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International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering

Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 2, Issue 12, December 2012)
28
Micro Structure Effect of Concrete Degradation for
Compressive Strength of Concrete Burned in High
Temperature
Setyowati E W
1
, Soehardjono A
2
, Zacoeb A
3
, Fuad A
4
, Mufti N
5

1,2,3
Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Brawijaya, Indonesia
4,5
Department of Physics ,Faculty of Mathematics and Science, State University of Malang, Indonesia
Abstract- It is generally recognized that the
environmental degradation of the concrete infrastructure is
a serious, large scale and costly problem in many parts of
the world. This study discussed about the power of concrete
structure especially the comparison of the compressive
strength of concrete due to higher temperature of fire with
the micro structure of concrete degradation . The
methodology consisted of experiment using the concrete
samples that was carried out by trial kinds temperature of
400°C, 600°C, and 800°C with factor of cement water was
steady in 28 days and then carried out process at the
burner wich burned . The study highlights thecapabilities
of the methods for the analysis of concrete towards the
determination of hardenedcement paste degradation. The
methods ascertain that the samples XRD results showed
small quantity of ettringite, calcium, carboaluminate
hydrate , and a complete leach of portlandite fase and to be
smaller than in high temperature and to be loos at 800
o
C.The result for the SEM it will be degradation at micro
structure of concrete, like the micro crack on material
concrete at high temperature (800
o
C). The result
compressive test for 80 samples of concrete is the
compressive strength for the material concrete is become
lower than in high temperature, up to70 % .
Keywords- Concrete micro structure, compressive
strength, degradation, high temperature
I. INTRODUCTION
Concrete is a composite material and based on
previous experiment presented that high temperature of
200
0
C did not decrease the srong pressure because there
was fast treatment phenomena or accelerated curing [1].
Hansen [2] described that there was some increasing on
strong pressure of concrete if it was heated in the
temperature of 200-300
0
C, but it was more than 80%
increasing of the first strong pressure if it was heated
until 400
0
C and 30% if it was heated until 700
0
C.
Triwiyono, A. [3] had found a process to fix the breaking
concrete caused by burning. He suggested process of
watering. This process intended to obtain the recovery of
strong burning concrete so that the water gathering in
concrete and could be reacted to C2S and C3S on cement
particle which was not reacted yet eventhough with 
C2S at cement because the concrete had been burned.
Result of the reaction was SCH and Ca (OH)
2
.


The contrary to common belief, concrete is a complex
composite material, whose structure and properties can
change over time. It is generally recognized that the
environmental degradation of the concrete infrastructure
is a serious, large scale and costly problem in many parts
of the world.The concrete structures are designed and
built for a service life, which is defined by the designer
and is controlled by the manufacture. In this paper
deteriotion of concrete wich burned in high temperature :
400
o
C, 600
o
C dan 800
o
C,it is to become effect to the
concrete material likes cement material is the bounded
for filler in concrete material after its reaction with water
and after burned.
A solution of calcium bicarbonate alone in water will
not dissolve further quantities of calciumcarbonate, and if
it reacts with lime the insoluble calcium carbonate is
formed [4]. The study highlights the capabilities of the
methods for the analysis of concrete towards the
determination of hardened cement paste degradation was
characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and SEM.and
the testing of compressive strength to know the relation
ship betwin the chancing or distruction concrete micro
structure as the result of the effect of high temperature
with the decresing of compressive strength of concrete.
II. MATERIALS AND METHODS
The purpose of this study was to prove that there is a
transformation on concrete micro structure in high
temperature which cause the discresing of compressive
strngh of concrete. The testing of concrete micro
structure with XRD to fine out that there is the
transformation of cemical structure on the concrete after
burning.While with SEM to fine out the picture of
changing or distruction on concrete micro structure in
higth temperature. The variation of temperature: 400
o
C ,
600
o
C, 800
o
C and it is cooling down on room
temperature withaot watering, and as the comparision is
the normal concrete in room temperature :27
o
C. The
powder method of X-ray diffraction was adopted in the
present study. For this, PAN Analytical with a X-ray
source of Cu Kα radiation (λ = 1.5418 Å) was used. The
scan step size was 0.02
0
,the collection time 1 sc,and in
the range 2O Cu Kαfrom 10
o
to 70
o.
The X ray voltage
is fixed at 40 kv.


International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering
Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 2, Issue 12, December 2012)
29

An on line search of standard database for X ray
diffraction pattern enables phase identification for a large
variety of portlandite phases in a sample.The testing of
compressive strenggh of concrete is carried out by
testing the concrete cylinder sample 15 cm x 30cm which
is 28 days old, and it has been burn in the burner in
variety of temperature : 400
o
C , 600
o
C, and 800
o
C, as
the comparison is the normal concrete in room
temperature,the number of each variety of sample is 20,
which is tested by using the compressive machine.




