Industrial Hygiene
Chapter 3(b): Industrial Hygiene 2
Instructional Learning Objectives
After completing this chapter, students should
be able to :
1. Define Industrial Hygiene (IH) and explain
the scope of IH
2. Estimate TWA and TLVTWA
3. Evaluate worker exposure to toxicants and
noise
4. Assess worker exposure to toxic vapors
5. Determine the vaporization rate of a liquid
Chapter 3(b): Industrial Hygiene 3
Industrial hygiene is the science of anticipating,
recognizing, evaluating, controlling workplace
conditions and preventing workplace
environmental stressors that can cause sickness
or serious discomfort to workers.
Industrial Hygiene
Chapter 3(b): Industrial Hygiene 4
ANTICIPATION Expectation of hazard existence
IDENTIFICATION Presence of workplace exposure
EVALUATION Magnitude exposure
CONTROL Reduction to acceptable levels
Scope of Industrial Hygiene (IH)
For this topic, the focus will be on the
Evaluation aspect
Evaluation phase determines the extent and
degree of employee exposure to toxicants and
physical hazards in the workplace
Chapter 3(b): Industrial Hygiene 5
Acute Exposure: Usually Minutes, Hours or
Several Days
characterized by sudden and severe exposure
and rapid absorption of the substance.
Normally, a single large exposure is involved.
Acute health effects are often reversible
Chronic Exposure: Regular Exposure Over
Months, Years, or a Lifetime
characterized by prolonged or repeated
exposures over many days, months or years.
Symptoms may not be immediately apparent.
Chronic health effects are often irreversible.
Evaluation : Measurement of Exposure
Chapter 3(b): Industrial Hygiene 6
Determination of exposures can be done by
monitoring the concentrations of toxicant in air
continuously
For continuous concentration C(t), the TWA (time
weight average) concentration is computed:
}
=
w
t
dt t C TWA
0
) (
8
1
C(t) is the concentration of a toxicant in the air in ppm or mg/m
3
t
w
is the worker shift time in hours
TWA typically for 8 hrs exposure
TLVTWA typically for 12 hrs exposure
hrs
T C T C T C
TWA
n n
8
......
2 2 1 1
+ + +
=
Evaluating Exposures to Toxicant:
Time Weighted Average
Chapter 3(b): Industrial Hygiene 7
Partial period samples
4 hours @ 11ppm
2 hours @ 14ppm
2 hours @ 20ppm
ppm 14
hr 8
hr ppm 112
hr 2 hr 2 hr 4
ppm 20 hr 2 ppm 14 hr 2 ppm 11 hr 4
TWA
=
=
+ +
+ +
=
Example of TWA Calculation
Chapter 3(b): Industrial Hygiene 8
Exposure limits (TLVs) are meant for single
substances, but multiple simultaneous
exposures always happened in industry
If more than one chemical is present, the effects
of toxicants can be assumed to be additive.
Combined exposure limit can be calculated if:
Components have similar toxicological
effects
Combined effect is assumed to be additive
Evaluating Exposures to Toxicant:
TWA for Mixture
Chapter 3(b): Industrial Hygiene 9
The combination of exposures :
where n is the total number of toxicants,
C
i
is the concentration of chemical i
(TLVTWA)
i
is the TLVTWA for chemical species i
If the sum exceeds 1, the workers are overexposed
=
n
i
i
i
TWA TLV
C
1
) (
0 . 1
) TWA TLV (
C
...
) TWA TLV (
C
) TWA TLV (
C
n
n
2
2
1
1
<
+ +
=
=
=
n
i
i
i
n
i
i
mix
TWA TLV
C
C
TWA TLV
1
1
) (
) (
If the sum of the concentration of the toxicants in
the mixture exceeds this amount, the workers are
overexposed.
For mixtures of toxicants with different effect
(acid vapour mixed with lead fume), the TLVTWA
cannot be assumed to be additive.
Evaluating Exposures to Toxicant:
TWA for Mixture
Chapter 3(b): Industrial Hygiene 12
Air contains 5 ppm of diethylamine (TLVTWA of 10
ppm), 20 ppm of cyclohexanol (TLVTWA of 50 ppm),
and 10 ppm of propylene oxide (TLVTWA of 20 ppm).
What is the mixture TLVTWA and has this level been
exceeded?
Solution
ppm 25
ppm 20
ppm 10
ppm 50
ppm 20
ppm 10
ppm 5
ppm 10 ppm 20 ppm 5
) TWA TLV (
mix
=
+ +
+ +
=
The total mixture concentration is 5 + 20 + 10 = 35 ppm.
The workers are overexposed
Evaluating Exposures to Toxicant:
TWA for Mixture
Chapter 3(b): Industrial Hygiene 13
Noise levels are measured in decibels (dB)


.

