Motor Protection Application

Considerations
About the Authors
Paul Lerley has 28 years of utility and electronics experience, including 15 years at Central Maine
Power Co. He is a graduate of the University of New Hampshire and was Director of Substations
Electrical Systems at Central Maine Power prior to joining Basler Electric Company. Mr. Lerley is a
Senior Member of the IEEE and a member of four working groups of the Power System Relaying
Committee. He has authored articles on testing for the Doble Engineering Conference and Transmis-
sion and Distribution magazine. He was previously very active in the Electric Council of New England.
Mr. Lerley was a Regional Application Engineer for Basler Electric from 1994 to 1999.
Mike Young of Sanford, Florida, received his MBA from Rollins College in 1983 and BSET from
Purdue University in 1971. He worked for Wisconsin Electric Power Company as a Relay Engineer
for two years, and for Florida Power Corporation as a Field Relay Supervisor for 21 years. He
authored the text "Protective Relaying for Technicians" and co-authored papers for the Georgia Tech
Protective Relaying Conference. Mr. Young has been a Regional Application Engineer for Basler
Electric since 1994 and is a member of the IEEE.
This document contains a summary of information for the protection of various types of electrical
equipment. Neither Basler Electric Company nor anyone acting on its behalf makes any warranty or
representation, express or implied, as to the accuracy or completeness of the information contained
herein, nor assumes any responsibility or liability for the use or consequences of use of any of this
information.
First printing 4/98
1
Motor Protection Application
Considerations
1. INTRODUCTION
When applying protective relays to motors or
any other equipment, we always ask how much
protection is enough. The answer depends on
rewind cost, loss of production, effect on
downtime, new versus old installation, need for
communication, metering, control and the
consequences of a motor failure on the electri-
cal system and process.
This publication presents an overview of motor
hazards and a discussion of detection and
protection options. Basler relay models are
offered with typical setting value ranges and
considerations to help designers and users
select Basler relays for motor protection. Most
of the protection functions apply to squirrel
cage, wound induction motors and synchro-
nous motors. Additional protection is usually
provided for synchronous motors and will be
mentioned in this document.
2. OVERVIEW OF MOTOR HAZARDS
Motor protection is a challenge because there
are so many different things that can go wrong
with a motor and its associated load:
Motor induced
• Insulation failure (within the motor)
• Bearing failure
• Mechanical failure
• Synchronous motors-loss of field
Load induced
• Overload and underload
• Jamming
• High inertia
Environment induced
• High ambient temperature
• High contaminant level or blocked
ventilation
• Cold or wet ambient conditions
Source induced
• Loss of phase or phases
• Voltage unbalance
• Overvoltage
• Undervoltage
• Phase reversal
• Out of step condition resulting from system
disturbance
Operation induced
• Synchronizing or closing out of phase
• High duty cycle
• Jogging
• Rapid reversing
3. PROTECTION
3.1 Stator Faults
3.1.1 Phase Fault Overcurrent Protection
Phase to phase and three phase faults are
usually detected with nondirectional
2
instantaneous or definite time overcurrent
relays. If the available 3-phase fault current is a
low multiple of the relay setting (weak system),
quick pickup is not assured. Differential relaying
should then be considered. Instantaneous
relays are typically applicable when the motor
rating is less than one-half of the supply trans-
former KVA rating.
The instantaneous phase relay should be set at
no less than 1.6 times the locked rotor current
using the value of locked rotor current at
maximum starting voltage. This setting also
assumes the relay is sensitive to the transient
overreach (DC offset) of an asymmetrical fault.
Lower settings are possible if the relay disre-
gards the transient component or if a time delay
longer than the transient time (6-15cy) is added.
Verify that the minimum 3-phase fault current at
the motor terminals is at least 3 times the relay
setting. Fig. 1 illustrates the relay settings in
relation to the starting current and the minimum
short circuit current.
FIGURE 1. Stator short circuit protection with 50 or 50P
element.
3.1.2 Differential Protection
Differential protection is used on motors where
the available short circuit current is close to the
value of locked rotor current. It is also frequently
used on very large motors because of its
greater sensitivity. Differential protection is
always preferred; however, it is generally more
costly than instantaneous relaying because all
six leads must be brought out of the motor and
additional relays may be required.
SELF BALANCING
The most economical approach is self-balanc-
ing differential as shown in Fig. 2. Both ends of
the winding are passed through a toroidal
current transformer and connected to a 50
device. This CT has a maximum opening
around 8 inches that may preclude its use on
larger motors.
FIGURE 2. Self balancing differential.
3
With a fixed ratio of 50:5 and a sensitive instan-
taneous overcurrent, the self-balancing differen-
tial provides a pickup around 5 amps of primary
current. This scheme is self-balancing and
produces no current for starting or load varia-
tion and, because there is only one CT per
phase, there is no concern about matching CT
performance to eliminate unequal CT saturation.
CT saturation is likely for large fault currents but
is slow enough to allow the instantaneous relays
to operate.
PERCENTAGE RESTRAINT DIFFERENTIAL
When the toroidal CT cannot be used, the
percentage restraint differential circuit (Fig. 3)
must be applied. Typically, all 6 CTs are the
same ratio and accuracy class. A 2-winding
differential relay can be applied with equal
currents flowing in the restraint windings for
normal load, starting, and external faults. For
internal phase or ground faults, all of the current
will flow through the operate windings. The
scheme will also protect for cable faults be-
tween the motor and the motor breaker (52) by
using the line side CTs of the breaker. If the
motor and motor breaker are supplied sepa-
rately, be certain to match the CT ratios and
accuracy classes when specifying the equip-
ment.
FIGURE 3. Conventional percent differential relay.
3.1.3 Ground Fault Protection Ground
Sensor 50G
The preferred and most sensitive method to
detect stator ground faults is with a ground
sensor CT. All three phase leads from the motor
are passed through the opening of a toroidal
current transformer supplying the instantaneous
overcurrent 50G relay shown in Fig. 4. This
arrangement leaves only the ground fault zero
sequence currents in the CT. The typical
application calls for a 50:5 CT ratio regardless
of the size of the motor. Primary pickup values
in the range of 4-12 amps are typical. If more
sensitive settings are required, time delay may
be necessary to avoid nuisance trips due to
zero-sequence cable capacitance current flow
during external faults.
The ground fault sensor connection may be the
only scheme providing sufficient sensitivity
when the supply system is high-impedance
grounded. If a large ground fault current is
available in a solidly grounded system, the 50G
relay must operate before the low ratio CT
saturates. Fortunately, the low impedance of
solid state relays reduces the CT burden.
FIGURE 4. Ground sensor relay and residual ground
connection.