Figure 2. FIGURE 2 COMPRESSIVE MACHINES TEST

FIGURE 1 THE BURNER

III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

FIGURE 3 ILLUSTRATION OF XRD DIFFRACTOGRAMS FOR INVESTIGATED SAMPLES
Each figure presents comparatively diffractograms of a
sample taken from the concrete sample which is burn in :
400
o
C , 600
o
C , 800
o
C , and it is compared to the
normal concrete . The symbols on figures indicate the
positions and peak intensities of the powder diffraction
standard from JCPDS database. In sample diffraction
peaks indicate presence of portlandite [Ca(OH2)],
ettringite and carboaluminate hydrate and Friedel’s salt.
However, sample shows no diffraction peak of
portlandite [Ca(OH2)] in sample apeared with high
temperature and went it is reached 800
o
C it will be
disappeared .
There is the changing on peak which is the cement
caracteristic , that is the fasa portlandite (Ca((OH)2).
This fasa is decreasing as the increasing of burning
temperature.


International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering
Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 2, Issue 12, December 2012)
30

It is shown by the decreasing of peak intensity. And it
is disappearing in 800
o
C burning temperature whith
means there is not fasa portlandite any more and it is
creating the new cemical srtucture. It is proven there is
caracteristic chancing of concrete material where cement
is a bounded filler in concrete.As the result of cement
caracteristic role that decreaces or dispears , it will effect
to concrete caracteristic. Figure 4 – 9 illustrate the SEM
for investigated samples.


FIGURE 4 SEM NORMAL CONCRETE SAMPLE OF ROOM TEMPERATURE IN 250X ENLARGEMENT


FIGURE 5 SEM NORMAL CONCRETE SAMPLE OF ROOM TEMPERATURE IN 2500X ENLARGEMENT


International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering
Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 2, Issue 12, December 2012)
31


FIGURE 6 SEM NORMAL CONCRETE SAMPLE OF ROOM TEMPERATURE IN 5000X ENLARGEMENT


FIGURE 7 SEM CONCRETE SAMPLE OF 800
0
C BURNING IN 250X ENLARGEMENT


FIGURE 8 SEM CONCRETE SAMPLE OF 800
0
C BURNING IN 2500X ENLARGEMENT



International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering
Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 2, Issue 12, December 2012)
32


FIGURE 9 SEM CONCRETE SAMPLE OF 800
0
C BURNING IN 5000X ENLARGEMENT

SEM observations on the concrete material 28-days
old hardened concrete were examined with back
scattered-scanning electron microscopy. There was taken
from concrete at a relatively low magnification, and it
exhibited the general microstructural architecture of
hardened concrete. Figure 4 – 6 : shows the condition of
the normal concrete in 250x, 2500x and 500x
enlargement in room temperature 27C, while in fig. 6-8
shows the result of SEM on burned sample in the highest
temperature 800
o
C, in 250x,2500x and 5000x
enlargement where there is difference obviously on the
picture of concrete micro structure before and after it is
burned in high temperature. There is not obvious
difference yet on the sample in 400
o
C, while on the
sample in 600
o
C there is lighter color changing and
softer surface. In fig 7-9: shows that there is micro crack
as the result of the effect of high temperature on concrete,
it is a very obvious concrete micro structure changing
and affected to mechanic and physics characteristics of
concrete.


FIGURE 10 THE COMPARISON OF COMPRESSIVE STRESS AND TEMPERATURE DUE TO WATER CEMENT RATIO

The research on 20 concrete cylinder samples for
every temperature, variety and tested water cement ratio
with compressive machine, describe that there is
reducing of concrete strength as the burning temperature
gets higher. In the same case, the bigger of water cement
ratio, the compressive strength of concrete will reduce in
higher temperature.


Reducing of compressive strength of concrete aligned
with the changing of concrete micro structure which is
proven with the testing result XRD that shows that there
is compound changing and disappearing of fasa
portlandite which is the indication of cement
characteristics disappearing on concrete material in high
temperature.



International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering
Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 2, Issue 12, December 2012)
33

Reducing of compressive strength of concrete aligned
with the SEM research that shows that there is micro
crack as the result of energy on element separating state
occurred on the burning to concrete sample which causes
micro crack.
IV. CONCLUSION
Based on the analysis as above, it is concluded that:
1. High temperature that causes concrete micro
structure changing: result of XRD: there is
compound changing with reducing of fasa
portlandite intensity aligned with increasing
temperature and disappearing fasa portlandite in
800C
2. High temperature which causes micro crack on
concrete micro structure is the SEM result which
effects mechanic and physic characteristics of
concrete
3. High temperature which causes reducing of
compressive strength of concrete until 76% in 800
o
C in cooling process without watering.




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