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Effects of Globalization

Police System
Topic Outline

I. Globalization
Globalization – a process by which regional economies, societies, cultures have become
integrated through a global network of communication, transportation and trade.

II. Transnational Organized Crime
The Merriam-Webster dictionary defines globalization as an “increasingly integrated
global economy, marked especially by free trade [and] the free flow of capital” (2013).
Considering that many criminal enterprises, especially transnational organized crime groups
function primarily for economic gain (Schmalleger, 2009).
Transnational organized crime (TOC or transnational crime) - organized
crime coordinated across national borders, involving groups or networks of individuals working
in more than one country to plan and execute illegal business ventures.
Most commonly seen transnational organized crimes:
 money laundering
 human smuggling
 cyber crime; and
 trafficking of humans, drugs, weapons, endangered species, body parts, or nuclear

III. Precipitating Effect of Globalization to Transnational Crimes
Globalization present new opportunities of global information and developments, but it
also present threats because of the unaccountable transnational flow of people, information, and
ideas, which present opportunities for organized crime and new forms of transnational
cooperation between organized criminal groups.

1. Vast increase in the number of economic and social transaction across national
2. Evolution of “Global Village” has opened up unprecedented opportunities for
transnational crime because it has fundamentally change the context which both
legitimate and illegitimate business operate;
3. Growth of transnational economic transaction makes it enormously difficult to
government to regulate and control monetary movement across boundaries;
Globalization = ⬆ free markets = ⬆ flow of capital = ⬆ criminal opportunity
4. Rise of cosmopolitan world cities as the repositories of capital and wealth and as major
facilitators of cross-border transaction provides operation based for criminal
5. Consumers have access to information about goods and services around the world giving
rise to global marketing opportunities both licit and illicit; and
6. Increase in migration and increase in the growth of ethnic groups have facilitated in the
creation of network structures for the supply of illicit good in the global market

IV. Global Police Overview
A. U.S.
Police forces prior to 2001 were very autonomous, but after the signing of the
USA PATRIOT Act, the Department of Homeland Security was established, effectively merging
the resources and intelligence of all police departments nationwide. In every state, this
department has agents working closely with local law enforcement to not only combat terrorism
but also, human trafficking, immigration violations, cyber attacks, and other serious criminal
violations. No nation in the Western Hemisphere at present is as integrated (DHS, 2013).
B. Europe
Europol was first conceptualized by German Chancellor Helmut Kohl in 1991.
The initial concept was to create an agency modeled after the United States’ Federal Bureau of
Investigation. After the initial agency was developed a few years later, the responsibilities were
expanded as a result of globalization. Today, Europol not only investigates and enforces major
drug crimes and money laundering, but also terrorism, cyber crimes, and human trafficking. The
agency also works closely with American agencies (Europol, 2013).
C. Africa
In Africa, most police agencies remain autonomous but in recent years one
organization called the African Police Resource Network has developed to assist police
organizations throughout the Continent. It is too early to tell if this organization will advance a
similar organizational structure as Europe and America, but this does appear to be a goal (APRN,
D. Asia
Asian nations have yet to establish any kind of unified organization for policing,
but many work closely with United States organizations on major crime operations. For instance,
South Korea, Japan, and Australia each works closely with American agents in solving major
crimes involving Asian-based organized crime groups (DHS, 2013).
E. Interpol
As early as 1914, several nations cooperated in forming Interpol. Interpol is an
international police organization developed to help combat major crimes which both cross and
transcend national borders. To this end, Interpol developed a Criminal Information System
database called ICIS in 1998. This system was designed to better equip member nations share
intelligence about criminal figures and crimes. The organization is governed by a body of
representatives from member nations (Interpol, 2013).

V. Philippines Existing Laws to Combat Transnational Crimes
1. Republic Act No. 10175 “Cybercrime Prevention Act of 2012″
The NBI and the PNP shall organize a cybercrime unit or center manned
by special investigators to exclusively handle cases involving violations of this
2. Republic Act No. 9775 “Anti-Child Pornography Act of 2009”
Section 22. Child Pornography as a Transnational Crime. – Pursuant to the
Convention on transnational Organized Crime, the DOJ may execute the request
of a foreign state for assistance in the investigation or prosecution of any form of
child pornography by: (1) conducting a preliminary investigation against the
offender and, if appropriate, to file the necessary charges in court; (2) giving
information needed by the foreign state; and (3) to apply for an order of forfeiture
of any proceeds or monetary instrument or properly located in the Philippines
used in connection with child pornography in the court; Provided, That if the DOJ
refuses to act on the request of for delaying the execution thereof: Provided,
further, That the principles of mutuality and reciprocity shall, for this purpose, be
at all times recognized.
3. Republic Act No. 10173 “Data Privacy Act of 2012″

VI. The Challenge for Policing
A. Professionalism - a good perception of the police may increase both public cooperation with
law enforcement and the likelihood of victims reporting crimes.
1. Public’s confidence in the police
2. Police must be free from corruption