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CHAPTER

35
35 COVERAGE
The ASME B31.1 Power Piping Code is the rst of a series of
piping codes which cover piping for various industries. This chap-
ter covers ASME B31.1 Power Piping Code [25] and all citations
to gures, tables and para (s) in this chapter refer to [25], unless
otherwise mentioned.
The rest of the series which include the following are covered
in subsequent chapters of this publication:
B31.3 Process Piping [26]
B31.4 Pipeline Transportation Systems for Liquid Hydrocar-
bons and Other Liquids [27]
B31.5 Refrigeration Piping [28]
B31.8 Gas Transportation and Distribution Piping Systems [29]
B31.9 Building Services Piping [30]
B31.12 Hydrogen Piping and Pipelines
This series of piping codes started with the Pressure Piping
Code which was rst published in 1935. More information on the
history is printed in the forward of ASME B31.3 [26] as well as
others in the series.
At the end of this chapter 35 there are references pertaining to
all of the parts of this Chapter. Whereas some of these references
are directly applicable to the discussions contained in this chapter
several others are noted for additional information.
35.1 INTRODUCTION
This Chapter is written with the assumption that the reader has
the 2010 edition of the Power Piping Code at hand. The intention
of the Chapter is to simply supplement and provide additional
insight to the proper use of the Code. The brief history of the
Code is covered in the Forward of the ASME B31.3 Process
Piping Code [26]. But, to drive home a point, the rst edition of
the Power Piping Code was published in 1955.
In this chapter, the word Code is used to refer to the ASME
B31.1 Power Piping Code [25]. A review of the Code table of
contents reveals the general layout covering design, materials,
fabrication, erection, inspection, and operation and maintenance.
The operation and maintenance chapter, Chapter VII, was added
in December 2007 and for the rst time specically makes
mandatory the proper maintenance of power piping. The term
operation in the chapter title is sort of carried along for the ride
in that the chapter simply requires that the piping systems be
operated within design.
A number of changes have been made to the Code since the 3rd
edition to this companion guide. Concerns about the degradation
of the heat affected zone (HAZ) of seam welds in piping systems
that operate in the creep regime prompted the addition of safety
factors.
The Code began a two year publication cycle with the 2010
edition. Prior to 2010 addendums were issued annually.
When is the Code Mandatory?
When an authority says so. In the United States of America,
each state determines whether the Code will be required by law.
The National Board issues a Synopsis of Boiler and Pressure
Vessel Laws, Rules and Regulations. The September 26, 2011
edition indicates nearly all states and all of Canada require some
edition of ASME B31.1. The Code becomes mandatory 6 months
after publication.
The Forward and Introduction of B31.1 provide and very good
starting point for the rst time Code user. The intent of the Code
and how the Pressure Piping Codes are divided are provided there.
For example, the Introduction explains that there are currently 8
piping codes (sections) within the B31 Code for Pressure Piping. A
Standards Committee is responsible for all of the book sections,
under this is the section committee which is responsible for the
Code book specic to a type of pressure piping. The scope of the
B31.1 Power Piping Code is outlined and the procedures for asking
the Committee a question and for Code Cases are included there.
These two sections are worth reading and should not be skipped.
A review of the Committee Roster will provide a view of the
structure of the Committee. The Standards Committee is the main
committee over all of the book sections. The Power Piping
Section Committee is further divided into subgroups to cover spe-
cic areas of expertise such as design, materials, and fabrication.
ASME PIPING CODE:
B31.1, POWER PIPING
Jimmy E. Meyer and Joe Frey
1
1
Charles Becht IV was the author of Chapter 16 titled B31.1 POWER
PIPING for the original, second and third editions. Chapter 17 of the third
edition has been revised in its entirety and renumbered as Chapter 36 in
the current fourth edition. As noted in the title this chapter 35 for the
current edition, it is authored by Jimmy E. Meyer and Joe Frey. - (Editor)
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Dear Mr. James Ellenberger:
The pages of Chapters 35,& 36 of the "4th
Edition of Companion Guide" in the following
pages are for use in the preparation of
Chapter 23: "B-16 Standard" and should not
be used for any other purpose.
- K. R. Rao (Editor: 3-26-13)
35-2 Chapter 35
In the front of each edition of the Code is a Summary of
Changes which is just that; a summary of changes from the edi-
tion just prior to the edition in hand. This summary can be useful
when researching a certain requirement of the Code to determine
if it is the result of a recent change to the Code.
Following the main body of the Code are both Mandatory and
Nonmandatory Appendices. The appendices provide a great deal
of information and the Code user should be familiar with the con-
tent. The mandatory appendices are called out as capital letters A
through J. These include allowable stress, thermal expansion data,
moduli of elasticity and stress intensication factors to name
a few. The nonmandatory appendices are denoted by roman
numerals II through VII. The nonmandatory appendices include
information on safety valves, nonmetallic pipe, corrosion, and
operation and maintenance and more. It bears repeating that the
appendices provide a lot of very useful information because these
are often overlooked by the beginning Code user.
The introduction of each of the book sections gives a brief
description of the scope of the book sections and identies the
responsibility for the owner to select the applicable Code section
for the design of piping related to their facility. This is one of sev-
eral important responsibilities assigned to the owner who is
dened in the rst section of B31.1 Paragraph 100.2. Another
useful piece of information to understand is the numbering of
paragraphs, gures and tables in the piping codes. All of the num-
bered book sections started from a single pressure piping code as
noted above, as the specic book sections were split apart for spe-
cic types of services or industries, there was an attempt to main-
tain the paragraph numbering with the exception of rst number
in the series. For example all of the paragraphs in B31.1 are in the
100 series likewise all of the paragraphs in B31.3 [26] are in the
300 series. This is not an absolute, but it will give a good starting
point for the reader who uses more than one of the ASME B31
series in the readers career.
The use of the term Piping is meant to apply to more than
Pipe. Pipe, Piping, Piping Components, Piping Elements, Piping
Installation, and Piping Systems may all be referred to as Piping.
Another important point which is made in the introduction of
B31.1 as well as other book section is the Code is not a design
handbook. This is not emphasized sufficiently, and will be
repeated a few more times throughout this chapter. Since this
is a companion guide to the code, requirements will not be
duplicated, instead frequent references to the applicable para-
graphs and some insights to the requirements or a simpler way
to look at them to help the user understand them will be made.
Many of the explanations may be oversimplifications and should
not be taken as the complete code requirements. The code is
updated frequently and is considerably more thorough than this
guide.
After the Introduction, the Code is organized much the same as
a design and construction project for the rst Chapters:
Chapter I, Scope and Denitions
Chapter II, Design
Chapter III, Materials
Chapter IV, Dimensional Requirements
Chapter V, Fabrication, Assembly and Erection
Chapter VI, Inspection, Examination, and Testing
Chapter VII, Operation and Maintenance
Treatment in this chapter follows the same order as shown
above. A list of references is provided at the end of the chapter for
the reader to explore the topics in more detail.
35.2 SCOPE AND DEFINITIONS
Para. 100.1 below specically identies the types of plants where
the ASME B31.1 Power Piping Code would normally be used.
Rules for this Code Section have been developed considering
the needs for applications that include piping typically found
in electric power generating stations, in industrial and insti-
tutional plants, geothermal heating systems, and central and
district heating and cooling systems.
The Code has Figures 100.1.2 (A.1 through A.3) [25] which
dene 3 classications of piping:
Boiler Proper
Boiler External Piping
Nonboiler External Piping
One example of these gures is provided in Figure 35.2 below.
The three gures A1, A2 and A3 [25] are required because the
extent of the Boiler and Boiler External piping varies depending
on the type of boiler. Boiler External Piping (BEP) is very impor-
tant to the safe operation of the Boiler, so it carries additional
Quality Assurance and documentation requirements. Boiler Ex-
ternal Piping is sometimes referred to as Critical Piping by the
industry. Generally, Critical Piping also includes the Cold and Hot
Reheat piping associated with many power plants. Currently the
Code does not include Cold and Hot Reheat as Boiler External
Piping, however this may change in the future.
Denitions are also included in this section and are useful in
fully understanding some Code requirements. A relatively new
denition which was added with the addition of Chapter VII is
Covered Piping Systems.
Covered piping systems (CPS): These are piping systems on
which condition assessments are to be conducted. As a mini-
mum for electric power generating stations, the CPS systems
are to include NPS 4 and larger of the main steam, hot
reheat steam, cold reheat steam, and boiler feedwater piping
systems. In addition to the above, CPS also includes NPS 4
and larger piping in other systems that operate above 750F
(400C) or above 1,025 psi (7 100 kPa). The Operating
Company may, in its judgment, include other piping systems
determined to be hazardous by an engineering evaluation of
probability and consequences of failure.
35.3 DESIGN
35.3.1 Chapter II, Part 1, Design Conditions
The paragraph 101 provides a short explanation of conditions
or considerations for the design of piping systems. It is a fairly
comprehensive list, but the owner or designer should always be on
the lookout for unique conditions which might not be addressed.
35.3.2 (Para. 102) Design Criteria
This section denes the basis of the allowable stresses, quality
factors, etc. to be used for the design of piping systems. It also
includes some references to listed and unlisted components and
an allowance for short term variations. The user is cautioned to be
sure they have enough understanding of future operation of the
system before they apply these allowances. Generally boilers or
power plants are designed for a 2040 year life or more. Unless
the variations are self-limiting (for example a relief valve dis-
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COMPANION GUIDE TO THE ASME BOILER & PRESSURE VESSEL CODE 35-3
charging), it is difcult for a designer to assure himself of the
duration of variations to design conditions.
35.3.2.1 (Para. 102.3.2) Limits for Sustained and Displace-
ment Stresses This might be the most important paragraph to
understand the analysis and design requirements in the Code. The
simplied analysis requirements in the Code are separated into
Sustained Stresses or Loads which will act until a system fails if it
exceeds the limits of the material and Displacement Stresses or
Loads (self limiting) which have a dened displacement and will
not continue past this limit. Failures from displacement stresses
are by fatigue or cycling until the fatigue limit of the material has
been exceeded.
Examples of Sustained Loads and Stresses:
Internal Pressure (hoop stress) S
h
Internal Pressure (longitudinal stress) (S
L
Para. 102.3.2(A.3))
Bending Stress from weight (longitudinal) (S
L
Para. 104.8.1)
Bending Stress from occasional loads such as wind, snow and
Seismic (104.8.2)
Examples of Displacement Stresses (Self Limiting)
Stresses due to thermal expansion or contraction. (Para 119)
Anchor movements caused by settlement, equipment move-
ment, etc.:
Condenser
From feed
pumps
Alternatives
para. 122.1.7(B.9)
Administrative Jurisdiction and Technical Responsibility
Para. 122.1.7(B)
Start-up system
may vary to suit
boiler manufacturer
Economizer
Convection
and radiant
section
Reheater
Superheater
Turbine valve or
Code stop valve
para. 122.1.7(A)
Turbine
To equipment
Boiler Proper The ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (ASME BPVC) has total administrative jurisdiction and
technical responsibility. Refer to ASME BPVC Section I Preamble.
Boiler External Piping and Joint (BEP) The ASME BPVC has total administrative jurisdiction (mandatory
certification by Code Symbol stamping, ASME Data Forms, and Authorized Inspection) of BEP. The ASME Section
Committee B31.1 has been assigned technical responsibility. Refer to ASME BPVC Section I Preamble, fifth, sixth,
and seventh paragraphs and ASME B31.1 Scope, para. 100.1.2(A). Applicable ASME B31.1 Editions and Addenda are
referenced in ASME BPVC Section I, PG-58.3.