4
RESIDUAL CONNECTION 51N
For larger motors, where the conductors will not
fit through a ground sensor CT, the residual
ground connection, shown in Fig. 4, must be
used. The ground fault relay sensitivity is limited
by the phase CT ratio. Since unequal CT
performance must be expected, a 51 relay is
used to avoid tripping on false residual current.
This 51N relay must be coordinated against the
51G system ground protection relay (typically in
the supply transformer neutral). In solidly
grounded feeder applications, where the
ground fault is usually high and the CT quality
good, an instantaneous relay (50N) can be
added to accelerate the tripping. This relay
should be set at 4 x Full Load Current or higher
to avoid tripping on starting.
3.2 Thermal Damage
3.2.1 Locked Rotor Protection
When a motor stator winding is energized with
the rotor stationary, stator winding currents may
range from three to seven times rated full-load
value depending on motor design and supply
system impedance. Actual values of locked
rotor currents are part of the motor data sup-
plied by the motor manufacturer. Heating in the
stator winding, proportional to I
2
t, is 10 to 50
times rated conditions and the winding is
without benefit of the ventilation normally
produced by rotation of the rotor.
Depending on the design, a motor may be
stator limited (thermally) or rotor limited (ther-
mally) during locked-rotor conditions. The
motor manufacturer can furnish the allowable
locked-rotor time only after the motor design is
completed. This is given as time at rated locked-
rotor current starting from either rated ambient
temperature or rated operating temperature also
referred to as cold stall time or hot stall time. It
also is given as part of the motor time-current
curve defined by IEEE Standard 620-1996.
Starting times depend on motor design and
load torque characteristics and must be deter-
mined for each application. Although starting
times of 2 to 20 seconds are common, high
inertia loads may take several minutes to bring
to full speed. Starting time is increased if bus
voltage is less than nominal.
SHORT START TIMES
When the margin between the maximum start
time and the hot stall time is at least 2 to 5
seconds, locked rotor protection can easily be
achieved with a definite time overcurrent (50TP)
as shown in Fig. 5. By setting this relay close to
the Full Load Current, good protection against
failure to accelerate is obtained. To prevent the
50TP relay from operating under temporary
overloads once the motor is running, it is
supervised by the 62 timer. The time delay on
the 50TP should be set at the maximum start
time plus 25% of the thermal limit margin time.
The delay on the 62 timer should be set slightly
higher than the 50TP time delay to allow a one
or two second window for the locked rotor
protection to operate. This protection is easy to
implement in the Basler 851 and MPS multifunc-
tion relays.
FIGURE 5. Locked rotor protection – Short starting times.
Another approach often used with single-
function relays is shown in Fig. 6. The 50S or 12
(speed switch) device is used to supervise the
51S relay which is set for locked rotor protec-
tion. The speed switch is set at 10%-50% of full
speed and the 50S is set about 85% of Locked
Rotor Current (at minimum allowable voltage).
5
The 51S should be set between the hot stall
time and the start time. The 51P relay is a
second 51 relay set for running thermal over-
load. If no transient overloads are expected, the
51P and 50S relays may not be required. The
51S will then provide starting and running
protection.
FIGURE 6. Locked rotor protection short start times –
Single function relays.
LONG START TIMES
The starting current of a motor falls between the
locked rotor value when the rotor begins to turn.
Therefore, the stator heating is reduced when
the motor accelerates. For some large induction
motors with low starting voltages or with high
inertia loads and long starting times, the starting
time may exceed the allowable locked-rotor
time without excessively heating the rotor.
When the start times approach or exceed the
maximum safe stall time, protection against
locked rotor requires a 51S relay that must be
prevented from tripping soon after the motor
has successfully started as shown in Fig. 7.
(The 51S contact is likely to close due to the
intensity of the starting current following the
locked rotor current.) A speed switch set at
10%-50% of nominal speed or a 50S relay set at
about 85% of Locked Rotor Current (at mini-
mum voltage) are commonly used to supervise
the 51S relay. The 51S curve must be set to
operate below the hot stall time. When the
motor starts successfully, the 12 or 50S device
drops out and prevents the 51S from tripping
the breaker.
If the motor starts but does not accelerate to
nominal speed, this protection may not trip
since the 51S relay is cut out early in the start
sequence. The failure to accelerate would have
to be detected by the thermal overload 51P, set
for running conditions (shown in Fig. 6). How-
ever, the 51S may be used to alarm for subse-
quent overloads, including failure to accelerate
once the motor has started.
FIGURE 7. Locked rotor protection – Long start times.
3.2.2 Thermal Overload Protection
STATIC REPRESENTATION
The life of the motor is reduced if the winding
temperatures are allowed to exceed their
insulation class levels for a significant time. It is
usually assumed that for every 10 degrees C
above the design temperature limit the life of the
motor is reduced by a factor of 2.
6
When normal cooling and ambient tempera-
tures are present the temperature of the stator
winding is directly related to the stator current,
and the running thermal overload limit can be
stated on a time-current plot as recommended
in IEEE STD 620. Running thermal overload can
thus be provided by an overcurrent relay which
has a time-current characteristic similar to the
thermal overload limit. The Minimum Pick Up of
this relay is the continuous overload specifica-
tion of the motor, i.e. the (Full Load Current)x
(Service Factor). The characteristic is usually an
I
2
t curve. The time dial is chosen to coordinate
against the thermal limit and allow short dura-
tion overloads predictable from the process
analysis.
Fig. 8 shows two IEEE device numbers (51 or
49). These devices may have nearly identical
static characteristics, but will differ in their
dynamic response and, therefore, in their ability
to track the motor temperature over time.
FIGURE 8. Thermal overload – Running.
DYNAMIC CONSIDERATIONS
In order to force the static characteristic to pass
through point P in Fig.8, the user adjusts the
time dial in a 51 relay or the time constant in a
49 relay. These terms imply that the dynamic
response of a 51 element is linear, whereas the
49 element has an exponential response. When
the 49 element, found in dedicated motor relays
(as opposed to general purpose overcurrent
relays) takes the load level into account, it
becomes a realistic thermal model of the motor.
In this case, the 49 element does not reset to
zero when the current is below the overload
limit (as does the 51 relay) but settles at percent
of pickup value corresponding to the used
thermal capacity at the given load level.
Fig. 9 compares the 51 and 49 response for
nearly identical static settings. The 51 relay is a
more conservative choice since it tends to trip
faster than the 49 relay. The 51 is an acceptable
choice for any process where temporary
overloads are abnormal. The 49 is preferred
when the process requires the tolerance of
temporary overloads.
FIGURE 9. Compare 51 and 49 dynamic response.
