should be identified a s this wife, the da ughter
of his mother, Nbt", so Nbt would be the sister, or ha lf-sister, of her
husba nd *(21). Ra nks *(20) rea ds the na me a s 3 3 t-nt-mwt. f a nd omits the NI A,
but be is evidently unha mmrwith tha t solution a nd puts a question ma rk
beside it.
Two women, both sa id to be Eau.
The rest of the inscription is a iltp di new formula for the owner.
This stela is interesting beca use of the number of genera tions it records,
but its va lue is diminsimi by la ck of cla rity in the inscriptions.
AL) I n inscription na ming S 3 -hd-htp born of S I 3 t-Wa r-nllt.
1 a nd 2) it. f thiti-hty-wr born of I tt a nd sea ted with him is the mother of
of the owner.
3 ) s3 . f Hnti-hty-wr. This ma n is sofirmly a tta ched to the pa rents of the
owners tha t he is proba bly their son, ra ther tha n the son of 83 -hd-htp.
4) Almon piling offerings a n a ta ble is na med a s Ot-Hthr born a r'a tt.
No reference is ma de to be sta tus within the fa mily, but her prominent
positionwould suggest tha t it wa s a n importa nt one.
5) The owner.
6 and 7) The seated figures of an unnamed man and hmta Itt born or s3t-k3.
Itt has already been named as the paternal grandmother of the owner, and this
may represent her, together with her husband. If this is so, however, it seems
strange that his name has been omitted. It is therefore probable that this
represents the owner again, whose name would not-hem:treed to be repeated, and
his wife, who, as she bears the same name as the grandmother, may be related to
the family by blood, as well as by marriage. She has been tentatively entered
as the wife of the owner an the family tree.
8) The figure is of a woman, but the insoription is for 8305 Hnti4itykawr.
Even if this is the child of the wife of the owner, but not of S3-hd-4tp
himself, the re-use of the name Hnti-hty-wr would be perfectly reasonable if,
as has been suggested, the wife of the owner was also a blood relation.
9) it awt.f S3-w3d'boixt of Hrit and an inscription naming another son of rit.
1411,12) 63.f and two won= said to be s3t.f. These are presumably the
children of the owner.
1 3) !EA.
1 4 and 1 5) Two smi said to be 83.s, but it is not clear which woman is to be
identified as their mother.
16) An inscription naming the owner.
17/19) An unidentified woman and two men said to be 83.f. Since they are
connected to the insoripdicammming 83-4d-htp again, this could represent
more of his children, perhaps by this woman, but this is uncertain, so all
three have been omitted from the family tree.
Cairo stela 20351.  
Owner S3-snht.
The inscription on this stela can be interpreted in two ways, both of
which are equally valid.
83-'nht born of Rhwt-'nh.
634 Inhr-htp born of Klan.

Dfgm-ddt. There is noway of ascertaining whether this woman is the
wife of the owner or of his son. Certainly the owner's son is said to be
born of a different woman, but she is maned nowhere else an the stela and
may have been a long-dead or divorced wife, or even a concubine, while
N gm-ddt was the wife at the time of erecting the stela. On the other hand,
the name of N gm-ddt does follow that of tnhr-htp, so she may well be his wife
rather than his father's wife.
s3.1' born of N elm-ddt. This is either the second son of the owner or his
grandson, according to the status one accords to N alm-ddt. I have presented
both solutions on pl.IIIII.
Cairo stela 20357.  CWner:
This stela belongs to the woman Hpy, and names no-one else except her
mother. Atranslation of the dedicatory prayer will be found an p.401.
Cairo stela 20371.  Omer: )Iiir •
There are three mart demagmated itiLan this stela, all apparently
referring to the owner, so two of themmust be either grandfathers or step-
Cairo stela 20393.
Owner: 12E. plOCIalT.
The figure of . E born of Sn-Wsrt appears at the top of this stela and
underneath are two cabanas of inscriptions naming his relatives.
First column - nbt pr Fth-tenh born of Mnt. Judging by her title and
and prominent position, this must be the wife of the owner.
Awoman born of Pth-senN
Mnt born of NJ:=.
'Ahw born of Rn.f-'n13 'nhw bears the same title as the
owner, that of hpaty, "runner", and since he appears in suoh an important
position on the stela he may be the father. The name Rn.f-'1113, ought to be an
exclusively masculine one, but this is not so, and Ranks *(22) quotes several
examples of its use by women. All other branches of this family are traced
back to a female, so it would appear likely that, in this oases Ria.f-entwws
also a woman,
Second column - NbAc3wborn of Rn.f-'nb„.
nbt pr &I-Wart born af )Tpt-13d(t) - i.e. the mother of the
owner. Since her name appears in close proximity to that of Nb-k3w it may be
that he, not :an was the father of the owner, We 'nine-would thus be the
paternal uncle of 'Diu. This is the solution adopted in the family tree
presented on plata.
The hpwty Sn-Wirt born of Sn-Wart - i.e. the brotheh of
the owner.
Nfrw born of S3tHthr. Nfrw had already been named as
the maternal grandmother of the wife of the owner.
Cairo stela 20394. Owner Nds-'n3-.w,
According to his stela, the only title born by Ns-'n3/43-1.w was that of
w'rtw n tt hk3, "Administrator
of the Ruler's Table", but he was evidently a
man of great importance because he vas married to the s3t new (King's Daughter)
43t-ilpswt, born of the Ot new (King's Wife) Eat. The inscriptions referring
I .  
2 —
.  6. 


Cairo stela 20398.
Omer: Sty.
to the other figures are partly destroyed, but the couple appear to have had
three daughters, wee of whcmtwere accorded a title other than nbt pr.
1) Hy born of S3tEt1ir, together with hmta Snt-it. s and s5t. a St.
There is no good reason why, if St was also the daughter of  she should
not have been said to be a3t. f, so, in view of the fact she is said specificall
to be the daughter or his wife, she may have been the child of a previous
marriage of Snt-it s.
2) 534,
3) Amale servant.
The 1±12th maiddervaut.
5) s3. f gnaw - i. e. the son of the owner - together with his wife and his
son, These three are grouped together, forming a family unit.
6) The !Net".
7) Asale servant.
8) gnaw-htp, his wife, and their son. There is no indication as to how this
group, were related to the rest.
9) fty. This may be the owner again.
10) Emborn of Snt4t. s, and hat. f StAtialready been named as the daughter
of Snt-it. a, so this would appear to be a marriage of brother and sister,
or half-brother and sister.
103) Three women, two of whom cannot be identified.. The other (no. 12)
is said to be IDA- i.e. the daughter of Hty or Nry.
4.. 4-
A l ,
5 .
A ..
4 C - 4-- E ---
L. •. s.
--is --) 4- 4- 4--
i o. ii. la. I.
Cairo stelae 20429 and 20430.
Owner of both: l b-i'w-intf which is
sometimes abbreviated totb-i'vr.
Cairo stel a 20429.
1) born at Nb(w)-dd(t). The name of the mother on this stel a and 02
20430 is written without pl ural strokes, thus -  3(2.) * Nb(w)-dd(t),
the t being omitted on stel a 20429 but incl uded an 20430.
Since there are certainl y three women in this family all cal l ed Nb(w)-ddt,
it would be of great assistance if it could be Shown that the names were spelt
consistently throughout, and this does appear to 'be so in the case of the
2) snt.f T3-nt-htw born of Nb(w)-ddt, the mother's name being written without
pl ural strokes as in no.1 above. T3-nt-htw is shown in that part of the stel a
mbare one woul d normal l y expect to find the wife of the owner, and on the other
stela, she is a000rded the titl e of nbt pr, the onl y woman an either stel a so
designated. The prominent position oompl id by this woman gives her more
obvious importanoe than the owner's mother or other sister, and moreover, the
owner has six dhiLiren, but no named wife. It is therefore likely that
T3-nt-htw was both sister and wife of the owner.
3/8Two men, both said to be 63.f and four women, all said to be 83t.f - i.e.
the chil dren at the
Nb(w)-ddt, written without plural strokes, born of Ddt - i.e. the
mother of the owner.
10) It.f Inb-hw-intf.
11) mwt.f Nb(w)-ddt born at Hpy. When a man and woman are libelled it.f and
j_r_ t if m and are shown facing each other, as these two are here, they would
normally be the parents of the owner, in this case, however, Nb(w)-ddt , bona
of Ddt is shown in a more prominent ;coition and is therefore more likely to
be the mother of the owner. Moreover, the name of Nb(w)-ddt born of lipy is
is written with plural strokes,  
CI9whereas the name of
the mother of the owner appears to have alweffs been written without. The
second Nb(w)-dit is therefore probably to be identified as the mother of
'nh-hw-intf, and she was thus the paternal grandmother of the owner. The words
mwt.f , are either to be interpreted as referring to i nh-lxw-intf, or are to be
translated as grandmother.
12) ns if.Since the name of his mother is not given, this might be either
the brother or the uncle of the owner.
T3-nt-nb(w) born of Nb(w)-ddt, Which is written without plural
strokes -
i.e. the sister of the owner.
The names of several people, no of whom can be identified, and who
have therefore been omitted from the family tree.
I .
Z . 3.
9 .
T. 7. 4 . S. 4.
I O .
Cairo stela 20430.
1) The owner, born of Nb(w)-ddt. The name at the mother is once again
written without plural strokes.
This combination of
The determinative employed here is
mita nbt pr T3-nt-htw. This woman has already been named as the sister
at the owners born of the same mother (see stela 20429, figure 2). As on
the previous stela, she occupies the place, usually reserved for the wife of
the owner.
Besides this figures there is also an insoripticn naming Ddt born of
Bb(w)-ddt. Nb(w)-ddt is here written with plAral strokes. Ddt has already
been identified on the previous stela as the maternal grandmother of the owner
it.f y nh-bw born of lipyw. This is the father of the owners the name
being written in an abbreviated form.
The name Hpyw is followed by the words err brit - i.e. the masculine form.
masculine determinative and. inscription indicate that lipyw was a mans thus
the names of the father and mother of the owner's father are now known.
VS) Two men and three women, the children of the owner.
9) an.f. This
is the same man who appears on the previous stela (figure 32),
3.0) A list of names: ajt.f - i.e. the fourth daughter of the owner whose
name was omitted above.
Nb(w)-ddt (written with plural strokes) born of Hpy -
i.e. the paternal grandmother of the owner (see
previous stela, figure 11)
Nb(w)-ddt (written without plural strokes) born of Ddt.
She has already been identified as the mother of the owner.
T3 -nt-nb(w) born of Nb(w)-ddt (written without plural
strokes)- i.e. the sister of the onier.
An unidentified man.
Cairo stela 204.31.
Owners: 13h-k3-snb and 113/1-k3.
pl. 117.
13h-k3-sub born of Htpwy and hmt.f 83t-)Inhr.
born of Htpyw and hat .1 E.Itpwy. 113h-k3-enb is thus the am of
11311-kj, as might be deduoed from his name,"if3h-k3 is healthy", which is
a suitable name for the son of a man called 113h-k3. The name of the
mother of W31.1-k3-snb and the wife of W31 .?-k3 is written 1::1-k),\N
whereas the name of the mother of 13h-k3 is written  1=1
Lb a
There then follows two registers of figures and another of inscription
The figures 431 face the same way as W3h-k3-enb so all the kin-terms ought
to refer to him, but it must be admitted that the picture which can be
evolved is oomplicated.
3) mwt nt mwt.f 3hs - i.e. his maternal grandmother.
4.) sr _ jAt born of 3hs - i.e. his maternal uncle.
5) , ant.f tbi and :212A born of tbi. If j was the sister of 113h-k3-anb
then her son would be his nephew, but she might be his aunt, in which
case her son would be his cousin. In the absence of the name of her
mother, either Interpretation is possible.
6) snt Kw.
7) m,.1.; born of Kw. These two figures present the same problem as that
discussed for 5 above.
8) ant f Nfrt.
9) snAborn of ImIL thus posing the same problem again.
The rest of the stela has figures and inscriptions naming ten men, all
said to be gait and six women, all said to be snt4". There is no indication
as to which generation these persons belonged, and there is therefore not
enough inforaation to permit a complete and reliable reconstruction of the
family tree from this stela, so only a tentative version is offered on
p1 .2 1 V .
Cairo stela
Owner: ILL
This stela belongs to the nbt pr T. born of Snbt. There are separate
representations of ek and sjt.s, but there is no mention of a husband. This
does not neoessarily mean that she was not married, but that for some reason,
perhaps divorce Or early widowhood, she chose to have her own separate
funerary monument. The dedicatory prayer appears on.R.492 .
Cairo stela 20452.
Owners: 'sat born of,  born or Ildri and Hnmw born
of 1mi.
In the absence of kin-terms, it is not possible to decide whether three
or four generations are named here. The alternatives are represented an
A man and his wife are also shown on the stela, but there is no indicatic
as to their relationship to the three women. A translation of the dedicatory
prayer appears an p.492.
I .
6. 4. 3. 2..
13• 12,
11)0 9. s.
19• Pit. 17. 16 IS. 14.
‘ .Xlit /3'22.21. 10.
Cairo stela 20455.
1 ) 'Limy.
2) it.f tan-m-h3t born of 83t-lthre
3) mort.f Hr-m-hb born of Rn.s-inh.
4.) mita' 33t-Rtbz born of Hr-m-hb.
5)sz _ltA born of Hr-m-kib.
6) an& barn of Ifirao-hb.
7) mita' 1nwt born of Tijr-m4lb.
8) a n _st born of ,1r-m-hb.
9) entof 'LlAy-Ipswt born of lir-m-tib.
10) a l& born of r-m-4b.
11 and 12) hmt.f Nbt-s4t-nt-R' born of kinwt and hmt.f tinwt born of Snt.
Smz therefore had tee wives, but it is uncertain which was the first wife*
for the fact that the name of Nbt-st,t-rit-R2 precedes that of tirart, iloes not
necessarily mean she was the first wif e, but may indicate rather that she
was the wife at the time the stela was erected.
EMrJy had a sister called kinwt and it is possible that Nbt-at-ct-R" was
her daughter and therefore his niece as well as his wife. However * there
is another alternative which ought to be oonsidered. Nbt-at-nt-R' was the
daughter of a woman called linwt* which was the muse of the other wife of
and she is known to have had daughters called Nbt-shfi-nt-R*. Zither
lirart was the seccaxl wife of Imt and chose to name three of her daughters
after her predecessor* or libt-sht-nt-R' was the second wife a n d it was just
coinoidence that her predecessor's daughters had the same name as herself
*(23) * or Nbt-st,t-nt-R' was the daughter of the first wife of  and she
married, her father.
In view of the fact that Nbt-at-nt-R1 is a very U110011110111 nese* it is
likely that she was either the niecit or the daughter of x, and since
her figure is in a different raw from that of the sister aftmny, the second
solution has been preferred and is presented on pl.XXVI.
13) 83t.f 4r-m-hb born of Nbt-s0=nt-R1.
14 and 16) Two men, both saxd to be 834. Their mother's name is not given,
but since they are surrounded by girls born of Ebt-sht-nt4P, it is reasonable
to assume that they were her children too.
15) IOU!' Vnwt born of Nbt. Nbt is merely a shortened version of
17) 53t.elmny-ilpswt born of Nbt.
18) s3t.f Nbt-at-nt-W the younger.
19) latAborn of Nbt.
20) 83t.f Nbt-itt=nt.170 bcwn of Ffrort - i.e. possibly the second wife of
21) glIA: born of tinwt.
22) 221fborn of Enwt.
23) 63t.f born of Effort.
24) sn.f Sn=Wart born of , '3-10.11. '3-k3.1js not mentioned anywhere else
on the stela so the exact relationship of her son to the owner must remain
uncertain. Since be could be neither uncle or nephew on the evidence as
presented, he must have been either a halt-brother or a cousin and it isas
the former that he has been tentatively included on the tree on plaXVI.
One of the owner's sons - (figure 16) was named after this Sn=lirsrt so be
is likely to have been quite closely related to the owner.
25) suf. No other details are given, so his exact relationship to the owner
must remain very doUbtful and he has been omitted from the family tree.
S. I. .  8 .  A.  I.
2.45. Pi . i T. ri .
/1.1'7 .A6 .15 . Aq-. . 73. 22 Xs
Cairo stela
Owner: Nit.
The value of this large stela is greatly diminished by the fact that
some vital inscriptions, including that naming the mother of the owner, are
illegible, while elsewhere certain necessary details are withheld.
1) Mti. born of  N ame iblegible.
2) snta Pt born of ) y.. Since this woman stands facing the owner it
would be logical to assume that she really was his sister, born of the same
mother, but later his "friend" (tnms. f) is also said. to be born of  and
hnms would not nor:m. 14 be used of a brother.
3 and 4.) Two men said to be mel: horn of Mot%
5, 8, 11 and 12) Four men, all said to be tnms. f. They all have different
mothers, none or whom are otherwise known. Perhaps among these men are to
be found some of the husbands of the owner's numerous "sisters%
6) snt. f 'my born of Pt. There is no way of telling whether this is the
daughter or the mother of figure 2.
7) :int.! Stit born of tn17.2.•
9) ant.f Htp-ddt born of Pt.
10) •nto!' Tt born of H tp-ddt.
13) Nuss..f born of 122 C 71.
14 .) T ims..f born of H tp-c_ ldt.
26) A man born of Htp-ddt.
These are the only people named on this stela, who can be arranged in
a family tree in a coherent sequence, though even so, it was necessary to
omit the name ad the owner since three generations of women were all said
to be ant.f, and it is impossible to deduce his exact relationship to each
of them.
It is also a remarkable feature of this stela that the daughters of
titp-ddt walla:are each said to be the "sister" of the owner, while the
sons of Htp-ddt amillz are designated the "friend" of the owner, and there
is no evidence available to explain this change of terminology.
Several groups of women and their children, many designated sn(t)4f,
appear futher down on the stela, but they cannot be convincingly identified.
Figure 22 represents the nurse, an' t. of the owner, Tti born of Ttio
and her son is said to be snAlborn of Ttio so an is used here of a foster-
C airo stelae 20147 3 / 4..
Owner: Hr.
S. 7 .  1. . 5. 4. 1. 2. < - - -
IS.14. n 3.12..11.
..L2A. 2o. ic% . 1 t. n. i 4 .
Many of the figures on stela 20473 cannot be identified, and some
crucial inscriptions have been destroyed, so 2014.7 416.1l be used here,
supplemented where possible by 20473.
1) The owner Hi.
2) it f Sn-mri.
3 ) mwt tf Snt.
--) *--
.  3 .  2.
4. ath 5) Two women, both said to be s3 t. s ., named Snt and 11 respectively
6) a3 2Imny.
7) Lela.
8) ant. This is one of the few people an this stela, identified by their
relationship to the owner, rather than to his mother.
9) snt. s Snt.
10) !ale- i. e. probably the daughter of figure 9.
11/16) snt. s, sn. s tir„ sn. s S5-B3 stt, snt. s S3 t-Vr, an. s and sn. s.
17) An unidentified man.
18 and 19) Two men, both said to be LTA, presumably referring to the owner.
20 and 21) Two unidentified men.
Stela 20473 names another man called tIr, who is said to be born aflz
and is thus the nephew of the owner.
There are two stelae, which belong to 3k, in the Icuvre (numbers C. 2
and C. 54), but they only name him and his mother.
Cairo stela 20476.
Omer: lartni
1) The owner.
The dedicator, whose relationship to the owner was probably recorded on
that portion of the stela whioh has been broken off.
3 ) Facing the owner across the offering table is the s h'yt ' 0 (24) S3 t. Pth„
who is presenting her master with incense and an alabaster unguent vase.
The exclusion at all members of the family, with the possible exception of
the dedicator, gives added importance to the prominent position accorded
this domestic servant. This suggests that she was an especial
Cairo stela 20482.
Owner: Nht.
favourite of her master, possibly even his concubine. The importance of her
role is further emphasised by the fact that she is not shown carrying food,
or the personal possessions of her master, as is usual for servants, but is
shown with incense and unguent, as if she were performing an offering ritual.
Most unfortunately, this very interesting stela is damaged and is
illegible in several places, including the entire bottom register.
1) NtO born of la.
2) s3t.f Hnmw born of )121,
3) tiata V. born of)ldw.
4) mwt.f 1 3ty born of Sbk-htp.
5) Hnmw-nht born of tAi. He is later shown to be the nephew of at.
6) }pat..t litp born of 83tR0 , — i.e. the wife of Enmw.•,dht.
7) lAi born of laand 113.8 %t-'n. This woman was tke sister of tile
owner, and her some were therefore his nephews.
8) Plmw-n)t born of till.
9) Mit born of tdi and the name ora man Who cannot be identified, because
the name of his mother is illegible.
10) Ablodk of partially destroyed inscriptions, which cannot be incorporate
into the family tree as it is too fragmentary.
11) Bhti born of 'nh-ns. There is another name at his side but it is
12) A. block or insoriptions, apparently referring to figure U.
Amet.f S3t-R' born at B  (name illegible). 83t-R' has already been
identified as the mother-in-law of the owner's nephew.
83.fltf-1 3 born of Mimust, therefore, have had two wives,
S3t-R' and tti, who has also been identified as the sister of the owner.
The relationships are further complicated by the fact thatDmww-nht barn of
married 9.12born of S3t.-W. Since Iti and S3t-R' were married to the
same man, Annwp-nht must have married his half-sister.
834' born of S3t-R' - i.e. the son at 20.
13) A. block at inscriptions, which apparently refer back to the figure in
the register above them, m born of tdi.
sn.fItf-'3 born of te.
834 lirunw-nht born of taw - i.e. the son of m born of Idf. Idw has
already been named as the mother-in-law of the owner.
Wiborn of Id/
must be his father-in-law.
s3t.f grow born &Ides
83.f gnmw-litp born of!Ltw.
The rest of the stela is illegible.
Cairo stelae 20515, 20526 and 20751. Owners: MI and Mt. pl.XXVIII.
These three stelae all belong to the same family.
Stela 20751.
This stela will be considered first because the owner 31 . ti, was the
father of the owner of 20515 and 20526.
1 and 2) E h i g. born of nwt and 4st.f Iftp.
3) s3 s3.1 - i .e. his grandson, the dedicator.
4.) 0.f Nb,t, - i .e. the son of Nhti and probably the father of M..t.
5) 153.f
6 and. 7) snt.f Hky and EU'.
Stela. 20515.
The owner, Nht born of Htp - i .e. the son of the oerner or 20751, and. h at.f")li cw,
They are followed by fourteen men and women, all said to be OA or 124.1.
The sons are named M, t Mt, Shtp-ib„ Nht, Ni st-13?Rn.f-11: 13,
Wp-w3wt-$p, litn.f-'n, and Nh t. The daughters are named Tti., S3t-Hthr,
In the bottom register there is another representati on of Nht, the ovaler,
together with kiimt *(25) 83t-hnti-hty 33.8 'Tani and s3.11 MI. . This arrangement
suggests that Itt himself may have been the father of the children of
83t-gnti-hty. Behind them come a male servant, another /al and ail.
Stela 20526.
The figures on this stela are divided into six groups.
Group 1 - and hmt.f 'flaw, with a dedication by s3.1 Nht.
Group 2 - 83,f Nht - i .e. the man who dedioated the stela, with hmt.f
and their children: Wp-w3wt-l}tp, Sn-Ifsrt„ li rtp and Hkar.
G rou p 3 -
s34Rn.f-'nh - i .e. th e son of Nh t and tor, togeth er wi th h at.f Htpl
and th ei r sons Hlu f-I nt„ Hi lt, and. Nh t. Htp i s a very common name, so Rn.f•
n Inh
was not necessarily married to his sister or nieoe, though he may have been.
Group I. - i ta,t -
i .e. probably anoth er son of MI and -)Ilcw, together with
/pita Sinw-'nh born at" Bn.s-'141.
Group 5 - sja Nht - i.e. presumably the third at the four sons of Nht and
tkw to bear this name, together with s3.f Sn-ftrt, and
83t.r IT4Y.
There is no wife named for this Nht, so Sn-Wirt and Bky may not be his
children, but more of the children of Nht anelkw.
Group 6 - A list of eighteen people, the last seven of whoa, though clearly
related to the family, cannot be integrated into it, as insufficient data
is supplied. The rest apparently represent the other children of Mandtcw.
There are certain discrepancies between this list, and the names supplied by
stela 20515, but this may be attributed to births and deaths within this
large family between the erection of the two monuments, one of which seems
to have been commissioned by Id t born of Iv., while the other was the 'mak
of his son, Nht barn or tkw.
These three stelae are especially valuable, because they give an indioatia
of how often a name could be re-used within a family, even among siblings
(see Binursus B and Chart 2).
4-- 4-- 
3. 4. T.
Cairo stela 20518.
Owner: Bum-nt.
1) Hnowa-n4t born of MEE,
2) !LE:bora of 2m,
3) Ehmt barn of ma- i.e. the sister of the owner.
4) 92:born of Nfr - i.e. the mother of the son of the owner and presumably
his wife. The name Nfrt and its variants were so popular that the
similarity of the names of the owner's mother and mother-in-law could be a
coincidence, but it is possible, the variation of spelling being so alight,
that they were the sass woman, and that pilmw-nbthsd a child by his sister.
5) Tt born of Mfr.
6) Di born of &int- i.e. the nephew of the owner.
7) Npg born of au- i.e. the daughter of the owner. MEE is shown seated
beside 131, with her arm around him, and is definitely intend4d to be
identified as his wife, sinoe only married couples were shown this way (see
Excursus to). Tji andkds wife were first oousins because his mother and her
father were sister and brother.
Cairo stela 20523.
Owners:  Eth-2 3 and Wr-Inh.
2 .
3. 4.
'. 7 . 8.
This is a typical example of those stelae which are shared by a man and his
1) Pt-'3 born of SjtUthr.
2) hmt.f Sjt.tnti-hty born or Si.
3) sj.f Ir-'n.
4) 1/mtn
5) Wr born of 83t. ttnti-hty. Wr is probably an abbreviated writing of Wr-enbA
6) hmt.f Sjt-Zthr. The second occurrence of the name S5t-Hthr may be of
little significance since it was so common, though it may be that She was
related to her husbandiw blood.
--> E-
6. 8. 9. .11. 10-
Cairo stela 20534.
Owner: Mntw-ttp.
pl. IXX
7) eitit•
8) A man born of 83 .Withr. Since he is not specifically said to be the
son of 7fr- t nh,, this could be the son of the elder 83t4ittr and he has been
tentative/7 entered as such in the family tree. Alternatively he.migjact be
the step-son of Via.tnh.
Cairo stela 20525.
This simple stela 1.5-11. perfect example of its type. The speoial interest
lies in the fact that the owner has ignored the existence at the husbands of
•a3T a
man usually. his daughters, and it also provides a good example of the
expressed the kinship of his granddhildren.
and bat.: 83t-Wirt.
Three men, all said to be !LE.
s3t.f Etpt and two men, both said to be !Ia.
syta Slap-NI and !LE.
An unidentified woman, possibly the mother of Ebt.
1) Mntw-titp bprn of K3yt.
2) hat.f  - name illegible.
4— +-
3.2.1. 4. S.
4-- 4--
4. 7.
—>—> 4----
9. M. 10 --II%
3) hmt.f Iittir-iltp.
4.) s3t.f. Her name appears in such close pro:Limit, to that of tIthr-htp
that she Is probably her daughter.
5) •3.f 'Intr. There is no indication as to which of the owner's two wives
was his mother.
6 and 7) Mntw-htp and hat.f K3yt. It has already been established that lad
was the mother of the owners so Mnt_w-4tp must have been his father. A change
of subject has now been effected, and the kin-terms are now given with
reference to the father of the owner.
8 and 9) Two men, both said to be 1134 one of whoa is called Mntw-htp, and is
presumably to be identified as the owner.
10)amt.!' 33t-Hthr - i.e. the sister of the elder Mntw-htp.
11) 53.1.
12) sn.fl'Intf.
13/15) mita litpt with 33.s MntwbStp and s3t.s 83t-tithr.
This stela also ignores the existence or the husbands of two women,
although they have children.
Cairo stela 20535.
Owner: Intr.
pl. MC(
1) 'Intf born of Tt.
2 and 3) hmt.f S3t-Isrt and lymt.f 1.1py. The figure representing S3t-ftrt
is shown seated beside her husbands but az stands behind their chairs a pose
which somehow conveys the idea that she was of leas importance than S3t-Wart.