Nonboiler External Piping and Joint (NBEP) The ASME Code Committee for Pressure Piping, B31, has total
administrative and technical responsibility.
FIG. 35.1 CODE JURISDICTIONAL LIMITS FOR PIPING AN EXAMPLE OF FORCED FLOW STEAM GENERATORS WITH
NO FIXED STEAM AND WATER LINE (Source: ASME B31.1, 2010 Figure 100.1.2 A.1)
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35-4 Chapter 35
The above examples are limited to a Stress Range which is
dened by Para 102.3.2(B) Equation (1A) or (1B) [25].
S
A
f(1.25S
c
0.25S
h
) (35.1a)
S
A
f(1.25S
c
01.25S
h
S
L
) (35.1b)
The limits for sustained loads are roughly 2/3 of the yield
strength of a material, or 1/3.5 of the tensile strength of a material
and are provided in Appendix A of ASME B31.1 [25] for listed
materials. The limit for displacement strains (self limiting
stresses) can be as high as twice the yield strength of the material.
Equation 35.1a is the rst equation in the code and denes the
allowable displacement stress range.
In equation 35.1a: S
A
f(1.25S
c
.25S
h
)
S
c
and S
h
are the basic allowable stress for the materials at min-
imum and maximum expected temperatures.
f is a fatigue factor based on the number of cycles expected
during the service life of the system. The fatigue factor f is 1 or
less based on equation 35-2 (which is based on equation ASME
B31.1, 2010 equation 1(C) page 14 that is noted below) [25]:
f 6/N
0.2
1.0 (35.2)
f cyclic stress range factor for the total number of equivalent
reference stress range cycles, N; (this applies to essentially
noncorroded piping. Corrosion can sharply decrease cyclic
life; therefore, corrosion resistant materials should be consid-
ered where a large number of signicant stress range cycles
is anticipated. The designer is also cautioned that the fatigue
life of materials operated at elevated temperatures may be
reduced.)
N total number of equivalent reference displacement stress range
cycles expected during the service life of the piping.
The analysis requirements for both Sustained and Self Limiting
loads will be discussed later in this chapter, but the two load cases
are treated separately by the Code with one minor exception. The
exception is equation (1B) of [25]:
S
A
f(1.25S
c
1.25 S
h
S
L
). (35.1b)
This equation still does not do anything to combine the two
load cases. If studied carefully, it roughly increases the stress
range from 1.5 times the basic allowable stress to 2.5 times the
basic allowable stress minus the longitudinal stress from the com-
bination of sustained loads. So again, the code does not combine
sustained and self limiting load cases, it only allows an increase in
the displacement stress range allowable for any unused part of the
sustained stress allowable. The user is urged to review the require-
ments of this paragraph carefully to fully understand the differ-
ence between the two types of loading and the code treatment of
them. This will also be discussed during the analysis requirements
(Para. 119) later in this chapter.
References 8, 9, 10, and 14 provide more in depth information
on the stress range concept and associated stress intensication
factors discussed later.
As a footnote it can be mentioned that seismic loads are usu-
ally treated as sustained loads by various Codes, however a lot of
research indicates seismic failures are more closely associated
with fatigue or self limiting loads.
35.3.3 Part 2 Pressure Design of Piping
Components
35.3.3.1 (Para. 104) General The easiest way to meet the pres-
sure design for a component is to use components which are
manufactured to a standard listed in Table 126.1 [25]. These listed
standards provide pressure temperature ratings for the components,
either in the form of a table with coincident pressures/temperatures
(for example B16.5, B16.47, etc.), or ratings associated with com-
patible seamless pipe (for example B16.9, B16.11, etc).
Unlisted components may be used, however a lot more respon-
sibility is put on the designer to verify they are good for the pres-
sure, temperature and other loading requirements in the code.
Reference 7 provides additional guidance for Unlisted Compo-
nents. The number of reference standards associated with piping
designs are quite signicant, Table 35.1 gives some examples of
how the piping codes are interrelated for some common carbon
steel (CS) and stainless steel (SS) Pressure Rating/Dimensional
Standards, Material Forming Standards and Material Grades.
35.3.3.2 Pressure Design
35.3.3.2.1 Straight Pipe. This section denes a lot of terms
associated with the calculation of the required wall thickness for
internal pressure.
During the development of the Code approximately 30 differ-
ent equations were considered for the calculation of required wall
thickness. If the piping were innitely thin, the simple equation of
t PD/2SE where t minimum calculated wall thickness, P
design pressure, D Pipe Outside Diameter, SE basic allow-
able stress (including weld quality factors) would provide accurate
or conservative results. Since it must have some thickness, the
Code settled on equation (7) t PD/2(SE Py) A because it
is relatively simple and provides good results compared with
more complicated formulas. The corrosion allowance A is also
included in this equation. Table 104.1.2(A) [25] provides values
for the y factor which is .4 for most low temperature ductile
materials. Equation (8) is also provided for the user if they would
like to start with the ID and calculate a minimum wall thickness
and Equations 9 and 10 are provided to calculate a design pres-
sure for a given thickness of pipe.
Table 104.1.2(A) [25] limits the use of the y factor from the
table to Diameter to wall thickness ratios of 6 or greater. For
thick wall designs where this requirement is not met, general
note 2 provides an alternate formula. In pressure ranges re-
quiring these thick walls, the user should consider such factors as
theory of failure, effects of fatigue, and thermal stress. In ASME
B31.3, Chapter IX [26] was developed to provide extra guidance/
requirements for these high pressure applications.
Longitudinal-Welded pipe in the Creep Range are addressed in
Para. 104.1.4 where an additional factor of safety is added with
Equations (11 and 12) [25]. The factor W is added to the basic
allowable stress and quality factor to address problems with these
welds in the creep range.
References 1, 11, 13, 14, and 17 provide more detailed expla-
nations and the theory behind these equations.
35.3.3.2.2 Straight Pipe Under External Pressure. For external
pressure whether from a vacuum condition in the pipe, or jacketing
with steam, para. 104.1.3 of the Code refers to ASME Boiler and
Pressure Vessel Code Section VIII for the design requirements.
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See References 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 17 for addition information on
External Pressure or Vacuum Design of piping and components.
35.3.3.2.3 Curved Segments of Pipe. Para. 102.4.5 has similar
equations to those for straight pipe, these are provided for piping
bends. While these equations are a little more complicated than
straight pipe, repeating them here will not provide the user much
additional value. References 17 and 22 provided at the end of this
chapter will provide more in depth explanation into the theory if
required.
35.3.3.2.4 (Para. 104.3.1) Branch Connections. Para. 104.3.1
of the Code provides rules based on area replacement as an alter-
nate to using listed components from Table 126.1 [25] within their
pressure temperature rating,. Area replacement means when a hole
is cut in the pipe wall, area removed is replaced within a specic
distance of the area which was removed. The theory here is the
hoop stress which is the basis of the wall thickness calculation will
remain constant if the area remains constant. There are about four
pages of gures and denition of terms/areas associated with this
concept. ASME B31.3 Appendix H [26] provides 5 sample prob-
lems for branch connection reinforcement. The formulas and g-
ures are not identical, however the concept is the same and the
example may help. What makes it look complicated are all of the
allowances on the pipe wall and the possibility the branch is not at
a right angle to the pipe centerline. If not all of the existing wall is
required for pressure design (i.e. the actual pipe wall thickness
exceeds the minimum wall required), then this extra wall thickness
may be used for area replacement. Figure 35.2 is provided as an
example of one of the gures used to explain this concept.
A simpler approach would be to calculate the minimum wall
thickness required for the run pipe or header. If the actual wall
thickness is not at least twice the calculated minimum wall thick-
ness, most likely some area reinforcement or replacement is
required. Unless it is very close, the author recommends specifying
100% replacement of area. The reinforcement area is basically one
branch diameter from the centerline of the branch on the header,
and 2.5 times the wall thickness of either the branch or the header.
This is fairly limiting, however if the reinforcing pad is made from
the same material and thickness as the header, and specied with a
width equal to the radius of the branch, it will produce a pad which
will replace all of the area which was removed. The user is also
cautioned the area replacement rules apply to the pressure design,
the branch connection will also have to be evaluated for other sus-
tained loads as well as the displacement stress range. This topic will
be address more in other parts of this chapter.
ASME B&PV Code, Section VIII, Div. 1, Div. 2 and Div. 3 all
provide alternate methods of evaluating the intersection of cylin-
ders for pressure and external loads. These methods vary from a
similar simplied approach to detailed nite element analysis.
35.3.3.3 Analysis of Piping Components Sustained and
Displacement loads were addressed briey earlier in this chapter,
in para. 104.8 formulas are provided to address Sustained Loads,
Occasional Loads, and Displacement Loads (self limiting). The
analysis requirements are also addressed in para. 119.
35.3.4 Part 3 Selection and Limitations of Piping
Components
Part 4 Selection and Limitation of Piping
Joints
35.3.4.1 General Both parts 3 and 4 address various piping
components or types of piping joints which might be limited to
COMPANION GUIDE TO THE ASME BOILER & PRESSURE VESSEL CODE 35-5
TABLE 35.1 EXAMPLES OF LISTED STANDARDS FOR COMPONENTS AND MATERIAL
Component
Carbon Steel (CS)/
Stainless Steel (SS)
Dimensional Standard/
Pressure Rating
Material/
Forming Spec. Material Grade
Pipe Carbon Steel ASME B36.10 ASTM A106
or A53
Grade B (most common)
Pipe Stainless Steel ASME B36.19 ASTM A312 Type 304, 304L, 316, etc.
Forged Fittings 2 and Under (1) Carbon Steel ASME B16.11 ASTM A105 One Grade
Forged Fittings 2 and Under (1) Stainless Steel ASME B16.11 ASTM A182 Type 304, 304L, 316, etc.
Formed Fittings 2 and larger (1) Carbon Steel ASME B16.9 ASTM A234 Grade WPB to match pipe
Formed Fittings 2 and larger (1) Stainless Steel ASME B16.9 or
MSS SP 43 (2)
ASTM A403 Type 304, 304L, 316, etc.
Flanges (Forged) 24 and smaller Carbon Steel ASME B16.5 ASTM A105 One Grade
Flanges (Forged) 24 and smaller Stainless Steel ASME B16.5 ASTM A182 Type 304, 304L, 316, etc.
Flanges over 24 CS or SS ASME B16.47 (3) See CS or
SS above
See CS or SS above
Forged Valves 2 and Under (1) CS or SS No Std. ASTM A105
and A182
Same as Forged Fittings.
Valves Flanged or Butt Welded Carbon Steel ASME B16.34 ASTM A216 Grade WCB to match pipe
Valves Flanged or Butt Welded Stainless Steel ASME B16.34 ASTM A351 Type 304, 304L, 316, etc.
Notes:
1. The size ranges overlap, but generally 2 and under will be socket welded forged ttings and 2 and over will be butt weld (wrought)
ttings. Verify with project or client specications.
2. MSS SP 43 does not have the same pressure rating, or quality control as ASME B16.9. ASME B16.9 should be specied for any pressure
or hazardous applications.
