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Training is expensive. Without
training it is more expensive

“If you wish to plan for a year, sow seeds;
If you wish to plan for years, plant trees;
If you wish to plan for a life time, develop
- Chinese proverb

Learning is a relatively permanent change
in behavior that results from direct or
indirect experience.
Learning organization

Learning organizations are firms that recognize
the critical importance of continuous performance-
related. Training take appropriate action. They are
one whose employees continuously attempt to
learn new things & to use what they learn to
improve product or service quality. The most
important thing in learning is that all managers
should understand the basic purposes and
processes of both. Training also recognize the role
of learning theory in Training.

Teaching and Learning
Teaching is something one person does to another
Learning is something one can only do for himself/ herself.
Teaching Learning
Involves: Involves:
Telling - grasp the subject, mentally
or physically
Explaining - translates it into words or
actions that make sense to them
Demonstrating - locates it alongside the other
things they know or can do
Discussing - does something with their
new-found knowledge to make it
their own
“Training is the organized procedure by
which people learn knowledge and/ or skill
for a definite purpose” – by Dale S. Beach
Training seeks a relatively permanent
change in an individual that will improve
his/ her ability to perform on the job. It
involves changing of

Features of Training
Training objectives are tied to organization’s
business objectives.
Training is modular so it can be adapted to
workplace schedules.
Training is tailored to trainee needs and learning
Training structure allows employees to learn at
their own pace.
Trainees are provided regular, ongoing feedback
concerning their progress while in the training
Challenges in Training

Upgrading employees' performance and improving their
skills through training is a necessity in today's competitive
environment. The training process brings with it many
questions that managers must answer. Included in these
questions are: Is training the solution to the problems? Are
the goals of training clear and realistic? Is training a good
investment? Will the training work?
• Is Training the Solution?
Are the Goals Clear and Realistic?
Is Training a Good Investment?
Will Training Work?
Need for training

Training and Development need = standard
performance – Actual performance.

Training is needed to serve the following purpose:
1. Newly recruited employees require training so as to
perform their tasks effectively.
2. Training is necessary to prepare existing employees
for higher-level jobs (promotion).
3. Existing employees require refresher training so as
to keep abreast of the latest developments in job
operations. In the face of rapid technological
changes, this is an absolute necessity.
4. Training is necessary when a person moves from
one job to another (transfer). After training the
employee can change jobs, quickly, improve his
performance levels and achieve career goals
5. Training is necessary to make employees mobile
and versatile.
6. Training is needed to bridge the gap between what
the employee has and what the job demands.
7. Training is needed for employees to gain
acceptance from peers.
Elements of Training
Identifying training needs
Designing and delivering training to meet
those needs
Planning, organizing, recording and
monitoring the training that takes place
Evaluating the effectiveness of training

More future oriented and more concerned
with education than is training.
Management Development activities
attempt to instill sound reasoning processes
to enhance one’s ability to understand and
interpret knowledge.
It focuses on the personal growth & on

Training Vs Development
Training Development
It is meant for operatives It is meant for Executives
It aims to develop some special skills in
an individual
It aims to develop the total personality
of executives
Training is one-shot affair It is a continuous process
The initiative for training comes from
the mgt.
The initiative is from the individual
himself/ herself
It is mostly the result of some outside
It is the result of internal motivation
It is a preparation to meet the present
needs of an employee
It is a preparation to meet the future
needs of the executive
It is a reactive process It is a pro-active process
Approaches of Training (current
Earlier approach of Training Current approach of training
Only training at the entry level Training throughout the career
Training in knowledge and skills Training in attitude and behavior
General training in Marketing mgt. Training in company specifics
Training through case study methods Training through real problems, action
Stress on individual Stress on team, company wide
Training in training centers Training anywhere
Training considered as a cost Training considered as a planned
investment playing rich dividends
Simple training, evaluation at the end
of the program
Training evaluation on the job by the
line manager after training.
Benefits of Internal / External
External factors of
Organizational Complexity
Job Requirements
Top management
Learning principles
Personnel functions
Internal purpose of
Improved productivity
Prevention of
Preparation for
Higher level jobs
Improved moral
Importance of Training
Increase in productivity
Better and economical use of Materials and
Reduced supervision and direction
High morale
Fill manpower needs
Increasing organizational stability and flexibility