4/7) Two miens both said to be sgAs and two women, both said to be s3t.f.
There is no indication which of the two wives was the mother of these children.
8 and 9) NtA born of Wand bmt.f It. Tt has already been identified as
the mother of the owners so mg_ must be his father. This is confirmed by
the dedication to him: in 83.f s'nh rnat.ntfs his name is made to live by
by his son : tntf.
10) (13.f - i.e. the son of Nhti.
11 and 12) s3t.f It and s3t.s
V P Y •
13 and 14) Two women, both said to be 53t.f.
15) Servants at both sexes, including three women, all said to be hmt.
The name  is a common ones and the niece of the owner may have been
named for his wife. On the other hamls Ilpy may have married her uncle.
Cairo stelae 20542 and 20561, and Louvre at i.e 0.167, pl.IAr and 0.168s
pl. INT.
Owner: ' Init.  pl. XXX.
These four steliewere all owned by the same man. One is of little use
since it has been badly broken, but the other three give interesting and
different accounts of his family.
Cairo stela20561 is undated and shows on17"i.ntf born of S3ttun i and
hmt.f S3t-Hthr receiving offerings from their son Sn-Wsrt and a group of
four servants. Two of the female servants are entitled 4ryt pr "(26), and
the other is the wh3yt S3t2Imn.
Cairo 205162.
3 . . I . 4— 8
A) An inscription which includes the date year 24. of Senuaret I .
1 and. 2) 'Litt' and hmt.f S3t-lithr.
3) 63.f.
4. and 5) 53t.f S3t2Imn and s3.f Sbk-ddw.
6)an .f Sbk-ddw.
7 and 8)it.f Nb-hw and hart.f S3t-tma.
9)Servants and. dependants, including an
Louvre C.167
A) An inscriptical dating the stela to year 26, presumably of Senusret I.
2 and. 3) hada S3t-tI t1r and hmt.f Nryt.
4/6) Three men, all said to be 1 211 2., named Sin-Wart„ Flb-lo3w, and Sbk-ddw.
7 and. 8)Two women, both said to be a3t.f, both named S3t-tan.
9)servants including .two women entitled hryt pr. One of these women is
called S3t-tan, after the owner's mother and daughters, the other is
33t-Nb-k3w. Unfortunately, there is not enough evidence available to
decide whether this girl was simply named after one of the sons of the owner,
or whether she was, literally, "the daughter of Nb-k3ww.
Louvre, C.168.
This stela is damaged, and of the family, only the name of tate born of
83t=Tmn has survived. Among the prooessim of servants, however, it is
possible to identify three nurses (mn't), an l kyt *(27), and a w•rtyt.
In year 24, tne erected a stela, an which he named one wife, a daughter,
and one * or possibly two sons. Within three years, another stela had been
commissioned, on which appeared a second. wife, a second daughter, and a
third son. The children on both stelae are shown as adults, but
this need.
only have been a polite fiction, and it would have been possible, in three
years, for tntf to have lost one wife, married another, and to have had two
children. fiaja, however, had four, perhaps even more, stelae, and the
inscriptions on one of them are missing. Be may have chosen to erect one
stela showing himself with S3t4t1ir and their children, another for himself*
and their children, and a third showing himself with both women and
their combined offspring. The fact that S3t-Ft1ir also appears with him and
their son on the undated Cairo stela * makes her appear the more important,
or favourite wife, but such judgements must be avoided as there is no way of
knowing how many stelae originally belonged to this group, but are now
destroyed. There may have been others showing him with Mryt alone.
9 . T. 7. 6. 6.4.3.
Cairo stela 20544.
Owner: trzpw-23.
pl. Mal.
1) 1.npw-' 3 born of Tti.
2) ' nit-rn born of )I.mnt7-m-h3t. To judge by her position an the stela,
this must be the wife of the owner.
3 and 4.)Two men,called )I.npw-2 3 the elder and the younger,both said to
be the son (12) of Nhti.
5and 6)Two men,called gnaw and Ernmw the elder,both said to be the son
(83)of lki.
7) It. the daughter (s3t) of trIply P* 2 3 born of 'rid. Mit! is thus the
daughter of the owner,and. he must have had two wives, I nht-rn anitd.
8) Mci born of "Ici - i.e. the second wife of the owner.
9) Ttl born of px wt' s -i.e. the mother of the owner.
10) tanty -m-1i3t born of mwt.s, -.i.e. one of the mothers-in-law of the
11) A woman born of )1zart-'3. Since the children of lact are specifically
said to be born of her,this may be the on3ir child. of Intt-rn.
12)' Imnty-ta-h3t born of tmnty-m-h3t.
13 and 14.)An unidentified brother and sister.
15) Rhw-I nht, her mother's name is illegible.
16) )I npvr-'3 born of Falw-'2113t. To judge by the name alone,this might
be the otherwise unnamed father of the owner,but,if it is, he has been
relegated to an obscure place on the stela.
Cairo stela. 2054.5.
pl. ECCI.
1) Nb-pw born of I nk and Iwt.
2) Another Nb-pw born of the same parents.
Her-htp born of Nb-pw, and Ea.
J 4 .)I nk born of The words "born of" are here written roL s n, so Hr is
a woman.
5) The nbt pr Ftyt born of Nb(w)-di.
6) An unidentified woman.
7) The nbt pr 'Iwt born of S3-ipw and Par.
8) Three unidentified. men, an unidentified woman, and a man born of
S3-rpw and Dar.
A) A list of seventeen men and women, some of whom cannot be identified
because the inscriptions are illegible. Of those who can be identified
there are four women (ail kz, and 'at) and a man, all born of Dar,
and a woman entitled the tu n v t n(t) ?Ian 1 0 ( 2 8 ), who was born of Nb(w).d.
After them comes the name of Dsr born of 'ilk presumably the sister of the
owner, though she may have only been his half-sister since she is identified
by their father's name only. Mere is another woman said to be born of
Nb-pw„ who must either be the daughter or the niece of the owner„ and two
men, who can be identified as the cousins of the owner s born of his
aunts Ilpw and respectively.
Cairo stela 20546, British Museum stela, vol.114 p1.331 louvre stela 0.35
and Copenhagen stela Aad.13, p1.111.  Omer
These four stela all appear to have belonged to a. General, Imy-r wro
called The stelae in Cairo and the British Museum were clearly designee
as a pair and seem to have been produced by the same sculptor. The other
two are in different styles. The interesting feature about these stelae is
that the first three name three different women as The wife of the owner,
while the fourth names a daughter born of yet another woman, though this ons
is not said to be a wife. Regrettably it is impossible to deduce from the
evidence available whether  was married to more than ona wife at a time.
Cairo stela. 20546,
The owner is named as born of Kbw and his wife as Rn.f-'n13 born of
i nht-rn. Several servants and retainers are also based.
British Museum stela, vol.1 79 p1.33.
The owner is again named as imny born of Kbw, but this time his wife
is Mdhw born of here being a woman. A brother and several sore
servants and retainers are shown.
Louvre stela C.35.
This simply shows the figures of  born of Fbw and hmt.f ltt born of
N nip AM101
n1n• • n• • •
a• I .  3 G .
OMN I* 41 1 kn
7 —13.
n11n1) ,  Il l iCnn• 11= 0
14 1 5 -24.
.• 41.4'--
21-2. 8. 28.
Copenhagen Aad. 13.
This stela has been damaged, but it shows  seated with
s3t.f Shtp-ib-1 1 44 born of 8hbtisy.
Cairo stela 20547.
Owner: Elz:
. XXXI I .
1) pi born of Nfr-hr.
2) 83t. f Rn. f-'nh born of gty. gty is not mentioned anywhere else an the
stela and is awarded no title or kin-term, so she might be a concubine.
3) 53. f Snfrw born of Sz.
4) hmt. fty born of niz.
5) Mai born of It,
6) A boy born of U.
'tab Nhti born of Nht. A change of subject olear4 begins with the
new register.
8) Aboy. born of i. e. the brother or Nhtl.
9) hmtaNfr-hr born of Rn.s-I nh - i. e. the wife of Nht? and the mother
of Kjy.
10 and 11) Two women, s3t4 Nht and s3t. f tr,/, both born or
1 2) s3t s3t.f 3 I t born of Nht - i.e. the granddaughter of I lya.
1 3) A boy born ofillt. He is probably the grandson of Nhti.
114 Isri born of Ia. Another change of subject takes place here.
15) hmta Ipi born of Nfr-hr. This woman has already been named ca3oe as
the daughter of end she now appears in the role of a wife. This is
come of the rare stela, which gives a prominent position to an in-law.
1649) /P our women, all said to be s3t.f and all born of IA.
20) Bwbw born of It It has already been identified as the granddaughter
of NAL,
a)saborn of Nbt. Another change of subject takes place here.
22) hmt.f Nny born of Mc. has already been identified as the mother-
ine-law of Ilab so G3w was his father-in-law.
23/25) Two men and a woman called Nbt all born of
26 and 27) Two women, both born at  It seems strange that these girls art
separated from the figure of their mother in this way, but this might be
because there was no room for them in the upper register, or they might have
been children who died young and so, though their parents wanind to
commemorate their names. they had. not played any part in family affairs.
28) An unidentified man.
-4'4 --) 4-- 4-
2. I. 5. 
•. 6. ir .-10 ,
10.19 .1T.17.14.
Cairo stela 2054.9.
O lener: 11131-k3.
pl. ManI.
1 and 2) W3h-k3 born of Htpwy and hmta Iftpwy. The owner's wife and mother
have the sass name, but it is a very common one, so no significance can be
- .44- - 44-
I . 2.4. 3 .
A. 8 .
Cairo stela 20553 .
Owner: Upr-k3-R'.
attached to its re- appearance.
3 and 4) it.f W3 - k3 - 516stt born of Mwty and hata Stymy.
5) The '3 mtW3 1- k3 , clearly named after the faaily she served.
6 and 7) sn.f 13 1, - k3 born of Mwty and. mwt.f Mwty - i.e. the paternal uncle
and grandmother of the owner. The possessive pronoun applied to the uncle
refers back to the owner, but that applied to the woman could either apply
to the owner, in which case mwt.f here must be understood to mean "grand- '
mother", or it refers to the owner's uncle, in which casemr tA ll  retains its
more usual meaning of "mother".
SAO) Three mea t each said to be EA!. These could be the brothers or the
uncles of the owner.
11, 12, 13 , 17 and 19) Five women, all said to be snt.f. Oae is named
Mwty, the two others are called Utpsy.
14 and 15) Two men, both said to be 63 .f. One is called
and the other is calledW3 h- k3 - 1 nh, an apprjiate name for a son of W3 4- k3 .
16 and 18) Two men, both said to be glair.
20) The 1 3 mt'iti and 1:3 (.8 ) 1 3h-k3. This boy could have been named after
his mother's employer, which was a regular practice, and does not necessarily
indicate that be was also his son, though he may have been.
21 ) Seven female servants,
entitled hut and '3 mt. Two of them are named.
TWO pairs of figures appear across the top of this stela.
1 and 2) luipr-k3-R' born of Hpwy and the nbt pr Htp born of En.s-'1244,
3 and. 4) pme born of Htp and the nbt pr D3g born at S3t-tp - i.e the
son of the owner and his wife.
A) A list of seven names, which includes three women and two men born of
S5tilp„ anaidentified woman.
B) A list of 1111.X names, of an u nidentified woman, a man born of Rn. s-'n, h
a man and woman born of Htp, saxl two women born or D3g.
-÷ <—______.
1 0 . ti - I s.
19. 2. 0 - 2. 7.
Cairo stela 20555.
Goners Name illegible.
pl. =E•
1) The ovular and hata gwyt born of Wrt.
2 and 3) it.f Hny born of '3t-k3w and mwt. f "Intf-'nh bona of tpi.
14a. and 5) mina and ant. !, both born of 'Intf-'r4.
6) An u nidentified man.
7 and 8) Two women, born of tkwo later identified as his granddau ghters.
9) A man whose name is illegible.
10 ) With the new register a change of subject takes plaoe, and kin-terms
now refer to ton-m-hl w. f born of wyt - i.e. the son of the owner, and
(hut. !) Ebwn-ns born of ttf-an. i.
DAB) Five men, all said to be s3.f, and two women, both said to be
s3ta, all born of Hbwn-ns. Also a man whose name is illegible. One of
4— <--
4. S.
•MII•4111 4k1g/ n•n••11
10. 11 -*14-.
Cairo stela 20562.
Owner: Lmt.
p 1.10011T .
the daughters is named tkwb -rn-snb which is presumably the full writing
of ; v who was named as the mother of figures 7 and 8 .
19) Another change of sub ject b egins with 'Imn-dtlw b orn of
unt.f Rn.s-snb .
20/26) Four men and three wcoen; all said to b e ILL or s3t.f and all b orn
of Rn s-snb .
27) Kmyt b orn of ttf-sna,
T his stela ap p ears to have b een owned b y the same man who erected
Cairo stelae 20015 and. 20101. T he only information to b e gathered from the
other two stelae; however; is that he was b orn of Klatt.
2) T he nb t p r Gw3t-tp b arn of T -n.i. This woman is later identified as the
maternal grandmother of the owner. It is most unusual for a grandmother to
take p reoedenoe in this way over a wife and mother.
3) Thenbt pr 2lyt-n-1b . From her p osition this may be the wife of the owner;
b ut; if so; they had no children.
4.) An unidentified man. T o b e p laoed so high up on the stela., he must be
important; and. could b e the father of the owner,
5) A man b orn of H3t-gp swt. If the owner had children; esp ecially a son;
he would usually b e shown close to his father; so it is possible that this
i s t h i t s o n o f 7 I m n y . H e c o u l d . a l s o b e the f a t h e r o f I m n y , t h o u gh i t wa s
t h e c u s t o m t o s h o w t h e f i gu re s o f t h e f a t h e r a n d m o t h e r i n c l o s e pro xi m i t y ,
s o , i n t h i s c a s e , i t i s m o re l i ke l y t h a t h e i s t o b e i d e n t i f i e d a s a s o n .
6) Th e n b t pr Sn b t b o rn o f H 3t 4ps y t .
7/9) Th re e wo m e n , a l l b o rn o f Gw3t -t p - i.e. t h e m a t e rn a l a u n t s o f t h e
=l e r. Qa e o f t h e s e wo m e n i s c a l l e d . t wri .
10/11) Two unidentified men.
12) A man b o rn o f t wrl . - i . e . t h e c o u s i n o f t h e o wn e r.
13) Th e n b t pr Ki n t t b o rn o f Gw3t -t p. Th i s i s t h e wo m a n hazed on Cairo
s t e l a e 20025 a n d . 20101 a s t h e m o t h e r o f t m n y .
14/19) An unidentified. wo m a n and five unidentified m e n , a m o n g wh o m m a y
b e t h e f a t h e r or t h e owner.
Th e a b s e n c e o f kin-terms make it impossible to show ocnclusively whether
or not the owner wa s m a rri e d a ri d h a d children.
Cairo stela 20564. Ciner: 2251.
Th e o wn e r o f t h i s s t e l a re c o rd e d n o i n f o rm a t i o n c o n c e rn i n g h e r f a m i l y .
Th e interesting dedicatory inscription a ppe a rs o n p. 493.
Ca i ro s t e l a e 205 67 /8.  Own e rs : l py a n d NI D(w)-n -Pt h . pl. MIV.
These two stelae yield little information of i n t e re s t since n e i t h e r
s u ppl y e n o u gh d e t a i l s t o permit a thorough evaluation. The owner a t 205 67
wa s K3y , wh o s e wi f e wa s n a m e d D3r. H e i s s a i d t o h a ve h a d t wo s o n s b e s i d e s
Nb (w)-n -Pt h wh o d e d i c a t e d the stela, two d a u gh t e rs , a n d t wo b ro t h e rs ,
Th i rt e e n o t h e r m e n a n d wo m e n a re mentioned in inscriptions b u t n o
i n d i c a t i o n i s gi ve n a s t o h o w
they f i t i n t o the f a n d l y o f K3y .
The owner of 20568 was Nb(w)-n-Ptil, the son of py, and his wife is
mused as 1. 13n. He had a son called tntf, who was himself married to a wo9an
called tt and they had three sons. The stela also names three Bens all
said to be hxuns. f, adding the names of the mother of cale and the wife of
another. There is no indication how they were related to klb(w)-n-Pt.
The last register is dedicated to Bbi-'n, s3t.s„ sjt.s Snt„
Hpy born of Ddt and. Alt born of ant. This represents four generations of
women, but detailed. information concerning their relationship to the owner
is omitted.
Cairo stelae 20571 and 2074. 8. Owner: tnh
These two monuments belong to the same MLA. Stela 20748 names only 'nh
born of Idabut several other relatives are included on 20571.
The family and servants recorded on 20571 are as follows:
Two male servants.
St born of gpst-m3t. From the prominence or his position, this aan ought
to be either the father or the son of the owner. Since a woman born of
gpst-m3t is later said to be sntX (i.e. his sister or aunt), St cannot be
the son of The mother of t nh is known to be tti, so gost-m3t is likely
to have been the grandmother of the owner and her children his father and auni
An unidentified man.
sn. f born of LEIthe younger. gmt is later named as a sister of the owner,
so _JA B:here is to be interpreted as !his nephew".
snt f born of Bibt. Her exact relationship to the family is uncertain.
snt. f born of gpet-m3t - i.e. the paternal aunt of the owner.
Two women, both sall to be snt. f and named klt. the elder and the younger.
These two women are the sisters of the owner since they are said to be born of
An unidentified mane
Cairo stela. 20581. Owners lany-Izet-rs.
At the top of the stele are the figures of tfany- gri . re born of Intl and
hmt.f Bnrt born of S3t-Eit1l.r-m3t, receiving offerings from s3.f born of Bnrt.
The rest of the family are named in an inscription under these figures.
Two men, both said to be s3.f and born of' Bnrt.
s3t.f born of Snrt.
en .f born of ir4,t1,.
it.f t nly, born of EDI.
mIrt.f trei born of S3t-tItttr.
snt.f Snbtisy, born c 'n .
ant .f 'Iyt-hb born of lat.
an hmt.f born of S3t-ljthr-m3t - i.e. the owner's brother-in-law,
hat s3.f born of flr-m-hb - i.e. the daughter-in-law of the owner.
Ypat a3.f Snbtlsy born of t nh-rn. Since this woman bears the same name as
the sister of the owner, she may be related to the family by
blood as well
as marriage.
The mn't tti born of Mnt.
Cairo stela 20590. : &IL
A simple stela, typical of the type that name a limited number of the
relatives of the owner, all on the female side.
1) Kms born of It3..
Ty-nfr-r born of nwt.
I. /a
41enI•11 411CnP
 4. 5.
c .
Cairo stela 20595.
Owner: 131-40.
pl. IMENI.
3) qt/ born at 1,,y-nfrl,.
4) fi any2ty-nfri . Thi s should readlu: born of ty-nfri , but the words
*born of" have been omi tted i n error. Thus Kms named his maternal uncle,
but not his father, unless, of course, they happened to be the same man, but
there i s nothing to suggest this.
Cairo stela 20592.  Owner: Sbk-li tpw. pl.XXX41.
Sbk-htpw born of ilmin-ent.
hmt.f Slat.
Threemen, all said to be s2lb named DI% tri tt's and SrlIfert.
Three women, all sai d to be s3t.f named ti nn-snt, tri tt-st and ILI.
/t.f Dfi and holt.f Inn-ant.
Two men, both sai d to be 111,1. 1 and hmt sn.f tntf-snt.
Three women, all said to be snt.f.
Two maleservants, the tkyt Snt and thewbjyt tritf-ant.
1) 113h-k3 born of H3t.
2) K mw, born of fl3t.KMw occupies the position normally reserved for the
wife, but there is nothing else on this stela to suggest that She was marri ed
to her brother.
Metropolitan Museum of Art, 63.154.
3) A man born of 1w, This man dedicated the stela, and all the other
kin-terms are given with reference to him.
snt.f 13t born of '1w - i.e. the sister of the dedicator and the mother
5) mwt f )lit4
6) arld..
Cairo stela 20612; Simpson, The Terrace or the Great God at Abydost
p1.81: Metropolitan Museum stela 63.154; and Carlsberg, A690, AE.I.N.964,
*(29). Owner: En-snb.
The stela in Cairo names amly Rn-snb and his mother and father.
On the basis of this information, it might have been assumed that Rn-snll
died as a young, unmarried man. The two other stelae, however, reveal that
ha was married and had a large family.
1) Rn- nb born of Sat.
2) timt.f nbt pr Hy.
3) Three men, all said to be 83.f.
Three women, all said to be s3t.r.
5) The owner again.
Cairo stela 20617.
Owner: Rms,
6) Bil:servants, including the
' 3
nit S h b - R n- snb and S 3 t. k 3 - tw nt.
7) ita ' hh-hw and mwt.f ant.
8) lox - i.e. the son of inh-hv .
9) Pour unidentified men.
Carlsberg stela 4690 giv es the names of Rn-snb his wife, parents, three
sons and, this time four daughters. Also included are two brothers, two
sisters, sn.f n mwt.f, and sev eral serv ants, including two named an the
Metropolitan stela.
A) An inscription naming an unidentified woman. Clearly she must hav e been
v ery close to the miler, or their names would not hav e been linked in this
B and 1) The owner Kms born of tir-m-b.
2) hmta tittr-ttp born of S3 tsy.
3 ) 83 t.f born of thr-(tp). It would be more usual to find a son heading
the list of children of the owner, but here the daughter has
been preferred.
4/8) Fiv e men, all said to be e34 and. all born of Hthr-trtp. In each base
the words born of hav e been distakenly written irt n as if for women.
9 end 10) Two women, both born of 1:1-Rir-trtp, and named Kns and Pryt
respectiv ely.
Cairo stela 20619.
Owner: Pth-stnh.
pl. =NIL
Qae of t h e mown is ca.11ed D3 aft er
11) LIL L ' t. born of Hr-m-102.
12 and 13) it.f Snb born of
an d m w t . f H r- m - h b b orn c i f
14) An unidentified man.
15 and 16) Athr-titpti born of Vtbr-tp and Hr-m-hb born of ljtilr-titp.
This is one of several st ela w h ere c h i ld ren appear separat ed from t h ei r
paren t s an d t h ei r si b li n g s for no apparen t reason . It m ay b e of little
signifioanoe• though it m i g h t i n d i c at e t h at they died as c h i ld ren an d t h erefore
played li t t le part in t h e life of the family.
17) Knit born of aL t s - i.e. the si st er of H t h r- h t p.
18) A n u n i d en t i fi ed w om an .
1) !th-se nh, born of aft.
2) lizat.f Ty, born of Rrwt.
3) A m an born of ort .
4.) 1/3 born of Wt.
5 and 6) A man and wan born of a.
A) An inscription listing:
Two lam and two women, all b orn of a.
her pat ern al aunt.
Two women born of D3 - i.e. the granddaughters or the owner. OWof them
is called Ty after her maternal grandmother.
Two unidentified women.
Cairo stela 20636. Owner:
Across the top of the stela are four hcrisaatal lines of an offering
formula, made out for W31i-k3 born of klr-sh5t, While underneath are thirteen
vertical lines of inscriptions naming:
1) ant.f lifrh tw born of Idw. The owner has neither a grandmotherri aunt,
or sister nammigkwa so Nfr-Wwcannot be his aunt, cousin , or nieoe.
It is therefore reasonable to assume that she was his half-sister, since
they had different mothers, but she would also appear to have been his wife,
because she bore his at least two children.
2) An unidentified woman and Lim. The name of the mother of this son
has been omitted through lack of space. His mother could be this unidenti-
tied woman, in which case
had two wivesdNfr-t t winms the mother, but
there was no room to include her name.
153.f born of Nfr-'w.
e3t.f 1.1r-s1,3t_ born at Nfr-Ww.
5) It.f Nfr-rwd, born of Snw-14(w).
6) born offihbw. lbbw is probably a mistaken writing of
'Ibbt &name which occurs several times an this stela.
7) s3t.fNfrt born artlr—espt - i.e. the daughter e'er-rel.
8) ELI born of , Vr-8133t. There is no good reason ekr this boy, and the
girl whose name follows his, should be specifically designated the children
1 2 9
o f l I r.
alone, when the chil dr en &r o am& them ar e said to be the o f f spr ing
o f bo th Nf r -r wd and I f t. -ab3t , unl ess it was to indicate that these two wer e
o f dif f er ent status f r o m the rest. I t is ther ef o r e po ssibl e that they wer e
the Chil dr en o f Hr -01 1 3t by a seco nd mar r iage, which was o ther wise no t
r ef er r ed to an this stel a.
9 ) s3t. s Snw-thh(w) bo r n o f Hi-s1 33t. I f these two wer e the chil dr en o f
bliab3t by a husband other than Nfr-rwd„ it is a little surprising that one
o f them was named af ter the mo ther o f her f ir st husband. The name is no t
uno o mmo n, ho wever , and it is al so po ssibl e that /ir -sh3t, was r el ated to
Snwh-i nh(w) in so me way, besides the o ne given her e.
1 0) s3t. f tbbl bo r n o f 1 . 1 r -s1 1 3t, - i.e. the daughter o f Nf r -r wd.
il ) 2 53t. f Nf r t bo r n o f Vi-sh3t and mwt,f Snw-tnh(w) bar n the
daughter and mo ther o f Nf r -r wd.
1 2 ) s3t. s 8 3t-ttl-wwr born at  and 1 53t. s Snw-'nh(w) born of S3t-1id-wri
S3th.d. . . wr is the sister , no t the daughter o f Sam- I ngw), so the f ir st kin-
tmr m on this l ine o ught to r ead snt. s,
13) s30: born o f 33t-A ad-,wr and s3t. s born of 33t -I Sbk. S3t-Shk is named no -
wher e el se an the stel a, so she and her soncannot be integrated into the
f amil y tr ees
Cair o stel a 2 0637.  Owner : Name destr o yed.  pl . :M=1 1 1 .
I t is mo st unf o r tunate that this stel a is so badl y damaged, since it
bel o ngs to the f ather o f the o wner o f Cair o stel a 2 009 2 . nue nsme o f the
o wner o f this stel a has been destr o yed, but he is sho wn facing lamt,f tnt
born of Bhmlanis*, and. H4 1 -1 kr
born of 'nht .
In the second register are two men, both said to be s3,f born of e ntO, and
one of the se me n is Bilmr-htp, the owne r of 20092.
An unidentified man.
•3t.f Mnlw born of 'nht - i.e. the daughte r of the owner and the sister of
Hnmar-tztp, who named one of his daughte rs after he r.
s3t.f Ahmw-tist born of 'nht.
#sri-iirs, born of
s3t.8 Sn-Wirt and 83t.s Hnmw-s'nb.
The re st of this inscription is too fragmentary to be of any use , though
names occur that are known from 23092.
Cairo ste la 20643. 
Owne rs Linmw-4tp.
The owne r of the ste la is name d as Unmw4;tp born of Rn.f- I nh, and he is
shown in the first register of the ste la, toge the r with kmtif Adrt and
83 .f.
The second register names Brimw-nht born of S3te&3 and hmt.f Rn.f-tnIA
- i.e. the pare nts of the owners together with 113.f. The re the n follows an
inscription naming:
33.t.k3 born of Mn.f- tnty i.e. the siste r of the owner.
Four me n and a woman, all 'born of Rn.f-t.
Two men and a woman, all born of Ttl.
Two unidentified me n.
24(1) born of Mn.f-'n. ,p,
Tti born of
'raw born of S3tek3. This is probably the younger , 33tY3, not her grandmothez
of the same name, because all the dedications around her are far members of
Cairo stela 2 0 6 7 7 .
O w n e r : S n b . f - n
1 , 3 1
t h e y o u n g e r g e n e r a t i o n .
A m a n b o r n o f ' l a w .
No u n i de n t i f i e d m e n .
A m a n b o r n o f T t i .
On the evidence, as it is piesented here, at the time of his death,
linuar-htp had o n l y o n e di r e c t de s c e n da n t , h i s s o n , b u t h e h a d s e v e r a l g r e a t -
nieces and g r e a t - n e ph e w s , b o r n o f h i s s i s t e r s . T h e h u s b a n ds o f h i s s i s t e r s
are pr o b a b l y t o be l o c a t e d a m o n g t h e u n i de n t i f i e d m e n o n t h e s t e l a .