3. Use caution on anges over 24. This standard has two sets of anges series A and Series B. They do not t up with each other! These
were previously MSS SP44 anges and API 605 anges.
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35-6 Chapter 35
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35-8 Chapter 35
nonhazardous or nonammable uids, size limitation, pressure
and temperature limits or where additional requirement might be
required. These requirements should be reviewed, but there is no
good way to summarize them. The user should familiarize them-
selves with these requirements especially when they are preparing
new piping specications, or working on a piping design which
does not have an approved piping specication.
35.3.4.2 Flanged Joints A Flanged Joint is one of the most
common methods for joining pressure piping which may require
disassembly during maintenance activities. Table 112 [25] pro-
vides requirements for mating anges, bolting, ange faces and
gaskets. The length of this table provides an indication of the
importance of proper ange design and assembly. A relatively
new Standard ASME PCC-1, (Reference 23), also provides addi-
tional guidance on proper ange assembly.
35.3.5 Part 5 Expansion, Flexibility, and Pipe
Supporting Elements
35.3.5.1 General
Para. 119.1
In addition to the design requirements for pressure, weight,
and other sustained or occasional loadings (see paras. 104.1
through 104.7, 104.8.1, and 104.8.2), power piping systems
subject to thermal expansion, contraction, or other displace-
ment stress producing loads shall be designed in accordance
with the exibility and displacement stress requirements
specied herein.
The stress range concept is also explained in more detail in this
chapter, but it was mentioned earlier when the allowable stress
range was dened. The statement made in the introduction of the
Code the Code is not a design hand book is probably most
applicable to this chapter. The user is also warned about the vari-
ous piping analysis software products available to meet the analy-
sis requirements of this section. These are great tools, and provide
a great deal more analysis options and load combinations than
were available when the Code requirements were rst written.
As was noted, the Code treats the displacement stress range
separately from sustained loads. Most analysis products available
now combine sustained and displacement load cases in some way.
In most cases, they also calculate a stress associated with this load
case. There is no allowable stress associated with this load case in
the base Code. The explanation in para. 119.2. covers displace-
ment strains, displacement stresses, displacement stress ranges
and cold spring provide a good starting point for understanding
this concept. References 8, 14, 15, and 22 at the end of this chap-
ter also will go into the basis of this concept in more depth.
35.3.5.2 Properties for Flexibility Analysis Appendix B, C
and D are referenced as the source for thermal expansion data,
modulus of elasticity and exibility and stress intensication fac-
tors. This section also identies specic temperatures to be used
for the analysis. For example the expansion value for the stress
range is the algebraic difference between the minimum and maxi-
mum temperatures for the thermal cycle under analysis, while the
expansion value for reactions is the expansion value from the
expected installed temperature to the maximum (or minimum)
temperature under analysis. Appendix D contains the stress inten-
sications factors to be used with the simplied analysis methods
described in the Code. These exibility and stress intensication
factors were rst developed in the 1950s. Many have not been
updated since then, so the Code permits the use of better data if it
is available to the user. ASME B31J [31] provides a consistent
method to experimentally develop stress intensication and exi-
bility factors. This standard is discussed in the next chapter, but it
is worth noting the scope of this standard is being expanded to
provide updated factors which have been developed by more
recent research and will be available for use with all of the B31
Code Sections. Also, see references 8, 14, and 22 at the end of
this chapter for more information on the development of these
stress intensication and exibility factors and the theories behind
them.
35.3.5.3 Flexibility Analysis These are interesting sections,
and the user should be aware they were written and have been in
the Code since before there was easy access to Piping Analysis
Software. The analysis software available in the early 1970s (and
before) required a main frame computer and piping input decks
with three computer punch cards per piping element. A piping
analysis model which can be developed in much less than an hour
today, could have taken a week to input, verify and run back then.
As a result a number of approximation methods were (and still
are) available. Some of these methods include Guided Cantilever
Charts, Tube Turn, Grinnell, and the formula provided in para.
119.7.1. ASCE Manual on Steel construction contains beam for-
mulas which form the basis of most formal analysis software,
these beam formulas can also be used to approximate results from
formal analysis. There are a lot of warnings and precautions for
any of these methods, however many of the same references and
warnings also apply to formal analysis. It now takes more time to
document the acceptability of an approximation method than to
develop a formal model, however without a good understanding
of the approximation methods, the user may not have the knowl-
edge to recognize when there is an error in the formal analysis.
References 14, 15, and 22 provide a number of simplied meth-
ods for this purpose.
The user is strongly encouraged to have a basic expectation of
the results of any formal computer analysis whether from piping
analysis software, or nite element analysis. These are sometimes
referred to as sanity checks, rules of thumb, simplied approx-
imation methods, etc. but regardless of what they are called, it is
important to understand when the results of the computer analysis
are conservative, or when they give you the answer you want
to hear. Note the term conservative versus the term correct. It is
very unlikely the analyst could ever calculate an accurate stress
on a piping element after it has experienced a few thermal cycles,
the residual stresses from fabrication, and tolerances associated
with construction. The goal is to envelop everything the piping
system could possibly experience and make sure it is safe for
those conditions.
35.3.5.4 Basic Assumptions and Requirements This section
provides a lot of information on exibility analysis and assump-
tions. Boundary conditions, and many problems encountered in
the eld are the result of inaccurate modeling of these conditions.
One of the most important conditions is the stiffness of the sup-
ports or restraints. Unless provided, most commercial analysis
software will assume supports, restraints and anchors (usually
equipment nozzles) are very rigid. This is a good assumption for
maximizing the stresses developed in a piping system, but may
result in a load being shifted to the wrong location because of
the relative stiffness of the supports. Additional guidance on
calculating movements, separating analysis into smaller simpler
subsystems (highly recommended by the author) and means of
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COMPANION GUIDE TO THE ASME BOILER & PRESSURE VESSEL CODE 35-9
increasing exibility are covered in this section and also mixed in
with some of the previous sections.
35.3.5.6 Cold Spring Para.119.9 provides an explanation on
the concept and requirements of cold spring. Cold spring is used
more widely in the Power Piping because of the large diameter
hot piping connected to the turbine. It is very difcult to meet the
allowable force and moment loading on the turbine, and cold
spring was one technique to help reduce the loads. Many client/
owner specications now prohibit the use of cold spring. This is
because it is extremely difcult to verify the cold spring is cor-
rectly installed during the construction, and even more difcult to
be sure it is maintained during maintenance activities throughout
the life of the plant. Also see para. 119.10 for formulas to be used
in calculating reaction loads when cold spring is used.
35.3.6 Piping Support
Pipe supports are obviously an important part of the piping
design. This chapter is relatively straight forward and provides
information to be considered during the design and support of
piping systems. In addition to the requirements in this section of
the code, MSS-SP58, 2002 edition, and the support manufactures
provide additional information on the design of pipe supports.
A point worth highlighting the term support also applies to re-
straints. The term restraint is more likely to apply to restraints in
the axial or lateral direction relative to the pipe. These restraints
are important for seismic or wind loading as well as restraints
required to control the thermal expansion of the piping. Where
restraints are used to control the thermal expansion of long
straight runs of thermal expansion, the user must make sure loads
from friction are added to the loads from the exibility analysis.
While friction can be included in the exibility analysis, this can
be complicated and it is common practice to calculate frictional
loads separately and add them to the support loads. The most
important consideration with friction is it can never help the user.
This is probably the best reason not to include it in the piping
analysis, because the analysis is performed without being sure if it
is helping one of the load cases.
35.3.6.1 Anchors and Guides A very brief mention is made
about Anchors and Guides having to resist loads from both expan-
sion and internal pressure. The user must understand the pressure
thrusts developed by expansion joints and restraint systems asso-
ciated with them. Most expansion joint manufactures provide
very good design information on calculating and controlling this
pressure thrust as well is information on the allowable move-
ments associated with their products. The effect of pressure on a
restraint is usually very small, however when expansion joints are
used in a system, these can quickly become the dominant load if
not restrained correctly.
35.3.6.2 Variable and Constant Supports Spring supports
discussed in para.120.2.2 are an important part of supporting pip-
ing systems when there are signicant movements in the vertical
direction. Sometimes very small vertical movements can be sig-
nicant if the user is trying to protect equipment from thermal
expansion loads. Other times, a piping system may run vertically
for long distances. This makes it very difcult to distribute the
piping loads without the use of spring supports. References 14,
15, and 22 provide excellent guidance on how to design supports
to meet the requirements in this section.
35.3.7 Systems
The design section in the Code refers to specic systems, some
of which are covered here. Because ASME B31.1 is specic to
Power Piping the systems addressed here are only those typically
found in power generating facilities.
35.3.7.1 Boiler External Piping (BEP) Boiler External Piping
as was described in the beginning of this chapter is generally the
most critical piping in a power plant. As a result a number of
requirements and limitations on BEP in general as well as specic
requirements associated with steam, feedwater, blowoff and blow-
down, drains, valves and miscellaneous systems are provided in
para. 122.1 through 122.1.7.
35.3.7.1.1 Steam Piping (BEP). Para. 122.1.2 provides spe-
cic requirements for the Design Pressure which was used back
in para. 104 for the pressure design. This pressure is associated
with the pressure design and rating of the boiler which makes
sense because Boiler External Piping is really an extension of the
Boiler. Both saturated steam and steam from a superheater are
addressed in these paragraphs.
35.3.7.1.2 Feedwater Piping (BEP). Similar to the steam pip-
ing, these paragraphs provide specic requirements for the design
pressure of the feedwater piping downstream of the required stop
and check valves which form the boundary for Boiler External
Piping (BEP). These requirements are specic to the type of boiler
and equipment associated with the boiler. These requirements need
to be worked with the gures 100.1.2(A.1-A.3) [25].
35.3.7.1.3 Blowoff and Blowdown Piping (BEP). Both of
these systems are dened specically in the para. 122.1.4. The
systems are required for proper operation of the boiler and asso-
ciated with high pressure water being released to relatively
low pressure where it is expected to flash. Both of these spe-
cific systems are connected to the water side of the boiler and
have specic requirements for the design pressure and material
requirements.
Blowoff and Blowdown Piping in Nonboiler External Piping
are covered in para. 122.2.
35.3.7.1.4 Boiler Drains. Not to be confused with Blowoff and
Blowdown piping described above, Boiler Drains are not intended
to be operated during normal operation of a Boiler. If they are,
they become Blowoff and Blowdown Piping described above.
Boiler drains are intended for start-up and shut down and as a
result the requirements in para. 122.1.5 are associated with the
required number of valves and administrative controls or locking
devices to be sure they are not operated under normal boiler oper-
ating conditions.
35.3.7.1.5 Miscellaneous Systems (BEP). Para. 122.1.6 is
intended to capture any other components which are not internal
to the boiler, but also do not t any of the previous systems. They
are still important however because they form part of the Boiler
Pressure Boundary.
35.3.7.1.6 Valves and Fittings (BEP). This section identies
types of valves and ttings which are required, or prohibited from
the Boiler External Piping Systems which have just been covered.
For the most part, the valves will form the boundary of the Boiler
External Piping System. In some cases valves in BEP will provide
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35-10 Chapter 35
isolation and protection between a boiler which might be occu-
pied for maintenance and other boilers which are still operating.