Reduced learning time
Better industrial relations
Reduced accidents
Better management
Versatility and adaptability
Factors to be kept in mind before
conducting training
Number of employees experiencing skill
deficiency: Number of employees supposed to be
Severity of skill deficiency: What are the cons or
advantages that are being faced by the
organization due to absence of that skill?
Importance of skill: How important is skill to be
possessed by workforce.
Extent to which skill can be improved with
Training: Would there be real difference in skill
level in case the training program is conducted.
Trainees and Trainers
Who are the trainees?
Should be selected on the basis of self
Recommendations of supervisors
Recommendation by HR department
Who are the trainers?
Immediate supervisors
Members of the HR staff
Specialists in other parts of the company
Outside consultants
Industry associations
Faculty members at universities

Training Process
Step1 – Organizational objectives and strategies
Step2 – Assessment of training needs
Step3 – Establishment of training goals
Step4 – Devising training program
Step5 – Implementation of training program
Step6 – Evaluation of results

Step 1- Organizational objectives and
Step 2: Assessment of training needs
Individual level
Group level
Need assessment methods
Determining training needs
Benefits of training needs assessment
Need assessment methods:

Group or organizational
Individual analysis
Organizational goals and objectives Performance appraisal
Personnel / skill inventories Work sampling
Organizational climate indices Interviews
Efficiency indices Questionnaires, attitude survey
Exit interviews Training progress rating scales
MBO or work planning systems Observation of behaviors
Quality circles
Customer survey satisfaction data
Consideration of current and
projected changes
Determining Training Needs:
Company records
Customer complaints
New Technology
Employee grievances
Interviews with managers
Customer satisfaction surveys
Benefits of training needs assessment:
1. Trainers may be informed about the broader
needs of the training group and their sponsoring
2. The sponsoring organizations are able to reduce
the perception gap between the participant and
his or her boss about their needs and
expectations from the training program
3. Trainers are able to pitch course inputs closer to
the specific needs of the participants.

Step 3 – Establishment of training goals

Step 4 – Devising or designing training and
development program –
Every training and development program must
address certain vital issues:
1. Who participates in the program?
2. Who are the trainers?
3. What methods and techniques are to be used for
4. What should be the level of training?
5. What learning principles are needed?
6. Where is the program conducted?

Step 5 – Implementation of training

Step 6 – Evaluation of results

Responsible for Training
Top Mgmt – Frames the Training policy

HR Dept – plans, establishes and evaluates

Supervisors – implement and apply development

Employees – provide feedback, revision and

No one is a perfect fit at the time of hiring
and some training & development must take
Planned development programs will return
values to the organization in terms of :
increased productivity
reduced costs
Flexibility to adapt to changing requirements
Moulds employees’ attitude
Helps them achieve better co-operation
Creates greater loyalty to the organization
Reduces wastage and spoilage
Reduces constant supervision
Improves quality
Andragogy –Adult learning
Andragogy is the art and science of helping
adults to learn.
Technologies of adult learning flow which
have been taken care of in the training
system are as follows:
The learning climate
Diagnosis of needs
The planning process
Experimental techniques
The timing of learning

Importance of executive
development program
For any business, development is an investment in
the long run.
Developmental efforts help executives to realize
their own career goals and aspirations in a planned
Executives can show superior performance on the
Executive development programs help managers
to broader their outlook.
The special courses, projects, committee,
assignments, job rotation and other exercises help
managers to have a feel of how to discharge their
duties without rubbing people the wrong way.
Steps in organization of an
Executive Development Program
Evaluation of result

Conduct of development program


Identification of manpower

Appraisal of present management talents
analysis of organizational development needs
Decision making: In basket
skills Business games
Case studies

