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National Productivity Council

Energy Conservation in a Coal based Super
Thermal Power Station – Success story
Presented by
Shri. D. Pawan Kumar
Shri. A. K. Sinha
Dr. S. Biswas
Shri. A. Chakraborty
Shri. G. Saha
NATIONAL PRODUCTIVITY COUNCIL
Autonomous Body under Ministry of Commerce &
Industry, GOI, established in 1958.
Tripartite in nature.
 Non-profit organisation.
Headed by Shri N. C.Vasudevan, IAS, Secretary to GOI
and DG NPC
Providing Training, Consultancy & research , in the
areas of Productivity Improvement.
NPC also Implements the productivity promotion
programmes of the Tokyo based Asian
Productivity Organization (A P O).
HUMAN RESOURCE
MANAGEMENT
ENERGY
MANAGEMENT
ENVIRONMENT
MANAGEMENT
INFORMATION
TECHNOLOGY
TECHNOLOGY
MANAGEMENT
AGRI-BUSINESS
COMPETENCY AREAS
PROCESS
MANAGEMENT
STRATEGIC PRODUCTIVITY
MANAGEMENT
PRODUCTIVITY
AWARENESS
AIP/SD
ECONOMIC
SERVICES
 About 250 revenue earning consultancy & research projects per
year
 About 300 Training Programmes per year (general and customized)
 International Programs (APO/UNIDO/UNEP)
 Productivity Awards
 Sponsored Productivity Awards
 Facilitate Indian participation in about 100 APO programs
 Journals/News Letters
ACTIVITY LEVELS
Promotion, Training, Consultancy and Research
ENERGY MANAGEMENT STUDIES
ENERGY AUDIT
ENERGY CONSERVATION
DEMAND SIDE MANAGEMENT
CLEANER PRODUCTION -ENERGY EFFICIENCY
COST REDUCTION OPPORTUNITIES IN
POWER SECTOR
AUDITS & R & M IN POWER GENERATION
SECTOR
TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION SECTOR
LOSS REDUCTION
CAPACITY BUILDING
RELIABILITY IMPROVEMENT THROUGH
CONDITION MONITORING OF PLANT EQPT
KEY RESULT AREAS IN THERMAL POWER PLANT
A) HT/LT AUXILIARIES
• FD fans
• ID fans
• Boiler feed Water pumps
• Condensate extraction pumps
• Circulation Cooling Water Pumping system
• Cooling Towers
• CT Fans
• PA fans
• Coal Mills
KEY RESULT AREAS IN THERMAL POWER PLANTS
B) OFF-SITES
• Raw Water
pumping system
• Coal handling plant
• Ash handling plant
• Compressed air
• Refrigeration & air
conditioning
• Lighting
C) THERMAL AREAS
• Boilers
• Turbines
• Condensers
• Regenerative Feed
heaters
• Economizers
• Air Pre-heaters
D) OTHER SUB-SYSTEMS
• Insulation studies to reduce heat losses
• Thermography studies of switch yards &
transformers
• Fuel oil system
KEY RESULT AREAS IN THERMAL POWER PLANT
Energy management services of NPC, is
being provided since last two decades, in
assisting major thermal power stations in
India in the following areas:
 Heat rate improvement
Reduction in Auxiliary Power Consumption
Reduction in Carbon Emission
Present Status of Energy Performance in Coal Based
Power Station:
Actual Heat Rate = 3050 Kcal/kWh
Design Heat Rate = 2294 Kcal/KWh
Specific Carbon emissions
1.19 t CO
2
/ MWh for 67.5 MW Unit
1.00 t CO
2
/ MWh for 500 MW Unit
Actual Auxiliary Power Consumption (APC) = 12%
Design Auxiliary Power Consumption (APC) = 8%
Wide variation in Heat Rate, APC, Unit Efficiency, PLF indicates
potential for performance improvement.
Present Energy Performance
Actual PLF = 78%
GOI initiative for Energy Efficiency improvement
Regulatory Interventions
Heat Rate improvements.
APC improvements
Energy Conservation Act 2001
Designated Consumers
Rising fuel cost
Import of fuel
CDM – Additional Revenue stream?
Baseline data for Power sector CDM projects available
Merit Order rating of Units due to ABT
Case Analysis of a Coal Based Units : Recent Energy
Audit Study by NPC
Overall performance prior to carring out the study
Unit rating 140 MW 210 MW
Unit vintage 1966 1986
Availability (%) 81 87
PLF (%) 61 73
APC (%) 9.66 10.91
Coal rate (kg/kWh) 0.65 0.62
Oil rate (ml/kWh) 1.97 4.17
Heat Rate (Kcal/Kwh) 3039 3058
Thermal Effy (%) 28.4 28.1
Case Analysis of Coal Based Units
OBSERVATION:
1. Boiler area:
Coal quality deviation w.r.t. design.