35.3.7.2 Blowoff and Blowdown Piping in Nonboiler
External Piping This is a continuation of the requirements in
122.1.4, except the blowoff, or blowdown piping downstream of
the boundary between the Boiler External Piping and the associ-
ated valves. Again, these systems are exposed to steam/water
which is ashing as it moves to a lower pressure condition and
additional requirements are addressed.
35.3.7.3 Instrument, Control and Sample Piping Instru-
mentation piping is covered in para. 122.3 and should be reviewed
because a frequent misunderstanding instrument piping is not
covered by the Code. If the instrument is in line, or the tubing is
part of the piping system pressure boundary, the instrument pip-
ing is included in the scope of the Code. This also applies to the
air or hydraulic uid used to operate valves or control apparatus.
35.3.7.4 Desuperheater Piping Systems Piping associated
with desuperheaters, attemperators or spray water systems are
exposed to the transition between water, saturated steam and
superheated steam. Each of these have different uid properties
and therefore deserve additional design considerations. Para 122.4
identies a number of additional requirements for piping in or
potentially in this transition region.
35.3.7.5 Pressure-Reducing Valves Pressure-reducing valves
form the boundary between high pressure systems and low pres-
sure systems when everything is operating normally. Para. 122.5
provides design requirements to protect the low pressure side
of this boundary for potential failure of the pressure-reducing
valve(s).
35.3.7.6 Piping to Pressure-Relieving Safety Devices Pressure
Relieving Systems receive special attention because of their impor-
tance in maintaining the piping system within the design pressure.
The Code has specic requirements in para 122.6 to ensure the
relief valves cannot be isolated during the operation of the boiler or
piping system it is there to protect. In addition, the pressure thrust
from a relief valve can be signicant and the effect on the piping to
and from the relief valve must be considered in the design.
Appendix II provides nonmandatory rules for determining the loads
associated with relief valve discharge. These rules were developed
some time ago and may not be conservative for supercritical boil-
ers. The user should verify discharge loads with the relief valve
manufacture if there is any doubt on what loads to use.
Pressure Relief Valves are designed to ASME BPV Code
Section VIII Div 1 and appropriate sections of ASME BPV Code
Section VIII Div 1 are referenced in para 122.1.7(D).
35.3.7.7 Piping in Flammable, Combustible or Toxic Service
The Code identies additional requirements and restrictions for
Flammable, Combustible or Toxic Liquids and Gases. Liquids are
addressed in para. 122.7, gases and toxic liquids are addressed in
122.8. Both of these sections require review for any non steam/
water services in Code piping.
35.3.7.8 Temporary Piping Systems Temporary piping sys-
tems are piping systems which are not considered Code piping.
They are addressed in para. 122.10 only because they still can be
associated with hazardous conditions and should not be ignored.
Recent industrial accidents have resulted in a number of fatalities.
The user is cautioned the Code is a pressure design code, not an
operations code. As such it does not include operating rules or
guidance other than Chapter VII which says operate the piping
within the design conditions. The venting of gases during opera-
tions or start-up can create a number of hazards must be reviewed
by competent personnel prior to any such operation.
35.3.7.9 Other Systems A number of other specic systems
like Steam Trap Piping, Exhaust, Pump Suction, Pump Discharge
and District Heating and Steam Distribution Systems also have
specic requirements or warnings and should be reviewed in these
sections.
35.4 MATERIALS
Chapter III of the Code addresses limitations on materials used
for Code construction. For the most part, the Code provides an
extensive list of acceptable materials in Appendix A. Chapter III
outlines limitations for some of these materials in specic ser-
vices or systems. Appendix A and its organization will be
described in more detail later in this chapter. Requirements are
also provided for the use of materials not listed in Appendix A.
Power piping systems generally operate and are designed for
high temperatures, as a result, the minimum temperature provided
in appendix A is limited to 20
o
F. ASME B31T has also recently
been published to provide an additional guidance for lower tem-
perature services. While not currently referenced, this standard or
ASME B31.3 provide additional guidance and requirements if
material toughness is a consideration. Also see reference 16 for
more information.
35.5 DIMENSIONAL REQUIREMENTS
Standard components were discussed in paragraph 35.3.3.1
with the discussion and Table 35.1 giving examples of how com-
ponent standards work together to provide dimensional and pres-
sure temperature ratings. Chapter IV, Table 126.1 [25] repeated as
Table 35. 2 below provides a list of acceptable standards for Code
construction. The user is cautioned while these standards are
acceptable they are only acceptable within the limits provided in
the reference standard and in some cases additional limitations of
the Code. Chapter IV of the code provides requirements/responsi-
bilities so the user can qualify unlisted components for Code use.
See reference 7 for additional guidance.
35.6 FABRICATION, ASSEMBLY AND
ERECTION
35.6.1 Welding, Preheating and Post Weld Heat Treat
This is Chapter V in the Code and it addresses Welding require-
ments and Welding Qualication. Many of the welding require-
ments are referenced back to ASME B&PV Code Section IX.
Some differences between the various Codes are associated with
service requirements however others have no reason for being
different. A signicant effort is being made to minimize these dif-
ferences and this continues to be an ongoing effort by committee
members.
35.6.1.1 Welding Procedure Specication (WPS) A WPS
is a written welding procedure for making production welds to
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COMPANION GUIDE TO THE ASME BOILER & PRESSURE VESSEL CODE 35-11
AISC Publication
. . . Manual of Steel Construction Allowable Stress Design
ASCE Standard
ASCE/SEI 7 Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures
ASTM Ferrous Material Specifications
Bolts, Nuts, and Studs
A 193/A 193M Alloy-Steel and Stainless Steel Bolting Materials for High-Temperature Service
A 194/A 194M Carbon and Alloy Steel Nuts for Bolts for High-Pressure and High-Temperature Service
A 307 Carbon Steel Bolts and Studs, 60,000 psi Tensile Strength
A 320/A 320M Alloy-Steel Bolting Materials for Low-Temperature Service
A 354 Quenched and Tempered Alloy Steel Bolts, Studs and Other Externally-Threaded Fasteners
A 437/A 437M Alloy-Steel Turbine-Type Bolting Material Specially Heat Treated for High Temperature Service
A 449 Quenched and Tempered Steel Bolts and Studs
A 453/A 453M High-Temperature Bolting Materials, With Expansion Coefficients Comparable to Austenitic Steels
Castings
A 47/A 47M Ferritic Malleable Iron Castings
A 48/A 48M Gray Iron Castings
A 126 Gray Iron Castings for Valves, Flanges, and Pipe Fittings
A 197/A 197M Cupola Malleable Iron
A 216/A 216M Steel Castings, Carbon Suitable for Fusion Welding for High Temperature Service
A 217/A 217M Steel Castings, Martensitic Stainless and Alloy, for Pressure-Containing Parts Suitable for High-Temperature Service
A 278/A 278M Gray Iron Castings for Pressure-Containing Parts for Temperatures Up to 650F (350C)
A 351/A 351M Steel Castings, Austenitic, for High-Temperature Service
A 389/A 389M Steel Castings, Alloy, Specially Heat-Treated for Pressure-Containing Parts Suitable for High-Temperature Service
A 395/A 395M Ferritic Ductile Iron Pressure-Retaining Castings for Use at Elevated Temperatures
A 536 Ductile Iron Castings
Forgings
A 105/A 105M Forgings, Carbon Steel, for Piping Components
A 181/A 181M Forgings, Carbon Steel for General Purpose Piping
A 182/A 182M Forged or Rolled Alloy-Steel Pipe Flanges, Forged Fittings, and Valves and Parts for High-Temperature Service
A 336/A 336M Alloy Steel Forgings for Pressure and High-Temperature Parts
A 350/A 350M Forgings, Carbon and Low-Alloy Steel, Requiring Notch Toughness Testing for Piping Components
Cast Pipe
A 377 Standard Index of Specifications for Ductile Iron Pressure Pipe
A 426/A 426M Centrifugally Cast Ferritic Alloy Steel Pipe for High-Temperature Service
A 451/A 451M Centrifugally Cast Austenitic Steel Pipe for High-Temperature Service
Seamless Pipe and Tube
A 106/A 106M Seamless Carbon Steel Pipe for High-Temperature Service
A 179/A 179M Seamless Cold-Drawn Low-Carbon Steel Heat-Exchanger and Condenser Tubes
A 192/A 192M Seamless Carbon Steel Boiler Tubes for High-Pressure Service
A 199 Seamless Cold-Drawn Intermediate Alloy-Steel Heat-Exchanger and Condenser Tubes
A 210/A 210M Seamless Medium-Carbon Steel Boiler and Superheater Tubes
A 213/A 213M Seamless Ferritic and Austenitic Alloy-Steel Boiler, Superheater, and Heat-Exchanger Tubes
A 335/A 335M Seamless Ferritic Alloy Steel Pipe for High-Temperature Service
A 369/A 369M Carbon and Ferritic Alloy Steel Forged and Bored Pipe for High-Temperature Service
A 376/A 376M Seamless Austenitic Steel Pipe for High-Temperature Central-Station Service
TABLE 35.2 SPECIFICATIONS AND STANDARDS (Source: ASME B31.1, 2010 Table 126.1 [25])
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35-12 Chapter 35
ASTM Ferrous Material Specifications (Contd)
Seamless and Welded Pipe and Tube
A 53/A 53M Pipe, Steel, Black and Hot-Dipped, Zinc-Coated Welded and Seamless
A 268/A 268M Seamless and Welded Ferritic and Martensitic Stainless Steel Tubing for General Service
A 312/A 312 Seamless and Welded Austenitic Stainless Steel Pipe
A 333/A 333M Seamless and Welded Steel Pipe for Low-Temperature Service
A 450/A 450M General Requirements for Carbon, Ferritic Alloy, and Austenitic Alloy Steel Tubes
A 530/A 530M General Requirements for Specialized Carbon and Alloy Steel Pipe
A 714 High-Strength Low-Alloy Welded and Seamless Steel Pipe
A 789/A 789M Standard Specification for Seamless and Welded Ferritic/Austenitic Stainless Steel Tubing for General Service