1 ) S n b a - n a b o r n of Nh i a n d S n b t i s y .
2 ) h m t a R di . t w - n i - s n .
3) al. b o r n o f A n y - l b .
4) /pa t . ! Snbasy.
5) T h e o w n e r m a k i n g a n o f f e r i n g t o h i s pa r e n t s .
6 ) A m a n b o r n o f Snbtisy.
7) A m a n b o r n o f 3 1 (. 3 . )- 1 . 1 ( w )
8) An unidentified men.
9) A m a n b o r n o f tb(.1)-1. 1 (u).
•. C. 6.4.3.
12737). c -171.
17. I. 15.14. 11.
10/13) Four women, ail said to be sotx and all born of Bait:P.411-8n.
One of the four istb(4.)-lqw), the mother of figures 7 and 9.
From his position on the stela, the unidentified mans number 8, say be the
husband af?lb(.1)-1t(w).
Cairo stela 20679.
Owner: Inhr-daw.
'Intir-ddw also owner Cairo stela 20055, and this will be used to supply
additional material which is missing from 20679.
1) 1.4r-dcbr born of  The name of the mother of the owner is illegible
here, but am 20055 she is named as lam-ddt. Stela 20055 also names the father
of Inl}r-ddw as Hdr.
2) (N1m)-ddt born of Ilpw. Oh 20055 the maternal grandmother is named Hpys
but they are clearly the same woman, and are probably both variant writings
3/6) Three men and one woman, all born of Ngm-ddt.
7) tbi born aftan. This must be the woman, wbos on 20055, is said to be
born of Nay Consistency in the spelling of names was evidently not too
important to those responsible for this stela.
8) Hpwy - i.e. the maternal grandmother of the owner. Oft 20055 she is simply
said to be born of "her mother" (mwt. ^ ).
1 3 3
9) Vpw born of NAM-ddt. On 20055 her name is spelt Vpy.
10) nt born of f; ! dr. S tela 20055 say s that Ads- WSWalso the father of
tnhr-ddws so W3 t must be the sister of the owners ors rather perhaps the
half-sister, since neither stela claims that Ng m-ddt was her mother.
11) a3t.s Nb(w)-ddt.
12 and 17) Two men, both said to be born of tipw. These are likely to be
the nephews, rather than the uncles of the owners since all the figures on
this part of the stela belong to the y ounger generation.
1 3 ) An unidentified woman.
14) Inn born of W3 t. It has already been suggested that ' Inn is the woman
who an 20055 is called Nni.
1 5) Another 3 Inn,
16) An unidentified man.
Cairo stela 207 06 .  Owner: The nbt pr
Ir-a appears on her stelawiths3as IMIT-mhb, a girls a woman, and two
men who cannot be identified.
The dedicatory prayer appears on p.4 9 3 .
4 .—
3 . 4..
--) 4— 4— 4 - <-
5 . I. 9 . C 4-, -..7-
14. 13. IX. U .
7 17 7 7 7 7 7 1: 7 1t
2.3 . 2.7.. 2.1. 2.0. 19.
C airo stela 207 1 3 .
Owner: Nb-k3 w-1 1 ' .
1) Nb-k3w-R' bornof
1 3 4 .
2) T h e n b t p r 8 3 t - t i n t 1 - h t y b o r n o f K 3 y t - i.e. the wi f e o f t h e o wn e r .
3 ) •3 t . f Sn b t i sy .
4 .) 53 a S t i t p - l b - R' b o r n o f 3 3 t - h n t i . - h t y .
5 and 6) it.f Shtp-1b-R I born of Snbtisy and mwt.f t born of 7lit-n-hb.
7) a3 t . s l i t . Si n ce sh e i s sai d t o b e t h e ch i l d of l i t , sh e may h ave b e e n
b o r n t o a h u sb an d o t h e r t h an Sk t t p - i b - R° .
8 ) a3 . f  - i.e. t h e so n o f t h e f at h e r o f t h e o wn e r .
9 an d 1 0) T h e f i gu r e s o f a smal l b o y an d gi r l . No k i n - t e r ms ar e gi ve n t h e se
t wo , b u t t h e y we r e p r o b ab l y t h e ch i l dr e n o f S1 t p - 1 b - 1 1 . 1 an d. 1 . 1 t , b e cau se t h e y
ap p e ar so cl o se t o t h e m.
1 1 /1 4 ) T wo r ae n , b o t h said t o b e an . f , an d t wo wo me n , b o t h sai d t o b e an t . f .
T h e se co u l d. b e e i t h e r t h e si b l i n gs o r t h e u n cl e s an d au n t s o f t h e owner. It
i s t h e se co n d so l u t i o n wh i ch i s p r e se n t e d i n t h e f ami l y t r e e , b e cau se t h e
mai n i n t e r e st on t h i s st e l a, do e s se e m t o ce n t r e o n t h e o wn e r ° a p ar e n t s.
1 5) T h e n e w r e gi st e r b e gi n s wi t h !. . . . tzborn o f T n .
1 6) K 3 y t b o r n o f T n t i . K 3 y t h as al r e ady b e e n named as t h e mo t h e r - i n - l aw o f
t h e o wn e r , an d h e r p o si t i o n o n t h e st e l a st r o n gl y au gge e t s t h at sh e was t h e
wi f e or Itz.
1 7 an d 1 8 ) an t . f Sl } t p - 1 b - R° and an . f Sn - War t . T h e i r p o si t i o n wo u l d su gge st
t h at t h e y we r e t h e b r o t h e r and sister o f Ltz. T h e ap p e ar an ce o f t h e n ame
Sh t p - i b - R' i n t h e f ami l y o f S3 t - L u i t i - h t y do e s n o t necessarily me an sh e was a
b l o o d r e l at i ve o f h e r h u sb an d, b e cau se t h e u se o f t h e r o y al p r e n o me n ,
Sh t p - i b - R1 , was ve r y co ma= i n t h e e ar l y T we l t h Dy n ast y .
1 9/21 ) Un i de n t i f i e d me n .
22) • iin ma o f b o rn o f E.3.n. T h e p o sse ssi ve p r o n o u n mu st r e f e r b ack t o t h e
o wae r , b e cau se a so n wo u l d n o t b e r e f e r r e d t o as t h e "friend" o f h i s f at h e r .
23) An unidentified man.
Cairo stela 20733.
Owner: Mnt*-23.
Across the top of this stela are five lines of dedicatory prayers in
the nams of Mntw- t 3 born or Mryt. The rest of the stela is dxvided into
two columns, each or twenty lines.
Column 1: 63.f 21z an-m-h3t.
.3 ,f Irate
8 3.f lintw-htp .
s3t.f Mryt.
113t.f °3-k3.s.
s3(t).f Snt,
it .f twit.
The relationship s of the p eop le named so far are perfectly straight
forward, * but then comes the name of 'In, followed by snt.f yatoit.f Mntw-'3
and ita En-41. 0 who cannot be placed, though the names suggest that they
were close members of the family.
'hitt born of II.w - i.e. the son of the comer, who has already been
named. He is the subject of the next few ixmeriptions.
:13.1 Mntw-t3.
83.1 Mat: v-2 13-3w.
Column 2: s3t.f Hat and 1 1 3 t . f It born of Nat. No wife has been named for
Intf but it will be observed that the last of the five children is said to
be born of Hmt. Normally one would have assumed that Hmt was the name of t he
wife, and that one of the daughters was named after her. In this case,
however, there are some special features which must be examined more closely.
Firstly, none of the other children's names are followed by the name of
their mother, though there is adequate space after each one. Secondly,
and Hmt are the only two whose names appear on the same line. On the one linei
therefore, where space is somewhat restricted, a mother's name has been added,
HMt and It were thus linked together and the obvious conclusion is that they
were mother and daughter, making It the granddaughter of Intf. But It is
specifically said to be his daughter, and s3(t).f is not the term generally
employed for recording a man's grandchild (see above pa. 18/19).
Since t he wife of Intf is not specifically named, conclusive proof cannot
be offered, but there is at least the possibility, that in this instance,
Intf had a child by one of his own daughters.
snatmn-m-43t. The brother of Intl' has already been maned as a
son of M ntw- 1 3 amiltw. On the same line is the name of 0.f M ntw- .13.
s3t.f 1kt and Brit- msyt. Bnt- msyt is otherwise unnamed. She might
be either the daughter of Inn- m- 43t or even his wife, but in either case the
kin-term has been omitted.
a3t.f t 3-k30 and s3t.f VATt.
s3t.f Vryt and M nter- 1 3 born of 'It. Nntw- 1 3 thus belongs to the
other branch of the family since he wyuld appear to be the son of It born
of Hat.
'pt.! Vryt born of i n. This must be the wife of M nty- 1 3, since
his named ended the line of /tan- m- 43t , end introduoed a new subject. The
Cairo stela 20749.
Owner: nwnt.
pl. =II.
frequency with which the name Mryt appears throughout this family suggests
that this woman may have been related to her husband by blood.
10t.f Snbtis7.
sj.f Intf and sj.f Mntw-13.
sn.f Mntw-ns-sw. Since the kin-terms now refer to Mntw-'3 born
of 'It this must be his brother and another son of it.
Five men, all said to be s34 and a girl who is said to be s3t.f.
The first two of these children were born of Mat, so the others were presumabl,
hers as well, though the inscriptions are now illegible.
1) An inscription naming a man who is not mentioned again, and whose relation-
ship to the rest of the family is uddiama.
2 and j) F3wnt born of Tw.s-n.i and hmt.f Snbtisy born or K3-ns.
4) 10.f born of Shbtisy.
5) !alborn of K3-ns. - i.e. the daughter of the owner. The identification
of her mother is discussed below.
6) Ot.f ti.s-na born of  Her mother's name has been destroyed but
there is enough space to supply the name of the logical choice, Shbtisy.
7) s3t.f K3-ns born of Snbtisy.
8) Ot.f ir3dt born of Sdbtisy.
9) 83t.f Nfr-Iltp born aftw.s-n.l.
10) 83.f born of S h bti s y .
It was not th e cus tom to us e th e words 83(0.f to record a man's grand-
ch i ldren. In th i s cas e, th erefore, ei th er th e s culptor brace wi th th e us ual
practi ce, or he made a mistake, or nwnt , h ad two daugh ters by cons angui neous
uni ons . Th es e uni ons were ei th er wi th h i s moth er and mother-in-law, which
would s eem unli kely , or wi th two of h i s daugh ters .
Cairo s tela 20750. O wner: fi -r•
'Iry th e owner of th i s s tela, i s s h own wi th mwt.f 33t-ni-sw„ 4mt.f2Intf,
and 83.f born oftntf. He h as two more s ons , but th es e are born of a woman
called tly., wh o i s gi ven no ti tle or ki n-terms , and may th erefore pos s i bl7 be
a concUbine.
Cairo stelae 20778 and 20373:
O wners : A. fath er and s on called S bk-ttp,
pl. =I.
Cai ro s tela 20778.
This is taken first becaus e i t i s th e s maller of th e two. Th e owner i s
Sbk-btp and h e i s s h own wi th
* at
.f hkrt new Nb(w)-m-bb. Th en follows th e
fi gure of s n.f n mwt.f, /ti t, wh os e name i s mi s s i ng, and a woman wh o mus t be
th e owner's moth er. Th ere i s also L TA, wh os e name h as been des troy ed, and
another unidentifiedwomma.
Cairo stela 20373.
2. 1. 3. 4.
4-- 4-
---> ---> -->
9. 7.
1) Sbk-htp.
2) / u l t . ! s3t neW Nfrw.
83.f Sbk-l irt p - i. e. probabl y t he owner of 20778.
a3. f
5) s3t . f
6) An u nident ified man.
7 and 8) sn.f Nhl and tInt.f Sbk  
9 and 10) it . f Dd. 1-rsand. mwt.f hkrt new Ptti-k3.
Three generations of the men of this family bore the title
wtw n twt ntr. Inrw, Overseer of the embal mersof the temple of Anubis.
Cl earl y this was aposit ion of some import ance as one member of the family
a King'sdau ght er (s3t new). The grandfat her and grandson, Dd. . 3-re and
Sbk-ttp the younger, both married hkrt new *(30).
British Museum st el ae, vol . I, p1.56 and yol . I1, pl s. 111/ 4. 3.
Owners: The brothers 14r r and. "Ikr Xri.  
pl . XLIII.
--> <-
9. 7. I. 2.
- -<-
3. 4.
- -><- -
12.11.  0.
6. 6.
7. 16. 15. pi..
--> --1>
ri. IV .
St el a of lasr wr.
1) Mir wr born of Pit .
2) 8334. "Ikr born of Hnzw-htp, s3.f Cid born of Hnmw-htp, and 53t.f Pit.
3) The nbt pr Thaiww-h, tp born of 'l b - i. e. the wife of the owner.
Two boys and a girl, all said to be born of Hnmw41tp, and therefore also
presumably the children of the owner.
5) The nbt pr'lb, born of Hnmru . htp. The Children of the owner are all shown
as children. This woman is an adult and is to be identified as the mother-in-
law of the owner.
6 and 7) Two men born of tb - i. e. the brothers of the wife of the owner.
One is Gwf after whom she named we of her sons.
8) nr: born of Tint. This is the father of the owner, though the name of
his mother is spelt as Tinto whereas in two other places it is Tit.
9) 83. f tisr Ariborn of Prt. This is the brother of 1/2;r wr , and the owner
of the second stela.
10) The nbt prPrt born of Prt is the wife of  and the mother
of Ilirwr and ' 3 1: r Arl. Both Prt and tb are said to be born of gnmwrIltp, so
they were sisters, and the owner and his wife were thus first cousins.
11) The nbt pr Hnmw-tytp born of Prt - i. e. the sister of *e owner.
12) The nbt pr linmw-4tp born of Nni. This is the mother at Erbwhose
figure she faces, and fi2 too.
13) Fou r men, all said to be born of Hnmw-ttp. Since they appear in the
register directly under the figu re of L inz aw1 4tp born of 111, they probably
were her sons.
14) The nbt pr Bilmw-4tpborn of S3 t-HtI2.r. In the contract of this stela it
is not possible to identify this woman, but the stela of Arishows that
she is a cousin of the two brothers.
15) Three women, all said to be 123_ born of Hnmw-htp.
16) An =identified man. His position on the stela suggests that he might
be the husband of Hnmw-htp born of S3trHthr.
17) A. man born of 3 3 t-Hthr.
18) A group of six persons who, on the evidence presented here, cannot be
identified. The stela of Ilcr Iris however, shows that they were the grand-
parents and aunts of the two brothers. The names are given as tkr born at im
hmt.f Tit born of 13dtpStp, and four women, all said to be s3t4 born of Tit.
I . (-- 4-.
3. 4.
--> et 4_.
--) -4 7.
W . t.
<— 4-- 4-- 4- lc-
÷- f-
4-- 4- 4- 4--
U. It. 4.
-'fr 4 --IA -4 4- <-
IQ . 17, K. Ig•
---> -5-4-3
ic• •
, .
-4-4 --I, -4
2. II.
-4, -4,
ip• S.
Stela of ticr gri.
1) 211cr Iri born of Prt - i.e. the younger brother of the owner at the
previous stela.
2) bmt.f Efnmw-tttp born of linmw44tp. To judge by her name, this woman was
probably related. to her husband.
3 and. A0 153.f
born of Enme.-4tp and s3t.s. There appears to be no good reason
why this girl should be said to be the daughter of Answ-htp rather than of
J:kr iiris unless, of course, she was the child of a previous marriage of
5and 6) The figures at the bottom of the stela are of the owner, tkr
and another of his sone, tI cr-anbi,
it.ftsr born of Tit - i.e. the father of the two brothers. I t also
confirms that Tit, not Tint, was the correct writing of the name of their
p a t e r n a l g r a n d m o t h e r .
8) 53. f Er g ri born of Pr t - i. e . t h e o wn e r a g a in , sh o wn t h is t im e a s a
small boy.
9) m wt . f Pr t bo r n o f Fizirowiltp - i.e. t h e m o t h e r o f t h e o wn e r .
10), m wt . s fin m w-t t t p . Th e p r e vio us st e l a n a m e d t h is wo m a n 's m o t h e r a s Nni.
Re g r e t t a bl y t h e r e st o f t h e st e l a is of l it t l e va l ue be ca use t h e kin -t e r m s
wh e r e g ive n , a r e n o t p r e cise e n o ug h ,  a n d everyone is sa id t o be born of a
l in un r -1; t p , a Pr t o r a n t b.
C t a l y a fe w m o r e fig ur e s ca n be id e n t ifie d wit h a n y d e g r e e o f o e r t a in t y.
13) 'Ikr Xri born of Pr t , t h a t is t h e o wn e r a g a in , but t h e r e h e fa ce s, a n d
is said t o be t h e so n o f, a m a n ca l l e d K 3n born o f linmw-i}tp, wh ich m a y
in d ica t e t h a t Pr t m a r r ie d a se o o n d t im e and. t h a t t h is is t h e se co n d h usba n d .
14 and 15) Two wo m e n , bo t h e n t it l e d m n i t . On e o f t h e m h a s t wo so n s, wh o
a p p e a r as fig ur e s 16 a n d 17. Th e y a p p e a r wit h in t h e fa m il y g r o up , a n d wa r e
cl e a r l y r e g a r d e d a s im p o r t a n t m e m be r s o f t h e fa m il y.
18) S 3t -l 1t 1r born of Tit . Th is m ust be t h e wo m a n wh o , on t h e p r e vio us stela,
was said to be t h e m o t h e r o f a wo m a n ca l l e d H z Im ir -h t p . She is the paternal
a un t o f the two brothers.
19) Rzurt born of S3t-Rtbr.
20) A man born of # ..m - i.e. the son of the woman named lint a_rt, which is
h e r e r e co r d e d . in on extended writing.
21) 21w. f-sn b bo r n o f S3t-Vtbr.
22) bmt.f 3bt-ib bo r n o f Pe d t - i.e. t h e wife o f lwa-enb.
Br it ish Muse um stelae, vol.II, p1.3, and vol.III, pl.25 and Cairo stela
20588. Own e r : S n -We r t -sd bw.  
p 1. 21. 17.
British Museum stela, vol„II, p1.3
British Museum stela., vol.III, p1.25.
1) Sn-Wsrt-anbw born of Nbt-iwnt.
2) Pour women, all said. to be s3t.f, and named Ntrw, S3t2Tmn, Nbt-ivmt,
and S3t-tIt4ir .
3) it.f 'Inktr-nht born of S3t-tinn.
4.) mwt.f Nbt-iwnt.
3) anal t.nbr-nht born of Nbt-iwnt.
1) Sn-Wsrt-sntw born of Nbt-ivrnt.
2) Three woman, all said to be s3t.f, named Nbt-iwnt, and. Nfrwe
The missing daughter, S3t-Ht1r, might have died between the comaissicaing
of the two stelae, which would acootmt for her absence, as abs might have
a separate monument.
Cairo stela 20588.
British Muse= stela, vo1.11, 131.12
1) Sri-Wart-sem born of Nbt-Iwnt.
2) T he sa m e thre e d a u g hte rs w ho appear on the se c o n d ste l a .
3) 1.t.f Intr-nkt born of 33t-tan,
4.) m w t. f Iqbt-bnit bo rn or tbt.
I t w iL l be observed that not one of the se thre e ste l a e m e n tio n s the
w ife o f Sn -Wa rt-a n bw . Me m a y ha ve be e n d e a d fo r m a n y ye a rs a n d provided
w ith a m o n u m e n t o f he r o w n l o n g be fo re the se were commissioned, or she may
ha ve be e n d ivo rc e d , o r be c o m e =. irw .  fo r so m e o the r re a so n s bu t n o
c a tio n is g ive n a s to the correct expla.nation.
British Mu se u m ste l a , vo 1. 11, p1.12, su p p l e m e n te d by Cairo stelae
20033 a n d 204. 58. Ow n e rs: , ' 4-rn a n d te n ,y-I n h-rn .
1) t n h-rn bo rn o f Sbt-thi.
2) H irt bo rn o f Nfr-rnpt.
3) s3t.f Nfr-rnpt.
4) fet.f Sbt-th,i. This name is most uncommon *(3l), and sinoe it is born
by both the mother and the wife of the owner, it is certain that tnh7rn
must have married a near relative. Aflgure of the wife is included, but
there is no figure of the mother, unless, of course, they were actually
the same person, though this is unlikely, in view of the general lack of
evidence of mother/son marriages.
5) litpw born of 'nht-rn. This might be the father at the owner.
Cairo stela 20033.
This stela was also owned by 'nh-rn and am it he named sn.f,
snt.f  ant.fPth-wnn.f, Bt and Hwyt is evidently the Hwls
who was named an the British Museum stela as the grand-daughter of tnh-rn.
Cairo stela 20458.
This stela was owned by trany,-'nbr-rn born of  rt, and the name of his
father is given as Bw4rt. wyt and Bw4rt appeared together on the first
of the Cairo stelae, for Bt and Bw4rt are two writings of the same name.
Since ;gtzl is the grand-daughter of I llhrrn, I mn,r- I nh-rn was his great-
Also named an this stela are the two sisters of the owner, Rn.f-'nh and
Ptb.-/mn.f, who were evidently named for the two sisters of ,Irtirrn.
other people named cannot be identified with certainty.
— ) , — I, *-----
2..1 . 3-5.
-----40 dk------
' 7 . 4. T. 
15.14 •%3.11.1i.lo,
British Museum stela, volai, p1.16.
Owner: Mr? and her two bMsbands.
pl. ILIV.
See also p.496.
1) S3-Hthr.
2) hmt.f Hwl.
3) A man-servant.
J.and 5) Two men, one of whom is said to be 221f, so the other is likely
to be the son of S3-tIthr too.
6) S3.Amn.
7) 4mt.filwi.
8) hnms.f tne.
9) A man-servant.
10 and 11) s34with /pt.!.
12) and 13) jellwithhint.f.
14) 63.f.
15) mwt.fBt3.
16) Servants bringing offerings.
British Museum stela, vol.' ' , p1.314.. O wner:  
This stela belongs to a woman called Nfrt-tw„ and is dedicated to her
by her son, who owned British Museum stela, vol.11, p1.13, 123(187) .
The fathers mothers husband and two sons of Nfrt-tw are all named on
this stela, but the only figures shown are those representingNfrt-tw
herself, her two daughters, her hairdresser *(32)s and another female servanl
The fathers husband and son of Nfrt-tw all held the office of sOmr
seal-bearer of the gal. The dedicatory prayers are on p.496.
British Museum stelal vol.II, p1.38.  
Owner: E lnan,,
This stela belongs to a woman entitled Mmormxgyt , *(33), the Watcher
of Min s and her son. No husband is mentioned. The prayers are an
British Museum stela, vol.IIs p1.244.
Owner: W_L.
Besides MI1, only three figures are shown an this stela - his wife,
his mothers and his nurses whose name he chose to perpetuates even though
his father's name was omitted.
1) Nfr-rwd-snb born of W3h-k3.
2) s3.f W34-k3.
3) aria W3-k3.
B urt of 'I13h-k 3.
British Museum stela, vol.III,
Owner: Nfr-rwd-snh.
pl. ILV.
1 1 1 8
and 6) Two men, both said to be gait.
7) Dmt.f Shbtley born of 71 31 2-k5. As the owner and his wife appear to have
had the same mother, they were at least half-brother and half-sister.
8) sjt.f
British Museum stela, vol.III, p1.15.
Owner: Um.
pl. EN.
1 ) ms born of la.
2) The nbt pr lb bcrn of la. This is obviously the sister of the owner,
but her title and her position on thit stela suggest that she might also be
his wife.
performing an
3) A man/offering to the owner. This would normally be the son of the owner,
and may be so here, but the kin-term has been omitted.
10 rive women, all entitled nbt pr and all born of 2i1 q.
5) rive unidentified men, possibly the husbands of the five girls.
Although the arrangement of this stela suggests that nms married his
sister and had five daughters and. peeaaps a son by her, it is also possible
that he died ohildless, and that his sister anti her ohi/dren were his only
heirs. There is a stela in Turin (no.161) which also belongs to Um, but
has no additional information to offer.
British Museum stela, vol.111„ p1.18.  Owner: Rat.
This ate:Laws dedicated to Rdit by her son. She is shown standing
facing her son, and another man, who might be her husband. The prayers are
an p.497.
British Museum stela, vol.III, p1.24.
Owner: 1* f-snb.
pl. XIM.
1) tw f-snb.
83t.f. The figure representing this girl is shown at a smaller else
than the other figures, and it is in the place where one would normollly
expect to find his wife.
3 and 4) Two man, both said to be sna„ one of whom dedicated the stela.
If 2Iw.f-snb
died young, leaving only one small daughter, his brother might
have assumed responsibility for the funeral cult.
5) mwta R4wt-sdb(w).
mwt nt mwt.f nbt pr Nbt-iwnt. The maternal grandmother ar the owner
is named, but there is no referenoe to his father.
7) MIAfn
The nbt pr Nbt-iwnt. This might be the otherwise =lamed wife of the
owner, but, if so, she is relegated to a position of comparative ObscutitY.
She bears the same name as the maternal grandmother of the owner, and so
she may be me of her desoendants.
........) .

7. 6. 5.
—> —4 4---
s o. 9. Z.
Britis Museum stela, vol.III, p1.29
Owner: 'Irtf-I'-'nhrtr.
pl. XLVI.
1) 'Intf-14r-'n, h-hw born of 8n-int.
2, 3, 5 and 8) Pour men, all said to be anal born of 5n-'x4.
mita born af  
6) Mntw-m-1.13t born of S3t-tntf.
Sh-'nkborn of likz.
s3t.s ..ntf-Inh born of lipy.
10) Vpy b rn at lat. It is very unusual to find the figure of a girl
des ignated s 3to preceding the figure of her mother, but this is what
happens here, and there is no doubt as to the relationship.
Britis h Mus eum s tela, vol.Ea, p1.37
Omer: 1131-hs 3-ws r.
pl. MI.
1) The owner.
24) Three men, all said to be 834, and cne is said to be born of
5) s3t.f Mnlit - i.e. the daughter of the owner.
6) 830
7) s3(t).f MktB3stt.
8) 213t.s S3t-hntl-hty.
9) s3t.f.
10) mt.& S3t4Inti-htl.
Though she was the mother of at least two, and
probably all, his children, S3t-hnt1-hty is not said to be the wife of the
owner, so she may not have held this rank.
British Museum stela, vol.111, p1.38.
CWner: Snfrw.
pl. ILVI.
1) Snfrw born of S3t-ifw.
2) sn.f born of s3t-lfw.
3) mita Sn-'n h, born of 53t-ifw,
4) 4mt.f Snt.
5) lt.f Snfrw barn of LW.
A) The inscriptions lists the following:
An unidentified woman.
Three men, all born of
An unidentified man.
I ntqt born of Tit.
A man born of Tit - i.e. a gre t-uncle of the owner.
An unidentified man.
Tit barn of S5t-1rw. I think th t this is probably another sister of the
owner s though it could be his paternal great-grand other and her mother.
A man born of Rhy.
Rhy born ar S3t-i2w.
A man born of Mz.
A man born of S3t-ifw.
A man born of Rhy.
British Museum stela, vol.III,
Cwner: Phwty.
pl. XLVII.
1) Dhw y born of D hw ty- 41tp.
2 and 3) Dhwty-htn born of tti and DI-arty-hip born of Pt. These are un.
doubtedly the parents of the owner.
Pt born of Dtimrty-41tp - i.e. the sister of the owner.
5) Shbi born of S3tHr. This man sits facing Pt, and there is little doubt
that he is to be identified as her husband.
6) 1211- i.e. the son of Pt and Snbi.
British Museum stela, vol.IIIs p1.50.
This stela belongs to two women, but it has been so badly damaged that nothing
can be learnt from its except that one of the women was the nbt pr Aft.
I .
.- - - >
British Museum stela, vol.17.
pls. 12/13.
owners: Sbk- btp and Su- Wart.
pl .XLVTI.
A) An inscription naming Sbk- htp barn of It and Sub- 'n.
1) SbkA.Ap born of' 'It - i.e. the owner again. In front of his seated
figure is an inscription naming it n it.f Sbk- btp born of mwt.f - i.e.
the paternal grandfather of Sbkbtp„ whileunder the chair there is a
dedication to mn2 t.f, his nurse.