TEMPERATURE SENSING
Motors are typically cooled by means of a rotor-
mounted fan blade that forces air through the
motor frame while the motor is running. Thermal
limits and temperature rise are based on this
cooling functioning as designed with a known
level of ambient air temperature. If normal
7
cooling is blocked, overheating at normal load
current is possible. The only protection will be
temperature-measuring devices located in the
motor such as RTD’s or thermocouples. Basler
MPS100 and 200 series relays provide this
protection with inputs from RTD’s or thermo-
couples imbedded in one or more of the wind-
ing slots.
The MPS relays monitor the RTD resistance and
accept two setting levels for each monitored
point: a low setting for alarm and a high setting
for shutdown. The specific settings are derived
from the winding insulation class, defined in
NEMA MG-1, and judgment based on the plant
operating conditions. The recommended setting
for alarm temperature level is the sum of the
maximum ambient, plus 10 degrees hotspot
allowance, plus the full load temperature rise.
This value should be below the insulation class
rating. The trip level can be up to 50 degrees C
above the class rating if the process is critical,
since the loss of life from occasional short
overload periods is insignificant. Setting the trip
temperature at the insulation class limit is a
conservative setting.
3.2.3 Repetitive Starts and Jogging
Protection
In repeated starting and intermittent operation
very little heat is carried away by the cooling air
produced by a turning rotor. Repeated starts
can build up temperatures to dangerously high
values in either stator or rotor windings unless
enough time is provided to allow the heat to be
dissipated.
The NEMA MG1-1993 (Motor Guide) sections
12.50, 20.43 and 21.43 provide guidelines for
typical installations. These standards allow two
starts in succession, coasting to reset between
starts with the motor initially at ambient tem-
perature, and for one start when the motor is at
a temperature not exceeding its rated load
operating temperature. This assumes that the
applied voltage, load torque during accelera-
tion, method of starting, and load inertia are all
within values for which the motor was designed.
The application and protection of motors having
abnormal starting conditions must be coordi-
nated with the manufacturer.
The Basler MPS relays have protection for too
many starts. The user selects a setting for
number of starts and time period to match
manufacturer recommendations. Exact determi-
nation of starting frequency is a very complex
calculation that is affected by many factors
including motor size, enclosure, voltage,
ambient temperature, inertia, load-speed-torque
characteristic, and running time. Motor restarts
will typically depend more on the stator thermal
capacity than on rotor thermal capacity and stall
time. The best rule, by far, is to minimize the
number of starts since each start reduces the
life of the motor.
Motors protected by Basler MPS relays include
a protective element for thermal overload
protection. Unlike their inverse time electrome-
chanical counterparts, these relays can remem-
ber the stored value of the “accumulated
thermal capacity”. Motor starting alone may use
up 50%-65% of the available thermal capacity.
These multifunction devices also recognize a
stopped motor will cool slower than a running
motor because there is no cooling air produced
by the rotor. Therefore, it is possible that
attempting to start a motor twice in rapid
succession may cause a protective trip on
thermal overload. However, we should still
adhere to the manufacturer’s recommendation
for frequent starts.
3.2.4 Unbalance Protection
CAUSE AND EFFECTS
Unbalance in the feeder phase voltages or
motor winding impedance will cause unbal-
anced currents to flow to the motor. The nega-
tive sequence current from the unbalance will
cause rotor heating and additional copper
losses in the stator windings due to an increase
line current. Due to the low negative sequence
motor impedance the % negative sequence
current is typically about five times larger than
the % negative sequence voltage. Unbalanced
conditions must be detected to avoid thermal
damage to the running motor.
DETECTION
Although the current unbalance is the param-
eter directly responsible for the temperature
increase in the motor, two detection methods
are available: voltage and current unbalance.
8
Voltage Sensing (47)
This method has the advantage of detecting the
unbalance voltage for a complete bus to which
several motor loads may be connected, but has
the disadvantage of requiring that all motors be
tripped when an unbalance exceeds the setting.
The bus voltage unbalance may be tolerated by
a motor if its load is lighter at the time of the
unbalance.
Two common measuring techniques have been
implemented: the NEMA defined unbalance and
negative sequence voltage measurement. The
NEMA definition, found in MG1 is:
%Unbalance=(Max Deviation from Avg.)/Avg.
The negative sequence voltage is usually
defined in % of nominal voltage.
Current Sensing (46)
Current unbalance is measured in the motor
feeder itself and has the advantage of being
adapted to each motor. It is easy to implement
in multifunction and dedicated motor protection
relays. Measuring algorithms include the true
negative sequence measurement and the
difference between the maximum and minimum
phase currents.
SETTINGS
Voltage Relay
NEMA recommends in MG1 that continuous
voltage unbalance should never exceed 5%. For
small to moderate unbalance, the NEMA and
negative sequence formulae yield approxi-
mately the same result. A voltage unbalance
relay can, therefore, be set at an MPU of 5%. To
set the time delay to trip, consider the thermal
damage by the corresponding negative se-
quence current. To this voltage unbalance of
5% corresponds an I
2
of about 25%, provided
the voltage is measured at the motor terminals.
Assuming the motor can tolerate I
2
t=K, the
maximum time delay for a 5% voltage unbal-
ance and K=40 would be 640 seconds. Al-
though no standard exists for motors, a value of
K=40 is often used.
Unfortunately the 47N relay does not offer an
extremely inverse characteristic that could
emulate the I
2
t characteristic. It is suggested to
base the time delay on the worst case expected
unbalance, i.e. open phase in the motor feeder
cable. The positive and negative sequence
currents are then equal (1pu at full load). The
trip time for this unbalance condition would thus
be equal to K (I
2
=1pu). For K=40, the maxi-
mum delay for an open phase should be 40
seconds. If the relay uses a definite time, this
will have to be the setting, and result in overpro-
tection if the unbalance is less severe. If the
timing curve is inverse, the time dial should be
selected to cause tripping when the voltage
unbalance, at the motor terminals, correspond-
ing to the 1 pu I
2
is equal to 20%.
In most applications the voltage seen by the
47N will not come from the motor terminal, but
from the bus. Depending on the size and nature
of other loads (static Vs motor) connected to the
bus, the 47N may not sense the open phase in
the motor feeder. Therefore, 47N application
requires careful analysis.
Current relay
In order to relate the current unbalance MPU
setting to the 5% NEMA voltage unbalance limit,
it is necessary to establish the correlation
between the current unbalance algorithm and
the unbalanced voltage. For a negative se-
quence type element, the I
2
% MPU setting is
approximately 5 times the % voltage unbalance
for the worst case nominal load condition. For
other algorithms, the Instruction Manual must
be consulted.