A 790/A 790M Standard Specification for Seamless and Welded Ferritic/Austenitic Stainless Steel Pipe
Welded Pipe and Tube
A 134 Pipe, Steel, Electric-Fusion (Arc)-Welded (Sizes NPS 16 and Over)
A 135/A 135M Electric-Resistance-Welded Steel Pipe
A 139/A 139M Electric-Fusion (Arc)-Welded Steel Pipe (NPS 4 in. and Over)
A 178/A 178M Electric-Resistance-Welded Carbon and Carbon-Manganese Steel Boiler and Superheater Tubes
A 214/A 214M Electric-Resistance-Welded Carbon Steel Heat-Exchanger and Condenser Tubes
A 249/A 249M Welded Austenitic Steel Boiler, Superheater, Heat-Exchanger, and Condenser Tubes
A 254 Copper Brazed Steel Tubing
A 358/A 358M Electric-Fusion-Welded Austenitic Chromium-Nickel Alloy Steel Pipe for High-Temperature Service
A 409/A 409M Welded Large Diameter Austenitic Steel Pipe for Corrosive or High-Temperature Service
A 587 Electric-Resistance-Welded Low-Carbon Steel Pipe for the Chemical Industry
A 671 Electric-Fusion-Welded Steel Pipe for Atmospheric and Lower Temperatures
A 672 Electric-Fusion-Welded Steel Pipe for High-Pressure Service at Moderate Temperatures
A 691 Carbon and Alloy Steel Pipe, Electric-Fusion-Welded for High-Pressure Service at High Temperatures
A 928/A 928M Ferritic/Austenitic (Duplex) Stainless Steel Pipe Electric Fusion Welded with Addition of Filler Metal
Fittings
A 234/A 234M Piping Fittings of Wrought Carbon Steel and Alloy Steel for Moderate and Elevated Temperature Services
A 403/A 403M Wrought Austenitic Stainless Steel Piping Fittings
A 420/A 420M Piping Fittings of Wrought Carbon Steel and Alloy Steel for Low-Temperature Service
A 815/A 815M Wrought Ferritic, Ferritic/Austenitic, and Martensitic Stainless Steel Piping Fittings
Plate, Sheet, and Strip
A 240/A 240M Heat-Resistant Chromium and Chromium-Nickel Stainless Steel Plate Sheet and Strip for Pressure Vessels
A 283/A 283M Low and Intermediate Tensile Strength Carbon Steel Plates
A 285/A 285M Pressure Vessel Plates, Carbon Steel, Low- and Intermediate-Tensile Strength
A 299/A 299M Pressure Vessel Plates, Carbon Steel, Manganese-Silicon
A 387/A 387M Pressure Vessel Plates, Alloy Steel, Chromium-Molybdenum
A 515/A 515M Pressure Vessel Plates, Carbon Steel for Intermediate- and Higher-Temperature Service
A 516/A 516M Pressure Vessel Plates, Carbon Steel, for Moderate- and Lower-Temperature Service
Rods, Bars, and Shapes
A 276/A 276M Stainless Steel Bars and Shapes
A 322 Steel Bars, Alloy, Standard Grades
A 479/A 479M Stainless Steel Bars and Shapes for Use in Boilers and Other Pressure Vessels
A 564/A 564M Hot-Rolled and Cold-Finished Age-Hardening Stainless Steel Bars and Shapes
A 575 Steel Bars, Carbon, Merchant Quality, M-Grades
A 576 Steel Bars, Carbon, Hot-Wrought, Special Quality
Structural Components
A 36/A 36M Structural Steel
A 125 Steel Springs, Helical, Heat Treated
A 229/A 229M Steel Wire, Oil-Tempered for Mechanical Springs
A 242/A 242M High-Strength Low Alloy Structural Steel
A 992/A 992M Structural Shapes
TABLE 35.2 (CONTINUED)
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COMPANION GUIDE TO THE ASME BOILER & PRESSURE VESSEL CODE 35-13
ASTM Nonferrous Material Specifications
Castings
B 26/B 26M Aluminum-Alloy Sand Castings
B 61 Steam or Valve Bronze Castings
B 62 Composition Bronze or Ounce Metal Castings
B 108 Aluminum-Alloy Permanent Mold Castings
B 148 Aluminum-Bronze Sand Castings
B 367 Titanium and Titanium Alloy Castings
B 584 Copper Alloy Sand Castings for General Applications
Forgings
B 247 & B 247M Aluminum and Aluminum-Alloy Die, Hand, and Rolled Ring Forgings
B 283 Copper and Copper-Alloy Die Forgings (Hot Pressed)
B 381 Titanium and Titanium Alloy Forgings
B 462 Forged or Rolled UNS N06030, N06022, N06035, N06200, N06059, N06686, N08020, N08024, N08026, N08367,
N10276, N10665, N10675, N10629, N08031, N06045, N06025, and R20033 Alloy Pipe Flanges, Forged Fittings,
and Valves and Parts for Corrosive High-Temperature Service
B 564 Nickel Alloy Forgings
Seamless Pipe and Tube
B 42 Seamless Copper Pipe, Standard Sizes
B 43 Seamless Red Brass Pipe, Standard Sizes
B 68 & B 68M Seamless Copper Tube, Bright Annealed
B 75 Seamless Copper Tube
B 88 & B 88M Seamless Copper Water Tube
B 111 & B 111M Copper and Copper-Alloy Seamless Condenser Tubes and Ferrule Stock
B 161 Nickel Seamless Pipe and Tube
B 163 Seamless Nickel and Nickel-Alloy Condenser and Heat-Exchanger Tubes
B 165 Nickel-Copper Alloy (UNS N04400) Seamless Pipe and Tube
B 167 Nickel-Chromium-Iron Alloy (UNS N06600, N06601, N06603, N06690, N06693, N06025, and N06645) and Nickel-
Chromium-Cobalt-Molybdenum Alloy (UNS N06617) Seamless Pipe and Tube
B 210 & B 210M Aluminum Alloy Drawn Seamless Tubes
B 234 & B 234M Aluminum and Aluminum-Alloy Drawn Seamless Tubes for Condensers and Heat Exchangers
B 241/B 241M Aluminum-Alloy Seamless Pipe and Seamless Extruded Tube
B 251 & B 251M General Requirements for Wrought Seamless Copper and Copper-Alloy Tube
B 280 Seamless Copper Tube for Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Field Service
B 302 Threadless Copper Pipe, Standard Sizes
B 315 Seamless Copper Alloy Pipe and Tube
B 407 Nickel-Iron-Chromium Alloy Seamless Pipe and Tube
B 423 Nickel-Iron-Chromium-Molybdenum-Copper Alloy (UNS N08825 and N08821) Seamless Pipe and Tube
B 466 / B 466M Seamless Copper-Nickel Pipe and Tube
B 622 Seamless Nickel and Nickel-Cobalt Alloy Pipe and Tube
B 677 UNS N08904, UNS N08925, and UNS N08926 Seamless Pipe and Tube
B 690 Iron-Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum Alloys (UNS N08366 and UNS N08367) Seamless Pipe and Tube
B 729 Seamless UNS N08020, UNS N08026, and UNS N08024 Nickel-Alloy Pipe and Tube
B 861 Titanium and Titanium Alloy Seamless Pipe
Seamless and Welded Pipe and Tube
B 338 Seamless and Welded Titanium and Titanium Alloy Tubes for Condensers and Heat Exchangers
B 444 Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum-Columbium Alloy (UNS N06625) Plate, Sheet, and Strip
Welded Pipe and Tube
B 464 Welded (UNS N08020, N08024, N08026 Alloy) Pipe
B 467 Welded Copper-Nickel Pipe
B 468 Welded (UNS N08020, N08024, N08026) Alloy Tubes
B 546 Electric Fusion-Welded Ni-Cr-Co-Mo Alloy (UNS N06617), Ni-Fe-Cr-Si Alloys (UNS N08330 and UNS N08332), Ni-Cr-Fe-Al
Alloy (UNS N06603), Ni-Cr-Fe Alloy (UNS N06025), and Ni-Cr-Fe-Si Alloy (UNS N06045) Pipe
TABLE 35.2 (CONTINUED)
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35-14 Chapter 35
ASTM Nonferrous Material Specifications (Contd)
Welded Pipe and Tube (Contd)
B 547/B 547M Aluminum and Aluminum-Alloy Formed and Arc-Welded Round Tube
B 608 Welded Copper-Alloy Pipe
B 619 Welded Nickel and Nickel-Cobalt Alloy Pipe
B 626 Welded Nickel and Nickel-Cobalt Alloy Tube
B 673 UNS N08904, UNS N08925, and UNS N08926 Welded Pipe
B 674 UNS N08904, UNS N08925, and UNS N08926 Welded Tube
B 675 UNS N08367 Welded Pipe
B 676 UNS N08367 Welded Tube
B 704 Welded UNS N06625 and N08825 Alloy Tubes
B 705 Nickel-Alloy (UNS N06625 and N08825) Welded Pipe
B 804 UNS N08367 and UNS N08926 Welded Pipe
B 862 Titanium and Titanium Alloy Welded Pipe
Fittings
B 361 Factory-Made Wrought Aluminum and Aluminum-Alloy Welding Fittings
B 366 Factory-Made Wrought Nickel and Nickel Alloy Fittings
Plate, Sheet, and Strip
B 168 Nickel-Chromium-Iron Alloys (UNS N06600, N06601, N06603, N06690, N06693, N06025, N06045) and Nickel-
Chromium-Cobalt-Molybdenum Alloy (UNS N06617) Plate, Sheet, and Strip
B 171 Copper-Alloy Plate and Sheet for Pressure Vessels, Condensers, and Heat Exchangers
B 209/B 209M Aluminum and Aluminum-Alloy Sheet and Plate
B 265 Titanium and Titanium-Alloy Strip, Sheet, and Plate
B 409 Nickel-Iron-Chromium Alloy Plate, Sheet, and Strip
B 424 Ni-Fe-Cr-Mo-Cu Alloy (UNS N08825 and N08221) Plate, Sheet, and Strip
B 435 UNS N06002, UNS N06230, UNS N12160, and UNS R30556 Plate, Sheet, and Strip
B 443 Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum-Columbium Alloy (UNS N06625) Plate, Sheet, and Strip
B 463 UNS N08020, UNS N08026, and UNS N08024 Alloy Plate, Sheet, and Strip
B 625 UNS N08904, UNS N08925, UNS N08031, UNS N08932, UNS N08926, and UNS R20033 Plate, Sheet, and Strip
B 688 Chromium-Nickel-Molybdenum-Iron (UNS N08366 and UNS N08367) Plate, Sheet, and Strip
Rods, Bars, and Shapes
B 150 & B 150M Aluminum Bronze Rod, Bar, and Shapes
B 151/B 151M Copper-Nickel-Zinc Alloy (Nickel Silver) and Copper-Nickel Rod and Bar
B 166 Nickel-Chromium-Iron Alloys (UNS N06600, N06601, N06603, N06690, N06693, N06025, and N06045) and
Nickel-Chromium-Cobalt-Molybdenum Alloy (UNS N06617) Rod, Bar, and Wire
B 221 & B 221M Aluminum and Aluminum Alloy Extruded Bars, Rods, Wire, Profiles, and Tubes
B 348 Titanium and Titanium Alloy Bars and Billets
B 408 Nickel-Iron-Chromium Alloy Rod and Bar
B 425 Ni-Fe-Cr-Mo-Cu Alloy (UNS N08825 and N08221) Rod and Bar
B 446 Nickel-Chromium Molybdenum-Columbium Alloy (UNS N06625) Rod and Bar
B 473 UNS N08020, UNS N08024, and UNS N08026 Nickel Alloy Bar and Wire
B 572 UNS N06002, UNS N06230, UNS N12160, and UNS R30556 Rod
B 649 Ni-Fe-Cr-Mo-Cu Low-Carbon Alloy (N08904), Ni-Fe-Cr-Mo-Cu-N Low-Carbon Alloys (UNS N08925, UNS N08031, and
UNS N08926), and Cr-Ni-Fe-N Low-Carbon Alloy (UNS R20033) Bar and Wire
B 691 Iron-Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum Alloys (UNS N08366 and UNS N08367) Rod, Bar, and Wire
Solder
B 32 Solder Metal
B 828 Standard Practice for Making Capillary Joints by Soldering of Copper and Copper Alloy Tube and Fittings
TABLE 35.2 (CONTINUED)
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ASTM Standard Test Methods
D 323 Standard Test Method for Vapor Pressure of Petroleum Products (Reid Method)
E 94 Standard Guide for Radiographic Examination
E 125 Standard Reference Photographs for Magnetic Particle Indications on Ferrous Castings
E 186 Standard Reference Radiographs for Heavy-Walled (2 to 4
1

2
-in. [51 to 114-mm] Steel Castings
E 280 Standard Reference Radiographs for Heavy-Walled (4
1

2
to 12-in. [114 to 305-mm] Steel Castings
E 446 Standard Reference Radiographs for Steel Castings Up to 2 in. [51 mm] in Thickness
API Specification
Seamless and Welded Pipe
5L Line Pipe
American National Standard
Z223.1 National Fuel Gas Code (ANSI/NFPA 54)
MSS Standard Practices
SP-6 Standard Finishes for Contact Faces of Pipe Flanges and Connecting-End Flanges of Valves and Fittings
SP-9 Spot-Facing for Bronze, Iron and Steel Flanges