Tube leakages- Economizer, Re-heater, Boiler
Absence of HP heaters
Dis-functional soot blowers
Operational combination of mills
Spurious tripping- Inadequate instrumentation
Case Analysis of Coal Based Units
2. HPT and IPT of Turbine
Nozzle block erosion
Turbine blade erosion
Deposits on nozzles & blades
Gland packing leakages
Strip seal leakages
Malfunctioning of control valve
Case Analysis of Coal Based Units
3. Condenser area:
Condenser effectiveness deviation w.r.t. design.
Terminal temperature difference (TTD) deviation
w.r.t. design.
LMTD deviation w.r.t. design.
The condenser thermal load deviation w.r.t. design.
 CW flow has been assessment based on condenser
thermal load compare with design / actual (measured
by Ultrasonic flow meter).
Case Analysis of Coal Based Units
Improvement margins of Boiler area:
1. Reintroduction of HP heaters in feed water circuit
and repair/replacement of Economizer tubes:
 Potential of saving identified was 110 Kcal/ KWh in
140MW Unit and 120 Kcal/Kwh in 210MW Unit.
2. Inleak air abatement & secondary air temperature
increase and reduction of Combustibles in Fly ash &
Bottom ash:
 Boiler efficiency improvement by 5.6% in 140MW Unit
and 4.3% in 210MW Unit.
Case Analysis of Coal Based Units
Improvement margins of Turbine area:
1. Control of Main steam pressure & temperature :
2. Control of Reheat steam temperature:
3. Cylinder efficiency improvement of HP/IP/LP
Turbines based on inspection and rectification based
on internal conditions of damage, during turbine
overhaul:
 Potential of saving identified was 320 Kcal/ KWh in
140MW Unit and 34 Kcal/Kwh in 210MW Unit.
Case Analysis of Coal Based Units
Improvement margins of Condenser area:
1. Condenser Vacuum improvement with better
condenser performance :
 Potential of saving identified was 54 Kcal/ KWh in 210MW
Unit.
Case Analysis of Coal Based Units
Improvement options in Boiler area:
1. I mprovement in Boiler Feed Water Temperature through
commissioning of HP Heaters and repair / replacement of
Economizer tubes.
2. Control of Excess De-Super Heater spray water requirement
through increase of heat transfer, by recommissioning /
repairing of existing Soot Blowers.
3. Savings Potential By I nleak Air Abatement & Secondary Air
Temperature I ncreasing.
4. Reduction of Combustibles in Fly & Bottom Ash.
1. Heat Rate improvement by control of main steam pressure &
temperature, reheat steam temperature.
Case Analysis of Coal Based Units
Improvement options in Turbine area:
Improvement options in Condenser area:
1. Condenser Vacuum improvement with better condenser
performance.
Improvement options in Unit Auxiliaries
Boiler Feed Pump (BFP):
1. ENCON by Eliminating Re-circulation Water across Boiler
Feed Pump’s.
2. Replacement of Old Boiler Feed Pump’s by New High
Efficiency pumps (72% plus) and existing Fluid Coupling by
LTVFD.
Condensate Extraction Pump (CEP):
1. Single Condensate Extraction Pump operation with improved
efficiency.
Case analysis of coal based units
Improvement options in Unit Auxiliaries
Circulating Water Pump (CW):
1. Modification of ARCW requirements and optimization of CW
system vis-à-vis condenser system.
2. Pump efficiency improvement by applying polymer coating on
pump internals.
Case analysis of coal based units
I nduced Draft Fan (I D):
1. Reduction in air ingress in flue gas path by plugging ingress
points.
2. Replacement of by state of the art I D fans of 80% plus
efficiency and LTVFD in place of existing fluid coupling
Forced Draft Fan (FD):
1. LTVFD option in place of Damper operation.
Primary Air Fan (PA):
1. Replacement of existing PA fans with damper control by state of
the art high efficiency fans with LTVFD.
Coal Mill:
1. Encon by three mill operation, on account of reduction in mill
power during low load unit operation (100 MW & below).
Case Analysis of Coal Based Units
Improvement options in Unit Auxiliaries
Cooling Tower (CT):
1. Over all effectiveness improvement.
Air Compressor:
1. Phase wise replacement of inefficient compressors.
2. I solate Service Air and I nstrument Air line and operate
I nstrument Air at 5.5kg/cm
2
3. Minimize air leakage from network system.
4. Replace/Retrofit existing air dryer.
Case Analysis of Coal Based Units
Improvement options in Station Auxiliaries
Coal Handling Plant (CHP):
1. Energy Savings by increasing coal throughput rate of Conveyors.
2. Energy Savings by increasing crusher throughput.
3. Energy Savings by incorporation of Vibro-Grizzly feeders.
Ash Handling Plant (AHP):
1. Energy savings by reducing Ash Water Ratio.
2. Energy savings by By-pass arrangement in ash slurry disposal
pumps, when only single pump in series is in operation.
3. I mprovement of Operating Efficiency of Under Performing
Pumps (Ash Slurry Disposal pumps.