Interpersonal: Role play
skills Sensitivity training

Organizational: Job Rotation
Job knowledge: On-the-job experience
General knowledge: Special courses
Special meetings
Specific readings
Off-the-job: Conference
Group discussion
Programmed instruction

Decision making skills
In basket: In this method the participant is
given a number of business papers such as
memoranda, reports and telephone
messages that would typically cross a
manager's desk. The papers presented in no
particular sequence, call for actions ranging
from urgent to routine handling. The
participant is required to act on the
information contained in these papers.
Case study: This is a training method that
employs simulated business problems for
trainees to solve. The individual is expected
to study the information in the case and
make decisions based on the situation.

Business games: Simulation that represent
actual business situations are known as
business games. These simulations attempt
to duplicate selected factors in a specific
situation, which are then manipulated by the
Interpersonal skills
A manager can achieve results only when he
is able to put individuals on the right track.
He must interact with people actively and
make them work unitedly.
Role play: This is a technique in which
some problem – real or imaginary –
involving human interaction is presented
and then spontaneously acted out.

Sensitivity training: This is a method of
changing behavior through unstructured
group interaction. In sensitivity training,
the actual technique employed is training
group. It is a small group of ten to twelve
people assisted by a professional behavioral
scientist who acts as a trainer for the group.
There is no specified agenda. He merely
creates the opportunity for group members
to express their ideas and feeling freely.

Organizational knowledge
In addition to job knowledge, managers
should also poses knowledge of various
jobs, products, markets, finance creditors of
the organization, etc.
Job Rotation: The transferring of executives
from job to job and from one department to
another department in a systematic manner
is called job rotation.
Job Knowledge
On-the-job experience: On-the-job techniques are
most widely used. No other technique may interest
the trainee so much as the location of the learner is
not an artificial one.
Coaching: In coaching, the trainee is placed under
a particular supervisor who acts as an instructor
and teaches job knowledge and skills to the
trainee. He tells him what he wants him to do, how
it can be done and follows up while it is being
done and corrects errors.
Understudy: An understudy is a person who
is in training to assume at a future time, the
full responsibility of the position currently
held by his or her superior.

General knowledge
Special courses: Special courses- like the
workshops or executive development programs
organized by the institutes, universities and
colleges – help the trainees to acquire general
Special meetings: Special meetings organized in
consumers Forums, Voluntary Organizations, etc.,
help the trainees develop their general knowledge.
Special readings: Specific articles published by
various journals, specific portions of important
books are provided to the trainees to improve their
general knowledge.
Off-the-job Methods
Conference: The conference method is
another commonly used method of
executive development. Topics such as
relations, safety education, customer
relations, sales training, are often discussed,
debated, spoken about at conferences
specially organized and designed for the
Lectures: Lectures are formal presentations
on a topic by an experienced and
knowledgeable person.
Group discussion: In this method, papers
are presented by two or three trainees on a
selected topic, followed by a stimulating
Programmed Instruction: PI is a learner-
oriented technique which presents subject
matter to the trainees in small, sequential
steps, requiring frequent responses from the
trainee and immediately offering him of
their accuracy or otherwise.
Classification of Training

On the job training Off the job training
Methods of training
On-the job
- Job Instruction Training (JIT)
- Coaching
- Mentoring
- Job rotation
- Apprenticeship
- Committee assignments

Off-the job
- Vestibule training
- Role playing
- Lecture method
- Conference/ discussion approach

Four steps followed in this method are:
The trainee receives an overview of the job, its purpose
and its desired outcomes, with a clear focus on the
relevance of training
The trainer demonstrates the job in order to give the
employee a model to copy. The trainer shows a right way
to handle the job
Next, the employee is permitted to copy the trainer's way.
Demonstrations by the trainer and practice by the trainee
are repeated until the trainee masters the right way to
handle the job
Finally, the employee does the job independently without
Merits and Demerits

Trainee learns fast through practice
and observation
It is economical as it doesn’t
require any special setting
The trainee gains confidence
quickly as he does the work himself
It is most suitable for unskilled and
semi-skilled jobs where the job
operations are simple; easy to
explain and demonstrate within a
short span of time

