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A. Tight Junctions - near the free surface, membranes of 2 adjacent cells appear to fuse
F: to create a “seal” beteen cells, forcing molecules to pass through cell instead of beteen them
!": beteen epithelial cells in digesti#e tract $this forces microorganisms and en%&mes to sta& in the
tract and not enter the blood.
Desmosomes ' points beneath tight junctions here small discs ith tufts of filaments appear in cell(s
membrane $reinforcement)* e"tend into intercellular space and lin+ discs
not seals but seem to increase strength of the tissue
!": ,eteen s+in cells and muscle cells here tissues are subject to great mechanical stress.
,. -ap Junctions - no points of attachment* tin& canals beteen adjacent cells allo communication

F: .mall molecules can pass from one cell to another because c&toplasm is continuous
!" : ,eteen cardiac muscle or smooth muscle cells.
TISSUES – group of cells of like structure performing similar functions
I. Types of Tissues in the Boy!
". Epithelial
B. #onnecti$e
#. %uscle
D. &er$ous
". Epithelial

'. Description( classifie an name )y the!
number of la&ers of cells:
 / la&er 0 simple $thin)
 1ore than / la&er 0 stratified $thic+er)
shape of the cells:
 Flat cells 0 s2uamous
 3ube cells 0 cuboidal
 Tall cells 0 columnar

* 4n addition, 55transitional 55and psuedostratified $ciliated)5 epithelium
+. ,ocation
o Lining body surfaces externally - skin
o Lining body surfaces internally - cavities
o Lining insides and outsides of organs (ex:heart)
-. .unctions!
o /rotection
o Diffusion
o ")sorption – helps e0tra surface area
o Secretion

Forms glands:
 EXOCRINE – release secretions into ducts, onto body surfaces/into body tubes
(examles: s!eat oil, sebum, en"ymes)
• Merocrine mos! common" – release secretions by exocytosis ex: serous fluid
(thin), mucus (thick)
• #pocrine – lose ortions of cells into the secretions
• $o%ocrine – entire cell bodies lost in secretions (sebaceous gland)

 EN&OCRINE – release hormones irectly into the )loo stream

B. #onnecti$e Tissue (#T)
'. Types!
Fibrous 3T further di#ided into
 loose
 dense –
• regular (tendons, ligaments)
• irregular (dermis)
 #lastic
 $eticular
.peciali%ed 3T including:
• 3artilage - h&aline
• Adipose tissue
• ,one
• ,lood
+. #omponents (ta)le 5.1)!
a) #ells
Living comonent
%roduce the matrix
#xamles – adiocytes ( fat), fibroblast( &uickly dividing and young), leukocytes (blood),
osteocytes (bone)'
)) %atri0
(onliving extra cellular comonent
)ource of strength of *+
*omosed of:
 .IBE2S! made of rotein, rovide strength and suort
• Co%%a*en (!hite) – strong, flexible, not very elastic
• E%as!ic (yello!) – !eaker, but very elastic-
• Re!icu%ar (fine) – suorting/finer collagen fibers
 324U&D SUBST"&#E
 Uns!ruc!ure+ material that fills the sace bet!een the cells
 .aries from a li&uid to semisolid to solid
 *onsists of !ater, olysaccharides and roteins
 *ontains *+ fibers
E0amples – loose areolar connecti$e tissue. In loos connecti$e tissue the collagen an elastin fi)ers
are arraye in a ranom pattern. ,ocation (
Dense connecti$e tissue – in ense connecti$e tissue the fi)ers are primarily collagen fi)ers. In
tenons an ligaments the fi)ers are oriente all in the same irection5 6ith fi)ro)lasts occupying
narro6 spaces )et6een a7acent fi)ers. ,ocation – ligaments5 tenons
#artilage from the trachea – mature cartilate cells5 calle chonrocytes5 )ecome trappe in cham)ers
calle lacunae 6ithin the har5 ru))ery groun su)stances. 3roun su)stance is compose of
collagen fi)ers5 polysaccharies5 proteins5 an 6ater. ,ocation – li$ing ens of )ones in 7oint ca$ities.
"ipose tissue from the su)cutaneous layer uner the skin. "ipose tissue consist almost entirely of
fat cells. The fat eposit 6ithin a fat cell can )ecome so large that the nucleus is pushe to the sie.
-. .unctions of #T!
 %rovides the frames the body !ork - /ones
 +ransorts fluids and solutes - /lood
 0nteconnects other tissues – 1ense and loose connective
 )tores energy (fat) - 2diose
 %rotects tissues - /ones
 %rovides adding and cushioning- 2diose
 1efends body from invading athogens - blood
#lin &ote! %arfan8s Synrome ' inherited disease of 3T$ ea+ elastic fibers)* pre#alence /:6777* hereditar& or an
effect of a spontaneous mutation* joint and s+eletal deformities are possible $ca#ed chest, h&permobilit& of joint,
long limbs ' short torso) as ell as ea+ening of alls of big #essels $aorta) and lens dislocation $e&e)