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Volume • 65 No.

September • October 2003

The Players Club at

Foxfire–host of the 2003
OTF Golf Tournament.
See page 6

Field Day Wrap-up OTF Conference & Show Graduate Student Corner
See pages 4–5
Highlights See pages 24–25

See pages 8–11

September • October 2003

TurfNews distributes useful and timely advice, Message From The

information and research from Ohio’s most
knowledgeable experts and professionals to
2003 OTF President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
OTF members and those in the turfgrass industry. OTF Field Days. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4–5
Vol. 65 • No. 5 • 2003
TurfNews is produced by the Ohio Turfgrass Foundation,
2003 OTF Golf Outing . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
PO Box 3388, Zanesville, Ohio 43702–3388, OTF Conference
1–888–OTF–3445 and is available to all members.
& Show Highlights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7–10
Golf Course Tips
Autumn Equals
OTF Calendar Core Cultivation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11–12
of Events 2003 Residental Turf Tips
Did You Know that Lawns
Mitigate Global Warming . . . . . . . . . 13
SportsTurf Tips
OTF Annual Golf Tournament
October 2, 2003
Frequently asked Questions
Players Club at Foxfire This Fall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14–15
Lockbourne, OH
888-683-3445 New Growth and Technology
Relative Fitness of Glyphosate
2003 OTF Conference & Show Resistant Creeping Bentgrass
December 9–12, 2003 Cultivars in Kentucky Bluegrass . . 16–18
Greater Columbus Convention Center
Columbus, Ohio HortShorts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
888-683-3445 Graduate Student Corner . . . . . . 20–21
Message from the Executive Director . . . . . . . . 22

Ohio Sod Producers Association . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

For more information or to register for OTF events,

please contact the OTF office at 888-683-3445 or

OTF TurfNews • Vol 65 • No .5 • 2003 • Page 2

Message From
The President

I n this past May’s OTF Turf News, I shared with you a 2003 goal of the
Ohio Turfgrass Foundation (OTF), the OhioTurfgrass Research Trust
(OTRT) and The Ohio State University (OSU). Each group shares the
common vision of taking the OSU Turfgrass Program to higher levels of
On August 26th, Dr. Stephen Myers, Chair, OSU Department of
Horticulture & Crop Science, led a meeting which included Dr. Bobby
Moser, Vice President and Dean, OSU College of Food, Agriculture and
Environmental Science, as well as representatives from OTF, OTRT and
OSU. The purpose of the meeting was to present the “common vision”
to OSU College Administration and make it a priority for development
at The Ohio State University.
The Turfgrass Science Team, chaired by Joe Rimelspach, discussed a
document the team created entitled “Opportunities for Excellence.”
The document outlined the Purpose and Mission of the Turfgrass
Science Program, the History of the Program, and “A Vision for the
Future”. The most important part of the document was the 11 different
fund-raising priorities that the Turfgrass team feels is necessary to retain
and improve its national and international stature. Each fund-raising pri-
ority has a Vision, Justification and Background, Projected Goals and
Endowment Goal.
One of the visions that was discussed in length was the Professional
Golf Management (PGM) program. Dr. Myers sees this as a “good fit” for
the Turfgrass Program. The PGM program will attract students who will
serve the golf industry such as facility managers, service providers, busi-
ness consultants and sports professionals.
Dean Moser gave his support on behalf of the College and The Ohio
State University. He believes the priorities outlined in the “Opportunities
for Excellence” document are the direction in which the Turfgrass
Program needs to go to be recognized as the finest in the nation.
Congratulations to the Turfgrass Science Team for a great job creating
“Opportunities for Excellence”. The Ohio State University Turfgrass
Science Program has a clear “Vision for the Future”.

John Mowat
2003 President, OTF

OTF TurfNews • Vol 65 • No. 5 • 2003 • Page 3

Turfgrass Field Day Draws Hundreds of
Turf Professionals to OTF Research Facility
beautiful, sunny day in the mid-eighties wel- grass program, specifically for the industry’s support
comed 423 turfgrass professionals for the 2003 raising funds for the James Beard Graduate Fellowship
Ohio State University/OTF Turfgrass Research in Turfgrass Physiology/Biochemistry (reported in the
Field Day, August 13 at the OTF Research & July/August 2003 issue of TurfNews). Heyl comment-
Education Facility. After welcoming comments from ed that in all her years with OSU’s Development
OTF President John Mowat, Dr. Bobby Moser, Dean, Department, she has never seen as strong of support
OSU College of Food, Agriculture, and Environmental for a program than received from the turfgrass industry.
Sciences, thanked Ohio’s turfgrass industry for sup- OSU Turfgrass Program spokesman for the day,
porting OSU’s Turfgrass Program, making it one of Dr. Mike Boehm, OSU Department of Plant
the premiere programs in the country. Pathology, explained the field day’s format and
Next, Linda Heyl, Director of Development, Food, divided the group into Golf Course and Sports/
Agricultural, and Environmental Programs thanked Lawn/Grounds tours.
those in attendance for financial support of the turf-

OTF TurfNews • Vol 65 • No. 5 • 2003 • Page 4

Turfgrass students are Gina Wirthman (far left) and George
Cooke III and Rodney Bockwrath (far right) and the winners
are Scott Tressel, Forevergreen Lawn Care (middle), Dan Null,
Hyde Park Country Club (left), Rick Tyler, Blackhawk Golf
Course (right).

Closest to the Pin

New at this year’s Field Day was a Closest to
the Pin Contest. For just $5, contestants
were given the opportunity to chip shots
over a pond for a chance to win a trophy.
Over $200 was raised to support the OSU
Each group then rotated among eight research
Student Turf Club. Thanks to everyone who
plots, learning about the latest research being
participated. And the winners were:
conducted at OSU. Topics included:
First Place:
• Fungicide evaluation trials - dollar spot, brown patch, etc Scott Tressel, Forevergreen Lawn Care
• Dollar spot fungicide resistance in Ohio - update Second Place:
• Fertility & dollar spot incidence Dan Null, Hyde Park Country Club
• Evaluation of the new rhizomatous tall fescues Third Place:
Rick Tyler, Blackhawk Golf Course
• PGR programs for creeping bentgrass management
• Pre and post emergent weed control studies
• Biological control of insects
• Sports turf research
• Water efficiency/irrigation study on turf The OSU Turfgrass Science Team did an excellent
• Billbug & white grub control studies job in preparing for this year’s program and turfgrass
• Ryegrass on sand-based root zones research facility. The team consists of members of the
OSU Department of Plant Pathology, Entomology,
After a lunch break, attendees were invited to partici- School of Natural Resources, and Horticulture &
pate in two afternoon programs, including: Crop Science.
Thank you to everyone who attended, and for
1. The Top 20 Ornamental Problems Facing the Turf & those whose hard work helped make the Field Day a
Landscape Professional, presented by Jim Chatfield, success. OTF hopes everyone had an enjoyable day
OSU Extension Specialist. and gained valuable information. The 2004 Field Day
is tentatively scheduled for August 11. For informa-
2. Navigating OSU websites for Turf Information, pre-
tion, contact the OTF office at 888-683-3445 or visit
sented by Dr. Dave Shetlar, OSU Turfgrass
the OTF website at

OTF TurfNews • Vol 65 • No. 5 • 2003 • Page 5

OTF Golf Tournament October 2–
The Players Club at Foxfire

If you have not yet signed up for the OTF ing season. Several contests with lots of
Annual Golf Tournament on October 2 at The great prizes will be offered. A good time is
Players Club at Foxfire—time is running out. guaranteed for all!
The OTF Annual Golf Tournament is an Again this year, the golf tournament is on a
important fundraising activity for OTF. Thursday. The goal is to accommodate OTF
Money raised from the tournament will help members who often are unable to attend on
support turfgrass research and provide Mondays.
scholarships for students in Ohio’s turfgrass Registration information was mailed in
programs. August to all OTF members. A registration
All members are encouraged to play and/or form may be found on the OTF website at
sponsor. Participating in the golf tournament Sign up now as
is a great way to reward your staff, thank space is limited to the first 144 golfers. Call
your customers, or unwind from a challeng- 888-683-3445 for more information.