SP-25 Standard Marking System for Valves, Fittings, Flanges and Unions
SP-42 [Note (1)] Class 150 Corrosion Resistant Gate, Globe, Angle and Check Valves With Flanged and Buttweld Ends
SP-43 Wrought and Fabricated Butt-Welding Fittings for Low Pressure, Corrosion Resistant Applications
SP-45 Bypass & Drain Connection
SP-51 Class 150 LW Corrosion Resistant Cast Flanges and Flanged Fittings
SP-53 Quality Standard for Steel Castings and Forgings for Valves, Flanges, and Fittings and Other Piping Components
Magnetic Particle Examination Method
SP-54 Quality Standard for Steel Castings for Valves, Flanges, and Fittings and Other Piping Components Radiographic
Examination Method
SP-55 Quality Standard for Steel Castings for Valves, Flanges, and Fittings and Other Piping Components Visual Method for
Evaluation of Surface Irregularities
SP-58 Pipe Hangers and Supports Materials, Design, and Manufacture
SP-61 Pressure Testing of Steel Valves
SP-67 [Note (1)] Butterfly Valves
SP-68 High Pressure Butterfly Valves with Offset Design
SP-69 Pipe Hangers and Supports Selection and Application
SP-75 Specification for High Test Wrought Butt-Welding Fittings
SP-79 Socket Welding Reducer Inserts
SP-80 Bronze Gate, Globe, Angle and Check Valves
SP-83 Class 3000 Steel Pipe Unions, Socket Welding and Threaded
SP-88 Diaphragm Valves
SP-89 Pipe Hangers and Supports Fabrication and Installation Practices
SP-93 Quality Standard for Steel Castings and Forgings for Valves, Flanges, and Fittings and Other Piping Components
Liquid Penetrant Examination Method
SP-94 Quality Standard for Ferritic and Martensitic Steel Castings for Valves, Flanges, and Fittings and Other Piping
Components Ultrasonic Examination Method
SP-95 Swaged Nipples and Bull Plugs
SP-97 Integrally Reinforced Forged Branch Outlet Fittings Socket Welding, Threaded and Buttwelding Ends
SP-105 Instrument Valves for Code Applications
SP-106 Cast Copper Alloy Flanges and Flanged Fittings, Class 125, 150, and 300
TABLE 35.2 (CONTINUED)
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35-16 Chapter 35
ASME Codes & Standards
. . . ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code
B1.1 Unified Inch Screw Threads
B1.13M Metric Screw Threads M Profile
B1.20.1 Pipe Threads, General Purpose (Inch)
B1.20.3 Dryseal Pipe Threads (Inch)
B16.1 Cast Iron Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings 25, 125, 250 & 800 Classes
B16.3 Malleable Iron Threaded Fittings
B16.4 Gray Iron Threaded Fittings
B16.5 Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings
B16.9 Factory-Made Wrought Buttwelding Fittings
B16.10 Face-to-Face and End-to-End Dimensions of Valves
B16.11 Forged Fittings, Socket-Welding and Threaded
B16.14 Ferrous Pipe Plugs, Bushings, and Locknuts With Pipe Threads
B16.15 Cast Bronze Threaded Fittings, Classes 125 and 250
B16.18 Cast Copper Alloy Solder-Joint Pressure Fittings
B16.20 Metallic Gaskets for Pipe Flanges Ring Joint, Spiral Wound, and Jacketed
B16.21 Nonmetallic Flat Gaskets for Pipe Flanges
B16.22 Wrought Copper and Copper Alloy Solder Joint Pressure Fittings
B16.24 Cast Copper Alloy Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings Class 150, 300, 400, 600, 900, 1500, and 2500
B16.25 Butt Welding Ends
B16.34 Valves Flanged, Threaded, and Welding End
B16.42 Ductile Iron Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings Classes 150 and 300
B16.47 Large Diameter Steel Flanges
B16.48 Steel Line Blanks
B16.50 Wrought Copper and Copper Alloy Braze-Joint Pressure Fittings
B18.2.1 Square and Hex Bolts and Screws Inch Series
B18.2.2 Square and Hex Nuts (Inch Series)
B18.2.3.5M Metric Hex Bolts
B18.2.3.6M Metric Heavy Hex Bolts
B18.2.4.6M Hex Nuts, Heavy, Metric
B18.21.1 Lock Washers (Inch Series)
B18.22M Washers, Metric Plain
B18.22.1 [Note (2)] Plain Washers
B31.3 Process Piping
B31.4 Pipeline Transportation Systems for Liquid Hydrocarbons and Other Liquids
B31.8 Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping Systems
B36.10M Welded and Seamless Wrought Steel Pipe
B36.19M Stainless Steel Pipe
TDP-1 Recommended Practices for the Prevention of Water Damage to Steam Turbines Used for Electric Power Generation
Fossil Fueled Plants
AWS Specifications
A3.0 Standard Welding Terms and Definitions
D10.10 Recommended Practices for Local Heating of Welds in Piping and Tubing
QC1 Qualification and Certification of Welding Inspectors
AWWA and ANSI/AWWA Standards
C110/A21.10 Ductile-Iron and Gray-Iron Fittings, 3 in. Through 48 in. (76 mm Through 1200 mm), for Water and Other Liquids
C111/A21.11 Rubber-Gasket Joints for Ductile-Iron Pressure Pipe and Fittings
C115/A21.15 Flanged Ductile-Iron Pipe With Threaded Flanges
C150/A21.50 Thickness Design of Ductile-Iron Pipe
C151/A21.51 Ductile-Iron Pipe, Centrifugally Cast, for Water
C153/A21.53 Ductile-Iron Compact Fittings, 3 in. Through 24 in. (76 mm Through 610 mm) and 54 in. Through 64 in. (1,400 mm
Through 1,600 mm), for Water Service
TABLE 35.2 (CONTINUED)
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AWWA and ANSI/AWWA Standards (Contd)
C200 Steel Water Pipe6 in. (150 mm) and Larger
C207 Steel Pipe Flanges for Waterworks ServiceSizes 4 in. Through 144 in. (100 mm Through 3,600 mm)
C208 Dimensions for Fabricated Steel Water Pipe Fittings
C300 Reinforced Concrete Pressure Pipe, Steel-Cylinder Type, for Water and Other Liquids (Includes Addendum C300a-93.)
C301 Prestressed Concrete Pressure Pipe, Steel-Cylinder Type, for Water and Other Liquids
C302 Reinforced Concrete Pressure Pipe, Noncylinder Type, for Water and Other Liquids
C304 Design of Prestressed Concrete Cylinder Pipe
C500 Metal-Seated Gate Valves for Water Supply Service
C504 [Note (1)] Rubber Seated Butterfly Valves
C509 Resilient-Seated Gate Valves for Water Supply Service
C600 Installation of Ductile-Iron Water Mains and Their Appurtenances
C606 Grooved and Shouldered Joints
National Fire Codes
NFPA 54/ANSI National Fuel Gas Code
Z223.1
NFPA 85 Boiler and Combustion Systems Hazards Code
NFPA 1963 Standard for Fire Hose Connections
PFI Standards
ES-16 Access Holes and Plugs for Radiographic Inspection of Pipe Welds
ES-24 Pipe Bending Methods, Tolerances, Process and Material Requirements
FCI Standard
79-1 Proof of Pressure Ratings for Pressure Regulators
GENERAL NOTES:
(a) For boiler external piping application, see para. 123.2.2.
(b) For all other piping, materials conforming to an ASME SA or SB specification may be used interchangeably with material specified to an
ASTM A or B specification of the same number listed in Table 126.1.
(c) The approved year of issue of the specifications and standards is not given in this Table. This information is given in Appendix F of
this Code.
(d) The addresses and phone numbers of organizations whose specifications and standards are listed in this Table are given at the end of
Appendix F.
NOTES:
(1) See para. 107.1(D) for valve stem retention requirements.
(2) ANSI B18.22.1 is nonmetric.
TABLE 35.2 (CONTINUED)
specied requirements. The WPS or other document is used to
capture the essential variables of a welding procedure which will
be qualied by destructive testing, then provide direction to the
welder or welding operator to production welds have comparable
properties.
Procedure Qualication Record(s) (PQR) provide documenta-
tion of the testing required to qualify a procedure. The ASME
Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section IX, QW-482, 483 and
484 give suggested formats for Welding Procedure Specications
(WPS), Procedure Qualication Records (PQR) and Welder Per-
formance Qualications (WPQ).
35.6.1.2 Welder Performance Qualication The manufacturer
or contractor is responsible for conducting tests to qualify welders
and welding operators in accordance with qualied welding proce-
dure specications. The purpose of welder and welding operator
qualication tests is to ensure that the welder(s) and welding oper-
ator(s) following the procedures are capable of developing the
minimum requirements specied for an acceptable weldment. Per-
formance qualication tests are intended to determine the ability
of welders and welding operators to make sound welds.
35.6.2 Preheating
Preheating requirements are provided in para. 131 of the Code.
Preheating is used, along with heat treatment, to minimize the
detrimental effects of high temperature and severe thermal gradi-
ents in welding and to drive out hydrogen that could cause weld
cracking, and improve metallurgical properties. The effect of re-
ducing hydrogen cracking is accomplished by a variety of factors,
including driving off moisture, reducing the cooling rate, and in-
creasing the rate of hydrogen diffusion in the material.
35.6.3 Heat Treatment
Postweld heat treatment is performed to temper the weldment,
relax residual stresses, and remove hydrogen. The consequential
benets are avoidance of hydrogen-induced cracking and improved
ductility, toughness, corrosion resistance, and dimensional stability.
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Heat treatment requirements are provided in para. 132 of ASME
B31.1. The Code requires heat treatment after certain welding,
bending, and forming operations. Specic requirements for post-
weld heat treatment are provided in Table 132. [25].
35.6.3.1 Governing Thickness for Heat Treatment When
using Table 132 [25], the thickness to be used is generally the
thicker of the two components, measured at the joint, that are
being joined by welding. For example, if a pipe is welded to a
heavier wall valve, but the valve thickness is tapered to the pipe
thickness at the welded joint, the governing thickness will be the
greater of the valve thickness at the end of the taper at the weld
joint (presumably the nominal pipe wall thickness) or the pipe
thickness. Para. 132.4 provides a number of very specic rules for
determining the nominal thickness to be used with Table 132
[25] and should be studied carefully when determining the
requirements for heat treatment.
35.6.4 Pipe Bends
Pipe may be hot or cold bent (Reference Para. 129.1, 102.4.5 &
104.2.1). The thickness after bending must comply with the
design requirements. The Code also references PFI ES-24 (Pipe
Fabrication Institute) [25] for additional requirements on pipe
bending however this comes with the requirement for the pur-
chaser and fabricator to involve the designer if stated manufactur-
ing limits are exceeded.