2 ) Sn- Wart barn of S3t- B3stt. In order to share a stela with him, it
may be assumed that this men was closely related to Sbk- btp, and father,
son, or brother would bethe usual degree of kinship. In this case,
however, it will be shown that this is a rare stela, in that Sn- Wart
was the uncle aC Sbklitp.
Under the chair of SnASrt is the name of an unknom woman, while
in front at it is a dedication to enter It born of .Itt '2(34).
Since it is later revealed that this woman is the great aunt of Sbk- btp
but only remotely connected by marriageto Sn- Wart, the possessive
pronoun must refer back to Sbkbtp.
3) Sbk- btp born of tt. This would appear to bethe comer again, or
a brother of the same name.
Under his chair is the name of 13- R2 born oftt. I have taken this
to be &brother of Sbk- ttp, though he could be a maternal uncle.
4.) mwt.f ' I t b o r n o f ' I t $ ( 35) - i.e. the mother of Sbk-litp. In front of her
i.e the name of mwt nt it.f 53t-B3stt. The father of Sbk-btp was thus the son
a t 83t-B3stt and her other so n s &i-Wsrt was therefore the paternal uncle of
Under her chair is the name of sn.f 83-11' born of -Itt. Itt is later shown
to be the maternal great grandmother of Sbk-iltps so this man must be his great
8) An inscription listing several more members of the family:-
Thr ee women, all said to be ant.f 'It born of 'it. These have been aooepted as
the sisters of Sbk-32.tps though o n e or more could have been an aunt.
Imny born of It.
sn.f 'Deny born of If. Since it is later said to be his sisters this must be
the nephew of Sbk-htp.
sn.f Sn-Wsrt and sn.f Sn-Wart the younger, both born of 'It.
ant .f tI born of It.
mwt nt mwt.f It born of ttt *(36).
I t mwt .f limg( w) $ ( 37) b o r n o f S3t -da t .
Br it ish Museum st ela , vo l.I ; p1.32. Owner: pat
This stela is owned b y a woman who bears the t it les rht new and.
tutt ntr Tj thr $( 38). She is shown with her eldest daughter and with two men
whose relationship to her is not givens but ets they make offerings to hers
they may have been her 80CA.
A translation of the dedicatory prayers appears On P o 498•
British Museum st ela , vo l,I V, pls.36/37. ( *tier: Bbk-ddw. pldaffIn.
On the first of these stela Sbk-&w makes offerings to It.t tntf and.
mwt.f ty. Also shown are his two brothers (en.!) and his two daughters
(a3t .f)
Sbk-ddw appears on the seccaxl stela, but this time accompanied by
hmt.f Hatt born of 'as who would therefore have been his sisters or at least
half-sisters as well as his wife, unless, of courses she was born of a
completely different woman, who, by coinoidences had the same name as the
mother of Sbk-daw.
British MUMUM stela, vol.1- 7, p1.39
Owner: Impw- titp.
+. 2. I. 3.
—> —> 4- (---
3. 4. 5. 7 .
-4 4- 4- 4-- -->
10 . cf.
H . 12.11.
- ... --> --N -4.
17 . 14. 15 . 4.
--> -4 -3P  -> -4
241. Ai. 10. It 13.
The stela is unfortunately of poor workmanship, so some details are lost.
1) tnpw-tltp.
2) hmt.f tnpw-m-s3.s.
3 and 4) 113.f and s3t.f.
5 ) It .f 1.npw- ttp.
6) zart.f
7 and 8) mita' S3t-FIthr and ant.! Ntrw.
9 end 10 ) an.! Sub with lunta 83t- aint born of Ttit.
11 and 1Z) Two men, both said to be an .f.
13) An unidentified man.
14) an I t.f b o r n o f IlLt- i.e. the pater nal uncle o f the o wner .
15) snt.f 83t-athr . Cho sister o f the o wner called S 3t-tittlr has alr eady
b een named, so this wo man is either ano ther sister o f the same name * o r
per haps a niece, since she is fo llo wed b y figur es o f two nieces o f the o wner .
16 and 17) snt.f b o r n o f Ntr w and ent.f born of S3t-littir. The mo ther s o f
thesetwo wO r mo n ar e the sister s o f the o wner , so ent.f; her e is b eing used
fo r rnieoe".
18and19) Two unidentified men.
20) sn.f b o r n o f S 3t4Ttb r - i.e. the ner hew o f the o wner .
21) 0.41. Since no mo ther 's name is givens ther e is no cer tainty whether
this is the b r o ther * uncle o r nePhew or the o wner .
22) ent.f borno f  The mo ther 's name has b een destr o yed so she
canno t besatisfactorily identified.
I .
2.,  .
--> 4--
S. 6.
--, 4-
3.  4.
---) 4—
7.  E.
..— 4-
9. lo,
—> <--
I I .  11.
-- 4—
13. 14.
-) 4- -4,
I s .  16.
 I .
4- --b 4-
12. 1113.
24.. 4
a3.  _
Louvre stela, 0.6, pl.'.
O wner : No o ne man appear s to bemore
pr o minent than the r est.
I am greatly indebted to the authorities of
the Egyptian Depar tment o f the Louvre, who supplied me with klotographs
at this, and stela 0.173 (see b elo w pe.159 /163 ), to supplement the
r ather inaccur ate co py pub lished b y G ayet.
1 and. 2) M inn and nb t pr S nb born of 3121:2!. The names o f K fr :n and S ab
face eadh o ther and they ar e pr esumab ly to beidentified as husb and andwife.
3 a n d . 10 ty-sra r born of Wn t a n d M3t born of Pa t. Aga in this couple a re
evid en tly husba n d a n d wife.
5 a n d . 6) Two men born of Aft.
7 and 8)  sw born of ' I s a n d n bt pr Sn btisy born of ljn wt-pw. Yet
another husband a n d wife. Sn btisy , wa s the sister of Sub (see a bove number 2)i
un less, of courses Sub is a shortened writing of Subt?sy, but in that case
she would have had two husbands.
9 a n d 10) A ma n born of Sn btisy a n d tin wt-pw born of mwt.s. linwt-pw has
already been established as the mother of Snbtisy, and Sn b.
U a n d 12) A ma n born of 1 3w a n d n bt pr Mrt born of Snbtis(y). This is
another married couple.
13 and. 14) nbt pr '3w born of Pat and. the nbt pr Nbt-iwn t born of Mrt.
15/18) Two =id en tified men a n d two unidentified women . As everyone else
on this stela is oon n eoted by ma rria ges these four people were a lso un -
doubtedly members of the fa mily, but their position cannot be determined as
in sufficien t in forma tion is supplied .
19/21) The n bt pr Nfrt born of t 3w, s3.3 born of Nfrto and a ma n born of
Titis who is to be id en tified as her husband..
22) The n bt p r t I n v r t born of Pa t.
23) The n bt pr Tt3. born of nwt and the nbt pr Pat.
24) Gb born of S3t-Thvy.
25) The n bt pr Psyst bor n of 33t -5.y.
Louvre stela 0.22, plan. Own er: Sn -Wsrt,
At the top of the stela a re the figures of Sn -Wa rt born of Dd t a n d
S3t -lIt hr born of Nfrto who, from her position s would normally be the wife
of the owner. Below them, however, is a dedication by a man calledlmt
the younger, who claims to be the son of Sn-Wart and the brother of S3t-Fthr,
so here a father and daughter share a stela.
Louvre stela C.40 s rak.xxin.
Omer: Snb.
I. 2"• 4 .
er•• 41 fr• '- "—>
t 9. 10. II .
4,... It-.
a. 13. 1 4. I. lb.
...go 4.. 4- 4-..
1 7.
I S.
II. 1 6, 4J .
1 ) Snb.
2/6) The f irs t f igure is that of a child, probably a girls then there are
three adult males and one small boy. Since the last two are both said to be
63.1 it is reasonable to assume that these were all his children. At the
very top or the s tela there is an ins cription naming 63.f born of LEL.
is mentioned nowhere else an the stela, nor is she anywhere named. as
the owner's eife. She may have been a wife or a concubine.
7) hmt.f s nb.s -rd. born of S3tf f ttr.
8) iot.f ly-ib born of Snb.6-ni.
9)An unidentified. man. Howeversly-abis later shown to have had a sons
sos frau his position on the stela* figure 9 may be the huaband
10)S3t-lithr born
of to.
11) A man born of 117:122, the writing of the mother's name being abbreviated.
12) A man born of '1k.
13 and 14) Two men born of S3t-Vthrs and an ins cription naming a man born
of )Izt.
D. 3. C.
--> Er-
7. V.
---> 4--
4. 10•
15) A woman born of 85t-athr.
16) en unidentified woman.
17) A man born of ( ma _ n) 85t-H thr and e ng e nd e re d by (1r n) Satp-ib-R'-enb.
S5te-Hthr ham been established previously as the mother-in-law of the owners
so 8111tp-3b-le-snbmust be his father-in-law.
18) An unidentified man.
19) Stitp-ib-370-mrib born of ir To jud g e by the nam e s this woman must
somehow be related to the father-in-law of the owne r.
20) An unid e ntifie d woman,
21) akborn of tic .
louvre stela 0.173,
Osner: 85-itnhr.
pl. LI.
1) S54.1Wir born ofKprrt.
2) hmt.f W3h-X3 born of Mt.
j) tuat.f S5t-antlr *(39) barn of a2;
4) 83.f l ik 5-l b born of S5tfix4r,
5) s3.f S t n12, born of 1,311.43,
6) 85.1flimm-m-h5t born of W3h-k 3 *( 40).
7) and
8) it.f li1c3-3bbarn of S3-In1r amil;mt.f Kprrt born of
9 and. 10) 7= n1..t born of Kprrts that is the brothe r of the owne rs
1 6 0
together with bmt.f tkw born of lintsi-tnt.
The rest of the information is provided by three blocks of inscriptions,
but, due to damage, particularly of the bottom of the stela, some vital
details have been lost. Thus there are three family groups formed, which
must originallykmme been connected, but which now cannot be re-united.
Column A: S3t2I.C4r born of Eial.
Winhr born of Kprrt.
ItE:mry. born of Kprrt.
A woman born of Kprrt,
1.dw born of  The name of her mother has been omitted,
but, since she appears in the middle of a list of the children of Kprrt, it
is likely that she too was her child.
A. woman born of Kprrt.
mn't.f - i.e. the nurse of the owner 2!Iborn °flint.
Name missing, but born of EEL.
fiaihr-mry born of
?Inh.r. This could be &child of one of the
owner's wives, but their offspring appear at the top of the stela, so this
is probably the child of his sister.
Winhr born of Sjtfi.nhr - another nephew of the lamer.
/ aE:2w: born aflim- i.e. the owner's brother-lc-law.
An unidentified man.
7 1 z 3 hr-nht born of 83t2Inbr.
An unidentified man.
Column B should logically be readmit, but in fact, it makes more sense if
column 0 and D are taken first.
Column C: mwt.f S3t2T.C4 r born of Kprrt. This has to refer back to the man
already accepted as one of the nephews of the owner, because his is the
onl,y name in the vicinity to be followed by the words "born of S3t-'Inhr*.
hmt.flior born or Mntw-'nh. It has already been established that
MnIw- I nhoss the mother of figure 102 the owner's sister-in-law. The young
'Imtri-nkt therefore married the sister of his aunt by marriage. The family
under consideration here is such a laege one that there need have been very
little difference in the ages of this couple, even though they officially
belonged to different generations.
Their sons, two men born aftdw.
The subject than changes with the introduction of Maw born of Art-10.
sj.f S3 2In1r born of Mntw- t nh. Mnlw is thus shown to have been the
husband of Mnty- t rN so he was the father-in-law of both the brother and one
of the nephews of the owner.
An unidentified. man said to be sn.f.
Amen and woman said to be sna and snt.f, both born of 1st. Sinoe
alt his been named as the nurse of the owner, these two were his foster-
brother and foster-sister, unless, of course, 221 had been the concubine
of the owner's father, in which case her children would also be the half-
brother and half-sister of the owner.
s t.f Mrt-itf.s born of lat. This woman was the sister of the owner's
nurse, so the term "sister" is here being used of a very remote conn ction.
O 0and sjt.s.
• .r born of i.e. the brother of the owner's nurse.
Tie next six lines are 'badly damaged, but they contain references
to at least two servants.
Column 1% bort,: S3t-TrAlr born of Row - i.e. the second. of the wives of
the owners shown at the top of the stela.
53.f Pc3-ib born of 83t-In12r.
83.f S'nh born of 1113h-4c3.
133.f tron-m-h3t, known to be born of W3-k3, see above figure 6.
ant 33-tr12r the younger.
71nlir-ttp born of Kprrt - i.e. another brother of the owner.
An unidentified man.
sn.f Inhr-nht. The name of his mother is not givens but he is
presumably the brother of the owners see above figure 9 .
Iln1lr-mr7 born of 711CW• 31101 is known to have been the wife of the
owner's brother'In4r-kh,t, so this is the owner's nephew.
t.f S3t-tritt.r b rn of law.
sn.f Hic.3-113 b rn of
n.f Mits.; born of It.
t.f 'It born of  -tit, The only person n ed Sn -'n,h4 on this
stela is later shown to be a mans so this is pre umably his daughter.
An unidentified man.
.rihr-mry born of' Hpw - i.e. the brother-in-law of the owner.
sn.f Snw-'nt, born of Hpw - i.e. another brother-in-law of the owners
and apparently thS father and grandfather of some of the people named above.
ant.! 33t2Ian born of Hpw.
ant born of Em.
163 Fow born of 83t 1Imn - i.e. the mother of the four preceding people.
Aman born of Snic-'n11.
Column B: Twenty lines of inscriptions and prayers. Some at least of
those named were servants and related to each others but the rests
though they must have been connected to the family in some ways cannot be
.....3 1 .
2 .
---)P 4---
5. 6.
0 1n•n•)pl # 11C n.n
10. 9. B. 7.
Louvre stela, 0 .1 7 9 , p1 ..X E C L - 7 .
Owner: 'Imny.
pl. LII.
1 and 2 ) limy and hint.f Htp„
3 and 4)
e3..f Pth-enla and s3t.f tpt.
5and 6) Pth-s'nh and hmt.f Btpt. E ither this couple are close relatives
of the owners after whom he named his two children, or the son and daughter
of the owner married each other. If the couple are someone other than the
owner's children, it is surprising that kin- terms have been omitted, for
they are applied to everyone else on the stela.
7 ) s3ta - i.e. the daughter of Pth- ent, .
8/1 0 ) Three men, all said. to be 83 4.
L ouvre stela, 0 .1 87 , plaXXIX. Owner: Wsr-htp. pl.L II.
The only figures shown are of Wsr- htp born or It and Tnnt born oftt.
The rest at the family are named in an inscription.
sn.f born of 33t-Pth. Later identified as the cousin of the owner.
en.f born of It.
3.t.f tinny born of gpst.
mwt.f 'It born of Oft.
ant i: 33t-Pth born of Gft - i.e. the aunt of the owner.
mwt nt mwt.f (ft born of flr 0(41) - i.e. the maternal grandmother of the
aut.f born of S3t-Pth - i.e. the cousin of the owner.
sn.f born of aft - i.e. the maternal uncle of the owner.
Guimet stela, C.5 $ p1.17. Omer: tmny . pl .1.111
The first part of the inscription names tinny born of S3t-tmn $ together
with s3 .f Sn-Wart born of Mry t $ though she is not said. to be his wife. The
name of Sn-Wart is followed by the words mi34).z,the justified. If this is
an indication that ft-Wart pre-decease& his fathers it would. explain why the
dedication of the stela was not made by him $ buts
4 C::7
^^^A^ , C=7.3 KZ:7
eaali -lcli r-1 megatill
In s3.f lora' e3 an.f n mwt.f imy -r pr I tntir-neht n Nbt-wnt
m3' t-13rw
nbt im3137t.
- by his beloved sons thii. son of his brother of his mothers the Overseer
of the Treasury , ' Inhr-nht born of Nbt-Iwnt $ the justified, the blessed.
If the son of the owner were already dead, then $ as the nearest
surviving wale relative, his cousin would assume the role of the
"Beloved Saa" for the funeral cult.
Guimet stela, Ms pl.V. Owners Sn-Wsrt-"nh.
1) Sn-Wart-'1414 born of K3w.
2) K3w born of Mggi.
mvrt nt mwta Mggi born of taw.
an .f.
Dn.f born or Mggi - i.e. his maternal uncle.
6) anal and ant.f.
=tot' Sbk-nfrw born of Iry and ant.f troy - i.e. the niece of the
owner and her mother.
8) itsf Nfr-lw born of i nt-lb. The father is thus relegated to an un-.
important role on the stela, compared with the maternal relations.
Guimet stela, 0.8 s pl.VII. Owner: Sbk-htp. pl Jain.
At some time in the pasts this stela has been smashed into many pieces,
and s although it has been mendeds only a small number of the inscriptions
are now legible. This is particularly unfortunate because this stela makes
extensive use of multiple kin-terms. Still legible are: Sbk-hto born of
33 an n it n mwt.fs the son of the brother of the father of his
mother - i.e. the cousin at the owner's mother.
mwt nt mwt nt wt.! 'ntti - i.e. the great-grandmother of the
ant mwta - i.e. the owner's maternal aunt.
E-- 4--
S .  3.  2.
Ib. q .  . 7.  . 6'. 4.
Florence stela 2504.
Guimet stela, C. 11, p 1 . 1 .  Owner: Hr-m4(?)-rhw *(42).
Among the members of his family the owner names hmt. f Hr-m-hb and
s3t. f, who was/torn of iitr-mhb. He also c laims to have had a so n (s3. f) *
born of a woman called Rn. s-snb, Who is not mentioned elsewhere on the
stela, and who is not called either the wife of the owner, or entitled
nbt pr. It is possible that she hwiimmvicmsly been his wife, but there
is also the possibilty that she was his concubine.
Florence stela 2504, photograph 23, supplemented by Cairo stela 20064.
Owner: 'Intr.
1) 'Intf born of Hnwt. sn.
2) hmt. f S 3t-Fli born of Mini.
3) 834'Intt born of S3t-Hi. In front of the figure of the owner's sons
there is a line o f inscription naming 53-Um born of lab while behind
him IA the name o f
born of Rna-141. A third line o f inscription
is located under the c hair of 83t-His where the name of Rbt-itf born o f
.I. . . V. appears. The relationship of Rn.f-t nk and her descendants to the
owner is not given here, but they will be identified on the second stela.
83. f born arlamv. Innwis not said to be the wife o f the owner, no r
is she entitled nbt
5/7) Three men, all said to be sj,f • and all, born at' 85t-Ig.
8/10) Three women, all said to be s3t.f &Mi. all born of
Cairo stela 20064..
At the top of the stela, the owner ' I ntf born of is shown
receiving offerings from .ntt' , evidently the son who made the offering on
Florence stela. An inscription beneath the offering table names a man born
of Mm(i), who is to be identified, as the brother of the wife of the owner,
Behind the son is an unidentified man.
Underneath this scene are 9 vertical lines of inscriptions naming:
R ri.f.. °1313 born of S3t4thr - i.e. the woman named on the Florence
s3.11 (erroneously written sjt.f) 85-ittnw born of
s3t.f Peri born of Etna-enh. This stela was erected for the elder
I ntf and his is the dominant figure. There is little doubt that these kin-
terms reel, to him, and this means that he was the father of ten children,
born of three different women. The only one to be actually called his
wife, S3t-}11, is credited with four sons and three daughters. Rn.f-' nh
whose family takes precedence on this stela., though she is not said to be
his wife, had a son and a daughter, &nein:1w is named on the Florence stela
ally, as the mother of a son, but does not appear in person. All three
women may have been his wives at various times, in which oases 83t-H.? was
probably the third wife, to whom he was married the longest. There is,
however, a possibility. that ' innw at least, whose existence is only mentioned
in connection with her sons may have been a concubine.
Mayt born of 53t-tr.
The last four lines name a woman cal l ed E I cl and her three sons.
The possibility must be consid ered that, as she appears with l in.f- e nla and
her ohildrens /al too may have born chil d ren to the el d er tntf.
T hese two stelae, whose inscriptions compl ement sachet:hers il l ustrate
cl earl y the importance of re-uniting stel ae, statues ani offering tabl es,
which were intend ed to be together in a family tomb or oenotarh, or group
of such mcmuments, but Which have become separated subsequent to discovery.
Without this, valuable information concerning famil y groure and affil iations
can never be recovered .
Florence stel a 2553, photograph 27. Owner: Al t.
T his stel a belongs to a woman. T he inscriptions, which were painted on,
are now il l egibl e, except for her name.
Fl orence stel a 2521s photogrart 33.
Owner: Mnw-htr.
pl. Vir.
1) Mnw-htp born of NI l t. Und er his chair in the name of the '3mtW3h-1c3,
2) mwt.f %tr.. is simpl y an expand ed writing of II. Und eAer their
is the name of s3t.s Snts who may have beenher child by another marriage
as al l the other sibl ings of Muw-htp are recorded as an(t).f born of I tt.
3) it.f B1c3y born of Nfrt.
11 .) ant.f Snt-'142, born of l ig h t.
5) ent.f Nfryt * ( i0 ) born of
6) s n it May born of at. Beh ind h im is th e names but no fig ure of
12mt.f Sbk-titp - i.e. th y w ife of
7) an.f born of  - i.e. th e neph ew of Mnw -12tp.
8) ma' born of LtA. T h e following inscription identifies this man as a
neph ew of th e ow ner.
9) ant.f 141t-'nAti. Mere are th ree men an th is s tel a w h o are s aid to be
born of Ls tis but th ere is no fig ure of a w oman of th is name. How ever,
Ltii may be an abbreviated w riting of Itt-'nh tis w h ich would expl ain w h y
fig ure 8 w as s aid to be en.f, becaus e, if 1113 t- I n13t/ w as th e owner's sister,
th en h er s on w oul d be h is neph ew . Moreover, h is fig ure appears w ith th at
of anoth er of th e ow ner's neph ew s .
T h e ins cription naming itt- i nh t/ is cramped in front of th e fig ure of
th e w oman, and it is conoeivable th at, in fact, it w as a mis -w riting of
Nht ( irt m) i nh ti *OM. A l th oug h it is not beyond dis putes I h ave aocepted
Niat- I nh ti as a s is ter of th e ow ner and have tentatively included her as s uch
an th e famil y tree on pl .LV .
10) I n front
of th is femal e fig ure is an ins cription naming s rit.f D di born
of Snts w h il e beh ind h er is th e name of ant.f Bbi-'nh born of Ma. Since
Snt-°414 h as al ready been named as th e s is ters or h al f-s is ter of th e ow ner,
D d.i. is probabl y h er daug h ter and th us th e niece of th e ow ner.
11) A series of inscriptions naming:
Sbk-ddw born of Mw t-O tp * ( 4.5) w h o w as born of Bbi- , 11/ 3. T h e ow ner
of the stela was thus the great-uncle of Sbk-ddw.
Sbk-ddw bora of Nht, who was presumably another brother of the owner.
Men come the names Of two women and three Rene One of the men is
said to be born of 'nhti, but lack of information prevents the integration
of the others into the family.
12) A list of names inscribed from behind the figure of the owner's mother,
down to the base of the stela.
sn..f Htpy born of Mt. The relationship of this men to the owner is not
clear, though he might have been a half-brother.
ant.f Snt-'nhti. In her case too, the degree of relationship is uncertain.
snt.f Mvrt-htp. This may be the niece of the owner, already referred to
33.f Btw born of I nhti. This kin-term must refer back to ITV., since there
is no other plausible oandidate, except the owner himself and it is not
likely that his only named son would be relegated to so obscure a role.
Thus Ea and. 1 i:ha must have been man and wife, besides probably being
half-brother and half-sister. Since this kin term refers back to ljtpy the
two women named in thes column may have been his sisters.
13) Another column of inscriptions, this one stretching from behinl the
figure of Mrrepp to the bottom of the stela: mita' Ddi born of Ddt. This
establishes that there were two women called Ddi, the other being the child
of SEA. The actual identification of Ddi born of Ddt is uncertain, though
her name appears so close to that of the owner that she may have been his
half-sister, their respective mothers being different.
Mnw-htp born of Nfryt - i.e. another nephew cd the owner.
53.f Sbk-ddw - i.e. the son of Mnir-htp born of Nfryt. Since the names at
Fnw-4tp and Dill are listed together they may have been man and wife. If
linw-htp and Dili were not married, then the name of the mother of
his sons
has been omitted.
15 3 .f Atpi. Evidently Dill named one of her aces after her brother,
11 1xmenoe stelae 25 61 9 photograph 32 (36 in text) and
2559, photograph
and Cairo stela 205 20. Cener
The first of the stela in Florence bears a simple insoriptica naming
Eby born of
W I-ivor-W-snb and the 'ntt nt dwt *(46) Rn.s-snb.
The second stela in 'Florence was erected by]al: far several members of
his family.
---> <----
3. 4-.
---> (---
7. S.
1) Entpr-R'-anb.
2) 83 .f 1+477 - i.e. the owner of the previous stela.
3 ) The '41;t nt niwt Rn.s-snb.
13 .8 NJy. This might be the same man as figure 2 9 or a brother of the
IMMO 41 •81 MR•
5 ) Mkt(.1)-hr-bb.
6) ajitanz.
7) s3 .f Shb the younger and two unidentified men.
8) m. 4 1' 33t-tntl and three women named Mkt(.1)-hr-hb, Rn. s-anb, and tat.
ON•31)11 d r k • nn=1M11• n
I. . 1.  
ct . S. 7. L.
4---__--- .0.nnn.1)p iik r nm a
3. 12. .
Cairo stela 20520,
1) Nhy. Behind him there is an inscription naming the nbt pr Nfr-3w.
Though she only plays an unimportant role an this one stela, this may be
the otherwise unnamed mother of his
2 and 5) An unidentified woman and man.
4) Mkt(. )-Sr-4 11 the ycvngers probably a sister of the owner.
5) Srib. f the younger. This maybe the son of the owner who was named Sub
on the previous stela.
6) 'I-hpr-R'-snb.
7) The i nbt nt niwt Rno-snb.
8) An unidentified man.
9) Mkt(4 )-hr-hb.
A line of inscription names a man born of In!,
10) fri-htr-r-snb.
11) an and w om an born or Brio- b - i.e. a brother d sister of the owner.
Mere then follow three me
12) Nhy.
13) Four n and thre women, none of whom can be identified.
Although a onsiderable number of mbers of his family are named. , a
few kin-terms are given, and the mothers' names are so fregamtly omitted,
that little of interest may be learnt from them.
an three women, all unidentified.
Florence stela 2564, Photograph 37. Owner Dati-hty. pl.L7I.
This rectangular stela has a series of inscriptions, arranged in
two columns.
Column 1: Enti-hty born of Milt.
Sabtlej born of Titi.
s3t.f /int born of Sabtisy.
a3.f born of Shbtisy.
ajt.f Mnt the younger barn of Snbtisy.
s3t.f lki born of Snbtisy.
83.f born at Snbtimy.
3.f born of Snbtisy.
it B3-'n13.f born of tki *(47).
mwt.f Mnt born of S3t-tp.
entx nct born of Mnt.
it ittf tti born of S3t-a". The next five insoriptions relate
to It'.
hmt.f rid, born of M-s3.s.
03.f born of Tki.
s3,f born of 11/ and Safrwo o cannot be id ntified, as his
other's name has been omitted.
.P born at t- E LI „ who was orn of Tti-m-e3. • Tti-m- 3.5
should not be confused with 11-83.s, ass name is writ n consistently
throughout, and who belongs t a youmger gereratioa.
en.f born of S3t-W.
it =tot' Unti-hty-ttp born of Mdhw• This kin-term relates
to the owner and is foLlowed by six inscriptions which are related to
hmt.f Sjtjtp born of M-s3.s. S3tJlp had already been named as the
owner's maternal grandmother. This inscription shows that she and tido
thw owner's paternal grandmother, were sisters, so the parents of the
owner were first cousins.
83t.f born of S3tjtp.
Column 2: 83t.f born of S3tTp.