The OTRT (Ohio Turfgrass Research

Trust) needs your help. Will It Sell?
This year at the OTF Conference and Show, Please complete the following form and fax it
we will once again be holding a live auction to OTF at 740-452-2552.
and need donations from everyone.
Items such as:
1. Tickets to sporting events
Yes, we will donate to this year’s auction
(Please print)
2. Weekend trips
3. Golf packages
4. Beach houses Name
Do you have access to these? Sure you do. . . with your
members at the club on through your business contacts.
Also, we are again doing the reverse raffle with only 500
tickets. The winning ticket is worth $1,000. Each ticket
costs $20. If we sell them all, we will raise more than Phone Number
$5,000 for OTRT.
Please help OTRT and OTF be the best they can be.
Item to be donated
Joe Duncan
Auction Committee Chair
Estimated Value

OTF TurfNews • Vol 65 • No. 5 • 2003 • Page 6

OTF Conference & Show
See What’s New at this
Wednesday Evening Workshop
(7:00–9:00 pm)

Year’s Conference & Show Turf “Bugs:” Some Suck, Some Don’t!—Dr. Dave
Shetlar (The BugDoc), Department of Entomology,
The Ohio State University
This workshop will emphasize detection and diag-
New and exciting changes have been made nosis of the most common turf insects found in Ohio.
to this year’s Conference & Show. The most Specimens of pests will be available for close inspec-
obvious change is the schedule. Instead of tion and new videos on sampling will be shown. It is
Monday through Thursday, this year’s event credited for 2 hours of Catagory 8 ODA recertification
runs Tuesday through Friday. credits.
Changes were made to add value for both
Free Lunch Thursday
attendees and exhibitors. It’s simple—OTF
(Thursday, December 11, 12 pm–2:00 pm)
wants to give you more for your money—and
help you prepare for your future! All attendees may enjoy a FREE lunch Thursday
on the Trade Show floor, 12 pm to 2:00 pm. You will
receive a lunch ticket when you pick up your badge at
The following is a sampling the registration desk. Visit a variety of stations on the
trade show floor to enjoy your free lunch—compli-
of what’s new this year: ments of OTF.

Welcome Reception Sod Producer Sessions

(Tuesday, December 9, 4:30–7:30 pm) (Wednesday, December 10, 1:00–4:00 pm)
The Trade Show schedule has been changed to A special track of seminars geared
allow for a new Welcome Reception on the trade show specifically for sod producers has been
floor. For those attending Tuesday Workshops, or if added to the conference program this year.
you simply want to join us Tuesday evening, this will If you produce sod, plan now to attend these
be a great chance for an early preview of the exhibits sessions immediately following the Ohio Sod
in a fun-filled, social event. Food, beverages and enter- Producers Association Annual Meeting.
tainment will be provided compliments of OTF. Lawn Care Business Management Workshop
Assistants Workshop (Thursday, December 11, 9:15 am–4:30 pm)
(Tuesday, December 9, 9:00 am–4:00 pm) People Solutions—This high-powered
This new workshop is geared to assistants and tech- workshop is being presented by two of
nicians. Topics include turfgrass calculations, basic irri- the best the Green Industry has to offer,
gation, safety, seed labels, fertilizer labels, and a soils Jim Paluch, JP Horizons and Phil Fogarty, The Weed
boot camp. A special discounted price of only $20 Man, Inc. Owners and upper level management only.
(lunch included) makes this a deal you can’t miss! It is Sponsored by Ohio Lawn Care Association.
credited by GCSAA for 0.55 CEUs. OTF Motor Speedway
You can experience the thrills, chills and excite-
ment of real stock car racing with Micro-Reality stock
car racing. Located on the trade show floor, the OTF
Motor Speedway will give participants a chance to race
radio-controlled cars around a banked, oval track.
Prizes will be awarded.

OTF TurfNews • Vol 65 • No. 5 • 2003 • Page 7

2003 Trade Show Update
Nearly every turf management product and service on the market will be on display at this
year’s OTF show. More than 250 exhibitors will occupy more than 50,000 square feet of
exhibit space. This is a great chance to preview the latest products and services, while learn-
ing from some of the industry’s most knowledgeable experts—the suppliers.
Following is a list companies planning to exhibit (as of September 15, 2003)