Case Analysis of Coal Based Units
Improvement options in Station Auxiliaries
IMPLEMENTATION
AND
SAVINGS ACHIVED
IMPLEMENTATION AND RESULTS
Based on several interaction subsequent to the study
and site visit it was observed that the management
could implement major recommendations as indicated
earlier in Unit Auxiliaries areas and station auxiliaries
areas apart from implementing specific
recommendations in main plant area like Boiler,
Turbine and Condenser which has resulted
appreciable overall improvements of unit performance
towards higher plant loading, PLF improvement,
reduction of APC & Heat rate, details as follows.
MAIN PLANT AREA, 210 MW
Recommendations Plant side initiative Result
BOILER AREA:
Reduction and
control of
combustion matter in
fly ash and bottom
ash
Combustible matter
in fly ash reduced to
3% from 5% and to
6.5% from 10% for
bottom ash
Boiler efficiency
improvement by
4.5%
TURBINE AREA:
Turbine Area :
Control of main
steam parameters
including
atemperation flow
Atemperation flow
was reduced to 0
from 7% during the
study period
Potential of
savings identified
was 34Kcal/KWh.
MAIN PLANT AREA, 210 MW
Recommendations Plant side initiative Result
CONDENSER AREA:
Improvement of
condenser vacuum
through optimized
condenser
performance
Condenser vacuum
improved by 80mm
of HG from existing
level.
Potential of
savings identified
was 54Kcal/KWh.
Recommenda
tions
Plant side initiative Achieved
Reduction/
Saving
%
Savings
in APC
Amps KW
In leak abatement
in flue path and
APH modification
•Modification of APH
•Repair & Replacement
of APH seal ducts and
expansion joints
67 689 0.328
Optimizing BFP
SEC, BFP pressure
drop optimization,
variable frequency
drive
implementation
•BFP #4A cartridge was
replaced
•Maintenance and
servicing of BFP
recirculation valve and
attending to valve passing
40
300
412
0.143
0.196
Optimization of
PA fan system and
APH area
•Optimization and
modification of APH
60 617 0.294
MAIN PLANT AUXILIARIES AREA - 210 MW UNIT
Recommenda
tions
Plant side initiative Achieved
Reduction/
Saving
%
Savings
in APC
Amps KW
Improvement in
Condensate
extraction system
and optimization
of pump operation
•2 nos. of CEP achieved
full load instead of 3 at
MCR after
implementation
22 201 0.096
Modification of
ARCW
requirements and
optimization of
CW system vis-à-
vis condenser
system
•2 nos. of CW pumps
achieved designed
vacuum instead of 3 at
MCR prior to this study
1260 0.600
MAIN PLANT AUXILIARIES AREA - 210 MW UNIT
Recommenda
tions
Plant side initiative Achieved
Reduction/
Saving
%
Savings
in APC
Amps KW
Effective
improvement of
cooling tower
operation
•8 nos. CT fans achieved
the desired results/
vacuum / temperature
instead of 10 nos. at MCR
prior to this study
280 181 0.086
TOTAL 1.743
MAIN PLANT AUXILIARIES AREA - 210 MW UNIT
OVERALL IMPROVEMENT SUMMARY – 210 MW
PARAMETERS DURING THE
STUDY
AFTER
IMPLEMENTATI
ON OF THE
RECOMMENDA
TIONS
IMPROVEMEN
T ACHIEVED /
REMARKS
Average unit load
(MW)
165 200 30
PLF (%) 69 > 80% 17
Partial Loading (%) 21 5 16
APC (%) 11.6 9.857 1.743
Atemperation spray
(tons /hr.)
30 – 40 0 40
Combustible in fly
ash (%)
5 3 2
OVERALL IMPROVEMENT SUMMARY – 210 MW
PARAMETERS DURING THE
STUDY
AFTER
IMPLEMENTATI
ON OF THE
RECOMMENDA
TIONS
IMPROVEMEN
T ACHIEVED /
REMARKS
Condenser Vacuum
(mm HG at MCR)
610 690 80
Specific steam
consumption
(T/MW)
3 2.83 0.17
GHG REDUCTIONS
Apart from Auxiliary power consumption and Heat Rate
Reduction which will be directly benefiting the Unit, there
will be additional benefit through Green House Gas Emission
Reduction and environmental improvement.
With Eastern Grid Emission factor of 1.025 Kg. /kWh saved
through energy conservation, the corresponding annual
Green House Gas Reduction for energy saving of 1.743%of
APC (ie, 2542775.55 Kwh) is 2606.34 Tons of CO
2
emission
reduction annually.
CONCLUSION
• Energy Efficiency offers significant potential for reduction of fossil fuel
consumption apart from environmental benefit, climate change impacts.
• Some of the additional benefits by way of energy audit and energy
efficiency exercise lead to improvement in O&M and maintenance
practices as also PLF level of operating units.
• Since capacity addition during 11
th
five year plan mainly through
thermal route, to meet increased consumption level (target of 1000
kWh/capita and growth rate 8 to 9%), mostly through fossil fuel route ,
state of the art energy efficient technologies, low carbon strategies, high
efficiency plants need to be addressed along with harnessing new and
renewable energy sources for power generation.
• Apart from above, there will be ample opportunity for existing units
towards claiming CDM benefits.
Any Questions ?