\

=
0
10
I
I
log 10 (dB) intensity Noise
Source of noise Sound intensity Maximum exposure
level (dBA) (hr)
An absolute sound scale (in dBA), the hearing
threshold is set at 0 dBA.
Factory 90 8
Passing truck 100 2
Punch press 110 0.5
Refer to Table 311 (Crowl & Louvar pg. 90) for the
Permissible Noise Exposure from OSHA CFR1910.05
Evaluating Exposures to Noise:
Noise Intensity (decibel)
Chapter 3(b): Industrial Hygiene 14
Determine whether the following noise level is permissible:
Noise level Duration Max allowed
(dBA) (hr) (hr)
85 3.6 16
95 3.0 4
110 0.5 0.5
Solution
=
n
i
i
i
TWA TLV
C
1
) (
97 . 1
5 . 0
5 . 0
4
3
16
6 . 3
= + + =
The sum exceeds 1.0, employees are immediately required to wear
ear protection. Control methods should be developed for longterm
exposure.
Evaluating Exposures to Noise:
Noise Intensity (decibel)
Chapter 3(b): Industrial Hygiene 15
Estimating Worker Exposures to Toxic
Vapours: Vapour Concentration
The best way to determine exposures to toxic vapour
is measuring the vapour concentrations directly.
Commonly, estimates of vapour concentrations are
required in enclosed spaces, above open containers,
where drums are filled and in the area of spills.
Volatile rate Out
kQ
v
C (mass/time)
Concentration of volatile, C in enclosed volume, V
(mass/volume)
Ventilation rate, Q
v
(volume/time)
Evolution rate of volatile, Q
m
(mass/time)
Chapter 1: Introduction
C is the concentration of volatile vapor in the enclosure
(mass/volume)
V is the volume of the enclosure (volume)
Q
v
is the ventilation rate (volume/time)
k is the non ideal mixing factor (unitless), and
Q
m
is the evolution rate of volatile material (mass/time)
Perfect mixing k = 1, for non ideal mixing, k varies from 0.1 to 0.5
dt
dC
V
dt
) VC ( d
volatile of on Accumulati = =
VC volume in volatile of mass Total =
m
Q evolution from volatile of rate Mass =
C kQ
v
out volatile of rate Mass =
16
Estimating Worker Exposures to Toxic
Vapours: Vapour Concentration
Chapter 1: Introduction
C kQ Q
dt
dC
V
v m
= species volatile the on balance mass dynamic The
v
m
kQ
Q
C 0
dt
dC
= 
.

\

= hence term on accumulati the state, steady At
Let m represent mass, represents density, subscripts v and b denote the
volatile and bulk gas
6 6
10 10


.

\



.

\

= =
PM
T R
V
m
V
V
C
g
b
v
b
v
ppm
where
R
g
is the ideal gas constant T is the absolute ambient temperature
P is the absolute pressure, Mis the molecular weight of the volatile
17
Estimating Worker Exposures to Toxic
Vapours: Vapour Concentration
Chapter 1: Introduction
6
10 =
PM kQ
T R Q
C
v
g m
ppm
The term m
v
/V
b
(mass/volume) is identical to Q
m
/ kQ
v
(mass/volume)
The equation is used to determine the average concentration (ppm) of
any volatile species in an enclosure system.
Assumption:
A steadystate condition is assume, the accumulation term in the mass balance is
zero
18
Estimating Worker Exposures to Toxic
Vapours: Vapour Concentration
Chapter 1: Introduction
Estimating Worker Exposures to Toxic Vapors
EXAMPLE 37
An open toluene container in an enclosure is weighed as a function of time, and its is
determined that the average evaporation rate is 0.1 g/min. The ventilation rate is
100ft
3
/min. The temperature is 80F and the pressure is 1 atm. Estimate the
concentration of toluene vapor in the enclosure.
6
10 =
PM Q
T R Q
kC
v
g m
ppm
Solution: The value of k is not known directly, use as a parameter
Q
m
= 0.1 g/min = 2.20 10
4
Ib
m
/min
R
g
= 0.7302 ft
3
atm/lbmolR,
T = 80F = 540R,
M = 92 lb
m
/lbmol,
P = 1 atm
ppm 43 . 9
10
) mol lb / lb 92 )( atm 1 min)( / ft 100 (
) R 540 )( R mol lb / atm ft 7302 . 0 min)( / lb 10 20 . 2 (
kC
6
m
3
o o 3
m
4
ppm
=
=
k varies from 0.1 to 0.5, the concentration is expected to vary from 18.9 to
94.3 ppm.
19
Chapter 1: Introduction
Estimating the Vaporisation Rate
of a Liquid
Liquids with high saturation vapour pressures evaporate faster.
For a vaporization into stagnant air, the vaporization rate is generally
expressed via:
For many situation, P
sat
p
L g
sat
m
T R
MKAP
Q =
where
Q
m
= evaporation rate (mass/time)
M = molecular weight of the volatile substance
K = mass transfer coefficient (length/time) for an area A
R
g
= ideal gas constant, and
T
L
= absolute temperature of the liquid
P
sat
= saturation vapour pressure of pure liquid at temperature of the liquid
p = partial pressure of the vapour in the bulk stagnant gas above the liquid
( )
L g
sat
m
T R
p P MKA
Q
=
20
Chapter 1: Introduction
6
10 =
P kQ
KAP
C
v
sat
ppm
The vaporization rate of a volatile in an enclosure resulting from
evaporation of a liquid
The gas mass transfer coefficient is estimated :
3
1

.

\

=
M
M
K K
o
o
21
Estimating the Vaporisation Rate
of a Liquid