Acorn Farms Great Lakes Golf Perfco Printing

Adams Business Media/Green Media Green Velvet Sod Farms Perma-Green Supreme, Inc.
Advanced Turf Solutions, Inc. Griffin LLC Pinhigh Compound
Agro Chem, Inc. Grigg Bros. Plant Health Care, Inc.
Allegheny Lawn & Golf Products Grounds Maintenance Magazine Power Equipment Dist., Inc.
Alvis Materials H & E Sod Nursery Precision Laboratories, Inc.
Anderson Instrument & Supply Co. HARCO Fittings Profile/Turface
The Andersons Harmony Products, Inc. Progressive Turf Equip., Inc.
Applied Biochemists Helena Chemical Co. ProSource One
Aqua-Aid HH & J Ents., Inc. PSB Co. Div. of White Castle
Aquatrols HPB - Haydite PSP Enterprises
Barenbrug USA Huggett Sod Farm, Inc. Putnals Premium Pine Straw
BASF Corp. Irrigation Supply, Inc. R&R Products, Inc.
Batteries Plus IVI-Golf Raden Enterprises
Bayco Golf, Inc. J. Davis Marking Systems Range Servant America
Bayer Environmental Science Jacklin Seed/JR Simplot Real Green Systems
BioSafe Systems JRM, Inc. Reel Turf Equipment, Ltd.
Brookside Labs Kincaid, Inc. Reelcraft Industries
Business & Estate Planning Svcs. Knox Fertilizer Co. Regal Chemical Co.
C & S Turf Care Equip., Inc. Kubota Tractor Corp. Reliable Golf Course Supplies
Central Farm & Garden Kurtz Bros., Inc. River Valley Solutions
Century Equipment Landscape Mgmt./Advanstar Riverdale Chemical Co.
Clark State Community College Lastec Salsco, Inc.
CLC LABS Lavy Ents. Turf Grass, Inc. The Seed Center
The Clear Solution Lawn & Landscape Media Group Seed Research of Oregon
Cleary Chemical Corp. Lebanon Turf Seeds Ohio, LLC
Club Car, Inc. Lesco, Inc. SePro Corp.
Com-Til Facility Liquid Fence Co., Inc. SGD Golf
Commercial Tire Svc. Co., Inc. Locke Turf, Inc. Simplot Partners
Compensation Consultants, Inc. Logan Labs LLC SISCO
Cub Cadet Commercial Markers, Inc. SISIS, Inc./Broyhill/BLEC
Custom Mfg., Inc. McCord Terra Tire Sales Smithco, Inc.
Cutter Equipment Co. MDS Harris Spraying Devices, Inc.
Deep Roots Aerification Svc. Mid Ohio Golf Car SQM North America
Dixie Chopper Midsota Mfg., Inc. Standard Golf
Dow AgroSciences Millcreek Mfg. Strategic Turf Systems, Inc.
DryJect of Northern Ohio Milliken Turf Products Syngenta Professional Products
E.E. Johnson Monsanto Textron Golf & Turf
Eagle One Golf Products Morral Companies TriState Turf Mgmt., Inc.
Earth & Turf The Motz Group Tru-Turf Equipment
EarthWorks Natural Organic Prods. Naiad Co. Turbo Technologies, Inc.
Emmett Equipment Co. National Mower/Turfco Turf Magazine
Engle Printing National Pump Co., LLC Turf Products
Eureka Chemical Co. Neary Technologies Turfbreeze Fans
FaFard Nu-Gro Technologies, Inc. Turfgrass, Inc.
Fairmount Minerals/DM Boyd Nutramax Agriculture, Inc. Ty-Crop Mfg.
Finn Corp. Oglebay Norton United Horticultural Supply
First Products, Inc. Ohio Chapters GCSAA United Phosphorus, Inc.
Floratine/Ohio Turf Consultants Ohio Lawn Care Association Ventrac By Venture Products
Flowtronex PSI Ohio Sports Turf Mgrs. Assn. Vermeer of Ohio
FMC Corp. Ohio StateUniversity/ATI Walker Supply, Inc.
Foley United Ohio Utilities Protection Serv. Water Wick, Inc.
Forestry Suppliers, Inc. Otterbine Barebo, Inc. Watertronics, Inc.
From Tee To Green Pace, Inc. Wellington Implement, Inc.
Garick Corp. Par Aide Products Co. Wolf Creek Co.
Glenmac, Inc. PBI-Gordon Corp. Xenia Power Equipment
PCS Lawncare

To add your name to this growing list of industry leaders, call OTF at 888-683-3445.
OTF TurfNews • Vol 65 • No. 5 • 2003 • Page 8
OTF & Green Industry News
Hotel Accomodations
Planning on an overnight stay during the 2003 Ohio Hampton Inn & Suites
Turfgrass Conference & Show? Plan ahead and reserve 501 North High St
your hotel rooms early. Many hotels may be sold out if Columbus OH 43215
you wait too long. 614-559-2000
Inserted in this newsletter is a pre-printed envelope $110 + tax Single
from the Hyatt Regency Columbus, OTF’s headquarters $117 + tax Double-Quad
hotel. To reserve your room at the Hyatt Regency, simply Reservation cut-off date: November 9, 2003
complete the envelope and mail it with your payment. (refer to Code OT3 when making reservations)
Reserving your room just got easier!
Following is a list of all hotels offering special rates for Many exciting new changes are being made to
OTF participants. To make accommodations, please con- this year’s OTF Conference & Show. Please be sure
tact the hotel directly and mention that you are attend- to read about all the changes in the registration
ing the Ohio Turfgrass Conference & Show. materials that will be mailed in September. You
may also access complete details, including updates,
Hyatt Regency Columbus (Headquarters Hotel) by visiting the OTF website at
350 N High St
Columbus OH 43215
$115 + tax Single/Double
$135 + tax Triple
$145 + tax Quad
Reservation cut-off date: November 17, 2003 2003 OTF Scholarship
Crowne Plaza Hotel
Applications Accepted
33 East Nationwide Blvd
OTF is committed to improving turfgrass
Columbus OH 43215
through research and education. One of
the best ways to foster this commitment is
$118 + tax Single/Double
by providing scholarships to students pur-
$128 + tax Triple
suing green industry studies. In 2002, OTF
$138 + tax Quad
and OTRT provided over $27,000 in schol-
Reservation cut-off date: November 6, 2003
Red Roof Inn Columbus Downtown OTF members are asked to recommend
111 Nationwide Blvd any of their student employees, interns,
Columbus OH 43215 friends, or family who they feel would be
614-224-6539 qualified. An application was recently
$92 + tax Single-Quad mailed to all OTF members. The deadline
Reservation cut-off date: November 16, 2003 to apply for a scholarship is October 24,
2003. OTF scholarship information and
applications are also available on the OTF
website at

OTF TurfNews • Vol 65 • No. 5 • 2003 • Page 9

General Session, Tuesday,
December 9, 4:00 pm–Earle Bruce
A Winning Attitude Call For Nominations
Coach Earle Bruce is most well known to
most of us as being the head coach of The Ohio
All OTF members will receive forms
State University football team for nine years, in the mail for nominating this year’s
where he compiled an 81-26-1 record. He was an recipients of “Professional of the Year” and
assistant coach to Woody Hayes when they won “Professional Excellence” awards.
the national championship in 1968. Coach
Bruce has been named “Coach of the Year” in Nominees for “Professional of the
three different major conferences. He coached Year” awards are judged on the
in four post season all-star bowl games and won following attributes:
all four. In addition, he coached in 12 regular
post season bowl games. • Fellowship—willingness to share
For several years, he also coached with great knowledge with and help train fellow
success in the Arena Football League. Recently,
he has written two books and is a part of the turf personnel.
OSU football coverage on radio. He and his wife, Jean, have four daughters and • Inventive Ingenuity—leadership in
six grandchildren. In December, he was inducted into the College Football Hall developing new ideas and trends in
of Fame.
turfgrass management.
• Membership and activity in turf related
and other civic organizations.
Keynote Speech: Wednesday • Length of dedicated service to the
turf industry
December 10, 9:00 am–Larry Barnett Professional Excellence awards are based
upon similar criteria, and are awarded to
Baseball From Behind The Umpire’s Mask those deserving special recognition for signif-
icant contributions to the turfgrass industry.
Larry Barnett is a native of a small Awards and scholarships will be presented at
Ohio town. After graduating from the Annual Awards Banquet, Wednesday,
high school, he entered umpire December 10, at the Ohio Turfgrass
school in Florida. He officiated in the Conference & Show.
minor leagues for five years and in Jim Sharp, The Toro Co., and one of
1968 became the youngest major OTF’s many distinguished Past Presidents,
league umpire in history. He umpired received the Professional of the Year Award
for 31 years, having retired in 1999. in 2002. Professional Excellence Awards
He has been praised by many of the were presented to Phil Williams, The
old pros that preceded him and College of Wooster; and John Heitfield,
admits that some have had other com- Superintendent, Beechwood GC.
ments, too. You might have thought that umpires were stodgy old Do you know anyone who deserves
men with weak eyes and a slow wit. Well, here’s a man who takes recognition for contributions to turf
delight in refuting that. He certainly isn’t stodgy and has an management?
extremely quick wit.
He has umpired in 8 American League Playoffs, 4 World Watch your mail for details, or con-
Series’ and 5 All-Star games. One of Larry’s most controversial tact Kevin Thompson at 888-683-
calls came in the 3rd game of the “Super Series of 1975”..... 3445, ext. 3151, before October 24,
Naturally Barry was right again. to request a nomination form.
Much of the hard work, sweat and jeers that make up this
nation’s number one sport is often very humorous. Larry will
share some of that with us in his talk titled “BASEBALL FROM