FOX born of 83t.Zp.
s3t.f e nbtsy born of 83tjTp.
s3to born of ,tnhtsy.
sntX mwt.f S3t4Tp the younger torn of Wa3.s. It has been
suggested by some commentators, that sn(t).f mwUf should be translated
as "his brother (or sister, born of) his mother", implying perhaps a
man's half-brother ak half-sister, with whom the owner shared a common
mother. However, this inscription shows that particular interpretation
to be erroneous. If the kin-terms refer to Untt-hty-ttp, this woman
is undoubtedly his sister-in-law, not his half-sister, and the names of
their mothers are known and are different. The kin-term must, therefore,
refer back to the owner, and S3tti, the younger can be shown conclusively
to be his great-aunt, so sn(t).f nwt.f (or it.f) does not refer to half-
brothers and Half-sisters, but to the brothers and sisters, or even
uncles and aunts, or the defined parent. (see above, Section I, pe.17/8),
sn.f 83-athr born of foithr42.tP.
hmt.f Tit born of Mnt. Titi has already been named as the
mother of the wife of the owner, so her husband, S3-qtr is the
father-in-law of the owners yet the term sn.f was applied to him, clearly
demonstrating that this one kin-term may be applied to many and various
degrees of kinship. The mother of the owner and the grandmother at his
wife are both °ailed Mnts so the two families say have been related prior
to the marriage of Unti-tity &Di S tibtlay.
s5t.f born of Titi.
Oa born of Titl.
s5t.f born of Tit/.
sn.f ' g 3 born of Mrti.
Ilmta Mnt, born of S5t-mrtAr. This Mnt must be the maternal
grandmother of Stibtieys so '1' 13must be her maternal grandfathers and sna
is once more u sed. of a relative by marriage of the owners and in this cases
a remote connection.
an.f. The name of his mother has been destroyed, so he cannot be
integrated into the family tree.
sni t' Mkt the elder.
lpatwf 1!b-pw , born of S5t-Rnawtt.
met 55t-Rnnwtt born of Art-4,5. This woman is presu mably the
nu rse of the owners thus Mkt is referred to as the an of the owner on the
strength of having married the foster-sister of the owner.
s5t.s and 85.s. The family of 53t-Etnnwtt appear on
Florence stela 7600s photograph 4.2. Omer: Nb(w)-hr-hnyt.
This stela belongs to a 'man. The dedicatory prayers appear on
7 . i . 5 . 4 . 3 . 2 .
4 n1111)
1 4 .13012. 11. 16. R .1.
1 76
Florence stela 2512, photograph /1 . 5 .  Owner: 'Ibi. pl.LIV.
l'bi born of Kikw.
ita Ksw born of SA.
mwt.! Kikw born of lg. The parents of the owner were thus brother and
sister, or half-brother and half-sister.
ana Ra.f-enb.
03 a n t . ! Rn.f-snb.
Berli n st ela , vol. ', p. 1 66, n o. 1 1 83 .
Owner: IC3y.
pl. INTL
1) K3y born of Mkt-B3stt.
2and 3)i.t.f linw-anb and wt.! Mkt-B3stt.
ii . ) a n . ! n m ort . f - i.e. the maternal uncle of the owner.
5 ) s3 t a Mkt-B3att i.e. the daughter of K3y. K3y has two chi ldren , but
does n ot n a m e t hei r mother.
6) s3 t . f 3 3 t - m 3 y „
7) 1 5 3 . 1 1 NIA.
8/1 2) :Int./. S3t-htpi, f ollow ed by 5 3 . s p 83 t . s Mkt - B3 st t 83 t . s S3 (t ) - ht p,
a n d Otos Mkt-B3stt.
13) s3t snt.f nt mwt.f S3t-Sn-mrl- i.e. the first cousin of tae owner.
14) s3t.s Mkt-B3stt.
Berlin stela, vol.I, p.178,No.72803.
Owner: Nfrt.
pl. LVIII.
1) Nfrt born of Ddt.
2) Ddt born of S3t-tfthr.
3) S3t-Ut1ir born of
4) lay born of Nbt-itf. As the only man named on the stela,'Idy is
likely to be either the husband or the father of Nfrt.
Berlin stela, volas p.181, no.1188, and. Louvre stela 0.174, pl..XXX.
Owner: Sn-Wart.
The stela in the Louvre names only Sn-Wart himself, but on the Berlin
stela he appears with his wife, parents, five brothers, five sisters,
and sixteen retainers and servants of both sexes.
The interesting feature of the Berlin stela is the unusual role
assigned to one of his sisters. The owner and. his wife are shown an the
left hand side of this rectangular monument, and all the other members
of the family face them across the offering table, but, whereas everyone
else is drawn on a much smaller scale than Sn-Wart and his wife, one
sister, ent.f mrt.f Rn.f- I nb,„ is represented by a figure drawn at almost
7 and 8) Two men, both born of Nbt cne cr whom is named 83-14.
9 and 10) Two unidentified men.
11 and 12) Wr-mb-kmwy born of Ity_t and a woman born of litpt.
13) ly born of 83t-F& and Nbt born of litpt.
14) 83t-Hi born of Nbt.
15/17) Inscriptions partially illegible.
Cairo stelae 20089 and 20703 belong to the swag man but add nothing
to our knowledge about his family because 20089 names only Wr-nb-kmwy and
his mother, and 20703 is broken so badly that on3,y the name of the owner
Berlin stela, vol.I, p.192, no.7282.
Owner : Maatw-htp.
p 1 .L I I .
1) iintw-tI to and the nbt pr Htpti born of Wnt *(49).
2) A man born of St-ddt and Rwl (born of) 813mt-ddt *(50).
3) mw-t a  The name is illeg ible, but she was born of Ririe Ale o
named are a m a n born of Rvri. $ and two other men, both said to be anal born
born of Writ, so they are brothers-in-law of the owner. This is one of
the rare ocaasictis when an is used of a brother-in-law. There are two
more men said to be sn.f, but born of Tly and. they cannot be identified.
4) Five men, all born of Tijr. Tl y must have been a near relative of the
owner.Perhap s she was the m other of /kit-w-htp, th
ough the degree of kinshiI
1 8 0
is never given. They are followed by: the nbt pr T x:Litt-Mt born of Rw/ i.e
maternal aunt of the owner.
sn.f born or t rat-clit - i.e. the cousin of the owner.
B tpt/ barn of ink t-c I dt.
An unidentified man and woman.
The aft pr Rwl born of Shmt-ddt and a man born of RA. This
c ould be the s ame RA, who appears in the s ec ond regis ter, or a s is ter at
the s ame name.
B erlin s tela, vol.; p.20, no.7287. Owner: Kas.
This stela is dedic ated to Kas by his s on, B mbw, who was born of the
hk rt nsws King's Favourite, trs. "Ira is not mentioned els ewhere on the
s tela, nor is s he s aid to be the wife Kam.
Berlin stelae, vol.', ps.205/206, nos.7731 and 7732.
Owners : 83-Man and 3 3 -Tma.
Stela 7731 s hows S3 -ma receiving offerings from s 3 .f S3 jimn, while
oppos ite him s tands the nbt prMrl, who is presumably his wife.
Stela 7732 s hows 83-T an, born of S3 -Mmn and M rwr , whic h mus t be a mis tak en
writing of Mr, rec eiving offerings from hmt.f Nfrw and s ntwf
2.. I . 3 -- 5-.
Hanover s tela 2928 .
1936, wolanns 1 3 .8 4)
II. to. q.
Owners M-23 .f.
pl.LI X.
4. 3. it. 1.
10. q .1. 7. S..
1 and 2) M-s3.f born of H t p t and H t p born of 53t -Nht . The names of
the mother and the wife of the owner are spelt consistently throughout.
3 and 11.) T w o m e n born of H t p , show n making offerings t o t he i r p are nt s.
5) 83t -Nht born of tnl.
6) A n unidentified woman.
7) A n unidentified boy.
8 and 9) Two women born or s3t-Nht.
10) IVA born of Bow.
11) A n u ni de nt i fi e d w om an.
H anove r st e la 2930.
(Z.i .S., 1936 9 vol.LMI, p .86).
Up r-k3-R'.
p l.LX .
. I5.14. II —.13.
1) lj p r-k, 3-1/ t born of S3t -W srt .
2) 83t -? fsrt born of 83-b-1t hr.
3) 71w .s-°3.3 born at 33t -t rt t i r - i.e. t he m at e rnal au nt or t he ow ne r.
14.) A w om an born of 83t -li t hr.
5 and 6) fi lm y born of Sbk-nht and hm t .f Nbt -nbs born ar)lw.s-t3.11.
k3-R' ap p e ars t o have di e d w i t hou t w i fe or c hi ldre n, c i n t he e vi de nc e
as it is p re se nt e d he re , and t he re st of t he st e la i s de vot e d t o hi s
c ou si n, Nbt -nbs, and he r fam i ly .
t h e 8 OM
7/10) Four me n * all said to be 83.f and. born of Nbt-nbs - i.e.
of ' limy . C h ia of t h e m is name d g p r- k 3 - R ' s t h e y oung e r.
11) b orn of M k - I : h t .
12) A woman b orn of S 3 t - V t 4 . r.
13 ) An unide nt if ie d woman.
14 . and 15 ) T wo me n b orn of  - i.e. t h e ne p h e ws of t inny .
16) A man b orn of S b k - nb t .
Hanove r of f e ring t ab le 1926. 191 (Z. X. S . , 193 6, vol. LM I , p . 88).
Owne r: 3 3 - M nt w.
T h is of f e ring t ab le h as b e e n inc lude d b e c ause it is insc rib e d wit h
t h e name s of several me mb e rs of a larg e f amily .
R ound t h e out side rim are t h e name s of t
83 - M nt w b arn of ' I  Name illegible.
it.f M nt w- m- 123 t b orn of Mrt.
s34' Sni-Wart
I n t h e c e nt re b loc k of insc rip t iaas are the name s of :
s3 t . f Nb (w)- ddt .
snt . f M rt and 83 . s.
snt . f Nb(w)-Mt.
s3 4 33-1Intw,
811 rf •
it nit.: Sn-Wert.
it.flmn-re413t. Up to this point, it has been easy to identify all the
people named, but the identification of Imn-m-13t is more complex. Be
cannot be the father or paternal grandfather of the owner, sinoe these
are both known. Be might be the maternal grandfather, but this is unlikely,
as no maternal grandmother is named, and it is most unusual for a line to
be traced tack to a male alone. The same Objeotion must be raised against
the identification of Imn-m4:13t as the paternal great-grandfather of the
owner, so tmn-m-h3t may have been his step-father, and has been tentatively
entered as such in the family tree.
On the raised ha -vase an the offering table is the nano of hmta Habra,
This must be the wife of the owner, and the mother of his five children.
sn.f S34intw.
Vienna stela, p.13, no.16. Owner: Keki. plan.
The first register oantains the htp di nsw formula, made out for
... 11D r,.k3-R1 born of Rats and then refers to him again, but this time by his
*pet name", Enki *(51). The mother of the owner was also known by two
names, Mnt and M3 i thtp, both of which are used an the stela.
Second register:
K*ki born of 113't-htp - i.e. the owner again.
Shbtisy born of B3stt *(52).
s3t 83.f
Sn-Wart lint born of B3stt - i.e. the granddaughter of the owner.
113.f Hri born of Snbtiay. As his name is &lawn with that of SnATirt
be may be her father.
luata Nano illegible, born of t3mt. If this is the wife of
and the mother of Sn-Wart Vint, then her name has already been given as
B3att. As the mother-in-law and daughter-in-law at the owner are both
called B3stt, they may be related by blood as well a by marriage.
Third register:
it.f Sn-W rt born of g3yt.
mwt.f Mnt born of 'al.
sn.f barn of Mnt.
Three men, all said to be 83.f and all born of Snbtisf.
Fourth reg'ster:
an it.f Upr-k3-R' born of 63yt.
mwt nt rav rt.f tti.
ant it.f Mryt born of 3it.
Four =identified men.
Pitt re istert
Snbtify born of 13' t- tp.
it n 4mt.f Mrrw born of Sbk-m-t3t. As Snbtify has o amed wife, this
is presumably the father-in-law of Maki. Since all the other lines are
traced back to women, Sbk-m43t is likely to have been a woman too, but
there is no positiv e confirmation.
A man, name illegible.
M3 s t-i? tp born of 133w *(53).
The nbt pr 7133w.
tti born of 1.33w, and a3t.s inttsy. Che of the men, otherwise
unidentified, is said to be born of t nh...., so he wa,1 be the 5 O n of
this woman.
Sdeutschen Sammlungens vol.1, pl.Is no.2 and J.E.A"1939, vol.XXV.
pl.XXI: 3, (Queen's College, Word, stela 1110). CWners En-snb,
1) Rrp.snb.
2) hmt.flimborn of the nbt pr Wnmi,*(54).
3 and 4) Rdi-s'nh *(55) and T3-ntt. It will be observed that the Queen's
College stela names these two as the parents of Rn-enb.
5) A line of inscription naming the nbt pr Snb-m-.... *(56). The Queen's
College stela awards this woman the title of wife.
1) Rn-snb barn of the nbt pr T3-qitt.
2) lt.x Pal- 'nh.
3) The owner raking an offering t has father.
An untrl ntfled man and his wife.
5 and 6) tmt.f n t pr Snb-m.... andluat.fYin born f thtf. Intf must
be th- f th r of Nn, as h r mother has already been named as Whml.
7) mwt.f T3-ntt.
8 and 9) Th figures of 3.f d 3t.f T3-ntt together with an
naming another son. There is o indication whic of the two wives was the
ther of these children. Nn appears to have been more i portant, sinoe
both of her parents are named, but this may be because she was the wife
at the time of the commissioning of the stela.
10) Several lines of inscription, most of the people awed are umiolmatifim
but they include two men, both said to be sn n mwt.f.
Stiddeutschen Sammlunge vo1.I,
no.3 and J.E.A., 1939, vol.30C 7 ,
plaX:2 (Queen's C ollege, Oxford, stela, no.1111). Owner
---,- (-- 4-
I. 3. a.
---0 <-- — ) 4-
4. 5. 6 . 7.
4- -ak --* <—
S. 9. 10.
1) Imny born of Bbi.
2) t.f naidyt nt niwt *(57) Bbi born of Shnt *(58). Bbi is such a
popular name that little significance can be attached to the f t that the
mother and the wife of fi.mny are both called Bb.
3, 44 5, 8 and 9)rive men, all said to be 83.f born of Bbi.
6) sjt.f Bbi born of Bbl.
7, 10 and 11) Three unidentified women, all entitled nbt pr.
--* <— *-
1 .  2. 3 .
- - - 4- - 4—
7. 6. 5.4.
- - ) . <— ---) 4—
II. 10. et. B .
1) ' I r o n y bo r n of Bbi.
2) 83 .f' I mts, bo r n o f Bbl.
3) Imbw. The r elatio n ship o f this sar i to the o wn er is n o t givens but
he must be important, because he occupies such a pr o min en t po sitio n . I t
is likely that he is the father o f the o wn er , especially in View of the
fact that one of the o wn er ' s scms bear s the same n ame.
4) Bbi. This co uld be either the mo ther o r the wife of the o wn er . I n
fr o n t o f her is a dedication to an unidentified man.
5) An unidentified. wo m an.
6 and 7) Pt4-pw-, w3h and hmt.f Shnt, S1nt has already been named as the
m o ther-in-law o f the owner.
8) The D22..t2/L at.
Vil)Two unid ntified men, an unidentifiedvomans and an inscription
n amin g an o ther unidentified wo man .
Saddeutschen Sammlun gen s vo l.11, p1.17, no. 5. Own er s Nfr t and Ddt.
This stela is jointly o wned:by Nfrt bar n o f Ddt an d Ddt barn of
S3t-Ht1 ir, and it was dedicated by tinny, the so n o f Nfr t. B th Nfrt and
V e r s o h i e d e n e n S a m m l u n g e n s t e l a .
Ddt are e n t i t l e d a n t new, King's S i s t e r , s o Nfr t m a y h a ve be e n t h e ch i l d
of a consanguineous uniaa within the royal family.
The dedicatory prayer appears on p. 499,
Verschiedenen. Sammlungen, pl.I, supplemented by Louvre stela 0.5,
O a n e r s : lany a n d 8 3 - S t t .  pl . Da l l •
1) bo r n o f S3t-Imrkvis t o g e t h e r w i t h m w t . f S 3 t - Ti m a y bo r n o f S 3 t - S bk.
2) 03 . f 3 3 - S t t bo r n o f S 3 t - h t p. w r . Th o u g h s h e i s t h e m o t h e r of his sons
S3t-hty-mr is named nowhere else on this stela..
3 ) i t . f t n t f bo r n o f Rna-tn h . A l ] . t h e o t h e r people al t h i s s t e l a a r e
i d e n t i fi e d by t h e i r m o t h e r s ' names, so Itn.f-'r4 is probably a woman.
11. a n d 5) Tw o m e n , bo t h s a i d t o be s n . f a n d bo t h bo r n o f S 3 t - S bk - i.e.
t h e m a t e r n a l u n cl e s of tmny.
6) Daft nt mwt.f S 3 t - S bk bo r n o f S 3 t - l i t h r .
7, 8 and 11) Three stens all said. to be sn.fs a n d a l l bo r n o f S 3 t - Mh t y
*(59). S 3 t - Mh t y co u l d h a ve be e n tes e o o n d w i fe o r o o n o u bi s e o f e i t h e r o f
t h e u n n a m e d g r a n d fa t h e r s o f  o r o f h i s fa t h e r . O n t h e o t h e r h a n d s
she might have be e n t h e wife of one of his br o t h e r s , in w h i ch ca s e , h e r
sons w o u l d be t h e n e ph e w s a t t h e owner. OMthe family tree co pl.LXIlls
4 • 1 1 n1 ). 41(61nnnn•
9 -12.
1- 3 . 14 — 19.

0. 2.1 —
she has been entered as the second wife of 'lie, the father of the owner.
9) The s3 t h3 ty- t *(60) 33t-tp-ihwborn of S3t-hnt3.-hty. The figure of
this woman is direct4 behind that of one of the sons of S3t-Wilyty, so she
may be his wife.
10) ent.f born of S3t-/tty.
12) e3 snsf born of S3tAraty. The children of S3t-Iterty have hitherto
been described as sn(t).f, so this man must stand in a different degree
of kinship to the owner. As this man is "the son of his brother", either
there were two women called S3t-M1ity, probably related, or S3t-111-Ay was
married twice, once to the father, and. then to the brother of the owner.
0o. the family tree two women called 83t-111-1ty have been shown.
13) A woman born of 3 3 t-itity.From her position she is likely to be a.
sister of the previous man.
14) A man born of S3 t-tp-ihw.
15) An inscription reoords the fact that 53-Stt, the son of the owner,
went to Abydos in the company of Iy-hr-nfrt (see above, ID. 83 , Cairo
s tela 20310).
Louvre stela. 0.5.
1) 83-Stt born at 33t-hty-wr - i.e.the am of the owner of the previous
2) A map born of S3t-bi ty -w r - i.e. the brother of 83-Stt. He w as not
named on the stel a of l aw ay .
3) mw t.f 33t-hty -w r born of S3t-hhty -w r.
i t.f Bpr-k3-R' born of Kd my t. Si nce S3-Stt i s know n to be the son
of 1.mny , thi s cannot be hi s real father.
i s show n w i th the
mother of 33-Stt, so i t i s most l i kel y that she marri ed agai n after the
d eath of Isz, thus her second husband , Dpr-k3-R' was the step-father
or s3-stt. The brother represented by fi gure 2 may therefore be the son
of 83t-hty-mr and U pr-k3-R'
rather than of Emny , si nce he d i d . not
appear on the stel a of
5) An uni d enti fi ed . w oman, beari ng the ti tl e of a3t b3ty-t.
6) The s3t113ty - • S3t-tp-i tur born of Ky . The name, though not thi s
parti cul ar w oman, i s know n from the previ ous stela.
7) An uni d enti fi ed w oman.
8) S3-Stt, the ow ner, agai n.
9/12) Four uni d enti fi ed men.
13) born of S3t-tmny - i .e. the true father of the ow ner.
14/29) U ni d enti fi ed men and w omen. Oae of them, fi gure 19, i s sai d to
be a femal e si nger, Isy t*(61).
4- 4-
J O . 9 . Z . 7.
Verschi ed enen Samml ungen, p1.111, no.3
Ow ner: try -mfr.
pl .L X 117.
1) ' I r y - n f r b o r n o f (ir n) ty - mr , (who was) b ar n o f (ma n ) n ) tw-n.s-snb.
When the name of the o wn e r i s f o l l o we d , b y the wo r d s i r n plus a man's
n ame , the n ma n p l u s a wo man ' s n ame s the logical assumption is that this
co u p l e we r e I is p ar e n ts. Thi s ste l e ., ho we ve r , is one of' the r ar e
e xce p ti o n s, and the inscription accompanying figure 2 shows that these
two we r e actu al l y the o wn e r ' s f athe r an d the mo the r o f his father.
2) 3.t.f ty - mr the son o f (s3) 7 1w- n .s- sn b . tw- n .s- an b i s thu s i d e n ti f i e d
as the paternal gr an d mo the r o f the o wn e r .
3) A female har p i st an d two me n b r i n gi n g o f f e r i n gs.
4.) mwt.f Sn .b - w3wt. - i.e. the mo the r o f the o wn e r .
5) The 'rtit n t niwt 53t-lintw b o r n o f , s n b - l b . Thi s wo man i s n o t actu al l y
said to b e the wife of the owner s b u t si n ce she is sho wn in a p r o mi n e n t
p o si ti o n , f aci n g the f i gu r e s representing the chi l d r e n o f the o wn e r s
the r e i s n o d o u b t that she is to b e i d e n ti f i e d as his wife.
6) Thr e e me n an d two b o y s. Four of them are said. to be a3.f, so the
f i f th was p r o b ab l y hi s so n al so .
7 ) sn.f 11i t.f 15p w b o r n o f tw- n .a- e n b . Thi s i s a crucial inscription
since it proves conclusively that "his brother of his father% like
an n it.fs' means "paternal uncle".
8) an .f . Thi s mu st b e the brother of the owner.
9) Two women, b o th said to b e s3ta's and one man sai d to b e s3 .f . The se
are presumably more chi l d r e n o f the o wn e r s because all the other kin-term
refer back to him, though they might be the children o f the b r o the r o f
the o wn e r , who se f i gu r e the y f ace .
10) The I n tt n t r awt I n 22.- 3.b an d s3.s - i.e. the mo the r an d b r o the r o f
the wife of the o wn e r . I t sho u l d b e n o te d that both mother and daughter
were entitled e nht nt :Amt. The husbaniof , • nb-lb , was ot named and his
rank is unialowns but try-nfrs the husband of S3t-I4ntw was a veb-priest of
Montt: ( wib n Mntw).
4- 4- 4-
--) —>
Z m nlp
—is ,-..
Ieiden p1.11, no.3
CWner: Imsw.
Though the dedicatory prayers am the stelae belonging to women have
been translated, as they have a bearing an the status of women and their
expectations for the Hereafter ( see Excursus C s p483), it has not been
necessary to translate more than kin-terms and. allied texts from the
majority of stelae examined. In this cases however, I propose to offer a
translation of the whole dedications b th because it is of some
chronological interests and beoause it contains references to some or the
relatives of the owners which will be or value in the eluoidgtian of the
complex:family tree.
For the convenience of the readers the lettered notes in this text
have been placed. at the end of the tnanslatian on ps.191095, instead of
with the other footnotes.
A) The invocation text:
Lines ( 1) D3t-up 33Ar ia n ( mn-10.-89 'nh, dt (2) Dtp di mewl/sir
1 9 3
nb Bdw tinty-isintyw ntr *3 at 3 bdw htp di new ( 3 ) f i n p w tpy dw.f ley wt
n b t3 §ar &Lan  
)iwtbn1 tp3 k3 w3 pdwn dw n 1 .0)3 w sve n ;t.m3 lay-r
3 1 2wt a tp-rs T3 -w r Imsw rs r ( i
f .)  adrt r
get-Mn I. w grt ir.n sr'
3 1 P rt
m ref T3 -iwr 3 bdw i t DJ it n it.i 0.r rk Ifr W3 1 2-'nh, new bity ( 5) 53
tntf lw.n..1 grt r pn r rdw n ntr w'rt *3t hahCisit 1 ,1 4 m3 .1 Wp -w 3 i rt
(6) hbw.f nbw a nmtt.f n bt hr-ntt In k mry nb.f 1 m a 1 3 t.f htp d new W s? r
nb Ddir ntr ' 3 nb 3 bdw (7) prt-trw t Imp ,43 k,3 w 3paw n 3 .m3 ,h,w n tok3 imy-r
3 hw t a tp-re T3 -wr Irani htp di new tpy dw.f di.f prbtrw t !mkt k3 w
3 pdw n imlbw sys 3 /yet tail in s3 (8) .sn Binh rn .sn i n 3 1w s 3 1w t a
T3 -yr 3 bdeintf-ilfr ms ii Mwwt m3 `-hrw nb i m3 h,.
(1 ) Year 3 3 under the Majesty at Kheperkare, living eternally. (2) A
boon which the king gives (to) Osiris, Lord of Busi ri s, Fi rst of the
Westerners, the Great God, the Lard. of Abydos; and, a boon which the king
gives (to) (3 ) Anubis, who is upon his mountain, he who is in the plaza cf
embalming, Lord of the Sacred Land, that they may give invocation offerings
of bread and beer, and a thousand of =cat and fowl, to the revered one, the
scribe of the cadaster and overseer of the fields in the Head of the South
and the Thinite nose, southwards as far as (4 ) the Crocodile nose *(a) and
northwards as far as the Khent-Min nose, 'Low. There acted *(b) as scribe
of the fields in the waters *(0) of Abydos of the Thinite noses sky father
and my grandfather *(d) from the tine of the Harus Wahankh, the King of
Upper and Lower Egypt
(3 )
the son of Re Intef • (e). Now I came to this
tomb at the staircase at the god in. the district of Great of Roaring., so tha
I should see (6) Wepwawet in all his feasts, in all his processions,
because I was one (continued on next page)
1 9 4 .
beloved of his lord and capable in his office. A. boon which the king gives
(to) Osiris, Lord of Bus iris, the Great Gad, the Icrd of Abydos, (7)
invocation offerings of bread and beer, and a thousand of oxen and fowl
to the revered one, the scribe of the cadaster and overseer of the fields
in the Head of the South and the Ihinite Nbmes  Abooc. which the king
gives (to) Anubis, who is upon his mountain, that he may give invocation
offerings of bread And beer, mod a thousand of oxen and fowl, to the
revered one, the scribe of the fields, Imal. (8) It is their beloved son
*(f) who makes their names to live, the revered one, the scribe of the fieldi
in Abydos of the Thinite Nome, tntf-1 4 r, born or Mwet, justified and
revered " (g).
(a) kr.,the Crocodile Nome, see Itontet, Gtiographie de ll igypte Ancienne,
vol.II, p. 9 1 .
(b) The subjeot normally follows its verb, preceding the Object or any
depewlent clauses, but here the words it [ J ] it n it.1 are clearly the
subject, and there is no other verb applicable to them.
(c) Presumably either those fields subject to inundation, or those
situated in the marshy land near the desert edge.
(d) it U]it n it.1, Ay fathers and the father of my father. If it is
accepted that the text has been correctly amended here (see Gardiner,
Egyptian (rammar, p. 4 1 3, paragraph 507, no. 3), then the speaker is referring
to his father and grandfather. The stela was dedicated by tntf-ikr, but his.
father, 125was clearly intended to be the owner. His is the first and
most elaborate btp di new formula, and he is probably meant to be identified
as the speaker in line 4 , end "my father and my grandfather" must refer to
the two men calLed'Imni, who are mentioned in line
It is possible that the text oouId be amended as it [n] it n it.1
the father of the father of my father, thus giving three generations before
1:mamr, but, attractive though this mlbght be from the ohraaologioal standpoint
it is unlikely that the scribe would have omitted the first genitival n here
and the suggested emendation of it r: i l it n its', my father and my grand-
father, is to be preferred.
(e) ahankh Intef II (2117/1069 B.C.) of the Eleventh Dynasty, see
Cambridge Ancient History, vol.I, part 2, p.996. This monarch died more
than one hundred and thirty years before the erection of the stela in the
thirty-third year of the reign of Senusret I (1971/1928 B.C.). Though
'Intf-Lcr must have commissioned this stela during his lifetime, it need
only have been dated to the year of his death, when it would have been
erected in his tomb or cenotaph.