The current unbalance measuring elements
have an I
2
t=K like characteristic which makes
the time delay settings easier to apply than with
the voltage relay. If no other information is
available choose K=40. The worst case unbal-
ance occurs for an open phase at full load. The
negative sequence current is then equal to the
positive sequence current, i.e. 1 pu. The time
dial should be set to cause tripping in 40
seconds in this case where K=40.
3.3 Abnormal Supply
According to the NEMA MG1-1993 section
20.45, motors are generally expected to operate
successfully under running conditions at rated
load with a variation of plus or minus 10% of
rated voltage, plus or minus 5% of rated fre-
quency, or a combination of the two, provided
the sum of the absolute values of the deviations
does not exceed 10% and the frequency
variation does not exceed plus or minus 5%. For
synchronous motors, rated excitation current
must be maintained.
9
Fig. 10 shows the effects of voltage and fre-
quency variations on induction motor character-
istics.
Given these limits, there is no one protective
device that can make a direct determination of
these quantities simultaneously. However,
variation in voltage or frequency will usually
result in an increase in stator winding tempera-
ture over a long period of time. Direct tempera-
ture measuring devices, such as RTDs, will
detect the change and provide adequate
warning or tripping, provided the abnormal
condition is not extreme.
A large induction motor rotating at rated speed
or a large synchronous motor with fixed excita-
tion may be approximated at steady-state
conditions as a constant kilovoltampere device
for a given shaft load, and, therefore, current
variations follow voltage variations inversely. An
undervoltage condition will result in an overcur-
rent condition. Single phase over- or
undervoltage is likely to be detected by unbal-
anced voltage or current protection if so
equipped. Three-phase undervoltage will be
protected by thermal overload protection since
the current will be higher than normal for a
given load. Voltage relays, per se, are generally
not always sensitive enough to provide reliable
protection, especially on busses where several
motors are connected, since the spinning
motors will support the voltage on the low or
missing phase. However, an inverse time or
definite time undervoltage relay is recom-
mended to trip when a prolonged undervoltage
condition exists and as a backup. Pickup
settings of 0.8-0.85 per unit will provide ad-
equate protection. The time delay should be set
slightly longer than the maximum starting time
with minimum allowable voltage to ensure
undervoltage will not trip for a start.
A separate concern of undervoltage is its impact
on starting a motor. Unlike a running motor, low
voltage on starting of a motor produces lower
starting current and, hence, lowers torque. If the
torque is too low to overcome the torque
requirements of the load, the motor will not
successfully start. The MPS210, equipped with
control functions, checks the supply voltage
before starting; if the voltage is too low, the
relay prevents starting.
3.3.1 Voltage Drop During Starting
Another concern during motor starting is the
voltage drop caused by the locked rotor current
flowing through the supply transformer. A weak
system or undersized supply transformer will
only aggravate the situation. When the supply
voltage decreases during start, then so does the
current and starting torque. If there are other
running motors on the bus, the reduced voltage
will cause higher currents and further increase
the voltage drop. Should the voltage drop low
enough, it is possible for the motor torque to be
low enough to prevent a successful start of the
motor.
Whether motor starting or system weakness is
the problem, reduced voltage may cause
trouble at times other than during acceleration.
Reduced voltage running will cause overheating
with time. Short term voltage dips may also
cause an already running motor to stall. The
user should also consider the effect of trying to
start more than one motor at the same time,
which will only aggravate the undervoltage
condition. Many motors use motor contactors
powered by the ac line voltage. Reduced
voltage could drop out the motor contactor and
cause an already running motor to be dropped
off line when the motor contactor drops out.
Voltage drop calculations should be performed
to determine what the motor voltage conditions
will be during starting. The calculation should
be checked at maximum and minimum ex-
pected bus voltage before start. In a properly
designed power system, with a good match
between bus and motor design voltages,
starting voltage dips of 15%-20% are not
uncommon. Designers frequently assume that
an accelerating motor draws its full voltage
inrush current and calculate the upstream
voltage drops on that basis. Clearly, any voltage
drop in the supply system means that full
voltage and corresponding inrush current
cannot be present.
3.3.2 Reduced Voltage Starting
When voltage drops are excessive during
starting, reduced voltage starting techniques
may be employed. These add to the motor
controls but may be less expensive than chang-
ing transformers and cables. All of these tech-
10
niques use some method to apply partial
voltage to the motor during the initial starting
sequence, then when the motor is at partial
speed, full voltage is applied to finish the start
sequence. The Basler MPS210 supports re-
duced voltage starting.
Wye-Delta starting applies a reduced voltage at
the beginning of the start sequence with a wye
connection of the motor and then changes to
the delta connection of the motor to complete
the start sequence. This arrangement reduces
starting torque and voltage drop on the motor
bus.
Another method of reduced voltage starting is
autotransformer start. The autotransformer is
connected in wye with the supply voltage and,
during starting, the tapped partial voltage is
applied to the motor. When the starting
contactor makes its transition, the partial
voltage source is opened, and full supply
voltage is applied. Detailed descriptions of
these schemes may be found in the Instruction
Manual for the Basler MPS210 relay.
3.3.3 Frequency Protection
Frequency in excess of rated frequency but not
in excess of 5% over the rated frequency
without a corresponding voltage increase is not
considered to be a hazardous condition for
synchronous or induction motors provided the
driven equipment does not overload the motors
at the higher frequency.
At decreased frequency without a correspond-
ing voltage drop, the flux requirements of a
motor are increased, thus increasing the
hysterisis and eddy current losses and heating.
Sustained operation at 5% below nominal
frequency and rated or overvoltage is not
permissible per NEMA MG1-1993 section 20.45.
Protection against this type of operation is
FIGURE 10. The effects of voltage and frequency variation on induction-motor characteristics.
Characteristic Voltage Frequency
110% 90% 105% 95%
Torques*
Starting and
Max Running
Increase 21% Decrease 19% Decrease 10% Increase 11 %
Speed†
Synchronous
Full-load
Percent Slip
No Change
Increase 1%
Decrease 17%
No Change
Decrease 1.5%
Increase 23%
Increase 5%
Increase 5%
Little Change
Decrease 5%
Decrease 5%
Little Change
Efficiency
Full-load
3/4-load
1/2-load
Increase 0.5 to
1 point
Little Change
1 to 2 points
Decrease 2
points
Little Change
Increase 1 to 2
points
Slight Increase
Slight Increase
Slight Increase
Slight Decrease
Slight Decrease
Slight Decrease
Power Factor
Full-load
3/4-load
1/2-load
Decrease 3
points
Decrease 4
points
Decrease 5 to
6 points
Increase 1
point
Increase 2 to 3
points
Increase 4 to 5
points
Slight increase
Slight Increase
Slight Increase
Slight Decrease
Slight Decrease
Slight Decrease
Current
Starting
Full-load
Increase 10 to
12%
Decrease 7%
Decrease 10 to
12%
Increase 11%
Decrease 5 to
6%
Slight Decrease
Increase 5 to
6%
Slight Increase
Temperature
Rise
Decrease 3° to
4°C
Increase 6° to
7°C
Slight Decrease Slight Increase
Max Over-Load
Capacity
Increase 12% Decrease 19% Slight Decrease Slight Increase
Magnetic Noise
Slight
Increase
Slight Decrease Slight Decrease Slight Increase
* Torques of an induction motor will vary as the square of the voltage.