OTF TurfNews • Vol 65 • No. 5 • 2003 • Page 10

Golf Course Tips
Autumn Equals
Core Cultivation
Dr. Karl Danneberger
Department of Horticulture & Crop Science • The Ohio State University

O f the golf course management practices, core cul- Note: It is a mute point but if the soil is not com-
pacted (I know of very few cases where greens or fair-
tivation (aerification) is probably the most noticeable
to golfers, and the least appreciated. The disruption to ways in Ohio are not!) coring will actually negatively
play is quite obvious but the benefits, although not as impact (in the short term) the before mentioned physi-
visual are just as important. Aggressive coring practices cal properties (Murphy, 1993)
are normally done during periods of active turfgrass
growth in the spring and fall. Factors involved in the
type of coring to be done (hollow versus solid, tine Impact on Root Growth
diameter and depth, degree of disruption to the turf) Root length and mass is probably enhanced over
are depended on the desired long-term outcomes. time by coring. In the short-term however, root and
Listed below are some of the facts and to some of you shoot growth is injured with coring. The drier the soil
the fiction behind core cultivation. conditions at time of coring, the greater the likelihood
root damage will occur. Increased root growth from

Soil Physical Properties coring in the autumn will not be observed until late fall
or more likely the following spring. When coring, espe-
On compacted soils, research on loamy sand has cially if the turfgrass plants are still suffering from resid-
shown that hollow tine coring (HTC) decreases the ual summer stress, make sure soil moisture levels are
soil bulk density, increases air porosity and hydraulic adequate (close to field capacity) and soil temperatures
conductivity (Murphy et al. 1993). The soil strength is are not high.
decreased with HTC, which may or may not be a
desired characteristic.
Solid tine coring (STC) is often a desired practice Cultivation Pan Layer
because it causes less disruption to the turf surface. A potential problem with continual coring is the
However, STC is not as effective as HTC with regard to development of a cultivation pan layer. This layer is a
the previously mentioned soil physical properties. thin zone of soil compaction that occurs immediately
HTC decreases the soil bulk density to a greater below the coring depth. Petrovic (1979) demonstrated
extent than STC while air porosity is 19 to 21% that compaction occurs around a hollow tine core hole.
greater with HTC than STC. Regarding soil macrop- Compaction along the edges of the coring hole is tran-
ores, HTC produces a greater percentage of these sient but at the bottom of the core a pan layer can
pores than STC. Hydraulic conductivity is also lower develop. This layer is less likely to occur when coring
with STC when compared to HTC, while soil strength under dry soil conditions, but the disadvantage as men-
is greater with STC. tioned previously is the potential for increased root
injury. I think it is important to stagger the depth of
coring to break or reduce the potential for the develop-
ment of this layer.

OTF TurfNews • Vol 65 • No. 5 • 2003 • Page 11

Thatch High Pressure Water Injection
Coring and removing the core results in no perma- During the 1990’s high-pressure water injection
nent reduction in thatch (the organic fraction). The re- devices like the Toro Hydroject© were developed to
incorporation of the cores can reduce through dilution help alleviate soil compaction on turfgrass greens.
the thatch layer. In general, coring in combination with The advantage to this procedure is the variable
other management practices like topdressing, and depth in penetration that could be achieved with lit-
aggressive vertical cutting will help in thatch manage- tle surface disruption. Research at Michigan State
ment. University (Murphy and Rieke, 1994) showed that
high-pressure injection was much more effective in
Poa annua relieving compaction as measured by soil physical
properties than hollow tine coring. High-pressure
Coring during the autumn potentially increases the water injection does have the advantage that it can
opportunity for annual bluegrass invasion. Recently be used continually. I would recommend that the
reported findings out of Penn State University has interval between uses not be less than 3 weeks. Root
found that the potential for Poa annua invasion is less damage can occur with frequent use of this technol-
when solid tines are used versus hollow tines. A possible ogy.
reason for this is that with hollow tines the soil brought
to the surface also brings Poa annua seeds. This is the
only advantage I see for using solid tines over hollow Conclusion:
tines this time of the year. Also, be sure to core cultivate Coring is an important management practice.
when the turf is actively growing. Quick recovery of the The effectiveness of this practice is dependent on a
core holes will reduce the potential for weed invasion, clear focus of what the desired end result is.
and also provide a better putting surface.

OTF TurfNews • Vol 65 • No. 5 • 2003 • Page 12

Residential Turf Tips
Did You Know that Lawns
Mitigate Global Warming
Dr. Parwinder Grewal
Department of Entomology • The Ohio State University, OARDC, Wooster

Lawns are a central part of our landscapes gen (in the form of proteins) stored in the clippings
serves as the main source of food for numerous soil
throughout North America, and have emerged as
microorganisms and invertebrates that perform impor-
the dominant land use in rapidly expanding subur-
tant functions such as nutrient release for plant growth
ban areas. Besides their aesthetic and recreational
and fighting plant diseases. To considerable extent,
value, lawns have significant mitigating effect on
returning the clippings to the soil actually reduces the
global warming due to their tremendous capacity to
amount of fertilizer needed for the lawn.
sequester atmospheric carbon and mitigating the
heat island effects. In fact, a recent report from
Unfortunately, some homeowners still bag the clip-
Colorado indicates that carbon sequestration in turf
pings and send them to the landfill. Excess grass clip-
soil occurs at a rate comparable to the land that is
pings are a problem not only for the land-fills, but also
placed in the Conservation Reserve Program in the
for the municipal composting facilities, where the large
USA. In this report, the scientists analyzed historic
amounts of clippings arriving in spring and summer can
soil data from many turfgrass sites. The data show
overload the system with high nitrogen material and
that carbon sequestration continued for up to 31
turn the process anaerobic, resulting in air pollution vio-
years in fairway type of turfgrass after its initial estab-
lations from the odors of methane, ammonia, and other
gasses released.
Plants capture atmospheric carbon dioxide to
Carbon sequestration is one of the main arguments
make their own food (carbohydrates) with the help
used for saving the “rain forest”. Lawn is like a piece of
of the sunlight. Well maintained lawns capture
the “rain forest” right in our backyard. The homeown-
more carbon dioxide than the poorly maintained
ers with well maintained lawns are contributing their
lawns with bare ground patches. These carbohy-
share to the reduction in global warming by capturing
drates are stored in plant tissues including leaves,
the excess carbon dioxide from our environment. Well-
stems, and roots. The clippings have a portion of
maintained lawns also protect topsoil from wind and
this captured carbon. This carbon along with nitro-
water erosion, absorb and filter run-off water, and
reduce noise and glare.