(f) Intf-14r erected this stela as an act of pi ety on behalf of three
named.generations of his forefathers, so s3 here is being used in the sense
of a descendant.
(g) Since the words m3'-Arw nb la313 are written in the masculine form,
they are ptesumably intended to refer beak to tntf-1.15.: r, rather than to
Mwwt, though it is possible that they do refer to her and that the feminine
endings have been omitted, OAso often happens.
There are forty-five members of the family and servants named on this
stela, but in only two oases, those of tritf-34r and me of the men called
?Loa, are the names of their mothers supplied. It is therefore impossible
to arrive at a c mpletely s tl factory interpretation of th information
supplied. concerning the relationships within this family.
It is essential to establish how many generations separated
the dedic tar of the stela, from the ancestor who acquired. the office under
Wahankh Intef. Besides the dedicatory inscription names three
other men - rnsw (line 3), who is later shorn to be the father or ' •
and two man called Mreni (line 7),who, on the evidence of line 4, appear to
be the father and. grandfather of )Imsw (see above p194., note d.).
The minimum time that can have elapsed between the appointment of the
first tmni and the dating of this stela in the thirty-third year of
Senusret I, is about one hundred and thizier years. If it is assumed that,
as a young man of about twenty, the first . fi-m-ni wasappointed to office
towards the end. of the reign of Wahankh Inter, and if it is further assumed
that each generation of his descendents were born when their respective
on average
fathers were,/about thirty years of age, then, by the thirty-third year of
Senusret I, that is about 1938 B.C., the fourth in direct line
of desoent, would. be in his early/mid-sixties. This chronology is there-
fore satisfactory, provided the first lan.1 did indeed receive his
appointment as a young man at the end of the reign of Wahankh Intel', but
if 'Imni was older, or was appointed earlier, then there would really need. tc
be five generations from 'Iola to tn-tzt-3.1cr inclusive, lather than the four
named in the dedicatory inscription.
The figures on the main body of the stela are:
1) tmsw, with is shown seated with kmt.f Mrrt , and 1-eunt.f Uvrwt, M ww-t has
already been named in the dedicatory inscription as the mother of laatf-34r,
so °Imsw is to be identified as his father.
2) Facing Insw and his wives across the offering table, under which is the
tiny figure of a men-servant, aretisny and hmt.f E2:was evidently
an important member of the family and, on analogy with other stela, he is
most likely to be the father, son, or brother of the man opposite him.
2'm: was probably not the son of Imsw because the wads 63.f do not
precede his name, and this is the only kin-term which was regularly included
on this stela. It would certainly be convenient if teny could be identified
as the father oftmew, because there would then be five generations between
the first member of the family &Di the dedicator of the stela, but only
four generations are named in the dedicatory inscription, and it is unlikely
that the text of line 4. is to be amended to read "the father of the father
of my father" (see above p.194 1 note d). tinny, therefore, cannot be the
father of tmsw, so he may have been his brother, and has been tentatively
entered as such on pl.LXIV, though it is always possible that he was some
more remote connection, such as the father-in-law of ono of the men of the
3) tatf-ikr - i.e. the dedicator of the stela, who is shown seated with
ylmt.f Kkw.
Facing him across the offering table, under which is the tiny figure
of a man-servant, are:
334linsw - i.e. the son at'Intf-ilfr, named after his father.
Aman, primumably another son of—Itr, though the space for his
kin-term and name has been left blank.
s3t.f Hpw.
s3t.f Mwwt.
5)Mani born of and tuat.f Nn. His position on this stela suggests
that this w as either the father or grandfather of ' I ssw .
6)P ac ing " rani and Na ac ross the offering table are:
153.r /saw - i.e. probab4 that 71-m sw w ho w as the father of ' I ntf-ilw o
for it Ins q uite c om m on prac tic e to show a m an tw ic e on a stela, onc e w ith
his parents and onc e w ith his w ife. I f this interpretation is c orrec t,
then this Mani w as the father of 'maw and the grandfather of I ntf-I lsr. To
c om plete the generations as nam ed in the dedic atory insc ription * it is
therefore nec essary to prov e that this I rani w as the son of another' I m nf
and this seem s to be established in a later insc ription.
3 3 .f.
inw t.f Vpw - i.e. the m other of Mal.
Ddw and hm t.f Ddt. P rom his position, Ddw m ay hav e been the brother
Mani and has been tentativ e4 entered as suc h on the fam ily tree.
it.f lam a and bat.f I j pw .  has already been nam ed as the m other of
' I an? , and by show ing her here, her husband is identified as the father
of I m E rt, w ho is figure 5. The tw o m en c alled  tasw and Intf-hr
are thus all accounted for, and have been shown to be four, uninterrupte
7)Bight m en, all said to be a3.f, and four w om en, all said to be s3 t,f,
There is no indioaticn as to whichof the princ ipal c harac ters nam ed so
far was supposed to be the father at these c hildren.
8) A m en oalled  and his four daughters. They m ust belong to the
fam il,y, but insufficient data is supplied to determ ine their exac t
relationship. Pacing them are four m en-serv ants, a w / . . 2. 2a and an ICA.
Leiden, ra j, no.69 supplemented by Cairo stela 20531 and Guimet B.3,
Owner: ppr-k3-R'. p1.127.
It is convenient to consider the Guimet stela first, since this shows
only two figures, that of the owner, ppr-k3-R', and the nbt pr tpt. On
this evidence, Htpt might be either the mother of the wife aftm:.-13-R',
but the Ieiden stela names his mother as Id, so namAy be safely
accepted as his wife.
The Leiden stela is larger and more complex.
4- 4-
5%  4. a. 3.
-> -> -* <-- 4-
10. R. R. 6. 7.
- 11. - .). - - ,
iik 13.
<-- -.4-
H. I2.•
1) pr-k3-R' born of'Ini. The sides of the stela are also inscribed
with the name of the owner and 'Ini, his mother.
2 and 3) It.f 15w the younger born of S 3t2I4r and mwt.f kimyt born of
S bk-m-s3.s. S dmyt is shown seated.vith T3w and is clearly intended to
be identified as his wife. S he cannot also be the true mother of
Hpr-k3-R1 however, because it has already been established that he was
born of Ira. 113z1 is nowhere said to be the "good name" ( rn nfr) of Int
so there is no reason for doubting that S dmyt was the step-mother at the
4. and 5) Two men, named 1.ntf and S r respectively, both said to be sn.f
and both born at •Ssiplyt. The separate identity of Eni and S iyt is thus
Cairo stela 20531.
confirmed by this inscripticn.
6, 8, 9, 11, 12 and 13) Six women, all said to be ant.f born of S 3t- lit12r.
The stela in the Cairo Museum names S 3t4Ittir as the sister of ar-k3-R',
so these women are his nieces, S 3t- Vt1lr herself does not appear an the
Leiden stela, so without the Cairo stela, the identity of these women
would have been uncertain.
7) an.f born of 23t- lithr.
10) IV. :t born of gat. On the evidence of the Guizet stela, this is the
wife of pr- k3- 1/', though here she is given no title or kin-tern.
14and 15) Two men, OMof whom is a singer (haw)•
1)  .
2) 3.t.f T.3w.
3) mwt.f  S clAyt. The dedications appear in vertical columns above
the heads ar the figures. The words mwt.f tra appear together in a °au=
above the head. of the woman and the name S anyt appears by itself in the
last column. The Leiden stela left no doubt that Tali and S dmyt were two
different women, both with children of their own, so the inscription must
read "his mother tn.i. and  d.".It was not uncommon for two inscriptions
to apply to one figure an stelae, and this must be the explanation here.
If Ira died 'While her scn was still very young and he was raised by his
step- mother, he would. have wanted, to perpetuate the memory of both
2 0 1
women, and. this would be a convenient method of achieving his aim.
snt.f mrt.f S3t-lithr. This beloved sister was named. on the Leiden
stela as the mother of seven children. She appears here with the two
known sons at S4myt, so was probably her daughter, rather than the child
of 'IA.
5 and 6) Two men, both said to be sn.f. Their names are Inte and Sr and
they were named on the Leiden stela as the sons of Sdmyt.
Leiden pls.Vir1 and In, nos.9 and 2 0 . Cwners: ktp-1 h and
Em. pl.LXV.
Both stelae have inscriptions without figures. The first one,
belonging to ktp-1 b, names:
Bk3-1b born of N frt-ttswt.
83 Snbbw born of S3t-N fr-tm.
Scibbw born of S3t-N tr-tm.
ktp-lb born of Rm.
.f Hk3-ib born of Kwy. Kwy is one of the more unusual names, so
the fact that ktp-lb and his son were both born at women named
that, though this need not indicate a mother/son marriage, they were
probably born of women who were related to each other by blood as well as
by marriage.
The second stela names:
Kwy born of Mb.
43-1.b born of. This is the man already named. as the son of
ktp-lb, but Kwy makes no reference to her husband on her stela, which may
--* 4--
 3. I. A .
6 . S .
I M M I N I M M E N n310
q• 7 -1,
1 1 1 n•n••>ditn
1 0 .
20 2
indicate that it wasr commissioned after the death or divorce of S htp-ib.
/ 1 1 0 -ib bo r n o f ' l b - i.e. the br o ther o f The appear ance of the
nam e 1 1 3 -3 1 3 o n both sides of the f am il y, suggests that they im sr e r el ated
in so m e w ay, besides the o ne r eo o r ded o n these stel ae.
' l b bo r n at 3 2 ...
1 k3 -ib bo r n of 83 t-Pt1 i. S ince his nam e f o l l o w s that of the m o ther
o f limo
this m ay be her o ther w ise unkno w n f ather .
Leiden p1 .1 1 , no .1 0 , suppl em ented by Br itish Museum stel a, vo l .1 1 ,
Ow ner : 53 -3 a t .
Leiden stel a.
1 ) S 3 -3 st bo r n o f Iw o -n-pr .a.
2) m w t nt rawt.f Mkt bo r n o f S 3 t-Wsr t.
3 a nd i
i-) S 3 -nr .s bo r n o f
Ey_ and' Iw .s-n-pr .s bo r n of Mkt - i.e. the
par ents o f S 3 -3 st.
5) A n unidentif ied w o m an.
6) A w o m an bo r n o f
l w .s-n-pr .s.
Thr ee m en and tw o w o m en, al l bo r n
of " Iw al -n-pr .s.
A n unidentif ied m an.
British Museum stela.
2 0 3
9) Two unidentified men, and a woman called Htp- i.e. the paternal
grandmother of the owner. The name of her mother Is illegible.
10 ) Priests and servants.
1) The owner, 3 3 -3 st.
2 a n d 3) ita 83-mr.s a n d mwt.:fIw.s-n -pr.s.
a n t.f.
5, 6 and 8) Three men, all said to be sn.f.
7. 9 and 10 ) Three women, all said to be mita. Only three sisters were
named an the Leiden stela, but this shows he had four.
Leiden, pl.XI, no.12
Owner: Hr.
1 and 2 ) Er and hmt.f S3 t4fsr.
4.and 5)Hr and hmta S3 t-Knty - i.e. the owner again, this time with
his seoand wife.
I +- S.
" ' " I 3 A-. C. 4--
2 • 7.

to. 9. g.
as —I. 
O. Igt.
2 0 1 4 .
6 and 7) it.f Mit and I l m t.f 83t-Snfri - i.e. the parents of the owner.
8) ant. s 83t-Snfri.
9) Four men, ail said to be s3a. These are probably ths sons of Hi and
S3t4 Inty.
1 0 ) ant. f.
1 1 ) An inscription naming 83. s, 83. 5 and s3t. s.
1 2 ) Three women, all said to be snt. f.
1 3) Two male and three female servants.
Leiden, p1.1111, no. 30 .
pl. LXVII.
A) A. htp di new formula in the names of Sn-Wart, it. ffisny-'nh and
mwt. f S3t-thy.
1 and 2 ) Sn-Wart born of S3t-thy. and hmt. f 83t-2 1 mn.
3 and 4 ) Two boys, both said to be 63. f.
5) 'I m ny-'nh born at S3t4 Ithr - i.e. the father at the owner.
6 and 7) hmt. f S3t-%y bona of Et-serw and hata . . . t born of The
father of the owner was thus married twice.
8 and 9) S3-nfrt born of 83t-1 / 1 and Ma S3t4 t t . 53-nfrt evidently
hel d an im portant pl ace in this fam
1y, and the brother of the owner was
named after him. The father and paternal grandfather are Accounted
for, so the most likely role is that of maternal grandfather, and be
has been tentatively entered as such in the family tree.
10) S3-Nfrt born of S3t-lsy.
11) An unidentified woman.
12) A female singer.
13) War born of Ptt.
14) It-nfrw born of S3t-thy.
Three men, all said to be born ofIt-nfrw. As these men follow
the figure of the sister of the owner, they must be her children, rather
than those of his maternal grandmother of the same name.
18) An unidentified women. Her name is S3t-W, so she is probably
related to the mother of the owner, but the name of her mother has been
destroyed, and she cannot be integrated into the family tree.
19) it n t.f Sn-Wart - i.e. the paternal grandfather of the owner.
20) mwt.f 83t- thr - i.e. a great grandmother of the owner.
21 and 22) Two man, both said to be 634' - i.e. the paternal uncles of
the owner.
sn.f. The other kin-terms refer back to the elder Sn-Vert, so this
is his brother.
24) Dmt.f 83tjlp born of Prt. The wife of the elder Sn-Wart has been
has been named as S3t-Hthr, so this is evidently the wife of figure 23.
25) A man born of S3tjTp.
ant.f born of an unidentified woman. The identification of this
woman is so uncertain that she has been omitted from the family tree.
A. woman born of It-Nfrw. Had this woman been the child of the
l e i d e n 0pl.MII, no.24.
Owner: Imn-m-i3t-snb.
sister of the owner, she woul d probabl y have be e n shown i n the se con d
re gi ste r wi th the othe r chi l d re n . This is the re fore l i ke l y to be an aun t
of the own e r.
28) An un i d e n ti fi i ad man .
I e i d e n 0 plaIlr, n o.16.
Al though the own e r i s sai d to have a son an d a d aughte r, thi s ste l a
was e re cte d by sn .f n mwt.f - i .e . hi s mate rn al uncle. This may have be e n
an act of pi e ty, on be hal f of a favouri te n e phe w who d i e d youn g, but i t
mi ght e qua.Uy we l l have be e n an obl i gati on . If the chi l d re n of the own e r
we re too youn g to d i re ct affai rs at the ti me of the i r fathe r's d e ath, hi s
un cl e mi ght have acte d for the m, or the son, an d pe rhaps the d aughte r too,
mi ght have pre d e ce ase d their father, so his uncle took ove r the fun e ral
arran ge me n ts sis the n e are st survi vi n g mal e re l ati ve .
I ) I mn -m-h3t-an b born of 'I w-1bl -r.s.
2) sn .f born of I w-i bi -r.s.
3) The n bt pr g min born of Eby. He r posi ti on an d ti tl e i d e n ti fy thi s
woman as the wi fe of the own e r.
I .  7.
"I -. 3. A.  S.
4) i-r.s born of Inn.
5) Imn-m-t3t-snb. This might be the owner again, but it is more likely
to be his father.
6) Aman born of Mw-3. bi-r. s.
7) a3t.fIw-ibi-r.s born of Swk. This is presumably the daughter of the
owner, though she maybe the daughter of the preoeding man, the brother of
the owner. Her mother's name does not occur anywhere else an the stela,
and she is not said to be the wife of either brother.
8) Aline of inscriptions at the bottom of the stelkrefers to a man born
ce 71w-ib(-r. ^). In the family tree this man had been entered as another
brother of the owner, but he might have been the chi or the younger
Leiden, pl.IXVIII, no.38.
Cwner: Att.
1 and 2) The owner, Nht.
3) hmt.f
5) hmt...f Slat.
6) Three men, all said to be 63.f.
7 and 8) s3X and s3t.f.
The way the figures are grouped an this stela would seem to imply
that *
by tipsat only had cne daughter, but by Snt he had four scam and
--> —> 4—
S .
a daughter.
The figures of nt. and 4p are drawn on a larger scale than all the others,
which may indicate that was the wife at the time the stela was
comissicned and that she claimed. some special mark of favour over her
predecessor, or it might indicate that Nht was praotising polygamy, and
that Hp was the senior wife.
Leiden, pl.XXX,
Owner: Hvri.
1) born of Dv,.
2) s3.f Imny born of 1;12E. Although drawn on the same scale as his parents,
2Imny is shown as a naked boy.
3) Hpy born of
1 4 .) sn.f S bk-htp born of Dw.
3) s 3 .f 3mny born of tn. This mny, the nephew of the owner, is shown
as a small, naked boy, clasping his father's knee,
6) S 3t-Wsr born of Dw. This woman is shown with her arm round the shou/dez
of her brother S bk-na, an attitude usually reserved for the w i f e. ' I n .,
the mother of the son of S hk-htp, is not shown on the stela at all.
- 3 .  a. I .
•-0 44-- 4-
. 6.4.
Leiden, pl.XLEV,
Owner: Hkkw.
1) 1c kw b o rn o f T i t .
2) T here i s ally one f emale f i gure sho wn here, b ut t here are t wo
inscriptions naming the nbt pr Rsw-snb born of and. the nbt pr
T i t i b o rn or - i.e. t he mat ernal aunt and t he mo t her o f t he owner.
3) T he nb t pr Snb b o rn at la. Her- t i t le and po si t i o n o n t he st ela
i ndi c at e t hat t hi s was t he wi f e o f t he o wner. A second inscription
wi t h t hi s f i gure names a wo man b o rn o f Rsw-snb .
4. ) A man b o rn o f T i t i .
5) A man b o rn o f  Under t hi s f i gure i s an i nsc ri pt i o n nami ng a
man b o rn o f K, and in front of him is the name of an unidentified man.
6) An uni dent i f i ed wo man.
7) A wo man b o rn o f Snb - i.e. t he daught er o f t he owner.
—.>4- <-- tt--
I .  a. 3.  4 .
-i --, 4 -- < --- <- -
9 . 8.  S . b.  7,
- > - - ). -3 4-4-
 IS . 12,, H. Ia.
—So—1, 4— 4 —
14 , I S.  1•.  I S,
-*- - if - -/1 -" P " -A ,
A i . ao mi. X2.13,
Leiden, p1.18XVIIno.48
Owner: Sn- srt
1) Sn-Wart born of
2) HA born of Pit.
• 3) Prt barn of 83t- thr.
4.) A man born of Hr/.
5) 1 1 . born of Pit.
6) 8n-if /art born of 'Iwt. The figure at this man follows that of Mdhw, so
he may be her husband. On the other hand, he has the same name Its the
owner, and it would be rather strangpif the owner chose to include an
uncle by marriages but to exclude his own father. (kl balanoe therefore,
this Sn-Wart is more likely to have been the father of the owner.
7) 'Iwt born of Evrt.s.
8) A man born of
9) A man born of Hri.
10) A man born at Mdhw.
11) An unidentified. man, probably the husband of one of the women of
this family.
12) A woman born at lirl.
1 3) A man born of lirl.
14) 83t-lithr born of Id.
15) A man born of
16) The mn t t Maw, born of mwt.s. Mdhw is not a particularly common
name, so this nurse is likely to have been named after the maternal aunt
of the owner.
1 7 and18) Two unidentif ied men.
19) Ptti born of Iti.
20 and 21) Two men, born of Etti. As Flti was the sister of the great-
grandmother of the owner, the connection with these men is somewhat remote.
22) An unidentified man.
23) A man born of S3t-Hthr.
Rao. de Tray., 1882, vol.III, p.121, no.371/98.
Owner: S3-Thin-watt. pl.IMIX.
1) S3-Rtn-mtt born of S3(t)=Tnyt.
2) The nbt pr Snb. Her title and position show that this is the wife
at the owner.
3) s3.fPsX born of Sn-anb.s. Sn-snb.s is probably an expanded writing
of Snb.
4. and 5) 123A: born of Snb and s3t.f.
6and 7) Two men, both said to be sna but born of different women,
neither of slava is the known mother or maternal grandmother of the owner.
They have been tentatively entered in the family tree as the half-brothers
of the owner.
8 and 9) Two men, both said to be ana l and both born of 83t=lnyt.
10) S3t-tnyt bcTn of
11) A man born of PA. This is the grandson of the owner, but, for some
unknown reason, no wife is named for Pst'L
1 0 .  9 .
I S .  1 4 . ( 3 . 1 0 . .
1 9 . I T . 1 7 . I .
Rea. de Tray ., 1882, vol.III,
p.122, no.XV/94..
Owner: Hr-hr-nht.
1) Tir-hr-nht born of Hty.
2) i t . f S b k - i m 3 b o r n o f ' I t .
3 ) m wt . f Et y b ar n o f Wi 3 yt .
1 1 . ) sn . f b o r n o f
5) ant.f 'It b o r n o f
6) sn . f b o r n o f It. As b o t h the sister an d t he pat er n al gr an dm o t her
of the o wn er ar e called It, this man co uld b e ei t her hi s n ephew o f hi s
uncle. This men is likely to b e t he n ephew, b ecause hi s f i gur e i s
di r ect ly b en eat h t hat o f t he sister of the owner.
7) sn.f b o r n o f I i i 3 yt . On e o f t he sisters of isi r i t r - n t t is called le.3yti
so this is likely to be an o t her n ephew aft t he owners r at her t han hi s
maternal ti bi ae.
8) sn . f born of It.
9) ant.f Wi 3 yt b o r n of Hty.
1 0 ) an t .r I 3 t t b o r n o f Ea.
3.3.) s3 t . s lebt born of It is usual for t he f i gur e of a m o t her
to precede t hat of her child when the term s3(t).s is em plo yed, an d,
as the figure of 1 3tt is the last one in the second register, and that
of W'bt is the first in the third register, it would be assumed that
W'bt was the daughter at '3tts were it not for the fact that W'bt is
said to be born of 1st. It is just possible that mny was the father
and 1 3tt the mother of W e bt, but this would necessitate assuming the
existence of a man who is otherwise not mentioned on the stela, and
would mean that W i bt was the only person on the stela to be identified
by her father's name. This must therefore be cne of those rare examples
of the figure ce a child preceding that of the mother to whom the kin-
term relates.
12) snt.f Imny born of - i.e. the mother of W'bt. The
relationship of 'luny to the owner is diffioult to determine. Neither
of the grandmothers, and none of the sisters of the owner is called
Shtp-lb, so cannot be an aunt or niece of the owner, and she cannot
be his cousin, because her grandmother is later named as 83t-littir., so
she and the owner did not share a common grandmother. It would there-
fore appear that was the half sister of the owner, being
the second Inhfe of Sbk-im3.
13 and 14) mwt.f Shtp-lb born of S3t-Hthr and it.f Shtp-ib born of
S3t-1Ithr. The kin-terms in these two inscriptions can only refer to
the owner, because no other male figure has replaoed him as the subject.
It has already been suggested that Skitp-lb, the woman, was the second
wife of Sbk-1m3, so mirt.f must be understood to mean *Us step-mother",
and it is most reasonable to identify it Shtp-1b as his step-father.
To fit the facts as they are presented here, it must be assumed
that Hty, the mother at Hr-hr-%t died. and. that the widower, Sbk-1a3
took Slitp-ib as his second wife, by whom be had a daughter * 'tm. Sbk-lm3
then died, and the widowed Shtp-lb married again * her choioe falling on
Shp-1b born of S3t-qt4r. If these events took place in fairly rapid
succession while Hr-hr-nht VAS still a nhilA he would be brought up by
the two atep-parents * and they would naturally figure rather prominently
on his monument, even though he gave precedenoe to his real parents.
It Should be noted that the man ani woman called Shtp-lb were both
said to be born of S3t-gt1ir* so, as they appear to have been born of the
same woman, and have the same name, which was quite usual practice among
(see Excursus C), they were probably brother and sisters besides
being husbami and wife.
15) A man born of Sqtp-lb. 'any born at StItp-ib was said to be the
"sister" of the owner, but this man is not claimed as his "brother". This
may indicate a slightly different relationship with the =mar, which
would be amounted for if he were the child of 84tp-ib by her marriage
to her brother, S4tp4b.
16/18 Tares unidentified man.
19) Amen born of Slb-Uthr.
20) The names of two unidentified Men, though there is only one figure.
21) Two lines of inscriptions
naming friends and servants. Among them
is a man born ati lt. Since be is separated from the immediate family at
Hr-hr-nht, be is unlikely to be his nehew, but may be his uncle.
3 .
7 r-
S .
4 -.
B e e . d e T r ay. , 1887, vol. '', p. 33 9 no. 3/123.
Owne r : Hr i.
pl. LXX1.
T his ste la is ma d e in the for m of a r e cta ngula r nzcs. T he only
figur e s shown a r e on the fr ont fa ce , but the r e a r e inscr iptions on the
othe r fa ce s a s we ll. All the pe ople na me d we r e e vid e ntly r e la te d ,
though in some oa se s, la ck of e vid e nce ma ke s it d iffioult to d e te r mine
the va r ious d e gr e e s of kinship.
Fr ont:
1) A. titp d i nsw for mula ma d e out to the k3 of ..1. bor n of T wnn *(62)
a nd of Hr i.
2) In the r e ce ss is a se a te d figur e of Hr i with his na me wr itte n
be sid e his r ight le g. B y the sid e of the le ft le g of HA is a n
inscr iption na ming the nbt pr tw. s-n-i, who is the r e for e to be
id e ntifie d a s his wife .
3) T his a r e a is d ivid e d hor izonta lly into thr e e r e giste r s, e a ch with
the figur e of a kne e ling woma n in it. Al]. thr e e wome n a r e sa id to be
the nbt pr T wnn tor n a t S3t-Snfr w. Eithe r the mothe r of F.1. wa s, for
some obscur e r e a son, be ing shown in tr iplica te , or the se figur e s
r e pr e se nt the mothe r of a nd he r two siste r s, who ha ppe ne d to ha ve
the sa me na me , wh. tAl wa s a common occur r e nce in a ncie nt Egyptia n
fa milie s.
4) Hr i bor n of
33t-Snfr w. T he position of this figur e cle a r ly
identifies him as the father of the owner, and it would appear that he
was also the brother, or half brother, of his wife Tvnin as they were both
born of S3t-Snfrw.
5) 83t-Szerw born of 'n-ramt - i.e. the mother of both the parents of
the owner. Their names are repeated again here, confirming that they
really were her children.
One side is divided, into three registers:
First register: Hri - i.e. the curler again.
born of Matt. This man is shown in a position
of some prominence, so he must have been closely related to Hri, though
the Ir insibip is not defined. Qae important person, otherwise omitted from
the family tree, is the father of the owner's parents, so this is the role
tentatively assigned to Sy-n.i. of pl.L10EI.
83,f Pill.
a3t.f Matt.
s3 .f gm.
s3.f Hi'-'n, If ly-n.1has been correctly identified
then these are the aunt and uncles of HA, the owner.
Second register: Shtp-lb born of Mnt.
s3.f Kw,
83.f Am.
83.f !r-inh.
s3t.f Mnt. ltwnn. If the mother of these chiLiren, and
therefore the wife of Stitp-lb, was called Ti _lua, she might have been the
mother of the owner, but, as Tann bad two sisters who were also called
Twnn, it is more likely that this was one at them. It will be observed
that two of the sons of TWnn have the same names as two of the sous of
I016.214.. If ly-n.1 has been correctly identified, then Twnn named two at her
sons after her brothers, which would be in keeping with the usual custom.
Third register: Twnn - i.e. the third of the three sisters of this name.
s3t.s s(t)-i1.
83.9 S3-P.t4,
The absence of a named husband for this Twrin can probably be accounted
for by either an early death or a divorce.
On the other side of the naos there are amly two registers.
First register: The nbt pr K3-ns born at Bnit. This may represent the
K3-ns who was the grandmother of tthis . wife of the owner.
-!Bir.s-n.1 born of Ttl. The name connects her with the wife
of Hri, but this is probably not the wife herself, for a better candidate
appears on the beak of the nace.
Safrw. Oft the evidence of the name alone, this might be
the father at S3t-Snfrw.
A man born of Kri.