35.6.5 Brazing and Soldering
Brazing procedures, brazers, and brazing operators are required
to be qualied in accordance with ASME B&PV Code, Section
IX. Solderers are required to follow the procedures in ASTM B
828, Standard Practice for Making Capillary Joints by soldering
of Copper and Copper Alloy Tube and Fittings. Aside from these
requirements, general good practice requirements for brazing and
soldering are specied in para. 128 of the Code.
35.6.6 Welded Joint Details
Welded joint details, including socket weld joints, socket weld
and slip-on anges, and branch connections are provided in
Chapter V. Standard details for slip-on and socket welding ange
attachment welds are provided in Fig. 127.4.4(B).
A couple of points worth noting are the llet weld size, which is
1.4 times the nominal pipe wall thickness (or the thickness of the
hub, whichever is less), and the small gap shown between the
anges face and the toe of the inside llet for slip-on anges. The
small gap is intended to avoid damage to the ange face due to
welding. It indicates a gap, but there is no specic limit. This differs
from Section VIII, Division 1 [33], which specify the gap to be .
The question arose as to whether a specic limit to the gap be-
tween the llet weld and ange face was appropriate. Studies, includ-
ing nite element analysis and earlier Markl fatigue testing, indicated
that it essentially did not matter how much the pipe was inserted into
the ange. Insertion by an amount equal to the hub height was opti-
mal for fatigue life, but there was not a signicant difference. To min-
imize future confusion, inclusion of minimum insertion depth has
been recommended and may be specied in a future edition of
B31.1. Reference 12 provides a much more detailed evaluation on
llet welds and insertion depth effect on a joint.
The required llet weld size for socket welds other than socket
weld ange is specied in Fig. 127.4.4(C). An issue with this
gure which has caused considerable controversy is the 1/16
(2 mm) approx. gap before welding. This is a requirement for a
1
4
gap before welding, so that weld shrinkage will be less likely to
cause small cracks in the root of the llet weld. The user can nd
a number of interpretations on this subject on the ASME web site,
but the llet weld should be acceptable if it did not crack. There is
no Code requirement for a gap after it has been welded.
35.7 INSPECTION, EXAMINATION, AND
TESTING
35.7.1 Inspection
This can be thought of as more of a Quality assurance function.
The owners Inspector oversees the work performed by the exam-
iner. It is the Inspectors responsibility to verify that all the required
examinations have been completed and to inspect the piping to the
extent necessary to be satised that it complies with all of the
applicable examination requirements of the Code and of the engi-
neering design. Note that the process of inspection does not relieve
the manufacturer, fabricator, or erector of their responsibilities for
complying with the Code. The Authorized Inspector is also re-
quired to be qualied to perform the work, see para. 136.1.4 for
Nonboiler external piping and 136.2 for Boiler External Piping.
The owners Inspector may be an employee of the owner, or an
employee of an engineering or scientic organization, or of a rec-
ognized insurance or inspection company, acting as the owners
agent. Some limits apply to avoid a conict of interest for the
inspector(s).
35.7.2 Examination
Overview of Examination Requirements.
ASME B31.1 requires that examination of the piping be per-
formed by the piping manufacturer, fabricator, and/or erector as a
quality control function. These examinations include a number of
different methods based on the type of material or fabrication.
The examiner is required to be an individual that is qualied to
perform the examination work. The qualication requirements are
provided in para. 136.3.2, or as an alternate, ASME Boiler and
Pressure Vessel Code, Section V, Article 1 may be used. The
required degree of examination and the acceptance criteria for the
examinations are provided in Chapter VI of ASME B31.1.
35.7.2.1 Visual Examination Visual examination (VT) means
using the unaided eye (except for corrective lenses) to inspect the
exterior and readily accessible internal surface areas of piping
assemblies or components. It does not include nor require remote
examination such as by the use of boroscopes. Visual examination
is used to check materials and components for conformance to
specications and freedom from defects; fabrication including
welds; assembly of threaded, bolted, and other joints; piping dur-
ing erection; and piping after erection. Note that VT includes the
verication that the design and WPS requirements are being met,
so VT is not just looking at the weld.
35.7.2.2 Magnetic Particle Examination Magnetic-particle
examination (MT) employs either electric coils wound around the
part or prods to create a magnetic eld. A magnetic powder is
applied to the surface and defects are revealed by patterns that the
powder forms in response to the magnetic eld disturbances
caused by defects. This technique reveals surface and shallow
subsurface defects. As such, it can provide more information than
liquid-penetrant examination. However, its use is limited to mag-
netic materials.
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35.7.2.3 Liquid-Penetrant Examination Liquid-penetrant
examination (PT) means detecting surface defects by spreading a
liquid dye penetrant on the surface, removing the dye after suf-
cient time has passed for the dye to penetrate into any surface
defect, and applying a thin coat of developer to the surface, which
draws the dye from defects. The defects are observable by the
contrast between the color of the dye penetrant and the color of
the developer. Liquid-penetrant examination is used for the detec-
tion of surface defects. It is used in the examination of socket
welds, branch connections welds that cannot be radiographed;
including structural examination of attachment welds.
35.7.2.4 Radiography Radiographic examination (RT) means
using x-ray or gammaray radiation to produce a picture of the
subject part, including subsurface features, on radiographic lm
for subsequent interpretation. It is a volumetric examination pro-
cedure that provides a means of detecting defects that are not
observable on the surface of the material. Requirements for radi-
ographic examination of welds are provided in ASME B&PV
Code Section V, Article 2.
35.7.2.5 Ultrasonic Examination Ultrasonic examination (UT)
means detecting defects using high-frequency sound impulses. The
defects are detected by the reection of sound waves from them.
Ultrasonic examination is also a volumetric examination method
that can be used to detect subsurface defects. It can be used as an
alternative to radiography for weld examination. The requirements
for ultrasonic examination of welds are provided in ASME B&PV
Code Section V, Article 4, with an alternative for basic calibration
blocks provided in para. 136.4.6 of ASME B31.1.
35.7.2.6 Required Examination The required examination
depends on the pressure and temperature design conditions. Table
136.4 [25] provides requirements for nondestructive examination
based on temperatures over 750
o
F (400
o
C), temperatures between
350
o
F (175
o
C) and 750
o
F (400
o
C), and All Others. The intermedi-
ate temperature range only applies if the pressure is also over
1,025 psig (7,100 kPa).
35.7.3 Testing
35.7.3.1 Pressure Testing - Overview of Pressure Test
Requirements ASME B31.1 requires leak testing of all piping
systems with the exception of lines open to atmosphere. The
various options for leak testing are noted below. The hydrotest is
the primary method, but there are a number of places where a
hydrotest is not practical and the other tests can be used within
the limits provided in this section of the Code.
(1) hydrostatic test,
(2) pneumatic test,
(3) mass-spectrometer and halide testing,
(4) initial service leak test.
The leak test is required to be conducted after any heat treat-
ment has been completed.
35.7.3.2 Hydrostatic Test A hydrostatic test is the safest test,
so it is conducted at a higher pressure, this has benecial effects
such as crack blunting and warm prestressing. These reduce the
risk of crack growth and brittle fracture after the hydrotest when
the pipe is placed in service. The test is generally conducted at a
pressure of 1.5 times the design.
35.7.3.3 Pneumatic Test A pneumatic test is more hazardous
due to the amount of stored energy in the compressed gas. A rup-
ture could result in an explosive release of this energy. It is also
more difcult to locate leaks associated with a pneumatic leak
test. Code rules permit the reduction of test pressure while the
welds are being examined.
35.7.3.4 Mass-Spectrometer and Halide Testing The owner
may specify testing methods which have greater sensitivity than
can be obtained by either a hydrostatic nor pneumatic leak test.
Paragraph 137.6 of the Code has the requirements associated with
the use of a more sensitive leak test.
35.7.3.5 Initial Service Leak Test When specied by the
owner, ASME B31.1 para. 137.7 permits an initial service leak
test in lieu of other leak tests such as hydrostatic or pneumatic. In
this test, the system is pressurized with the process uid and the
joints are inspected for leaks. Initial service leak tests are not
applicable to Boiler External Piping.
35.8 OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE
As noted in the introduction, ASME B31.1 has recently added
Chapter VII which covers maintenance of Covered Piping
Systems which are dened as follows:
covered piping systems (CPS): piping systems on which con-
dition assessments are to be conducted. As a minimum for
electric power generating stations, the CPS systems are to
include NPS 4 and larger of the main steam, hot reheat
steam, cold reheat steam, and boiler feedwater piping sys-
tems. In addition to the above, CPS also includes NPS 4 and
larger piping in other systems that operate above 750F
(400C) or above 1,025 psi (7 100 kPa). The Operating
Company may, in its judgment, include other piping systems
determined to be hazardous by an engineering evaluation of
probability and consequences of failure.
This is a short chapter which makes many of the recommenda-
tions in non-mandatory Appendix V requirements. While it does
not affect design directly, it should be considered during the
design phase to be sure the required documentation is avail-
able for evaluation of the piping systems and supports during
operations. The title is also a little misleading, because it does not
contain any operating requirements beyond operating within de-
sign, only maintenance and assessment of degradation to piping
systems.
35.9 APPENDICES IN THE CODE
A number of appendices are included in the Code as listed
below with a brief description of each. Mandatory Appendices are
identied by letters, Nonmandatory Appendices are provided for
additional guidance and identied by roman numerals.
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35.9.1 Mandatory Appendix A
Allowable Stresses and Quality Factors for
Metallic Piping Bolting Materials [25]
Table A-1, Carbon Steel
Table A-2, Low and Intermediate Alloy Steel
Table A-3, Stainless Steels
Table A-4, Nickel and High Nickel Alloys
Table A-5, Cast Iron
Table A-6, Copper and Copper Alloys
Table A-7, Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys
Table A-8, Temperatures 1,200F and Above
Table A-9, Titanium and Titanium Alloys
Table A-10, Bolts, Nuts, and Studs
The allowable stress tables provide allowable stresses for mate-
rials which are listed in the Code these are currently in US
Customary Units. The tables are organized by material type and
within those types are component types like Pipe and Tubes,
Forgings and Fittings, and Plates and Sheets, Castings, etc.
Along with allowable stress at temperature, these tables pro-
vide a lot of other important information including P numbers
for Welding, warning notes, Specied Minimum Yield, Tensile
Strengths and Weld or Casting Quality Factor. The important part
of using these tables is making sure the user is familiar with all of
the information provided and the notes associated with the material.
35.9.2 Mandatory Appendix B
Thermal Expansion Data
These tables provide US Customary and SI units for thermal
expansion data required to evaluate the piping for displacement
loads. The appendix is listed as a mandatory appendix, however
note 1 indicates the data is provided for information only and not
implied the materials are suitable for all the temperature ranges
shown.
Table B-1, Thermal Expansion Data [25]
Table B-1 (SI), Thermal Expansion Data [25]
35.9.3 Mandatory Appendix C
Moduli of Elasticity
This appendix provides physical properties required for the
analysis of piping systems. The appendix is listed as a mandatory
appendix, however note 1 indicates the data is provided for infor-
mation only and not implied the materials are suitable for all the
temperature ranges shown.