† The speed of an induction motor will vary directly with the frequency.
11
typically thermal overload or RTD temperature
measurement. However, more refined protec-
tion can be obtained with the Basler 81O/U
over/under frequency relay. Time delay settings
of 20-30 seconds will allow it to ride though
transient conditions without nuisance tripping.
Many utility substations are equipped with
underfrequency load shedding relays to reduce
the system load during a loss of generation and
subsequent decay in system frequency. Large
motor loads connected to the distribution
substation may interfere with the normal opera-
tion of the underfrequency relay by allowing it to
see a decline in frequency without a complete
loss of voltage. This can happen when the
distribution bus is disconnected from the supply
transformer and the underfrequency relay is
connected to the distribution bus. The relay will
then see the residual voltage from the motor
load and may operate incorrectly. Relocating
the underfrequency voltage transformer to the
high side of the supply transformer or adding
additional time delay to the underfrequency time
delay may solve the problem.
3.4 Mechanical or Process Protection
3.4.1 Undercurrent
We generally think of protective relays as
devices that protect electrical equipment. In the
case of motor protection, there may be times
when they are used to protect the process. For
example, the water pumping station that is
intended to operate continuously at 90% of full
load current. If the pump were to be damaged,
lose its prime, or the shaft break, the load on
the motor would be drastically reduced. The
Basler MPS relay monitors for undercurrent or
under power conditions. These elements are not
in service until the motor is running and can be
set to detect these loss-of-load conditions to
alarm or trip.
3.4.2 Bearing Protection
To minimize damage caused by bearing failure,
protective devices should be used to sound an
alarm or de-energize the motor. Bearing protec-
tive devices responsive to one or more of the
following conditions may be included:
(1) Low oil level in reservoir: (device 71) level
switch
(2) Low oil pressure: (device 63) pressure
switch
(3) Reduced oil flow: (device 80) flow switch
(4) High temperature: (device 38) thermo-
couples or resistance temperature detector
(5) Rate of temperature rise
(6) Vibration (used on motors with anti-friction
bearings in place of thermal devices)
Large motor bearings are usually monitored by
a resistance temperature detector (RTD) which
can be used as one of the inputs to the Basler
MPS200 or 210 relay. The dual-setpoint of the
RTD function of the MPS allows for alarm and
trip settings at two different temperatures.
4. BUS TRANSFER AND RECLOSING
Many motor busses are critical to process or
plant operation and, therefore, must be main-
tained if at all possible. For static loads, high
speed reclosing or transfer to an alternate
source is appropriate. Motor loads require
special considerations. When the motor is
disconnected from the voltage supply, the
voltage at the motor terminals does not go to
zero. The machine generates a voltage at its
open-circuited terminals that decays with time.
A fast reclose applies the full bus supply voltage
in series with the residual motor voltage, pro-
ducing a total winding voltage that can be
dangerously high. Capacitors in the circuit only
make the situation worse.
A second complication is the decay in motor
speed with respect to the supply system. The
frequency of the residual voltage in the motor
will be a decaying value of frequency as the
motor begins to slow down. The worst case
could be nearly 2.0 per unit voltage and 180
degrees out of phase with the supply voltage.
The possibility of damage exists for local
reclosing of the motor, high side reclosing from
the utility, transferring to an alternate source, or
reduced voltage motor starting; they all mean
the motor will be re-energized after some dead
time and the same principles apply.
12
4.1 Parallel Transfer
Parallel transfer is a method of transferring
process loads from one source to an alternate
source. In this method, the bus tie breaker is
closed before the normal source breaker is
opened. This method has gained wide accep-
tance because the transient on the motor bus is
eliminated, assuming the two sources are in
phase. However, the bus system designed for
this transfer method may violate the interrupt
rating for the circuit breakers and the short-term
withstand ratings of the normal and alternate
source power transformers. A fault in a motor or
its leads occurring during the time the sources
are paralleled may produce fault current levels
in excess of the circuit breaker ratings. The
probability of this happening may be viewed as
small; however, the consequences of such a
fault should be thoroughly understood before
the parallel transfer system is used.
Parallel transfer requires a high-speed sync-
check relay such as the Basler BE1-25 as
shown in Fig. 11 to ensure that the phase
difference across the bus tie breaker is within
acceptable limits prior to transfer. Without this
permissive relay, a large phase angle would
cause a power surge through the bus system
that could cause damage to the bus system
components. An angle setting of 15-25 degrees
with no time delay may be used.
FIGURE 11. High-speed sync-check relay.
4.2 Fast Transfer
Fast transfer involves opening the normal
source breaker prior to closing the tie breaker,
thus avoiding the problems associated with
parallel transfer. This method is intended to
minimize the transfer time between sources.
However, the bus must always be completely
disconnected from both sources for a short
period of time.
One technique involves issuing simultaneous
trip and close commands to the normal source
and bus tie breaker. If the tripping breaker is
abnormally slow, the sources can be briefly
paralleled, introducing the problems of parallel
transfer. Another method involves using a “b”
contact from the normal source breaker to close
the bus tie breaker.
Especially during abnormal transient conditions,
supervision of the fast transfer requires a high-
speed sync-check relay such as the Basler BE1-
25 to ensure that the phase angle between the
motor bus voltage and the alternate source
13
voltage is within acceptable limits prior to
closing the bus tie breaker. An angle setting of
15-25 degrees with no time delay may be used.
4.3 Delayed Transfer on Residual Voltage
Residual voltage transfer involves waiting until
the bus voltage drops below a predetermined
point before closing the alternate source
breaker. This technique is the slowest of the
methods in that the open-circuit time of the bus
is the greatest. By waiting until the voltage is
33% of rated voltage, the resultant voltage
across the alternate source breaker is reduced
to a maximum of 1.33 p.u. This supervision can
be achieved with a 27 relay set at .33 per unit
with no time delay or by adding a fixed time
delay to the closure of the alternate source.
Typical residual voltage decay is shown in Fig.