OTF TurfNews • Vol 65 • No. 5 • 2003 • Page 13

Sports Turf Tips
Frequently Asked
Questions This Fall
Pamela J. Sherratt, Dr. John R. Street and Dr. Karl Danneberger
The Ohio State University • Department of Horticulture & Crop Science

How can we remove rough Furthermore, turf areas that have been renovated may still
bluegrass (Poa trivialis)? become infested with RBG if there is an appreciable
amount of RBG seed in the soil.
If the RBG infestation is unacceptably large, one option
Large amounts of rough bluegrass in turf are is to renovate the field by killing all the turf and starting
most obvious in the summer because they go dor- over. Killing the grass can be achieved by applying a non-
mant (brown). Rough bluegrass (RBG) is a persis- selective herbicide or a soil fumigant such as Basamid(r),
tent perennial weed grass that is incredibly aggres- which is an alternative to methyl bromide. The added
sive in the spring and fall, making it a strong com- advantage of using a soil fumigant, either on it’s own or in
petitor in turf, especially on those areas that lose conjunction with a selective herbicide, is the soil steriliza-
grass cover (between hashes etc.). tion process, which should prevent weed seeds from
Unfortunately, there is no selective herbicide emerging. There are clear application guidelines on the
available to control RBG in a turf situation. label and there is a short time period before the field can
be re-seeded/sodded.
Clearly, with all weed problems,
the best method for control is preven-
tion. A healthy, dense sward of grass is
far less likely to be infested with weeds
than turf that is stressed or over-worn.
Note: RBG is discouraged by deep &
infrequent irrigation, proper mowing
(i.e. not scalping the grass), good
drainage, and sports traffic. In addi-
tion, using good quality seed may be
more expensive, but is less likely to be
contaminated with RBG.

OTF TurfNews • Vol 65 • No. 5 • 2003 • Page 14

Following fall core aeration,
should the field be topdressed?
Adopting a topdressing program requires some
forethought & investigation.
Native soil fields that are extremely prone to com-
paction, with little or no organic matter in the soil, are
candidates for a topdressing program. The ultimate
aim is to improve surface drainage capabilities.
A good quality topdressing mix of 80% sand and
20% compost at 1/4 inch depth each spring is an
option. The mix costs around $12/ton, with up to 50
tons applied following aeration in the spring. The
material alone will cost approx. $600. A contractor will
charge around $33 per 1000 sq.ft for1/4 inch top-
dressing depth. This would need to be done every year
(spring) with the same material. Changing/amending
the existing native soil is a long-term effort, the results
of which may not be apparent for several years, or until
the soil reaches at least 75% sand by weight.

usually transported downward. Late fall

broadleaf weed applications can be very effective
as long as the weed foliage is in a green, active
physiological condition to absorb and translocate
Beware! Broadleaf weed herbicides can be
injurious to seedling turfgrasses. Where
seedlings are present from over-seeding, most
broadleaf herbicides cannot be used until
seedlings have matured and been mowed at least
three times. Seedling turfgrass can be treated
safely with bromoxynil (Buctril). Best weed con-
trol with bromoxynil is achieved if the weeds are
less than 2" tall when treated. 2,4-D can safely be
used on young turfgrass provided the turfgrass
has been mowed at least three times and the use
rate does not exceed 1.0lb ai/acre.

We hope that you have found STT infor-

mative. Our aim is to provide you with articles
on athletic field related subjects. If you have
When is the best time to control any questions, or would like to suggest subject
matter for future tips, please contact us:
broadleaf weeds?
In the fall. Best efficacy from broadleaf weed herbi-
cides occurs when conditions are optimal for absorption Dr. John R Street–
and translocation of the herbicide downward in the
plant (i.e. usually when the weed is actively growing). In Pam Sherratt–
the fall, broadleaf herbicides and sugar compounds are

OTF TurfNews • Vol 65 • No. 5 • 2003 • Page 15

New Growth and Technology

Relative Fitness of Glyphosate

Resistant Creeping Bentgrass
Cultivars in Kentucky Bluegrass
Dr. David Gardner and Dr. Karl Danneberger
Department of Horticulture & Crop Science
The Ohio State University

reeping bentgrass is a widely used turfgrass transformed varieties. Therefore, this study was per-
species on golf course greens, tees, and fair- formed to determine whether the relative competitive
ways in the northern United States. A disad- growth of several glyphosate resistant creeping bentgrass
vantage of creeping bentgrass is its vulnerability to a lines is equivalent to traditional creeping bentgrass when
wide range of pest problems. Annual bluegrass is a transplanted into a mature and competing turf stand.
serious weedy grass problem on creeping bentgrass
putting greens. No herbicide chemistry is available to
effectively selectively control annual bluegrass in
creeping bentgrass.
Materials and Methods
Glyphosate, the active ingredient in Roundup© Creeping bentgrass plugs (Table 1) were established
brand herbicides is a broad spectrum herbicide that is from stolon nodes grown in Jiffy” Pellets (42 mm dia.) in
toxic to plants, fungi, and bacteria. Glyphosate resis- Gervais, Oregon. The plants were irrigated to prevent
tant crops have been developed by genetically engi- drought stress and fertilized to eliminate visible nutrient
neering plants with a gene that codes for an EPSP syn- deficiencies. Plants were maintained at 1.25 cm height of
thase protein with lower sensitivity to glyphosate. The cut. Plants of similar age and size were selected for planti-
Monsanto and Scotts Companies have collaborated in ng in established turf environments.
the development of genetically engineered creeping A field study was initiated on June 23, 2000 in
bentgrass cultivars that are resistant to glyphosate via Marysville, OH. Companion studies were also conducted
the heterologous expression of a gene from the CP4 in New Jersey and Oregon. The Kentucky bluegrass turf
strain of Agrobacterium sp. encoding for a glyphosate area was maintained for uniform turf coverage and sur-
resistant form of EPSP. Adoption of glyphosate resis- face drainage. Soil cores (35 mm in diameter and 60 mm
tant creeping bentgrass could potentially simplify and deep) were removed from the original turf area on 60-90
improve the control of a wide array of invasive annual, cm centers with an auger bit. Bentgrass plugs were trans-
biennial, and perennial grass, broadleaf, and sedge planted directly into the core holes so that the crowns of
species that can invade golf turf. The availability of the plant were at or slightly below the soil surface and so
glyphosate as an over-the-top treatment on glyphosate that firm contact between the Jiffy pot media was main-
resistant creeping bentgrass could significantly reduce tained with the field soil. The turf area was maintained
the need for many of these herbicides, resulting in under a regime appropriate for the original dominant
several important environmental, health, and safety species following an initial establishment phase to accli-
benefits. It is less likely to leach than most other turf mate the bentgrass transplants.
herbicides. It has low toxicity to mammals, birds, and The plots were irrigated as needed to prevent stress
fish and it is one of the few commercially available during a six-week establishment phase, and then irrigat-
herbicides classified as “Category E” by the EPA (evi- ed to maintain the existing turf. Plots were mown regu-
dence of non-carcinogenicity for humans). larly at a clipping height of 1.25 cm in Oregon, of 3.75
Concern over the release of transgenic varieties cm in New Jersey, and of 5 cm in Ohio. Nitrogen (36.6
has arisen, specifically with the competitive ability of kg·ha1 per month during active growth) and other nutri-

