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In electronics, a multiplexer (or mux) is a device that selects one of several analog or

digital input signals and forwards the selected input into a single line.[1] A multiplexer of
2n inputs has n select lines, which are used to select which input line to send to the
output.[2] ultiplexers are mainl! used to increase the amount of data that can "e sent
over the networ# within a certain amount of time and "andwidth.[1] A multiplexer is also
called a data selector.
An electronic multiplexer ma#es it possi"le for several signals to share one device or
resource, for example one A$% converter or one communication line, instead of having
one device per input signal.
&onversel!, a demultiplexer (or demux) is a device ta#ing a single input signal and
selecting one of man! data'output'lines, which is connected to the single input. A
multiplexer is often used with a complementar! demultiplexer on the receiving end.[1]
An electronic multiplexer can "e considered as a multiple'input, single'output switch,
and a demultiplexer as a single'input, multiple'output switch.[(] )he schematic s!m"ol
for a multiplexer is an isosceles trape*oid with the longer parallel side containing the
input pins and the short parallel side containing the output pin.[+] )he schematic on the
right shows a 2'to'1 multiplexer on the left and an e,uivalent switch on the right. )he sel
wire connects the desired input to the output. -ne use for multiplexers is cost saving "!
connecting a multiplexer and a demultiplexer (or demux) together over a single channel
("! connecting the multiplexer.s single output to the demultiplexer.s single input). )he
image to the right demonstrates this. In this case, the cost of implementing separate
channels for each data source is higher than the cost and inconvenience of providing the
multiplexing$demultiplexing functions.
At the receiving end of the data lin# a complementar! demultiplexer is normall! re,uired
to "rea# single data stream "ac# down into the original streams. In some cases, the far
end s!stem ma! have more functionalit! than a simple demultiplexer and so, while the
demultiplexing still exists logicall!, it ma! never actuall! happen ph!sicall!. )his would "e
t!pical where a multiplexer serves a num"er of I/ networ# users and then feeds directl!
into a router which immediatel! reads the content of the entire lin# into its routing
processor and then does the demultiplexing in memor! from where it will "e converted
directl! into I/ sections.
-ften, a multiplexer and demultiplexer are com"ined together into a single piece of
e,uipment, which is usuall! referred to simpl! as a 0multiplexer0. 1oth pieces of
e,uipment are needed at "oth ends of a transmission lin# "ecause most
communications s!stems transmit in "oth directions.
In analog circuit design, a multiplexer is a special t!pe of analog switch that connects
one signal selected from several inputs to a single output.
%igital multiplexers[edit]
In digital circuit design, the selector wires are of digital value. In the case of a 2'to'1
multiplexer, a logic value of 2 would connect 3scriptst!le I42 to the output while a logic
value of 1 would connect 3scriptst!le I41 to the output. In larger multiplexers, the num"er
of selector pins is e,ual to 3scriptst!le 3left 3lceil 3log42(n) 3right 3rceil where 3scriptst!le n
is the num"er of inputs.
5or example, 6 to 17 inputs would re,uire no fewer than + selector pins and 18 to (2
inputs would re,uire no fewer than 9 selector pins. )he "inar! value expressed on these
selector pins determines the selected input pin.
A 2'to'1 multiplexer has a "oolean e,uation where 3scriptst!le A and 3scriptst!le 1 are
the two inputs, 3scriptst!le : is the selector input, and 3scriptst!le ; is the output<
; = ( A 3cdot 3overline>:?) @ (1 3cdot :)
A 2'to'1 mux
Ahich can "e expressed as a truth ta"le<1 8+198 Buad 2<1 mux. -utput same
as input given
2 8+19C Buad 2<1 mux. -utput is inverted input
2 8+19( %ual +<1 mux. -utput same as input
9 8+(92 %ual +<1 mux. -utput is inverted input
6 8+191A 17<1 mux. 1oth outputs availa"le (i.e., complementar!
outputs)
7 8+191 C<1 mux. -utput is inverted input
8 8+192 17<1 mux. -utput is inverted input
%igital demultiplexers[edit]
%emultiplexers ta#e one data input and a num"er of selection inputs, and the! have
several outputs. )he! forward the data input to one of the outputs depending on the
values of the selection inputs. %emultiplexers are sometimes convenient for designing
general purpose logic, "ecause if the demultiplexer.s input is alwa!s true, the
demultiplexer acts as a decoder. )his means that an! function of the selection "its can
"e constructed "! logicall! -D'ing the correct set of outputs.
If E is the input and : is the selector, and A and 1 are the outputs<