12. The length of time required for the voltage
to decay depends on how quickly the stored
electromechanical energy dissipates. The
motor’s open circuit time constant may be
defined as follows:
where:
f = frequency
Xm = per unit magnetizing reactance of the
motor
X2r = per unit rotor reactance at running speed
R2r = per unit rotor resistance at running speed
At a value of one time constant, the voltage will
have decayed to 36.8% of its initial value. Each
successive time constant will drop the voltage
and additional 36.8% until no voltage remains.
A safe value of residual voltage is considered .33
per unit per ANSI and IEEE. Meeting that re-
quirement requires a delay in circuit reclosure of
at least one to one and one-half time constants.
When auto-reclose of the motor feeder or auto-
reclose of the utility source takes place, the
residual voltage considerations should be used.
Either the motor should be disconnected prior to
reclose by using an 81O/U relay, or the reclose
should be delayed until the voltage has decayed
to .33 per unit.
FIGURE 12. Decay of open circuit voltage and phase
angle.
When the user does not wish to reclose or
transfer the motor load but wants to protect it
from being re-energized out of phase or with
high residual voltage, a Basler BE1-81O/U set at
97 to 98% of rated frequency with a time delay
of 10-20 cycles will protect the motor by detect-
ing and underfrequency condition as the motor
is decelerating and tripping the supply breaker.
The time delay will have to be shortened if high
speed reclosing is being used. The same relay
can be used for automatic load shedding of the
motor at abnormally low frequencies. In both
cases potential transformers must be located
between the motor supply breaker and the
motor leads.
For synchronous motors, reclosing must not be
permitted until proper resynchronization can be
performed. This means tripping the supply
breaker with an undervoltage or underfrequency
relay.
5. SYNCHRONOUS MOTORS
Protection of the synchronous motor is similar
to that of the induction machine with additional
requirement for field, loss of excitation and out
of step conditions. The field may have its own
protection for loss of field or field undervoltage.
Out of step protection is applied to synchronous
motors and synchronous condensers to detect
pullout resulting from excessive shaft load or
too-low supply voltage. Small synchronous
machines with brush-type exciters are often
protected against out of step operation (or loss
of excitation) by ac voltage devices connected
in the field. No ac voltage is present when the
motor is operating synchronously.
Synchronous motors can be protected against
loss of excitation by a low-set undercurrent relay
connected to the field. This relay should have a
time delay drop out. On large synchronous
motors an impedance relay is frequently applied
that operates on excessive var flow into the
machine, indicating abnormally low field excita-
tion. If an undervoltage unit is part of the relay,
its function should be shorted out because loss
of motor field may produce little or no voltage
drop.
Operation of synchronous motors drawing
reactive power from the system can result in
overheating in parts of the rotor that do not
normally carry current. Some loss-of-field relays
(device 40) can detect this phenomenon.
The Power Factor Relay (device 55) can also be
used to detect an out of step or loss of excita-
tion condition in a synchronous motor. When
the motor loses synchronism or loss of field it
will produce watt flow out of the motor and var
flow into it. A short time delay is typical, and the
relay is generally not in service until the motor is
running at synchronous speed.
6. TYPICAL PROTECTION FOR MOTORS
CASE 1 - Small Motor (100-600HP)
This example suggests the relay selection and
typical settings for motors in the 100-600HP
range. This range is somewhat arbitrary. Cost
and process considerations will ultimately
determine the choice of protection level.
The proposed scheme shown in Fig. 13 applies
to situations where the load has low inertia, the
14
starting times are short and a significant time
margin exists between the maximum start time
and the hot stall time. The load is assumed to
remain within the motor rating during normal
process conditions, allowing the use of one 51
element for locked rotor and running thermal
overload protection.
FIGURE 13. Typical small motor protection (100-600HP)
CASE 2 Medium Size Motor (600-1500HP)
Single Function Relays
This example suggests the relay selection and
typical settings for motors in the 600-1500HP
range. This range is somewhat arbitrary. Cost
and process considerations will ultimately
determine the choice of protection level.
The proposed scheme shown in Fig. 14 applies
to situations where the load has high inertia, the
starting times are long and a small time margin
exists between the maximum start time and the
hot stall time. The load is assumed to periodi-
cally exceed the motor rating during normal
process conditions, requiring the use of two
separate 51 elements for locked rotor and
15
running thermal overload protection. For the 51S
locked rotor protection, an Extremely Inverse
characteristic will best match the hot stall time
curve. If the time dial range is insufficient, the
trip time can be adjusted by raising the tap
setting to decrease the effective multiple of tap.
The 51P, running thermal overload relay must
have a MPU equal to the continuous overload
limit. A time-current coordination should be
performed if the protection is to be optimized.
FIGURE 14. Typical medium size motor protection –
Single function relays (600-1500HP), High
inertia-discrete relays.
CASE 2A Medium Size Motor (600-1500HP)
Multifunction Relay
This example suggests the relay selection and
typical settings for motors in the 600-1500HP
range. This range is somewhat arbitrary. Cost
and process considerations will ultimately
determine the choice of the protection level.
The functions are similar to Case 2, except that
they are integrated into the BE1-851 multifunc-
tion overcurrent relay shown in Fig. 15. The 851
offers one time overcurrent and two instanta-
neous overcurrent for phase, ground and
negative sequence. We will also take advantage
of multiple setting groups, independent timers,
and programmable time overcurrent curves.
Programmable alarms, metering, and oscillogra-
phy will help monitor the motor performance.
The 851 uses programmable BESTLogic to
customize the relay operation for each applica-
tion. Two basic schemes are presented here,
one for normal loads and one for high inertia
loads. Full details of the 851 programming and
setting for each scheme can be found in the 851
instruction manual.
For low inertia loads, Locked Rotor protection is
covered with a “maximum start time” logic. As
shown in the Fig. 15 logic diagram when the
motor starts, the 62 starts timing and the 50P is
above pickup and timing. The definite time delay
of the 50P is set at the motor maximum start
time with the 62 set a second or two longer. If
the motor starts successfully, the 50P will drop
out before its definite timer elapses. Once the
motor is running, the 62 timer times out and
blocks the logic AND gate from nuisance tripping
the motor on temporary overloads if the 50P
should pick up again. If the motor does not start
successfully, the 50P will stay picked up until it
times out and will trip for locked rotor conditions.
Thermal overload protection is provided by the
51P element of the 851. The user programmable
time overcurrent curve is used to simulate the I
2
t
heating. The constants shown in Case 2A
settings table will give an approximate range of
2.5 to 25 seconds at 6 times tap for time dials 1
and 10, respectively. If a different range is
required, change the value of constant A.
The stator short circuit element (150TP) is often
applied with a short time delay to overcome
asymmetrical current during fault conditions.
This is not necessary in the 851 since it only
measures the symmetrical current.
FIGURE 15. Typical medium size motor protection –
Multifunction relays (600-1500HP), High or low
inertia-multifunction overcurrent.