OTF TurfNews • Vol 65 • No. 5 • 2003 • Page 16

Table 1. Cultivars and lines of creeping bentgrass tested for aggressiveness
in a stand of Kentucky bluegrass.
Glyphosate Resistant Lines:
ASR315 ASR331 ASR333
ASR346 ASR364 ASR365
ASR368 ASR394 ASR801
ASR812 ASR814 ASR815

Non-Transformed Control Plants:

C99056L (corresponds to all lines except ASR 365, 368, and 394)
B99061R (corresponds to ASR 368 and ASR 365)
B99054P (corresponds to ASR 394)

Reference Lines:
Penn A-4

ents were applied as needed to compensate for visual

deficiency symptoms. Herbicides, insecticides and
fungicides were applied as needed to control the
Results and Discussion
integrity of plots, following standard agronomic prac- Growth of all the creeping bentgrass cultivars and
tices. lines was significantly greater in Oregon as compared
Bentgrass plant diameter was measured in cen- to New Jersey and Ohio (Analysis not shown). The
timeters during the first week of each month of the increased growth recorded in Oregon may have been
growing season. Mean plant diameter was calculated due to more favorable growing conditions in Oregon
as an average of two perpendicular measurements such as the Mediterranean climate and extended frost-
made on each tiller plot. Field Monitoring data was free period. Additionally, in Oregon the height of cut
collected monthly noting the presence and intensity was 1/2 inch and bentgrass is more tolerant of low
or absence of disease (dollarspot, brownpatch, take-all clipping heights than either the Kentucky bluegrass
patch, Pythium, etc.), beneficial or pest insects (White and perennial ryegrass turf. In both New Jersey and
grubs, cutworms, etc.) or other vertebrates and inver- Ohio, the higher height of cut may have favored the
tebrates (earthworms, etc.). Observations of plant phe- bluegrass over creeping bentgrass entries. Other fac-
notype and weediness characteristics were also collect- tors may also have contributed to the differences
ed. between locations including soil type and cultivars or
The study was conducted as a completely random- species composition in the test plot.
ized design in three replicates at each of three loca- At all locations, no differences between the refer-
tions. The mean diameter was calculated as the aver- ence, non-transformed or transformed lines were
age of the longest and shortest diameter of each bent- observed when monitoring disease incidence, insect
grass tiller plot. Analysis of variance was used to deter- susceptibility, presence or absence of beneficial organ-
mine differences in growth among the bentgrass lines. isms, plant growth characteristics, or aggressiveness
Means were compared using Fishers protected LSD. characteristics on any date.

OTF TurfNews • Vol 65 • No. 5 • 2003 • Page 17

Table 2. Mean diameter (cm) and standard deviation (S.D.) of reference culti-
vars, non-transformed controls, and transformed glyphosate resistant lines
from July 2000 to August 2001 at Marysville, OH.
2000 2001 Growth
July March August July 2000-
Cultivar Mean S.D. Mean S.D. Mean S.D. Aug. 2001

Penn A4 5.5 1.6 4.7 2.0 8.0 8.4 2.5

Crenshaw 5.5 0.8 5.1 1.9 4.1 4.2 -1.4
Penncross 5.2 1.1 4.3 1.8 6.5 6.8 1.3
C99056L 5.4 0.4 6.2 1.4 1.5 1.4 -3.9
ASR315 4.8 1.6 4.5 1.3 12.2 13.3 7.4
ASR331 4.8 0.7 4.7 2.9 9.4 10.2 4.6
ASR333 6.0 0.7 3.7 0.8 8.8 9.4 2.8
ASR346 5.1 0.7 5.5 2.3 11.0 11.6 5.9
ASR364 4.4 1.1 4.0 1.3 6.2 6.8 1.8
ASR801 4.7 0.7 3.3 0.8 2.1 2.3 -2.6
ASR812 5.4 1.0 1.5 2.6 ND † — —
ASR814 5.5 1.4 4.0 0.5 6.6 7.2 1.1
ASR815 4.5 0.4 1.2 2.0 3.2 3.4 -1.3

B99056L 6.0 1.3 3.3 1.9 3.6 3.7 -2.4

ASR365 4.5 0.5 4.0 0.9 2.2 2.2 -2.3
ASR368 5.7 0.2 4.3 2.5 5.8 5.9 0.1

B99054P 6.3 0.8 7.7 6.4 8.0 8.1 1.7

ASR394 5.4 1.3 10.5 9.1 1.8 1.2 3.6
LSD (0.05) NS‡ NS NS NS

† ND = plant was not accessible during a particular observation period either due to plant death, or to temporary dormancy.
‡ NS = Not significantly different at the 0.05 level according to Fishers Least Significant Difference (LSD) test

No-statistically significant differences in growth tage compared to non-transgenic creeping bentgrass-

were observed for any date at the Marysville, Ohio es. These results indicate that the relative fitness of
location (Table 2). The density of the Kentucky blue- transgenic lines of creeping bentgrass is within the
grass stand as well as competition from broadleaf normal range of values for other commercially avail-
weeds, such as dandelion and white clover, resulted in able cultivars. Therefore, these transgenic lines would
more variation among replications of the same cultivar not be expected to have a competitive advantage in
or line than were observed between cultivars and lines. vegetative growth over non-transformed creeping
ASR 368, ASR 333 and ASR 365 were all statistically bentgrass in either managed or unmanaged ecosys-
equivalent to their non-transformed parents and to tems. The variability in creeping bentgrass growth
commercial cultivars throughout the study period. observed in this study is less than that typically
Transgenic creeping bentgrass lines that are resistant observed due to differences in climate and cultural
to glyphosate displayed no additional increase in vege- practices, such as mowing, irrigation, and fertilization.
tative growth or relative fitness compared to tradition- The results of this, and many other studies, are
al non-transgenic creeping bentgrass when competing part of a petition that was submitted to APHIS for
with other species such as Kentucky bluegrass and review to deregulate Roundup Ready creeping bent-
perennial ryegrass maintained as turfgrass. The results grass and make it commercially available. The review
from three diverse environments (New Jersey, Oregon, process is quite lengthy and can take 18 months or
and Ohio) indicate that the expression of the gene for longer to complete. If the review is favorable,
glyphosate tolerance conferred no competitive advan- Roundup Ready Creeping Bentgrass could appear on
the market sometime in late 2004 or 2005.
OTF TurfNews • Vol 65 • No. 5 • 2003 • Page 18
By Larry Steward and Jim Chatfield
Ohio State University Extension • Nursery Landscape and Turf Team

An Invasive
You Should Know
nvasive species, be they weedy plants, exotic insects or