Kri born of 3Itw. 71tw is later said to be barn of Twnn,so
she is probably the sister of the owner, for the children of the other
two women called Twnn were grouped together on the opposite side of the
Second register: A . man born of Kri.
A n unidentified woman.
It born of !C r./ .
Two unidentified men.
Nniw *(63) born of Sy. . /. lake Krl, is shown later to be
a niece of the owner.
The baok of the naos has four registers.
First regsiter: Shbtley.
IW.s-n.1 born of Sribtisy. The obvious importance of this
figure suggests that this is the wife at the owner. As might be expected
if she were the wife ofiiri, her family connections are recorded in some
K3-ns born or Snbtisy - i.e. the sister-in-law of Hri.
Nfr-htp born of Iw.s-n.1 and S3-PWnt born of'Iw.s-n.l. If
this 'Iw.s-n.3. does represent the wife of the owner, then these two were
his sons, or, perhaps, step-sons, since they are not specifically said
to be 83.f.
Second regsiter: Hr(i) born of Twnn - i.e. the owner again.
s3t.f. Unfortunately neither the girl, nor her mother appeal,
to have been named.
Two men, both said to be born of Snbtisy.
Then, in isolation, come the words "born of the nbt priC3-ns".
That the words *born of" refer to a woman is clear from the use of the
feminine t in mst no so the inscription can only refer to Sdbtisy or the
daughter of the owner. If the IITTd3 are applied to the daughter of the
owner, then the grave difficulty arises that the wife of Hri has been
identified as Iw.s-n.1, and there has been no indication that anyone
called 13-ms was married to him. HAmight have practised sororal
polygamy, marrying the two sisters w.s-n.1 and 10-ns, but there is no
evidence for the existence of this custom outside the royal family.
It is not unusual, however, for a person's name to be followed by the
names of both his mother and maternal grandmother. The formula in such cases
reads something like "X born of the nbt pr Y born of the nbt pr Z".
It is therefore very likely that the words "born of X3-ns" are to be
associated with Snbtisy. It is known that Snbtisy had a daughter called
K3-ns, and it was common practice to name one's daughter after one's mother.
Third. register: S3-Pwnt. (be of the sons of '1-w.s-n. 3 . was called 33-Pwnt,
so it is possible that this is her father, after whom she named. her son.
Tw.s-n,i born of Snbtisy. This could. be the wife of the
owner again, but it is more likely to be a sister of the same name.
A man born of "lw,s-n.i - i.e. a son of the woman named in
this register.
An unidentified man and woman.
Fourth register: R'-htp born of  Kis name is followed by the
words in ir n.f 13pm(s) i f mr.f imy-r gs n hrtyw-ntr 1-r() m3'-hrw ms n
Twrin s'nh, rn.f, it is his beloved friend, the Overseer at the gang of
necropolis workers, 4ri, the justified, born of Twnn, who makes his name
This inscription confirms that there were two women called 'Iw.s-n.1
born of Snbtisy, for Hrl would not refer to his wife's child by the
designation tnms.f. However, he might well refer to the nephew of his wife
in these terms.
A man called R'-htp has already been named in the previous register,
where he appeared closely associated with It is therefore
reasonable to assume that he was her husband and
the father of the children
with her.
1Am, born at Twnn - i.e. presumably a sister of the owner.
The names of her daughter Kri s and that daughter's children, have already
been given some prominence on another face of the stela.
E pp
i born of Twan - i.e. another sister of the owner, and
probably to be identified with the -I who has already been named above.
A man born of Twnn - i.e. a brother of the owner.
Finally there is a list of the names of some of the
servants of the family, including three "Asiatics" ('3mt).
Rec. de Tram., 1887, vol.IX, p.62, no.6/117.
Owner: 'bay. pl.LX111.
Hnsw born of N b-sw-i(ntw is shown seated with tant.f Snb.s-'nh.s. This is
one of the few stelae where the owner identifies himself by the name of his
father alone at the top at the stela.
sn .f n mwt.f - i.e. his maternal uncle.
N b-swh-Mntw and hmta nbt pr N ht.n.i - i.e. the parents of lie owner.
sn n mwt.f.
sn.f n mwt.f.
snt.f nt mwt.f 3bt.n.i.
an f.
ant mwt nt it.f Bbl.
mwt nt mwt.f 3bt.n.lL,
mwt i t.f tntf- ' n110 .
Two women, both sai d to he the ant mwt nt inn'
(0 ,
whi ch means that, as the
aunts of hi s nurse, they were only remotely connected wi th the owner.
mn' t.f.
ant nt mwt nt mwt.f.
snt.f nt it.f.
An unidentified man.
s3 mn' t.f - i.e. the foster- brother of the owner.
ant mwt.s. It i s not clear to whom this refers.
Three uni denti fi ed men.
Another stela belongi ng to Hnsw, but nami ng only hi mself and hi s
parents, was acqui red by the Muse Calvet of Avi gnon *NO.
Rec. de Tray . 1887, vol.IX, p.63, no.8/69.
Owner: Rtm- ' n. pl.IXXIII.
In the top left hand corner, where i t i s more usual to fi nd the owner,
i s the fi gure of Snbi born of Thl and kneeling before hi m i s the moor
Rhw- i nh, accompani ed by mwt.f Plar born of Ibbyt and the nbt pr 'nkt-ddt
born of Satisy. To judge from the arrangement and titles, Shb/ and Ppw
were the parents of Fikaw—t4hand ' nkt- ddt was hi s wi fe.
The second register is headed by Snb and mwt.r Sbk- ddt born of Kinht
followed again by the owner, Rhw- ' n, born of 121w. Sdb is identified by
later i nscri pti ons as the fi rst cousi n of I nkt-ddt. Then comes
ant.f T3- nt- s I born of Ppw - i.e. the sister of the owner.
2 2 2 barn of Sn-'n4. This woman is later identified as the maternal
grandmother of the husband T3-nt-s.
The third register names g rabw born of R s-snb and hmt.f T3-mt-s% born
of Ppw - i.e. the sister of the owner and her husband.
s3t.f R s-snb born of T3-nt-s.
s3.f born of T3-nt-sI.
s3t.f 'it.s-snb born of T3-nt-s,
A man born of Snbtisy.
Snbt.tsy born of K v mht. Snbtz ? sy has already been named as the mother of
I nkt-ddt. Thus 8 though R hw-'nh and s nkt-dd.t were childless, ccesiderable
attention is paid to the family of 'nkt-ddt as well as to the in-laws of
A woman born of Bbk-ddt.
A woman born of anbtisy.
A woman born of Sbk-ddt.
Bry born of 2Iy-mrw and hmt.f born of Sn-'1 41 „ who has already been
named abov e.
Two women, both said to be s3t.f born of Hmt.n.s n . C iao of them is named
,.) r-airw4.
s3t.f R s-snb born of . This is presumably the woman named abov e
as the mother of gmbw and she prov ides the only known link between the
families of Rhw-'nh.4 end. Ea.
His s on (hrd.f) born of the nbt pr Mrrw. This is the only known son of
Sry, and. the inscription provides the cnly ev idence for his second marriage.
Since is given so prominent a role, it is tempting to see her as
the more favoured wife who had produced only daughters, making it necessary
for sa
to take a seoamiwife or concubine, in order to have a son. However,
She might equally well have been the second wife, who was alive at the time
of the commissioning of this stela, and her predecessor would thus be
relegated to an obsoure role.
Rec. de Tray, 1903. volaIV, p.134, Toulouse 645b.
Owner:ly-snb. pl.LXXII.
The htp di new formula is made out on behalf of the k3 of ly-snb born
of 1At-'212 and mwt.f N1jt-'n4.
The figure representing ty-snb is shown receiving offerings from
s3t.f  s-rn.s-snb born of Tit and hmt.f Tit born orApwl.
Under this, four horizontal lines of inscriptions name:
The e nh,n niwt Mntw-htp born of Hpwi - i.e. the brother-in-law of the owner.
s 3 .f I rp,n niwt Ur born of Nht-'nh. The title and position of this
inscription indicates that this is the son of lin-Wr-htp. As the mother of
the ty-snb and the wife of Mntw-htp are both called Nht- 1 7:4 they may be the
same woman, or they may have been related in some way besides the one shown
here. However, lkiht-'n4 is not an uncommon name, so its reappearance might
be coincidence.
Two women born of 1113t- l nhe These women could be the sisters of ly-s nb or
the daughters of Mntw-htp. Since their names come directly after that of
the son of Mntw-htp they too were probably his
Rec. de Tram., 1910, vol.XXXII, p.141, Avignon nos .5/7.
Nner: Skrhtp. pl.L1007.
These three stelae, wialdh all belong to the same man, will be
examined in reverse order.
A) The htp di new formula is made out for the k3 at Skr-htp born of Ntw/.
B) A single line of inscripticn naming It .f Wr-nb,
C) Above and behind the figure of 21cr4itp is a line of inscription naming
the nbt pr L wry born of S3t-W3dt and 83t .s S3(t)-nb. This is evidently the
wife of the owners though the girl is not necessarily his daughters since
she is only said to be the child of svor.
1) Skr-htp.
2) Nh/. The position of this figure dhows that Nhi was an important member
of the family ands since he has the same title as the father of the owners
he is almost certainly the brother of Skrhtp.
83.f KY and 83.f - i.e. presumably the sons of Skr-htp.
hmt.f Ntwi. The figure of the owner dominates this stela and this kin-
term must refer to him, so he would appear to have had two wives, 'wy and
Ntwl, What makes this a remarkably interesting stela is that ane is said
to be the nbt pro while the other is said to be hmt.fs although it was the
custom to show two wives with the same title. Also of great interest is the
fact that the mother and wife of the owner are both calledNitm/s which is
such a rare name that the occurrence in this family is the only one quoted
by Banke *(65). It is therefore just possible that S1r-latp married his
mother, though the evidence for mother/son unions is so slight, that this
is perhaps unlikely. There can be little doubt, however, in view of the
unusual name, that the mother and wife of the owner were closely related
to each other in some way not revealed an the stela.
Beside Nftwl are inscriptions naming s3t.s Mryt and 53.s Kwb.
- - >
3. 2.
1) An unidentified woman.
2) Skr- htp.
3) The nbt pr I wys her position and title again confirming that she was
the wife of Skr- htp.
4) M
rYt, presumably to be identified with the daughter oflitiri, named on
the first stela.
A) Dedications to: s3t.r. The owner of tai* stela is Skr- htp again, so
this must be his daughter.
s3t.s Satisy.
83.5 83-nb. The appearance of the name 83-nb suggests
that these were members of the family of 'wy, because her daughter
called S3t-nb.
s3t.s 13dt. The mother of 'wy has already been named as
S3tAl3dt and it is reasonable to assume that 13dt and 83tAV3dt were the
same person, thus providing the link between the owner and the desoendants
of Kmtt•
Two unidentified w romen and the two sons of one of them.
An unidentified man.
B) 53.f Be-snb. This man has already been identified as a son of Skr-htp.
Skr-htp born of Ntwi.
W rs.nb - i.e. probably the father of the owner, and an unidentified man.
Rec. de Tratr., 1910, val.XXXII, p.146, Avignon 31.
Owner: qVy *(66)
This stone stela is carved in the likeness of a small chest with a
curved lid. The htp di new formula on the lid is made out for Rr, who
does not appear anywhere else an the stela, and his connection with the
family of  is unknown.
First side:
A. htp di new formula for Iwy born of S'nh-lb-adb.f-n.i. This is one
of the few stela where the name of the father is given precedence over the
name of the mother in the offering formula.
Second side:
htp di new formula for S'nbrlb-snb-snb.f-n.1, clearly an expended
writing of the mane at the father of the owner, and his parents
Mntw-htp-'41 and Nb(w)-ddt-thr-Wsrt the latter being the daughter of a
23ty-' , -prince n a m e d 'Iy-w3.
Third side:
—.) 4—
4. 1 . 47:
-> -4 ----> ->
4. it. 7 • G . S .
-> -> --> --> 4--
1 4 . 1 3, 12. II. so.
1) "Im.
2) tunt. f Im'yt S bk * ( 6 7) s h i s wi f e t h e o h a n t r e s s o f S o be k,
3) s3t.f Bw-r h t w-r ls * ( 6 8 ).
le.) A men called W31 i -pw pr e s e n t i n g o f f e r i n gs . Hi s r e la t i cn a h i p t o t h e
o wn e r i s n o t gi v e n .
5) A man bo r n o f Bus s -s * ( 6 9).
6 /8 ) Two un i d e n t i f i e d m e n a n d a n un i d e n t i f i e d wo m a n .
9) s n t .f  * ( 70 ).
1 0 ) A we e = bo r n o f W3h -pw. Th i s i s pr e s um a bly t h e d a ugh t e r o f f i gur e 4.,
t h o ugh n o f ur t h e r information is s uppli e d co n ce r n i n g t h e i r i d e n t i t y.
1 1 ) An =i d e n t i f i e d m a n .
1 2) Th e h n m t t * ( 71 ) n ur s e , S n bt bo r n o f  Na m e i lle gi ble .
13 a n d 1 4) An un i d e n t i f i e d m a n a n d . wo m a n .
1 5) An i n s cr i pt i o n n a m i n g 'Ivry bo r n o f S e xt-1 b-snb-snb. f-n. 1 and Bw-r h t .
Fourth side:
. . . - ) .  . . - >  < - . .
2. .  I.  4.
. . . . . 1) ,
5. . 7. it.
--) 4-4- 4-
. 1 0 . H. 11 .
- 4 4C-- —> 4—
13. 14. 15. I.
- 4• <- 4-- 4-
1 7. IS. I% Ap.
A- -
1) S t /43-31-snb-snb.f-n.1 born of Nb(w)-ddt-.t4r-Wer.
2) hmt.f Bw-rht born of Rn.s-snb. This identifies figure 5 on the third
side as the maternal uncle of the owner.
3) An unidentified woman.
:21.12m born of Bw-rht - i.e. the owner.
5) ant. ! 4mt ntrl- mn  B w- rIlt born of Rn(. 0 - snb - i. e. the maternal
aunt of the owner. AlthoAgh the key figure in the first register was the
father of the owner, in the otner four registers the degre s of kinship
are defined with reference to I'm.
6) sn.f born of Bw-rht, who was b rn of Rn. s- snb. Has position suggests
that this is a cousin of the owner, born of the woman represented by
figure 5.
7) s3t,X B w- rhtw- r/s born of Hn- lb.
8) T he Ireyt n(t) Sbk  born of B w- rhtwhr. s. Compounds of the name
B w- rht are therefore to be found on both sides of the family, suggesting
they were related in some way prior to the marriage of"Iwy a nd fin- lb.
2 2 9
9) sn.f barn of Bw-rtt.
10) sn.f Nfr-htp born of Bw-rht.
11) hmt.f Nfrw born of Nfr-htp. Several key figures on this stela are
identified by the names of their fathers, and Nfrw is one of these, unless
it is to be argued t h a t , by coincidence, one of her parents, unrelated to
t h e family who owned the stela, happened t o have the same na me as h e r
h usba nd. On t h e e vide nce as it st a nds, h o we ve r, it wo uld a ppe a r t h a t Nfrw
wa s ma rrie d t o h e r own fa t h e r, and t h e na me o f h e r mo t h e r h a s be e n o mit t e d..
12 ) sn.f bo rn o f Bw-rh t .
13) Rn.s-snb born o f D dt .
14 and. 15) Two unide nt ifie d men and a n unide nt ifie d wo ma n,
16) snt .f born of Bw-it ,
17) Mnt w-h t p born of Rn.s-snb.
15) s212 . 1 ' ,...a r3d bo rn o f Bw-rh t . Th is ma n is na me d fo r h is pa t e rna l gre a t -
gra ndfa t h e r. Be b i nd h im, but in the same squares is the nbt pr W34tyw born
of 'mw, wh o is pre suma bly t o be ide nt ifie d a s t h e wife o f 'Iy-w3d.
19 ) An unide nt ifie d man,
2 0) A wo ma n born o f W 3h t yw.
St o ckh o lm st e la , p.10, no .16. Owne r: Sn-W a rt . pl.LXXIV.
Ch t h e le ft h a nd side o f t h e st e la in t e first re gist e rs is t h e o wne r,
Sn- a rt , t o ge t h e r wit h .f S3t -1t h r born at D dt -mrt and 34 ')Imn- -.3t .
P oing him on the right hand side o f t h e st e la is Sn-W rt born of t
wh o se na me and osition on the st e la sugge st t h a t h e wa s t h e fa t h e r of the
cwne r. Be h ind h im a re h int .f tnny a nd 3t . f •
In the second register, on the right side, directly under the figure of
the elder Sn-W rt, are sn.f born of Ent, an unidentified man, and
s3.f Sn-Wart born of Irony, who is presumably to be identified as the owner,
though he might be a brother of the same name.
On t e left hand side of the stela, in the second register, under the
figure of the owner, are 83t.f Sn-Wart born of S3t- thr, two women, both
said to be snt.f and both born of  y_, confirming that the owner imp the
son of Sn- art and
In the third register are:
83.f born of S3t-lit1 2r.
Mwt-ddt born of Dpt-mrt - i.e. the sister of 33t-4thr.
s3t.3 Dpt-mrt.
An unidentified man.
J.B.A.„ 1 938, v o l .2 2 2 1 T ,
Owner: 53-1 0.
pl. Il XVI.
4-- 4---- —1 ,
---)1 ,
I. 2 .
- - )  r E - - -
3 . 4-
C .
3) E
I N I n0•410
- - > 4--
9 .
-3. 4---
1 0.
A) A list of nine male members of the family of S3-R':
The sculptor (gnwty) S3-10 - i.e. the miner.
The sculptor hwty, whose identity is discussed below.
it.f Unti-hty-m-h3t - i.e. the father of S3-R'.
sn.f Sbk-htp - i.e. the brother of 33-R', also said to be a sculptor.
33-R1 „ who is later identified as the grandson of the owner.
B Ai. , later shown to be the half-brother If the owner.
Another Unti-hty-m-h3t, later identified as a brother of the owner.
Two men called Hnti-hty-htpw, later identified as a brother and a son
of the owner.
There then follows a htp di new prayer an behald of the owner,
S3-R1 born of B tpw.
1) 53-R' and hmt.f mrtX. Although there is room for the name of the wife,
it has been omitted. The couple are seated at an offerig table, beyond which
is sn.f Linti-hty-htpw - i.e. the brother of S3-R'.
2) sn.f Sbk-htp and hmt.f S3t-Sn-wri *(72) are shown receiving offerings
from sn.f Sn-inn.
B ) A . htp di new made for phwty by 83.f 53-R' which clearly implies that
these two were father and son.
3) it.f L'htwy and mw.t.f .tpw, with s3t.f 53t-Sn-mri. This is the second
time that a father/son relationship has been claimed. for RttE and 53-Rt,
but Linti-hty-m-1i3t is said to be the father of S3-10 an four occasions, and
he is more likely to be the real father of S3-R', which means that _az,
shown with the mother of S3-R,  likekt to be his step-father.
Facing Dhwty across the of ering table are 83.f Sn-mri, 83.f Hty,
83t.f S3t-Sn-mri and sn.f Intr.
The kin-terms applied to Dhvrty and litpw refer to their relationship
with S3-R' s but the other kin-terms must refer to T21 1 y. The Sn-rar who
is said to be the son of Dhwty is probably to be identified with the S n- m r- I
who was referred to as the *brother" of S3-R' and Sbk-htp„ and, indeed, he
was their half-brother, since presumably the children of Phwty were born
of Itpw. This would mean that S3t-Sn-mr-I was the half-sister of her husband
Sbk-htp. la. would also be another half-brother of S3-1 /'
C) A htp di new prayer made for Untr-ht7-m-
t by his son 83-R'. He was
also named as the father of the m iner in inscription A.
5) lt.f gntl- hty- m - h3t with hmt.f titpw and 83t.f S3t-Lant.?-hty. It is
significant that S3-R' heis speoifically said thatHtpw is the wife of
Linti-hty-m-h3t, whereas, when she is shown with Dhvrty, she is identified
as the mother of 33-31 '. It was clearly the marriage connection with
U ntl-hty-m-h3t that was important, so he must be the father of S3-1 e.
6) 83.f gnti-hty-m-h3t, two girls, both said. to be s3t.f, and snt.f.
All these people are given kin-terms which apply to linti-hty-m-h3t, just
as those in the register above were a plied to.2..
D) A htp new formula on behalf of the caner, s3-RI made for him by his
grandson an 1 33 s3.f , by the son of his son), another S3-R'.
7) S3-R' and 83t-An-a-hty, who are represented as husband and wife. A
woman called S3t-hntzl-hty has already been named as the child. of
U nti-jity-m-1 3t and Htpw, so there is a strong possibility that S3-R' married
his sister. It has already been suggested that his brother, Sbk-htp, married
their half-sister, S3t-Sn-mr1 ., so consanguineous unions were apparently
popular within this family.
23 3
Facing S -R I across a table at offerings is 3 3 . f gnti-h ty -btp w .
Th is must be the fath er of th e y ounger S3 -R' s who is said to make th e
ly tp di new in inscri tio3. D.
E) A iitp di nsw p ray er for litz made by h is grandson, (in 13) s3 t. f, by th e
son of h is daugh ter) , S3 -R • . ,
8) Hty and t'mt. f S3 t-R  4 1 (7 3 )• Hty h as already been named as th e son
of Ph w
 (y , and so w as th e h alf-broth er of th e owner. Facing th em across th e
table is s3 t. f S3 t-I ,y , w h o must/th e moth er of th e grandson, who made the
btp di nsw p ray er of inscrip tion E.
Th e juxtap osition of th ese tw o group s, combined w ith th e fact th at no
w ife is named for th e son of 3 3 -R I , and th at no husband is named for th e
daugh ter of' Lia, strongly suggests th at th e y ounger #ntl-h ty -tttp vt and S3 t-Pp y
w ere h usband and w ife, as w ell as being first cousins, and th at th ey w ere
th e p arents of th e y ounger S3 -R'.
9) S3 -1 0 born of Utpw is sh ow n facing th e figures of:
sn. f 'I ntr. I f th is is th e man already named as th e broth er of 21;rwty,
th en h e w as only a remote connection by marriage, th ough as th e broth er at
th e ow ner's step -fath er, h e may h ave p lay ed an imp ortant role in th e life
of S3 -RI .
my r t . f N t-3 bdw -3 3 t-W p -,w3wt. Th is w oman is p robably to be identified
as th e moth er at "I ntf, and th erefore of h w Ly y as w ell.
Tw o nidentified men.
1 0) S3 -1 0 born of Eil. _ is sham facing th e figures of several men and
w omen, but th e inscrip tions accomp any ing th em are too badly damaged to allow
positive identification's.
This back of the stela is also carved. Th e central p ortion h as a
2. 4. 5.
3. 7. B.
---> <-----------
IS, /6.
figure of 33-10 born of Fiat *(74.), that is the owner, and down the left
klAry side
as ODD looks at the stela, there is an inscripticn recording:
an t3 n Wp-,w3wt nb t3 dsr in lt.f Jintt-tty-m-h3t nb 3.m3ht, the adaraticn of
Wepwawet, lord of the sacred land, bg his father Unti-hty-m-1;t3t, possessor
of honour. The inscripticn cono1usive4 proves that flt-i-hty-m-113t was the
real father of S3-R'.
El Arabah, p1.91. Two stelae, both
numbered E.295.
Owner: )
p1 .LVII.
1) 'Imn-m-.43t-nbwy.
2) mwt.f Nfrt born of
3) The nbt pr Snb born of Immy - i.e. the wife of the owner.
4.) sn.f St ntl, born of Ntsrt.
5 and 6) ant.f and sn.f.
7 and 8) Two male servants.
9) The owner again.
10) sn.f 33-Rnntvrt born of Lata. They have different mothers, so the owner
and S3-Rnntwt must be half-brothers.
11) sn.f.
12) an.f Rn.f-snb born of - i.e. the maternal uncle of the Owner.
13 and 15) Two male servants.
14_ and. 16) Two men, both said to be an.f.
-4 -4 Er-
3. 5. 4
1) S'nh born of Pfrt - i.e. the brother at Vas owner.
2) Ny born of Nfrt - i.e. the owner, his name being written in a very
abbreviated form.
The figure of a small boy is shown standing facing Nbwy but his
name has either been omitted or has been totally destroyed.
3) it.f Sn-Wart born of Nbt=lwnt.
4) mwt.f Nfrt.
5) sn.f S3-linntwt born of Msyt. Iaml-m-3t-nbwytaa chosen to include
his half-brother an this stela, even though be has omitted the names of
four of his full brothers and his sister. On both stelae S3-Runtwt is
shown on a smaller scale than the others, perhaps an indication that he
was much younger than the rest.
2 .
--> .E.-• -+ E-
3 4-.
-.). 44-• -+4- ..
5. 4 .
-41. 4-- -..-1› 4-
S. 7 .
El Arabah, pl.XII, no.3.312
Goner: Snbw.
1 and 2) Sabw and 4mt.f S3t-Sbk.
3) The nbt pr Rn-snb and the nbt pr Sdbw-rs. Clearly these are
important members of the family, but in the absence of kin-terms and
the names of their mothers, they cannot be identified.
1 0
Two women, both said to be ant.f nt mwt.f - i.e. the maternal aunts of
the owner.
5) A man called 1f-anb and his wife. Their relationship to Snbw is
6) s3t.f S3t-Inhr and mwt.f  - i.e. the daughter and mother of the
7) The hmt Rn.s-rs and s3.8 Sn'bw. The inclusion of this woman and her
son on a family stela from which all other servants have been excluded,
combined with the fact that the boy is named after the owner, suggests
the possibility that Rn.s-rs was the concubine of the owner and that she
bore him a sm. The wife of Snbw does not appear to have produced a son,
which may have induced him to pay particular attention to the offspring
of a servant (see below, p.299).
8) and ant.f tnir-d4iw. This might be the sister of the owner and
her husband, or she may be the sister of 3.1 .1 , in which case, their
relation to the owner is unknown.
Tombs of the Courtiers, pl.IIVII.
(University College, Undo:a, 143314.)
Owner: &nw.
A) A htp di nsw formula made out to the k3 of Linw by s3t.f,y„ and
she then lists the names of her children, her sister, and her sister's
23 7
children: a3t.a Mrrt s3t.s, 83.s, 63.3, 83.82 83.s, a3t.a rt, s3t.s,
83.9 ; Tmny, ant.s ret, 830 and a3t.s.
1 and 2) gnnw and hmt.f Rdrt.
3) s3t.f  - i.e. the woman who dedicated the stela.
4) it.f Nit. The fig ure of is followed by an inscription naming a
woman calleerbl, will) must surely be his wife and the mother of g nnw.
-fizorky does not name her husband, or her sister's husband, presumably
feeling that it was unnecessary to include them an her father's stela. It
is unusual, but not unique, for a woman to dedicate a stela. probably
had no surviving brothers, so undertook the maintenance of her parents'
funeral cult. As the mother of nine children, she was a mature woman when
she commissioned the stela.
Kemi, 1928, vol.', pl.VII.
Owner: Rn(.4-snb,
1) Rn(4-anb born &In/.
2) till born of Tt.
A) Rn.f-anb born of Rn.s-'n13. Rn.f-snb could be the father of the owner,
but it could also be the owner himself, his name written in an expanded
version. Rn.s-'42, looks like a woman's name, but it can be used of men
too *(75), and, in this case, Rn.s-'x4 probably is a man, because the
determinative after the name is Itn.s-ints, is probably to be
identified as the father of Rn(X)-snbs the owner.
'kw bora of In3. - i.e. the sister of the owner.
Ppw born of INA. The rest of the inisoriptions concern the family of Ppws
so it is reasonable to assume that she was the wife of lin(,:f)-anb, otherwise
the two families cannot be linked.
Two men born at
B) born of
An unidentified man ani. woman.
born of Tnt.
An unidentified man.
Muse; Ourtius de LiOgs.
(Annuaire de l'Institute de
Philcsophie et eRiatcdre
Orientals de l'Universite-
de Bruxelles, 1935,
vol.III, pl.CXXXIX).
—- .)
<— —
_ _ : ) ,
4_ _ _ --_ _ _ _ _
4 - 7 .
12. II. 1o. q . s.
- IS".
1 and 2) Shtp-lb-R' born of Snty and tuat.f S3t-lirmiw born of S3t-lintw.