16
Current unbalance (46N) detection provides
rotor thermal protection. The negative sequence
(51Q) MPU setting in Amperes is approximately
5 x (max Continuous Voltage unbalance, pu) x
(Full Load Current, secondary). The time dial is
set to cause tripping in K (the assumed I
2
2
t
value) seconds for I
2
=Full Load Current.
The programmable alarm feature of the 851 can
be used to provide pre-trip alarms for thermal
overload and current unbalance.
For high inertia loads the 851 switches setting
groups for locked rotor protection since “maxi-
mum start time“ is not feasible. When the motor
breaker is open, the 851 is using setting group 0
which has the 51 set with a lower time dial to
match the locked rotor thermal limit. This is
shown as the 51S curve. As shown in the Fig.
15 logic diagram when the motor starts the
breaker is closed and the 50P is picked up
which keeps the relay in group 0 settings. When
the motor starts successfully, the 50P will drop
out and the 851 will change to setting group 1.
Setting group 1 raises the time dial on the time
overcurrent to match the running overload
characteristics of the motor. This is shown as
the 51P curve. When the motor breaker is
opened, the 851 returns to group 0 settings.
CASE 3 Comprehensive protection for medium
and large motors (>600HP)
This protection uses dedicated microprocessor
MPS200 or MPS210 relays which, in addition to
the essential 50P, 50G, 49, 46,47, 27 functions,
offers undercurrent (27), underpower (32U), low
PF (55), overvoltage (59), jam protection, and 10
RTDs. There are dual setting levels for trip and
alarm for most functions. These relays track the
motor temperature accurately (thermal model-
ling) and offer calculated, statistical and fault
data to help the operators and maintenance
personnel. See Fig. 16.
Model variations allow the users to choose
among integrated protection, control and meter-
ing.
17
FIGURE 16. Comprehensive protection for medium and
large motors (greater than 600HP)
CASE 3A Multifunction Protection for Medium
Motors (600-1500HP)
This protection option is similar to Case 3, using
the MPS100 relay. Protective functions are the
same as the MPS200 except without voltage or
power functions and with only one RTD. Phase
sequence is checked upon energization and is
detected in less than 500ms. The motor tem-
perature is tracked through the thermal model,
assuring correct dynamic performance.
See Fig. 17.
COMMUNICATIONS
Communications ports are standard in the
MPS100, MPS200 and MPS210. Each relay has
one RS-485 with MODBUS
®
protocol standard.
The BE1-851 relay comes standard with one
RS-485 and a front and rear RS-232. ASCII
protocol is standard in the 851, MODBUS
®
protocol is optional.
FIGURE 17. Multifunction protection for medium motors.
7. BIBLIOGRAPHY
1) Guide for AC Motor Protection, ANSI/IEEE
Standard C37.96-1988.
2) Blackburn, J.L., Protective Relaying Prin-
ciples and Applications, Marcel Dekker,
1987.
3) Hornak, D. L. And Zipse, D. W., Automated
Bus Transfer Control for Critical Industrial
Processes, IEEE Transactions on Industry
Applications, Sept/Oct 1991.
4) Motor Guide, NEMA Standard MG1-1993.
5) Nailen, R. L., Motors, Electric Power Re-
search Institute, 1989.
6) Dymond, J. H., Stall Time, Acceleration
Time, Frequency of Starting: The Myths and
the Facts, IEEE Transactions on Industry
Applications, Jan/Feb 1993.
7) IEEE Guide for the Presentation of Thermal
Limit Curves for Squirrel Cage Induction
Machines, IEEE Standard 620-1996.
8) Boothman, D. R., Thermal Tracking – A
Rational Approach to Motor Protection,
IEEE Power System Relay Committee, Jan
1974.
ANSI QTY Basler Model/ Description Basler Typical
No Function Style Number Settings
50P 3 BE1-50/51 Detects stator BE1-50/51B-207 1.6x1
LR
Instantaneous short circuits 51: H2E-Z3P-A1C0F
Or BE1-51
51P 3 BE1-50/51 Locked Rotor and BE1-50/51B-207 MPU=1.2xFLC
Inverse time thermal overload 51: H2E-Z3P-A1C0F Curve: E
Or BE1-51 TD: fit below max. safe
stall time with 2-5s
margin above start
current
51N 1 BE1-50/51 Stator ground faults BE1-50/51B-207 MPU=0.5A
Inverse time 51: H2E-Z3P-A1C0F Curve: E
Or BE1-51 TD: 0.1s @ 4xFLC
Must coordinate
against upstream 51N
relay
50N 1 BE1-50/51 Stator ground faults BE1-50/51B-207 MPU=4xFLC
Instantaneous (Residual connection)
Or BE1-51
50G 1 BE1-50/51 Stator ground faults BE1-50/51B-207 MPU=0.5A
Instantaneous (Alternate to 50/51N) Consider 31
0
from
Or BE1-50 (Toroidal CT) cable capacitance
before setting to max.
sensitivity
27 1 BE1-27 System undervoltage BE1-27: MPU=0.8xVnom.
H3E-E1J-B0H0F Delay: 1-10s
Consider slow clearing
system faults.
NOTE: Quantities correspond to single-function relays. Functions may be combined, as in 50/51 relay.
CASE 1
18
ANSI QTY Basler Model/ Description Basler Typical
No Function Style Number Settings
150P 3 BE1-50/51 Detects stator BE1-50/51B-207 1.6x1
LR
Instantaneous short circuits 51: H2E-Z3P-A1C0F
1 Or BE1-51
50P 1 BE1-50/51 Cuts out 51R when BE1-50/51B-207 0.85x1
LR
(at lowest
Instantaneous the motor reaches voltage)
about 50% speed
51S 1 BE1-50/51 Locked rotor BE1-50/51B-207 MPU>=1.2xFLC
Inverse time Curve: E
TD: fit below max.
safe stall time and
above start current
51P 3 BE1-50/51 Running thermal BE1-50/51B-207 MPU=1.2xFLC
Inverse time overload 51: H2E-Z3P-A1C0F Curve: E or 1
1 Or BE1-51 protection TD: below motor limit,
allow for temporary
process overloads.
Relay must have
integrating reset.