The first year plants are distinctly different from the sec-
pathogens, zebra mussels in our waterways, or even rabbits ond year plants. Leaves occur in a basal rosette and the
imported to Australia have been a problem for ecosystems plant is only several inches in height. The leaves are small,
and for human activities for centuries. They literally are a prob- scalloped and kidney-shaped with a mild garlic aroma. In the
lem that will not go away, so we need to learn more about inva- second year of growth, the stem elongates to 3-4 feet in
sives and their management. Think about how they affect us in length, leaves are triangular and sharply toothed, and tiny 4-
horticulture, from gypsy moths that a good portion of Ohio now petaled white flowers and long slender seedpods ( siliques )
faces, to the emerald ash borer from Asia that is a serous threat develop. This is when most people really become aware of
to ashes in woodlands and landscapes if it spreads from its the extensiveness of their garlic mustard infestation.
introduction to Michigan. From the historic devastation of fungal OSU weed ecologist John Cardina points out that garlic
pathogens to the U.S. in the past century with chestnut blight mustard is a successful invasive for several reasons. It pro-
and Dutch elm disease, to the threat imposed by sudden oak duces large amounts of seed. In its first year of growth as
death caused by Phytophthora ramorum on the West Coast. noted, the rosette of kidney-shaped leaves are often uniden-
From kudzu to Japanese knotweed, from dogwood anthracnose tified as garlic mustard. It is not beloved by deer. It is
to, well, to our discussion in this article of an invasive you believed to produce allelopathic chemicals which deter
should know—garlic mustard. growth of other plants competing for the same niche. Garlic
Garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata) is an invasive herbaceous mustard also thrives in rich woodland or garden sites with
biennial weed that hails from Europe and which was brought to high earthworm activity and rates of organic decomposition.
the Americas as an herb or culinary plant—the rest is history. It Which brings us to control. Because the rosette of first
was first reported in the U.S. on Long Island in New York in year leaves is green and growing in the fall and into the cold
1868 and in Ohio a bit later, on Lake Erie islands at the dawn of of winter it can be controlled with glyphosate herbicide (eg.
the 20th century in 1899. For unknown reasons it is become an Roundup) which is absorbed through the leaves and then
increasing problem in forests, in botanic gardens and arboreta, translocated to the roots, killing the garlic mustard plant. This
in landscape plantings and in parklands. One of the features of control approach is particularly effective because these are
garlic mustard is that its appearance changes from its first year times when glyphosate can be applied without non-target
to its second year in its life cycle, making identification difficult. damage to other plants which are dormant during that peri-
Best control involves use of glyphosate herbicide on first year od. Hand-pulling second year plants is risky as a control
growth or very early hand-pulling in the second year of garlic measure if garlic mustard has reached even the early flower-
mustard s life cycle to prevent seed production. ing stages. Research shows that viable seed may be pro-
A key feature of the biology of garlic mustard is that it is a duced even on flowers of plants that are pulled up and left in
non-woody biennial herb, producing only short stems and the garden or parkland site. Only if pulled flowering plants
leaves in its first year after seed germination, with longer stems, are bagged in plastic or completely removed from the site
leaves, flowers, fruits and seeds in its second year of growth will control with hand-pulling be assured.
before it dies back. The rosette of first year leaves persists as So, the story with this invasive is fairly positive. Though
green tissue well into the fall and winter. Garlic mustard flowers they can be quite a pest - there are control options. Hopefully
in early spring, about the time that spring beauty (Claytonia vir- we can be as successful with management strategies for
giniana) blooms (early April for most of Ohio). Seed produced in other invasives that are currently challenging horticulturists.
that second year may survive in soil for up to five years and
possibly longer.

OTF TurfNews • Vol 65 • No. 5 • 2003 • Page 19

Graduate Student Corner

Dissertation Title

Endophytes, Grasses, Insects,

and Weeds: Tying it all Together
Major Advisor:

Dr. P. Grewal
Department of Entomology
The Ohio State University, OARDC Wooster

Student: Douglas S. Richmond

Degree: Post-doctoral Researcher
We tend to think of weeds and insects as
separate and independent concerns in turfgrass
management and, to a large extent, our
approach toward research and extension reflects
this way of thinking. However, most biologists
would admit that there can be a great deal of
interdependence among these components, even
if it isn’t always obvious. When turfgrasses are
attacked by insects such as bluegrass billbugs or
white grubs, their ability to compete with
encroaching weeds is compromised. Worse yet,
when turfgrass plants die as a result of insect
damage, the new occupant of the formerly turf-
grass covered site will likely be a weed. Therefore
insect resistant turfgrasses, such as endophyte-
enhanced varieties, could provide some measure
of resistance against weed invasion by reducing
the amount of damage caused by insects.

OTF TurfNews • Vol 65 • No. 5 • 2003 • Page 20

For the last 8 years, my research has focused on plots now have fewer weed problems than the ryegrass
identifying and describing linkages between the vari- plots. This pattern makes a certain amount of sense
ous parts of turfgrass ecosystems in order to develop when you consider the establishment and growth
biologically based turfgrass management programs. As characteristics of these two grass species. Although
a Ph. D. student working in the laboratory of Dr. David perennial ryegrass establishes more quickly than tall
Shetlar, I was fortunate to have stumbled upon the fescue, it lacks the deep root system and ability to
idea that endophyte-enhanced turfgrasses may change spread by rhizome. Therefore, perennial ryegrass pro-
the dynamics of a healthy turfgrass system. While my vided greater cover and had less extensive bare areas
primary goal was to evaluate how introducing endo- available for weeds early in the study, but its recupera-
phyte-enhanced grasses into pre-existing stands might tive potential, long term vigor, and persistence were
influence insect pest populations, I also noticed an somewhat less than that of tall fescue which proved to
interesting change in the composition of these stands be a stronger competitor over time.
taking place. Because I was overseeding stands of Endophyte infection was also an important factor
Kentucky bluegrass with endophyte-enhanced perenni- in these plots. The density of Plantago (common and
al ryegrass, I expected stand composition to change buckhorn plantain) was lower in stands of endophyte-
from primarily bluegrass to primarily ryegrass over infected tall fescue compared to stands of uninfected
time. However, I didn’t necessarily expect to see insec- tall fescue whereas cover by healall (Prunella vulgaris)
ticide applications influence the speed at which this was lower in stands of endophyte-infected perennial
transition took place! ryegrass compared to uninfected stands. We’ve also
In plots receiving insecticide, the transition from been busy in the greenhouse trying to tease apart the
bluegrass to ryegrass took place more slowly than in various aspects of turfgrass-weed competition. From
plots not receiving insecticide. The culprit of this oth- our findings to date, it appears that endophyte infec-
erwise unexpected phenomenon was the bluegrass tion can definitely enhance the ability of turfgrasses to
billbug. By preferentially feeding on Kentucky blue- compete with weeds, such as dandelions, in the pres-
grass, the billbugs were facilitating the transition ence of surface feeding insects, such as armyworms.
toward endophyte-enhanced (resistant) perennial rye- However, endophytes seem to provide little benefit to
grass. This observation implies that by feeding on pre- turfgrass plants in the presence of soil feeding insects
ferred turfgrass plants, insect pests can promote like white grubs. Noteworthy however is the observa-
encroachment of less favored (by the insect) species. tion that the grubs themselves are capable of exacer-
Unfortunately, under most circumstances these less bating weed problems by reducing the ability of turf-
favored species are likely to be weeds. grasses to compete, even when grub densities are rela-
For the last 3 years, I’ve been fortunate to work as a tively low.
Post-doc in the laboratory of Dr, Parwinder Grewal at The role of biological controls, such as insect para-
the OARDC in Wooster. In Dr. Grewals’ lab, I’ve been sitic nematodes, in determining competitive interac-
able to take a closer look at how fungal endophytes tions between turfgrasses and weeds is much the same
and insects influence the composition of turfgrass as that of an insecticide. In greenhouse studies using
stands and have been able to incorporate insect para- the fall armyworm, insect parasitic nematodes bol-
sitic nematodes into the mix. I have also worked close- stered the competitive ability of both perennial rye-
ly with Dr. John Cardina (Department of Horticulture grass and tall fescue by killing armyworms before they
and Crop Science, OARDC) to understand how these caused extensive damage to the grasses. Dandelion
different pieces (plant resistance, insect herbivory, and plants growing in competition with either grass were
biological controls) influence competition between smaller and had fewer leaves when insect parasitic
turfgrasses and common weed species. nematodes were present.
In a series of low maintenance field plots seeded My future research plans include studies aimed at
with endophyte-infected or uninfected perennial rye- improving implementation of IPM in turfgrass by
grass or tall fescue, we’ve been observing weed density comparing the biological, aesthetic, and economic
and cover three times a year for the past 3 and a half characteristics of a range of turfgrass management
years. Some interesting patterns have emerged that approaches. With collaboration from various
indicate both grass species and endophyte infection researchers at Ohio State and elsewhere, I hope to
can influence the type and severity of turfgrass weed continue to tease apart the underlying relationships
problems. There was a tendency for weeds to be more between endophytes, plants, insects, and biological
of a problem in tall fescue plots during the first year controls to help build more sound, biologically based
after establishment. However, tall fescue has slowly turfgrass pest management programs.
crowded out encroaching weeds over time and these