3) IneE born of S3t-Enmw - i.e. the son of the °owner. Ire is shown facing
the other figures across a table of offerings, end he is the subject to
what the following kin-terms relate.
ii.) s3t.f.
5) hmt.f twf-anb - i.e. the wife of :Az and probably the mother of figure 1,
6) hmt.f Bbi - i.e. the other wife of 1./z, and probably the mother of
figure 7.
7) s3t.f.
8 and 12) An unidentified man end woman.
9/11) Three men, all said to be born of S3t,Enmw.
13/15) Two male and one female dervant.
The Scepter of Egypt, vol.', p.298, fig.195. Owner: Mntw-Wsr.
The owner of this stela names his father, mother, and paternal grand-
mother, and a son and daughter. Both children are said to be barn of
Nfr-sbt, but Nfr-sht is not shown on the stela, nor is she said to be the
wife of tvro ldn-Wsr, nor given the title nbt pr. She may have been a
concubine, but she might equally well have been a/mg-dead wife, to whom
other funerary monuments had been erected, or a divorced wife.
The Scepter of Egypt, vol.', p.333, fig.221.
1) Rhw-r-dr.s born of y.
2) sn.f PW.
A) There is no Information in the following lines of inscription which
might link and his brother with the rest of the family. The
most reasonable implanatiaawould be that Ili, the first man an the list,
was his son. If this is correct, the Rirw-r-dr. n had several great-
grendahildren. when this stela was erected. This is perfectly possible,
though the stela may not have been erected by him, but by one
of his
--) --> 4--
3. 2.
2 4 . 0
d s endants.
t 1. born of Ilwwt-'n e and hmt.f P3 s.
83.f  and. s3t.f S3t-W rt.
L;nti-h-ty-litp born of' Mwwt-'4, and S3t-k3.
s3 .f' Sbk-ddw„ lyat.f Rn.f-'211.0 and s3t.f. The arrange me nt sugge sts that
Rn.f- i nte was the wife of Sbk-de dw, rathe r than. th is. se cond wife of his
f t e r.
s 3. f
and. s3 .f - i. e. the sons of Sbk-dd:w.
Sri-Wsrt,barn of twbt.
S3t-Wsrt. S3t-Wsrt has alre ady be e n name d. as the daughte r of M.
and 1:272 . It is f ail ; to assume that this is the same woman, and she
provide s the link be twe e n the fa.m31ie s of tpi and Sn-Wsrt.
83. f .
s3.f and s3 of Sbk-ddvr. S3t-Wsrt thus name d one of he r sons afte r he r
s3t.f and s3t.f.
s3t.f Mwwt-'n4. This girl was thus name d for he r mate rnal gre at-
grandmothe r. Also on this l ine is the name of s3t.f twbt.
Sce te r or Egypt, vol . ',
f ig•2 2 2 .
A) The de dicatory praye rs are made in the name s of a woman calle d
'Intf- e n13 the daughte r of kart and. Nfr-th. and another woman,
M tw-ntr-tt born of Nb(w)-ddt.
- 4 —  4—-
. A. I. 4 . S. •
7 .
1) S 3 t 2 I n 1i r .
2 ) Two youn g gi r ls, shown on a smaller scale t han t he women, said. to be
born of Nb(w)-ddt an d t her efor e si st er s of Mst w-n t r -t 4.
3 ) Awoman pr obably mean t t o r epr esen t I lb(w)-d t since t hat n ame i s
di r ect ly i n fr on t of t he fi gur e, t hough actually part of the inscription
naming the girls.
The connection, if any, bet ween v i n t f-'n , S3t- fi.n4 r ani t he fami ly of
Nb(w)-ddt i s n ot recorded.
A t r an slat i on of t he dedi cat or y pr ayer appear s an p. 500.
1930, vol. XXI , p. 111.
Own er : S bk-ddw.
Thi s st ela is div ided i n t o t hr ee registers, each on e containing a
fami ly gr oup. S har i n g t he same st ela in t hi s way pr obably i n di cat es t hat
t hey wer e r elat ed, but t her e i s no men t i on of how, t hough there may hav e
been some information 02 this poi n t i n t he i n scr i pt i on s whi ch have been
dest r oyed. The i n t er est i n t hi s st ela, however , li es i n t he probable
affiliations of t he fi r st gr oup.
1) Sbk-Ww) born of Bpyw.
2) iimt..f (his wife) Sn- Vart born of Nfrt- m3st.
3 ) hmt . f (his slave) 1dd.
4) h . f (his slave) S bk-ddw *(76) bar n at hmt . f t dd.
5) Two women , both said t o be 83 t . f.
6) a3.f.
It is very unusual to find servants in prominent positions in the
first register on any stela, but the role accorded to Sbk-edw (figure 4)
is unique. The figure representing Sbk-ddw is drawn on the same scale as
the figures of the owner and his wife, and. he is larger than the figure
of the owners son. He stands in front of the children of Sbk-dd(w) and
is represented. holding a goose in one hand and pouring a libation from a
-vase with the other. There are a few examples of prominently placed
female servants bringing gift:: of food to their masters, but it vas the
son, or nearest surviving male relative, who was performing the ritual.
In view of the way he is shown, and the fact that he takes precedence
over the children of the owner, Sbk-ddw may also have been the son of the
owner, Sbk-dd(w), after whom he was named. The named son of Sbk-d13.(w) is
shown on a small scale, suggesting that he was only a child at the time
of his father's death. If he were too young to play the role required
of a son in the funeral cult, the son ofIdd might have acted as a
Another interesting feature of this stela is the inscription which
identifies figure 7. She is said to be t.f nt Pwnt, his Puntite slave.
B.I.F.A.O., 1937, vol.XXXV1I, p.98ff, inscriptions 6 9 7 and 16.
Owners: Nb-itf and Isl. 
These three inscriptions are to be found an a statue, an offering
table, and a stela respectively, and all belong to the family of Nb-itf.
Inscription 6:
1) Nb-it.f born oft/A-it's.
2) h m t . f t i p born of Nb( )-ddt , and 53. f 'IA born of t b.
3) Two sep arat e h t p di nsw p rayers, one f ort nt -i t . s born of 'Ib, and t h e
ot h er f or Nb(w)-ddt born of t b. Th ese could be t h e daugh t ers of Nb-i t f
and 11 but , in t h at case, a ki nsh i p t erm ough t t o h ave been i ncluded, as
i t was f or t h ei r son. Not only are ki n-t erm s om i t t ed, but t h ei r nam es are
sep arat ed f rom t h ose of t b and h er son by t h e af ore-m ent i oned h t p di nsw
f orm ulae. It i s t h eref ore Li kely t h at t h ese t wo wom en are t h e m ot h ers of
Nb-i t f and Ib and, as t h ey are si st ers, t h e h usband and wi f e were f i rst
cousi ns.
Inscri p t i on 7:
Nb-i t . f born of 'Int -i t s.
Inscri p t i on 16 :
Ms/. M. Alli ot *(77) suggest s t h at t h i s i s t h e son of Nb-i t f and !b, wh o
was nam ed on t h e f i rst of t h ese i nscri p t i ons. Th i s i s cert ai nly p ossi ble,
but i t i s di f f i cult t o underst and wh y, i f t h i s were so, h e om i t t ed all
ref erence t o h i s p arent s, but i ncluded t h e nam es of h i s p at ernal grand-
p arent s, wh ose nam es ap p ear f urt h er dawn t h i s i nscri p t i on. Th e t si of
t h i s st ela is t h eref ore m ore li kely t o be a brot h er of Nb-i t r.
h m t . f t . . Th e rest of h i s wi f e's nam e is i llegi ble, but t h e sp ace avai lable
is so li m i t ed, t h at i t was p robnbly'Tb in wh i ch case, t h e brot h ers Nb-i t f
and t i m ay h ave m arri ed wom en wh o were relat ed t o each ot h er, or, p erh ap s
were even t h e sam e wom an.
3) Sbk4i t p *(78) and h m t . f Ent -i t . s. Int -i t . s h as already been nam ed as
t h e m ot h er of Nb-lt f , and'Isi t oo, i f t h ey. were brot h ers, so h er h usband
Sbk-h t p i s t o be i dent i f i ed as t h e f at h er.
4) Th ree unSdentifind wom en, all ent i t led nbt p r.
1937, vol.:CONTI, p.103ff, inscriptions 13, 17, 20 and yo.
Owner: '  pl.LXXX.
Inscription 1 3 :
1) Hr- t 3 born of Rn-sub,
2) Vr-4t p born of ' 3. The d4dioation to Hr-ht p is made by his son Hr-'3.
3 ) T h e nbt pr Nb-m-s3 born of Rddt. By position and title , this woman
is t o be identified as the wife of the owner, and this is confirmed by
th e ne xt inscription.
4) A woman said to be the daugh te r of  and b-m-s30 and anoth e r
said to be the daugh te r of fir-13.
5) R n-snb born of 'It.
6) The owner again.
7) An unide ntifie d man.
8) Two men, both said to be born of Rn-sub - i.e. the broth e rs of
9) Fjr-ttp born of R n-snb.
1 0) An unide ntifie d man.
Inscription 1 7 :
1) t ir-'3 the son of ljr-tp and R n-sub.
2) tOkt Oat 43) *(79) Nb-m-s3. T h ough only h alf th e title of Nb-m-s3
is actually
writte n h e re , it appe ars in full in th e ne xt te xt.
3) 63.f Nfr-tp.
4) T wo wome n, both said to be s3 t.f, one of wh om was name d in th e previou
inscription. T h e oth e r is calle d R n-sub afte r h e r pate rnal grandmot her.
Inscription 2 0:
1 ) Be side s the owner, Hr-'3 , th e re are the names of his son, Iffr-tp,
2) Four men. Two of them have already been named as being born of Rft-snb.
The other two cannot be identified through lack of information.
3) tust.f b3kt nt /43 Nb-m-s3.
4) Five unidentified men.
Inscription 30:
1) /Jr-2 3 the son of k ir-4 7 tp.
2) Nfr-htp the son of Hr- 6 3 and Nb-m-s3.
Three men and one woman, none of whom can be identified.
Two women born of Rn-snb. These could be either the sisters cr the
granddaughters of Ijr-'3. They have been entered in the fami4 tree as his
sisters, for no effort has been made by the arrangement of the stela to
attaoh them in any way to the younger Rn-snb.
5) A serarate btp di new on behalf of Sbk -Iltp born of Bhst, which is
dedicated by sn.f Hr-'3. Since they had different mothers, Sbk -Iltp can be
no more than the half-brother of Hr-'3. The name of Sbk -4 tp is accompanied
by the names of several other people, none of whom can be identified.
1937 , volaXXVII, p.107 , inscription 19. Owner: Rr-'3.
This stela is dedicated to Hr-'3 by his sister (snt.f). No other member
of the fami1y is mentioned, so there is no way of k nowing if this is the
same Hr-'3 who figured in the previous group of texts.
1937 , volaUV11, re.103/109, inscription 21.
Owners: Name destroyed and Rn.f-rs.
The stela is damaged so the name of the owner has been lost, but he was
born of Nb(m)-ddt, and the dedicator was his brother (sn.f).
3. 3. I .

7 ,
Bologna 1904..
Owner: tmn-nht.
p 1 .1000C .
The joint owner was Rn.f-rs, the sal of Mntw-htp and Snb. s-I nt. s,
and the dedicator was ant. f hkrt nsw Sbk-nfrw born of Nfrw his sister
(or rather, half-sister, since they have different mothers), the King's
Favourite Sbk-nfrw born of Nfrw.
1) 7Imn-rt, t born of Mut.
2) nbt p r S3t-lp y born of Bbvrt. By position and title it may be assumed
that this is the wife of the caner, and this is confirmed by the fact
that she is the mother of his children.
3) The inscrip tion that accomp anies this woman is badly worn but it
ap p ears to read snt.f *(80). As she is born of Bbwt she is the sister-in-
law, rather than the sister of the owner, though there is always the
p ossibility that biszt and. Bbwt had. both married the same man, in which
case her two daughters, one of whom married tmn-nht, were also his half-
4) 83..f.
5and. 6) s3t.f Nfrw and s3t.f Msyt, both born of S3t-Mp y.
7 ) mwt.f Myst born of Ddt.
8) it.f I nbi born of al.
Alnwick Castle, no.1939, pl.VIII.
Owner: L.z.
1) 1Nz born of 'Int.
2) s n .f S n b born of 33t- t. Since thes e two men have dif f eren t
mothers they are half -b rothers .
A) List of inscriptions naming:
sn.f born of mwt.f . S in ce the name of the mother is n ot recorded, s ome
doub t mus t remain as to the degree of relation s hip to the own er.
s n .f .
s n .f Ini born of Ijn wt. It is later es tab lis hed that Ij n wt was the s is ter
of :&., thus an .f here means "his nephew".
sn.f born of mvrt.f.,
snt.f fid born of mvrt.s.
B) mv rt.f 'int born of mwt.s .
snt.f lirvrt (see above) born of Ini.
snt.f born of ' Ini.
ant.f born of
de Morgan, Catalogue de Monuments et Inscriptions de l'Agypte Antique.
Owners: S b-pw- ty-n.1 and Wsr-'z4rSnfrw.
Although limitations impose by time and s ace neces itated the
exclpsion of graffiti from this work, I am including one such group of
inscriptions, left by minor officials at various places an the West bank
at the Vile in the Aswan region, because thej clearly illustrate the value
of this tyre of monument for deducing and expanding the family affiliations
of such officials.
de Morgan, p.23, inscription 156.
This particular inscription is chosen as the starting point because
it contains reference to many key figures. A simple 4tp di nsw is made
an behalf of:
1) Wsr-'n} 7Snfrw (in other inscriptions the name is written in an
expanded version as Sn-wert-'nhrSnfrw) born of Tti-w3gt.
2) 83tal 33tJlmn born of
3) az. born of S3t4mbr. His prominent position in the inscription,
combined with the fact that the next name is that of the owner's mother,
makes it very likely that this was the father of W r-inh-Snfrw.
4) The nbt pr Te-W3dt born of the nbt pr Bbl.
5) Thre men, named respectivel y -snbs'Imny- nb, and S b.f, all said
to be born of Tti-W3dt.
6) Snb-rw-nty-n.i, also barn of Tt3-W3dt, and so he was another brother
of the owner. In a later inscription his name' is expanded to
Sn-Wart-snb-pw-nty-n .l.
7) ;;Imt.f Tiy born of Vnwt-pw - i.e. the wit of b-pw- ty-n./.
02) rive wume , all said to be 83 .f and all born of T?,y. Their
2 4 . 8
Heidelberg, p1.12, no.560.
C ly mer: Rdl.s.
pl. =XI.
1) Rdi. s born at S3t-Wsrt.
2 ) bint. f S3t-Rdi. s born of S3t-Rdi. s. The repetitioxi of the element
rdi.a w ou ld su ggest th a t th is w oma n w a s rela ted to h er h u sba nd. by blood.
3) Nb(w )-ddt, born at S3t-Re. s. Th is w oma n cou ld be eith er th e da u gh ter
or th e sister-in-la w of the owner, the former identification being more
/1 .)gnmw -ddw born of  - i.e. the son, or possibly the brother-
in-law of the owner.
5) tu nt.f S3t-Rdi.s born of Nb(w )-ddt - i. e. th e w ife of Hru a w -ddw a nd,
since Nb(w )-ddt w a s th e sister of linmw -ddw , h is w ife w a s a lso h is niece.
6) Illegible. Th e inscription possibly begins sn.f.
83.f B]3. .s-'  born of S3t-Rdi..s. - i.e. th e son of Hnnw-ddw s and
he is also said. to h a v e dedica ted th e stela .
8 ) sn. f.
2 5 0
name include Td-13_t, Hiamt-pw, and Nhy(t).
13) 3.f Snfrw born of T1,y.
da. Morga4,p.44, no.2 0.
The link betwe this group and the last is provided by the owner's
mother, named in line 44
but the use of ther family names must have
suggested that some link existed.
1) Snbbi born of ayl.
2 ) tmt.f Rht-lb born of Itt. Granted th t Hrsrt is a co on name, it
is pos ible that this woman was a me ber of th
3) It.f Hkw born of S3t-tmn. The name S3t,tmn has already been encountere
in the previous inscription, where she was said t be the daughter of
Wsr-'nh-Snfrw and, and this would make her the same generation as
acm. However, the family was a numerous one and it is possible that the
eldest daughter at the eldest brother could have a son of the right age to
marry her cousin, if that cows:balms the daughter of the youngest brother.
This is purely speculative, however, and two women called S3t- ,tran have
been included in the combined family tree
on pl.I1111I.
Nhyt born of Tly. This establishes the link with the previous
group and Snbbi is shown to have been the grandson of Snb-pw-nty-11.1 and
The rest of the inscription is not clearly legible, but it names at
least three brothers (an.f), and a sister (snt.f) called Hnwt.
de Morgan, p.13, no.55.
1) Sn- rt-'417snbw born of Td-W3It.
2 ) Nhy born of S3t- gtn12 r. It has already been suggested that this man
was the husband of Tti-13dt and his prominent role an this second
25 1
stela tends to confirm this.
Sn-Wart-anb-ra-nty-n.1 born of Tt3-W3dt, born of Bbl.
mwt.f Tt1 -1 3at.
His children, already known from the first inscription.
6) An unidentified woman.
Facing these is a single line of inscription naming a woman called 7.=
barn of who was thus another daughter of Wsr-'nhrSnfrw.
de Morgan, p.1 3, no.51 .
1 and 2) Sn-Wsrt-e nlirSnfra and Sn-Wsrt-snb-pw-nty-n.1 , both born of
Tti-W3dt. These are the expanded writings of the names of the two brothers
who have played leading roles on these inscriptions.
The three men, born of Ttl-W3dt, who were named in the first inscription.
Two unidentified men.
A man bora at -i.e. the only known son of Wsr-'nh-Snfrw.
6) An unidentified man named. 'Imn-m-t3t.
A man born of S3tjimn. Since many of these inscriptions are concerned
with the male members of the immediate family of Wsr-'r,hrSnfrw„ this may
well be his grandson, born of the daughter named in the first inscription.
8) An unidentified man.
9) 'irony born of Hnwt-pr. This could be either the grandson or the brother-
in-law of Snb-pw-nty-n.?, though perhaps the former is the more likely
de Morgan, p.74, no.56.
This belongs to the sane group of people, but provides no new
information about them.
de Morgal .12, n a) . 4 1 .
This pr ba ly belon gs to a bran ch of the same family, th ugh the
iden tific tion is admitte ly little ore difficult.
1) Imny born of 33t-In tir, who may thus be q brother of Nhy born of
S3tTn hr n amed in the previous in scription s.
2) bmt. f Sl2tp-1 b-R', whose n ame is followed by that of an un iden tified
woman .
3) Itly born of Snbtlsy. The exact relation ship of this man to the rest
is never clarified.
4) s3t.f S3tIlmn born of NM, so this would be on e of the few occasion s
where someon e is iden tified by the father's n ame.
5) timt. f S3t-Vtbr - i.e. the wife ofEly.
6) Three, or possibly four sons of &z.
7) The rest of the inscription is damaged and is virtually illegible,
but two n urses are n amhd.
• P. 26, wan.
1 ) tmn -m-Wt born of S3t-Tni.
2) An unidentifihd man , possibly the brother of'llml-m-Ot.
3) kmt. f Ityt.
4 ) s3t. f Sn btasy.
A woman called lin wt-pw was named as the mother of Tip and &woman
called Sffbalsyvms named in the previous inscription. Identification by
the occurrence of n ame alon e is very un certain , so the in formation gathered
from the last two in scription s has been on ly ten tatively en tered an the
family tree aa
Abydos, v 1.111, pl.XIII.
4- --->
4- +-
3. 4. S . 6.
Cwner:  31wht-lb  *(81)
7 . . 13. pl. =XXIII.
- .4
4 -
14 .
' 5 .
I?. If. A.
-4 4- - 3. 4 - - 4 - -
A4 . 15.
It is the stated policy of this study to avoid the complexities
of the various royal family trees, especially those of the Thirteenth
Dynasty, and to cceacentr te an the evidence provided by non- royal stelae.
owever, the stela of the mwt nsw (King's Mother) 1:wht-lb has been
included as it is of special interest in that it belongs to a member of
family which was not royal, although she and some of her descendants
attained royal rank.
1) mwt nswIwkit-ib born of Sn-Wsrt. The weds "born of" were written
mat no so Sn- lbrt was the mother of 1wt-lb.  is known to have
been the mother of King Sekhemre-Sewadjtowy Sobekhotep of the Thirteenth
2) it ntr (The God's Father) Sbk-ddw born or Bbl-'41. From his prominent
position an the stela, it may be deduced that Sbk-ddw was either the
husband or the father at Iwt- ib. A rock- out stela on the ArmantArai-
Ifammidi track *(82) and some scarabs *(83) name the father or King
Sobekhote as the it ntr
Mntw-htp, who does not appear to have been royal,
though two of his sous by 1w4 t- lb called themselves s 3 . nsw (King's Son).
If Mntw-htp was the husband of 'I . t-ib, than it is logical to assume
that Sbk-ddw was her father, though in this case, it is possible that
2 5 4 .
he was, in fact, both. This hypotho is will be considered later.
3) s3t n(t) ."Iwtit-lb born of the mwt nsw 'Iwkit-ib. M.P. Laming Macadam
suggested that this figure represented several daughters of the queen,
who were not named individually * (8 1 4 .).
4 .) mwt.f Bb3.-'n1 , born of Vpyw - i. e. the mother of Sbk-ddw.
5) s3t.a twht-lb born of Bb1. - 11 4 - i. e. the aunt of the queen.
6) s3.1 s born of 'Iwht-1 b. This must be the son of the mvrt nsw and not
of her aunt of the same name becazuse the name of the mother is followed
by the royal female determinative * (8 5), but he is not given the title of
s3 WSW which the children of Mntw-lltp, none of whom appear on this stela,
arrogated to themselves. This would be accounted for if twilt-lb had. been
married twice, for this man could then be identified as a son of the other
Neither this man, nor his brother (figure 7 below) (gait the title of
an nsw (King's Brother), though as half-brothers of Sobekhotep they must
have had some claim to such honours. Certainly both their sisters named
below (figures 8 and. 9) claim to be ant nsw (King's Sister). Either it
must be accepted that an nsw was omitted through lack of apace, or an
alternative explanation for the variation of titles must be sought. The
most likely explanation would be if these two men died before the elevation
of their half-brother to the kIngship. They would still oommand an
honourable place on their mother's stela, but they would have had no
pretensions to a royal title. If this is not accepted, the only other
course is to evolve some intricate hypothesis, involving three marriages
for 'Ivittt-ib, to account for the varying titles of her children.
7) MI born of ttwtit-ib. The royal female determinative is used here
as well.
8) ant new Sbk-ddt born of mwt new Iv/I:It-lb. Whatever the fate of the
two actsof 7wIlt-1b named above, this girl evidently lived into the reign
of Sobekhotep. If she were a child of Mntw-htp it would seem reasonable
to suppose that she would take the titles of s3(t) new or iryt t as they
did, so she may be the
hi 1i
of the other husband of  
9)8:It new lfivt.1-anta
born of the mvrt nsw'Iw12.t-lb. The name Mwt.i-snt.i.,
translated. literally, means "My mother is my sister" *(86). In the words
of M.P.Leming Macadam, who discusses the implications of  this: "A name
may proverbially mean nothing, or it may only be intended to be understood
metaphorically. But if it be taken literally it involves the concausicn
that one of Yauheyebu's husbands was her father" 41(87).
10) p wrt.s Nb(w)-ddt born of aDy_w. pyw has already been named asthe
maternal grandmother of Sbk-ddw, so Nb(w)-ddt was his aunt. But to whom
does the kin-term mwt.s, her mother, belong? The suggestion offered by
the excavators *(88) was that she was the mother of tn.?, Ihose children
were figures 14117 on this stela. However, it would be most unusual to
call someone "her mother", without clearly showing a figure of the woman
whose mother she was. Unless Sbk-ddw married his aunts besides Sn-Wsrt
so that mwt.s here would. mean "her step-mother", that is the step-mother
of twilt-k, it is more likely that it is to be understood to
mean "her
grandmother". 5n-1/art and Sbk-ddw would thus have been first cousins
through their common grandmother, am.
3.3.) A man born of Hpyw.
12) An unidentified man.
13) snt.s nt mvrt.s ly barn of Bb!- I xt. It is difficult to decide to
whom the feminine pronoun refers here. The only lo ical candidate is
"IwIlt-ib, yet for one of her maternal relatives to be born of Sbi-'r,
twIlt-3 1 3 , 1 8 mother would have to have been born of Bbl-'n, and that would
malts Sn-Wart and Sbk-ddw brother and sister, or half-brother and sister.
This is not impossible, but there is no other evidence to suggest this.
The exact nature of this kin-term must therefore remain obscure.
14/17) Four men, all born attn.?. The first of these men is said to be
the s3 n Sbk-wn, the son of Sbk-wn. Sbk-wn and'Ini must, therefore, have
been man and wife *(89), but their position in the family is unknown,
unless it is accepted that 1 .n . was the daughter of Nb(w)-ddt.
1 8) Amen barn of "Iz .
1 9) Sbk-wn s3 Sn.1-'rtms n Sn - i.e. Sbk-wn, named in connection
with figure 1 4, was the son of Sn.1 -'nh born of Sn.L-'n,
20) An unidentified. man, born of Snt-pw.
21 ) A man born at Sn-Wart and therefore the brother of 'Iwht-ib.
22) t3 t.fltf- e n,h,bont of Sbk-nh , . One of the sons of 'In? is called
Sbk-nkt and in the family tree presented by Ayrton, Currel4 and Weigall
*(90),"Itf-'nh is shown as his daughter. However, the words *born at" are
written Ai A a4 mat n, which is invariably followed by the name of
the mother, not the fathers so this Sbk-nt) must be an otherwise unlmown
wean. Itf-'n/14 might be the daughter of the brother of"Iwttt-lb, who is
figure 21 , or she maybe the child at one of the people shown as 23 and
26, who cannot be identified because this part of the stela is broken away.
23 ) ants nt mwt.s born of H pyw. A. woman barn of Bbi- I nh has already
been designated snt.a nt mwt.s, so, if the possessive pronoun refers back
terwht-lb in both cases, then clearly this kin term mist have more than
one meaning in English.
24) snt.f n(t) mwt.f born of Snt-pw.
25/26) Figures destroyed.
Since so many of the relationshire an this stela are obscure, only a
tentative reoanstruction of the family tree can be attempted. However, I
have also incorporated in it other known information about the family.
Carlsberg A683, AE.IX.966„ pl.XCVII. CWner: It.
This stela, which belongs to a woman called. Et, is divided horizcntall:
into three registers. The first register is decarated with a design of
litres of arus and coudhant jackals, and down the middle is the name at Mr.
There is no indication whether this man was the father, husband, or son
The seccnd register had a simple prayer aa behalf of the deceased
(see Excursus C 9 p.502), while the third register shows 'It on the left
hand side of the stela, while facing her are her two small girls and a boy,
who are presumably to be Identified as her daughters and her son.
Carlsberg A684., AZ . I. N . 965 9 pl../GVIL
This is a simple stela, but it has ane unique feature. The owner is
named as &Ey:, and. he is shown with his parents, his wife, and their son
and daughter, but there are two other girls on the stela and they are both
said to be s3t bmt.f„ the daughter of his wife. This must surely be
intended to indicate that they were not the real daughters of   t
the children of his wife by a previous marriage. This is the only stela
to use this particular combination of kin-terms. There is another 'woman
said to be ent.f s3t n mwt (.f)tmrkys a combination of kin-terms which m a y
be intended to indicate that this was the half- sister of &El) the daughter
of (his) mothers though the possessive pronouns fs has been omitted. If
sop this is also a unique combination of kin-terms.
Carlsberg A.687,  plaCV1I. Owner: "lit-n-lib *(9l).
This stela belongs to the woman who is shown seated an the left hand
side of it. Fa cing her across an offering ta ble is the knweling figure
of s3twirt(0), her eldest daughters and an this girl's knee is s3.s, her
sans but it is not clear whether this is the son of the owners or of her
The prayer at the top of the stela (see Excursus C
s p.502 ) invokes
Osiris and Bathor.