51N 1 BE1-50/51 Stator ground BE1-50/51B-207 MPU=0.5A
Inverse time faults 51: H2E-Z3P-A1C0F Curve: E
Or BE1-51 TD: 0.1s @ 4xFLC
Must coordinate
against upstream 51N
relay
50N 1 BE1-50/51 Stator ground faults BE1-50/51B-207 MPU=4xFLC
Instantaneous (Residual 51: H2E-Z3P-A1C0F
Or BE1-51 connection)
50G 1 BE1-50/51 Stator ground faults BE1-50/51B-207 MPU=0.5A Consider
Instantaneous (Alternate to 51: H2E-Z3P-A1C0F 31
0
from cable capaci-
Or BE1-51 50/51G) tance before setting
(Toroidal CT) to max. sensitivity
27 1 BE1-47N System BE1-47N: MPU=0.8xVnom.
undervoltage E3F-D1P-D3N0F Delay:1s-10s
Consider slow clearing
47 1 BE1-47N Phase rotation, BE1-47N: Trip MPU=5% when
voltage unbalance E3F-D1P-D3N0F connected to motor
terminals; otherwise,
check system config-
uration. Time delay:
depends on system
configuration and
timing curve selected.
CASE 2
19
NOTE: Quantities correspond to single-function relays. Functions may be combined, as in 50/51 relay.
20
ANSI QTY Basler Model/ Description Basler Typical settings
No Function Style No
150P 3* BE1-851 Detects stator BE1-851 1.6x1
LR
Instantaneous short circuits H5N2S10
150TP
50P 3* BE1-851 Detects starting BE1-851 1.3x1
FL
Instantaneous condition for Max. H5N2S10
50TP Start Time
51P 3* BE1-851 Running thermal BE1-851 MPU=1.2xFLC
Inverse time overload protection H5N2S10 Curve: PR
51P N=2, C=1, K=.028,
B=0, R=30, A=90
TD: below motor limit,
allow for temporary
process overloads.
Product AD > Motor
thermal time constant
51N 1* BE1-851 Stator ground faults BE1-851 MPU=0.5A
Inverse time (Residual Connection) H5N2S10 Curve: E
51N TD: 0.1s @ 4xFLC
Must coordinate
against upstream 51N
relay
50N 1* BE1-851 Stator ground faults BE1-851 MPU=4xFLC
Instantaneous (Residual connection) H3N2S10
150TN
50G (1)* BE1-851 Stator ground faults BE1-851 MPU=0.25
50TN (Alternate to 50/51N) H3N2S10 (use 1A input CT for
(Toroidal CT) neutral)
46N 1* BE1-851 Current Unbalance BE1-851 1
2
MPU=1.25A for 5%
51Q, 50Q, 150Q H5N2S10 voltage unbalance
Reset factor:30
27 1 BE1-47N System undervoltage BE1-47N MPU=0.8xVnom.
E3F-E1P- Delay: 1s-10s
D3N0F Consider slow clearing
system faults.
47 1 BE1-47N Phase rotation, open BE1-47N MPU=10% 3-5 sec.
phase E3F-E1P Check load
D3N0F configuration
NOTE: *All functions contained in one 851 relay.
CASE 2A LOW INERTIA
ANSI QTY Basler Model/ Description Basler Typical settings
No Function Style No
150P 3* BE1-851 Detects stator BE1-851 1.6x1
LR
Instantaneous short circuits H5N2S10
150TP
50P 3* BE1-851 Cuts out the 51S when BE1-851 0.85x1
LR
(at lowest
Instantaneous the motor reaches about H5N2S10 voltage)
50TP 50% speed
51S 3* BE1-851 Locked rotor BE1-851 MPU>=1.2xFLC
Inverse time H5N2S10 Curve: E
51P TD: fit below max.
safe stall time and
above start current
51P 3* BE1-851 Running thermal BE1-851 MPU=1.2xFLC
Inverse time overload protection H5N2S10 Curve: PR
51P N=2, C=1, K=.028,
B=0, R=30, A=90
TD: below motor limit,
allow for temporary
process overloads.
Product AD< Motor
Thermal Time
Constant. This
function is disabled
during start (group
switching).
51N 1* BE1-851 Stator ground faults BE1-851 MPU=0.5A
Inverse time (Residual Connection) H5N2S10 Curve: E
51N TD: 0.1s @ 4xFLC
Must coordinate
against upstream 51N
relay
50N 1* BE1-851 Stator ground faults BE1-851 MPU=4xFLC
Instantaneous (Residual connection) H5N2S10
150TN
50G (1)* BE1-851 Stator ground faults BE1-851 MPU=0.25
50TN (Alternate to 50/51N) H3N2S10 (use 1A input CT for
(Toroidal CT) neutral)
46N 1* BE1-851 Current Unbalance BE1-851 1
2
MPU=1.25A for 5%
51Q, 50Q, 150Q H5N2S10 voltage unbalance
Reset factor=30
27 1 BE1-47N System undervoltage BE1-47N MPU=0.8xVnom.
E3F-E1P- Delay: 1s-10s
D3N0F Consider slow clearing
system faults.
47 1 BE1-47N Phase rotation, open BE1-47N MPU=10% 3-5 sec.
phase E3F-E1P- Check load
D3N0F configuration
NOTE: *All functions contained in one 851 relay.
CASE 2A HIGH INERTIA
21
ANSI QTY Basler Model/ Description Basler Typical settings
No Function Style No
150T 1 MPS100 Stator short circuits MPS100-51V1 Consult Instruction
50T Jam condition Manual and GUI for
49 Thermal overload default settings and
46 Current unbalance available template
50TN Ground fault files.
37 Undercurrent
ANSI QTY Basler Model/ Description Basler Typical
No Function Style Number Settings
150T 1 MPS200/210 Stator short circuits MPS210-C2V1 Consult Instruction
50T Jam condition manual and GUI for
49 Thermal overload default settings and
46 Current unbalance available template
50TN Ground fault files.
37 Undercurrent
32U Underpower
27 Undervoltage
59 Overvoltage
47 Phase Loss/Reversal
87 1 BE1-87G Percentage Restraint BE1-87G: Tap=.4A
Differential G1E-A1J-A0C0F Set higher when using
low quantity CTs
87 3 BE1-50/51 Self balancing BE1-50/51B-207 .5A
Instantaneous differential
12 1 Customer Speed switch For high inertial LR
supplied protection
25-50% speed
81 1 BE1-81O/U Underfrequency BE1-81O/U: 97% of rated
Loss of Supply T3E-E1J-A6S0F frequency 10-20 cycles
CASE 3
CASE 3A
22
23
NOTES
24
NOTES
First printing 4/98
Basler Electric Headquarters
Route 143, Box 269,
Highland Illinois USA 62249
Phone 618/654-2341
Fax 618-654-2351
Basler Electric International
P.A.E. Les Pins, 67319
Wasselonne Cedex FRANCE
Phone (33-3-88) 87-1010
Fax (33-3-88) 87-0808
If you have any questions or need
additional information, please contact
Basler Electric Company.
Our web site is located at:
http://www.basler.com
e-mail: info@basler.com

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful