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1- Define an ABAP?

-ABAP (Advanced Business Application Programming) is a high level programming
language created by the German softare company !AP" #t is currently positioned as the
language for programming !AP$s %eb Application !erver& part of its 'et %eaver platform
for building business applications" #ts synta( is somehat similar to )*B*+"
,- %hat is an ABAP data dictionary?
ABAP - data dictionary describes the logical structures of the ob.ects used in application
development and shos ho they are mapped to the underlying relational database in
0- %hat are domains and data element?
-Domains1 Domain is the central ob.ect for describing the technical characteristics of an
attribute of a business ob.ects" #t describes the value range of the field"
-Data 2lement1 it is used to describe the semantic definition of the table fields li3e
description the field" Data element describes ho a field can be displayed to end-user"
-- %hat is a foreign 3ey relationship?
-A relationship can be defined beteen tables and must be e(plicitly defined at field level"
-4oreign 3eys are used to ensure the consistency of data" Data entered should be chec3ed
against e(isting data to ensure that there are ne contradictions" %hile defining foreign 3ey
relationship cardinality has to be specified" )ardinality mentions ho many dependent
records or ho referenced records are possible"
5- Describe Data )lasses?
-6aster Data1 it is the data hich is rarely/seldom changed"
-7ransaction Data1 it is the data hich is often changed"
-*rgani8ation Data1 it is a customi8ing data hich is entered in the system hen the system
is configured and is then rarely changed"
-!ystem Data1 it is the data hich 9/0 system needs for itself"
:- Define inde(es?
-#nde(es described as a copy of a database table reduced to specific fields" 7his data e(ists in
sorted form" 7his sorting form ease fast access to the field of the tables" #n order that other
fields are also read& a pointer to the associated record of the actual table are included in the
inde(" 7he inde(es are activated along ith the table and are created automatically ith it in
the database"
;-%hat are the difference beteen transparent tables and pooled tables?
-7ransparent tables1 transparent tables in the dictionary have a one-to-one relation ith the
table in database" #ts structure corresponds to single database field" 7able in the database has
the same name as in the dictionary"
7hey holds application data"
-Pooled tables1 pooled tables in the dictionary has a many-to-one relation ith the table in
database" 7able in the database has the different name as in the dictionary"
7hey are stored in table pool at the database level"
<- %hat is an ABAP/- =uery?
-ABAP/- =uery is a poerful tool to generate simple reports ithout any coding" ABAP/-
=uery can generate the folloeing 0 simple reports1
--Basic +ist1 it is the simple reports
--!tatistics1 reports ith statistical functions li3e Average& Percentages"
--9an3ed +ists1 for analytical reports"
7o create an ABAP/- =uery& programmer has to create user group and a functional group"
4unctional group can be created using ith or ithout logical database table" 7hen& assign
user group to functional group" And in the end& create a >uery on the functional group
?-%hat is BD) Programming?
-7ransferring of large/e(ternal/legacy data into !AP system using Batch #nput programming&
Batch input is an automatic procedure referred to as BD) (Batch Data )ommunications)"
7he central component of the transfer is a >ueue file hich receives the data through a batch
input program and group associated data into sessions"
1@-%hat are the functional modules used in se>uence in BD)?
7hese are the 0 functional modules hich are used in a se>uence to perform a data transfer
successfully using BD) programming1
BD)A*P2'AG9*BP C Parameters li3e 'ame of the client& sessions and user name
are specified in this functional modules"
BD)A#'!297 C #t is used to insert the data for one transaction into a session"
BD)A)+*!2AG9*BP C 7his is used to close the batch input session"
11- %hat are internal tables?
-#nternal tables are a standard data type ob.ect hich e(ists only during the runtime of the
program" 7hey are used to perform table calculations on subsets of database tables and for
re-organi8ing the contents of database tables according to users need"
1,-%hat are screen painter and menu painter?
-!creen Painter1 screen painter is a tool to design and maintain screen and its elements" #t
allos user to create GB# screens for the transactions" Attributes& layout& field attributes and
flo logic are the elements of !creen Painter"
-6enu Painter1 menu painter is a tool to design the interface components" !tatus& menu bars&
menu lists& 4-3ey settings& functions and titles are the components of 6enu Painter" !creen
Painter and 6enu Painter both are the graphical interface of an ABAP/- application"
10-Define #7!? %hat are the merits of #7!?
-#7! is a #nternet 7ransaction !erver" #7! forms an interface beteen D77P server and 9/0
system into D76+ documents and vice-versa"
-6erits of #7!1
A complete eb transaction can be developed and tested in 9/0 system
All transaction components& including those used by the #7! outside the 9/0 system
at runtime& can be stored in the 9/0 system"
7he advantage of automatic language processing in the 9/0 system can be utili8ed to
language-dependent D76+ documents at runtime"
1--%hat are the different layers in 9/0 system?
-Presentation layer
-Application layer
-Database layer
15-%hat are the phases of bac3ground processing?
-7here are 0 phases of bac3ground processing1
Eob scheduling
Eob processing
Eob overvie
1:-%hat are the differences beteen structure and table in data dictionary in ABAP?
-!tructure and table both are ,/, matrices but there are many differences beteen table and
a) table can store the data physically but a structure does not store"
b) table can have primary 3ey but a structure does not have"
c) table can have the technical attribute but a structure does not have"
1;-%hat is !mart 4orm?
-!mart 4orms allo you to create forms using a graphical design tool ith robust
functionality& color& and more"
Additionally& all ne forms developed at !AP ill be created ith ne !mart 4orm
1<-2(plain about the to services that are used to deal ith communication?
-6essage !ervice1 used by the application servers to e(change short internal messages& all
system communications"
-Gateay !ervice1 enables communication beeteen 9/0 and e(ternal applications using
)P#-) protocol"
1?-%hat is service (ithin 9/0) ?
-A service is a process or group of processes that perform a specific system function and
often provide an application-programming interface for other processes to call"
,@-%hat is A+F programming in ABAP? %hen is this grid used in ABAP?
-A+F is Application +ist Fieer" !AP provides a set of A+F function modules hich can be
put into use to embellish the output of a report" 7his set of A+F functions is used to enhance
the readability and functionality of any report output"
)ases arrive in !AP hen the output of a report contains columns e(tending more than ,55
characters in length" #n such cases& this set of A+F functions can help choose selected
columns and arrange the different columns from a report output and also save different
variants for report display" 7his is a very efficient tool for dynamically sorting and arranging
the columns from a report output"
7he report output can contain up to ?@ columns in the display ith the ide array of display
,1-Describe the difference beteen macro and subroutine?
-6acros can only be used in the program they are defined in and only after the definition are
e(panded at compilation/generation"
A macro is more or less an abbreviation for some lines of code that are used more than once
or tice"
Debugging a 6A)9* is not really possible& prevent the use of them"
-!ubroutines(4*96) can be called from both the program they are defined in and other
#f subroutine is used only local (internal) use a 4*96& if it is called e(ternal use a
,,-Define !pool re>uest?
-!pool re>uests are generated during dialog or bac3ground processing and placed in the
spool database ith information about the printer and print format" 7he actual data is placed
in the 7em !e (7emporary !e>uential ob.ects)"
,0-Define batch input session?
-Batch input session is an intermediate step beteen internal table and database table" Data
along ith the action is stored in session i"e" data for screen fields& to hich screen is passed&
program name behind it& ho ne(t screen is processed"""
,--%hat are logical databases? %hat are the advantages of logical databases?
-7o read data from a database table e use logical database"
A logical database provides read-only access to a group of related tables to an ABAP/-
a) chec3 functions hich chec3 that user input is complete& correct and plausible"
b) meaningful data selection"
c) central authori8ation chec3s for database accesses"
d) good read access performance hile retaining the hierarchical data vie
determined by the application logic"
,5-%hat is an ABAP or3bench?
-#t is a graphical programming environment in the !AP 9/0 system to develop different
application using ABAP language" #t provides different tools such as ABAP Dictionary&
ABAP 2ditor& and !creen Painter to create ABAP application"