OTF TurfNews • Vol 65 • No. 5 • 2003 • Page 21

Message From Your
Executive Director

Attending state, regional and national conferences and trade shows
can help everyone grow professionally. This is certainly true for turf-
grass managers.
Leading turfgrass researchers and university educators lead and
conduct many of the educational sessions. Peers who have faced simi-
lar situations as you, often share their experiences in panel discussions.
This is a great chance to ask questions and learn from others who have
already tackled the challenges with which you are faced.
Let’s not forget about the exhibitors in the trade show. Suppliers
should not be looked at as another sales person to avoid. Establishing
relationships with suppliers can prove to be your biggest ally. Of course
they want you to buy their products and services. But they are also
there to help you. Many exhibitors bring leading experts to trade
shows to answer questions and solve your problems. Many suppliers employ former turf managers
to market their products: therefore, they can relate to your situation.
The Ohio Turfgrass Conference & Show is a leader at helping turf managers grow profession-
ally. Educational sessions are developed with input from OTF committee members, the Ohio
Chapters of the GCSAA, Ohio Lawn Care Association, Ohio Sports Turf Managers Association,
and the Ohio Sod Producers Association.
The trade show boasts more than 250 exhibiting companies. Make sure you spend plenty of
time on the show floor establishing relationships with the exhibitors who are there to help you.
And don’t forget about networking. OTF has added a new welcome reception on the show
floor this year. There are annual meetings and awards banquets to attend. Wednesday’s reception
and auction provides ample opportunity to make contacts and meet new friends. For some, net-
working at conferences is the most valuable asset they gain.
We hope to see you December 9–12 at the Greater Columbus Convention Center. Don’t miss
this chance to grow in your profession. OTF provides a wealth of opportunities for education
and networking.

Oh, one more thing—Don’t forget to have fun!

Kevin Thompson
Executive Director

OTF TurfNews • Vol 65 • No. 5 • 2003 • Page 22

Record Number Attend TPI Summer
Convention & Field Days in Dayton, OH
olling Meadows, Illinois—Dayton,
Ohio’s accessibility proved to be the
catalyst that attracted more than 885
turf producers from 12 countries to Turfgrass
Producers International (TPI) Summer
Convention and Field Days July 23–25. This was
the largest attended summer show in TPI’s 38-
year history, topping the previous record of 797,
set in 2001 in Toronto, Canada.
The three-day program included a tour of
the Scott’s Research and Development facility in
Marysville, OH where participants viewed its
$5.2 million, 18,000 square-foot greenhouse and
150-acre outdoor research area. In addition,
tours were conducted to the 300-acre Lavy Farm
and 700-acre Scarff’s Nursery, located in New
Carlisle, OH.
Along with the tours, participants viewed 71
exhibits and equipment demonstrations, attend-
ed an educational forum, carnival evening and
fundraising golf tournament, along with a
“Banquet Beneath the Wings” reception and
dinner at the United States Air Force Museum.
The museum is currently celebrating the
Centennial of Flight.
TPI’s Winter Conference is scheduled for
February 17–21, 2003 in Santa Barbara, CA fol-
lowed by the Summer Convention and Field
Days July 21–25 in Manheim, PA.
For more information visit the TPI website: or call 1-800-405-8873.

Media Contact:
Catherine Griffith
Public Relations Coordinator
Phone: 847-705-9898 or 800-405-8873
Turfgrass Producers International
Fax: 847-705-8347
1855-A Hicks Road
Rolling Meadows, IL, USA 60008

OTF TurfNews • Vol 65 • No. 5 • 2003 • Page 23

PERMIT #7780

PO Box 3388
Zanesville, OH 43702–3388
Fax (740) 452–2552

Return Service Requested

2003 OTF Officers OTF Board of Trustees OSU Turfgrass

John Mowat
Trustees Science Team
Term Expires 2004
Century Equipment Dr. Michael J. Boehm
Boyd Montgomery The Ohio State University
Vice President Sylvania Recreation Dept. Plant Pathology
George Furrer
Lesco, Inc. Lin Ropp Dr. Karl Danneberger
UHS The Ohio State University
Treasurer Dept. Hort. & Crop Science
Todd Voss
Dr. Chuck Darrah Double Eagle Golf Club Mr. Michael Fulton
CLC LABS The Ohio State University
Immediate Past President Trustees Agricultural Technical Institute
Mark Heinlein Term Expires 2005
Dr. David Gardner
The Motz Group Glen Pottenger The Ohio State University
Director of Education Larch Tree Golf Course Dept. Hort. & Crop Science
Dr. John R. Street Dr. Parwinder Grewal
The Ohio State University OARDC/OSU
Term Expires 2006
Executive Director Dept. Entomology
Mark Grunkemeyer
Kevin Thompson Dr. Ed McCoy
Buckeye Ecocare
OTF/Offinger Management Co. OARDC
Mark Jordan School of Natural Resources
Westfield Companies Country Club
Mr. Joseph W. Rimelspach (Chairman)
Dan Walter The Ohio State University
City of Blue Ash Golf Course Dept. Plant Pathology
Ms. Pamela Sherratt
The Ohio State University
Dept. Hort. & Crop Science
Dr. Dave Shetlar
The Ohio State University
Dept. Entomology
Dr. John R. Street
The Ohio State University
Dept. Hort. & Crop Science
Dr. Daniel Voltz
The Ohio State University
Agricultural Technical Institute
Mr. David A. Willoughby
The Ohio State University
Agricultural Technical Institute