The trainee should be as good as
the trainer.
While learning, trainee may
damage equipment, waste materials,
cause accidents frequently
Experienced workers cannot use
the machinery while it is being used
for training
Coaching is a kind of daily training feedback
given to employees by immediate
supervisors. It involves a continuous
process of learning by doing. It may be
defined as an informal, unplanned training
and development activity provided by
supervisors and peers.
Mentoring is a relationship in which a senior
manager in an organization assumes
responsibility for grooming a junior person.
Important features:
- Career functions
1. Sponsorship
2. Exposure and visibility
3. Coaching
4. Protection
5. Challenging assignments

- Psychological functions
1. Role modeling
2. Acceptance and confirmation
3. Counseling
4. Friendship

Job Rotation
This kind of training involves the
movement of trainee from one job to
another. The purpose of job rotation is to
provide trainees with a larger organizational
perspective and a greater understanding of
different functional areas as well as a better
sense of their own career objectives and
Job Rotation
Merits and Demerits
Improves participants job skills, job
Provides valuable opportunities to
network within the organization
Offers faster promotions and higher
salaries to quick learners
Lateral transfers may be beneficial in
rekindling enthusiasm and developing
new talents
Increased workload for
Constant job change may produce
stress and anxiety.
Costs may shoot up when trainees
commit mistakes
Apprentices are trainees who spend a
prescribed amount of time working with an
experienced guide, coach or trainer.
Coaching, assistantship and internships are
similar to apprenticeship training.
Committee assignments
In this method, trainees are asked to solve
an actual organizational problem. The
trainees have to work together and offer
solution to the problem.
Off-the job

- Vestibule/ simulation training
- Role playing
- Lecture method
- Conference/ discussion approach
Evaluation of training program
Job behavior
Effect on organization

Methods of Evaluation
Levels of performance
Level 1- Implementation – doing things well
Level 2 – Improving – doing things better
Level 3 – Innovating – doing new and better
Level 1- Implementing
Model 1 – Adhering – is learning to carry out
basic tasks correctly.
Model 2 – Adapting – may need to bend the rules
slightly and make adjustments to procedures in
order to make things work better.
Model 3 – Relating – this involves learning to
understand why things have been set up the way
they have and why procedures work as they do as
well as appreciating what needs to be done.
Level 2 - Improving
Model 4 – Experiencing – being able to
reflect on experiences and make out our
own meaning from them.
Model 5 – Experimenting – learning to
design and carry out systematic processes,
in the form of experiments, in order to
discover more about the job and the work,
normally in terms of particular target areas
in need of improving.

Level 3 - Innovating
Model 6 – Connecting – to connect things,
event, and people, and allow integration and
synergy to be achieved.
Model 7 – Dedicating – where we learn to
work out of sense of purpose, why we are
doing something, and why we are doing it at
a certain time and in a particular way.
Knowledge Management
Individual Knowledge is defined as the
capacity to act.
Four characteristics of Knowledge are:
Supported by rules
Constantly changing

Organizational Knowledge: What it knows, and
how fast it can know something new.
Organizational memory: An explicit, disembodied,
persistent representation of the knowledge and
information in the organization.
Knowledge management: A systematic and
organized attempt to generate knowledge within
an organization to transform its ability to store and
use knowledge for improving performance.
Types of knowledge
Tacit: something not easily visible and
expressible. Furthermore, tacit knowledge is
deeply rooted in an individuals action and
experience, as well as in the ideals, values,
or emotion he or she embraces.

Explicit knowledge: is knowledge that has
been or can be articulated, codified, and
stored in certain media. It can be readily
transmitted to others. The information
contained in encyclopedias are good
examples of explicit knowledge.
Steps in Knowledge Management
Specifying knowledge goals
Knowledge identification
Knowledge acquisition
Knowledge development
Knowledge transfer
Knowledge application
Knowledge preservation
Knowledge assessment