Table C-1, Moduli of Elasticity for Ferrous Material [25]
Table C-1 (SI), Moduli of Elasticity for Ferrous Material [25]
Table C-2, Moduli of Elasticity for Nonferrous Material [25]
Table C-2 (SI), Moduli of Elasticity for Nonferrous Material
[25]
35.9.4 Mandatory Appendix D
Flexibility and Stress Intensication Factors
As discussed in 35.3.5.2 and several references, most of the
stress intensication factors provided in this appendix were devel-
oped from fatigue testing more than 50 years ago. Recent research
on these factors will hopefully be available in ASME B31J [31]
in the future. Until then, if the user has better information on
Flexibility or Stress Intensication Factors they should be used.
Table D-1, Flexibility and Stress Intensication Factors [25]
Chart D-1, Flexibility Factor, k, and Stress Intensication
Factor, i [25]
Chart D-2, Correction Factor, c [25]
Fig. D-1, Branch Connection Dimensions [25]
35.9.5 Mandatory Appendix F
Reference Standards
Any listed standards or references in the Code are to a generic
standard without the edition or date. The most recently approved
edition is noted in this appendix. This is a very difcult task and
this appendix is frequently out of date in the ASME B31.1 Code
and other ASME Codes. ASME is currently working on this issue
and hopes to improve how approved editions are reviewed and
updated in the future.
35.9.6 Mandatory Appendix G
Nomenclature Information
A useful list of the Symbols used in the code along with deni-
tion and reference to paragraphs where they are used.
35.9.7 Mandatory Appendix H
Preparation of Technical Inquiries
ASME procedures have specic administrative requirements
associated with how inquires can be submitted to the Code, and
what types of questions will and will not be answered by the
Section Committee. This Appendix provides the user some infor-
mation on how to submit an inquiry or request to the committee
for Code revisions. All previously issued interpretations are pub-
lished on the ASME Web site at the URL noted below. These pre-
vious interpretations can be useful in understanding Code rules
and reviewing previous interpretations can be much faster than
submitting a new inquiry.
ASME issues written replies to inquiries concerning inter-
pretations of technical aspects of this Code. Interpretations,
Code Cases, and errata are published on the ASME Web site
under the Committee Pages at http://cstools.asme.org as they
are issued. Interpretations and code cases are also included
with each edition.
35.9.8 Mandatory Appendix J
Quality Control Requirements for Boiler
External Piping (BEP)
This appendix provides the basic requirements for a quality
program which is required for fabrication and installation of
Boiler External Piping.
35.9.9 Nonmandatory Appendix II
Rules for the Design of Safety Valve
Installations
These rules were developed some time ago and may not be
conservative for supercritical steam. The user should verify dis-
charge loads with the relief valve manufacture if there is any
doubt on what loads to use.
Also refer to ASME B&PV Code Section I for additional guid-
ance on supercritical systems.
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35.9.10 Nonmandatory Appendix III
Rules for Nonmetallic Piping and Piping Lined
With Nonmetals
Para. 105.3 of ASME B31.1 identies limited service condi-
tions where nonmetallic pipe is permitted in power plant piping.
Where it is permitted, this appendix provides guidance.
The user is cautioned the Non-metallic industry is not as stan-
dardized as steel and other metal products, as a result the com-
pliance with supplier requirements and recommendations is
important with most nonmetallic piping materials and components.
Guidance for nonmetallic piping and piping lined with non-
metals are in this appendix which is organized much like the base
Code. The behavior of nonmetallic piping is different than metal-
lic piping, and the design criteria are signicantly less well devel-
oped. Supplemental rules are also provided for nonmetallic lining
of metallic piping.
References 18 and 19 provide background on this appendix
which was originally written as Chapter VII for ASME B31.3
[26]. ASME BPV Code Section X, RTP-1-2011, [24], and WRC
415 [20] provide information on Reinforced-Thermosetting Resin
design and component standards.
35.9.10.1 Allowable Stress Various nonmetals have different,
established methods of determining allowable stresses. Some
limited allowable stress values are provided in Table III.4.2.1
[25] for thermoplastic and Table III.4.2.1 [25] for reinforced
thermosetting resin pipe. For the most part, allowable stresses or
pressure ratings must be determined from tests performed by the
manufacturer.
35.9.10.2 Pressure Design The philosophy of the base Code
with respect to metallic piping applies to nonmetallic piping. The
primary differences are that the table of listed components for
nonmetallic piping is Table III-4.1.1 [25] rather than Table 126.1
[25], and the pressure design equations are slightly different than
the base Code.
Listed components with established ratings are accepted at
those ratings. Listed components without established ratings, but
with allowable stresses listed, can be rated using the pressure
design rules of III-2.2.2; however, these are very limited. In the
cases of listed components without allowable stresses or unlisted
components, components must be rated per para. III-2.2.9. Many
times this may be done by the manufacturer, however the designer
is still responsible for verifying the manufactures qualication
meet the requirements of the Code.
35.9.10.3 Flexibility and Support Rules regarding exibility
and support for nonmetallic piping are provided in III-2.5. The
appendix does not provide detailed rules for evaluation of non-
metallic piping systems for thermal expansion. However, it
requires a formal exibility analysis when the listed exemptions
from formal exibility analysis are not met.
One of the signicant differences from metallic systems is that
fully restrained designs are commonly used. That is, systems
where the thermal expansion is offset by elastic compression/
extension of the piping between axial restraints. This is possible
because of the relatively low elastic modulus of plastic piping.
The resulting loads are generally reasonable for the design of
structural anchors. Note, however, in performing a computer exi-
bility analysis of such systems, the axial load component of ther-
mal expansion stress must be included.
A lot of other warnings or requirements are included in this
section and should be reviewed before any nonmetallic piping is
designed or analyzed.
35.9.10.4 Materials Thermoplastic materials may only be used
for ammable uid service when they are underground.
Recommended maximum and minimum temperatures are gen-
erally provided. If a material is to be used at a temperature below
the minimum temperature listed in Table III-4.2.1 [25] and Table
III-4.2.1 [25], the designer must have some test results at or below
the lowest use temperature that ensure that the materials and
bonds will have adequate toughness and are suitable at the design
minimum temperature.
35.9.10.5 Bonding of Plastics One of the key elements to suc-
cessful construction of a plastic piping system is the joints.
Appendix III requires a formal process of developing, document-
ing, and qualifying bonding procedures and personnel performing
the bonding.
The rst step is to have a documented bonding procedure speci-
cation (BPS). The specication must document the procedures
for making the joint, as set forth in para. III-5.1. This procedure
must be qualied by a bonding procedure qualication test.
Once it is so qualied, it may be used by personnel to bond
nonmetallic piping systems. Those bonders, however, must also
be qualied to perform the work. Bonders are qualied in a per-
formance qualication test. The qualication test for the bonding
procedure and the bonder are the same. Also similar to welding, if
the bonder has not used the procedure for a period of time, they
must be requalied. While this may seem like a lot for a proce-
dure which seems to require a lot less skill than welding, many of
the problems associated with nonmetallic piping are the result of
not understanding or following the correct bonding procedures.
35.9.10.6 Examination and Testing The nondestructive exam-
ination techniques for nonmetallic piping are not as well devel-
oped as they are for metallic piping. As a result, the techniques
that are used are visual and in-process examination or specic to
the manufacture of the components.
35.9.10.7 Requirements for Leak Testing Nonmetallic
Piping The leak test rules in the base Code apply to Nonmetallic
Piping. Excessive hydrotest pressures in berglass systems have
caused subsequent failures in service. The overload condition can
damage the material without evidence of a leak during the test
itself.
An addition warning not included in the code is the nature of
nonmetallic piping is it is much softer than metallic piping.
During pressurizing and particularly during pressure test, it will
elongate (if not restrained) signicantly more than metallic pip-
ing. This can cause more energy to be released during a failure of
a joint during hydrotesting of long runs of piping. Additional
safety considerations should be taken to protect personnel while
the piping is pressurized to 1.5 times the design pressure.
35.9.11 Nonmandatory Appendix IV
Corrosion Control for ASME B31.1
Power Piping Systems
Appendix IV provides a lot of useful information for any pip-
ing systems which will be installed underground as well as con-
trol of above ground piping from internal corrosion. As always,
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the owner should supplement these requirements based on their
specic chemistry and experience.
35.9.12 Nonmandatory Appendix V
Recommended Practice for Operation,
Maintenance, and Modication of Power
Piping Systems
This non-mandatory appendix was put in the Code in the 80s
and some of the recommendations in it have recently been added
to the base code as Chapter VII which was previously discussed.
Also provided are a lot of good recommendations for monitoring
of piping systems and their supports to ensure safe operation of
critical piping systems.
Guidance on systems which operate in the creep range and
emphasis on temperature excursions on the design life of piping
systems in this range are provided in V-12. References 9 and 10
provide additional information for piping in the creep range.
35.9.13 Nonmandatory Appendix VI
Approval of New Materials
This appendix is provided to guide the user on the information
and procedures to get a new material incorporated into the code. It
provides both the required information on the material properties
which must be developed as well as procedures required within
ASME and ASTM.
35.9.14 Nonmandatory Appendix VII
Procedures for the Design of Restrained
Underground Piping
This appendix provides useful information for the design and
analysis of piping systems installed underground. The basis of
this guidance comes from reference 21.
35.10 REFERENCES
1. Boardman, H. C., Formulas for the Design of Cylindrical and
Spherical Shells to Withstand Uniform Internal Pressure, The Water
Tower, vol. 30, 1943.
2. Bergman, E. O., The New-Type Code Chart for the Design of
Vessels Under External Pressure, Pressure Vessel and Piping
Design, Collected Papers 19271959, The American Society of
Mechanical Engineers, 1960, pp. 647654.
3. Holt, M., A Procedure for Determining the Allowable Out-of-
Roundness for Vessels Under External Pressure, Pressure Vessel and
Piping Design, Collected Papers 19271959, The American Society
of Mechanical Engineers, 1960, pp. 655660.
4. Saunders, H. E., and Windenburg, D., Strength of Thin Cylindrical
Shells Under External Pressure, Pressure Vessel and Piping Design,
Collected Papers 19271959, The American Society of Mechanical
Engineers, 1960, pp. 600611.
5. Windenburg, D., and Trilling, C., Collapse by Instability of Thin
Cylindrical Shells Under External Pressure, Pressure Vessel and
Piping Design, Collected Papers 19271959, The American Society
of Mechanical Engineers, 1960, pp. 612624.
6. Windenburg, D., Vessels Under External Pressure: Theoretical and
Empirical Equations Represented in Rules for the Construction of
Unred Pressure Vessels Subjected to External Pressure, Pressure
Vessel and Piping Design, Collected Papers 19271959, The
American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 1960, pp. 625632.
7. Biersteker, M., Dietemann, C., Sareshwala, S., and Haupt, R. W.,
Qualication of Nonstandard Piping Product Form for ASME Code
for Pressure Piping, B31 Applications, Codes and Standards and
Applications for Design and Analysis of Pressure Vessels and Piping
Components, PVP vol. 2101, The American Society of Mechanical
Engineers, 1991.
8. Markl, A., Fatigue Tests of Piping Components, Pressure Vessel
and Piping Design, Collected Papers, 19271959, The American
Society of Mechanical Engineers, pp. 402418, 1960.
9. Robinson, E. Steam-Piping Design to Minimize Creep Concen-
trations, Pressure Vessel and Piping Design, Collected Papers,
19271959, pp. 451466, 1960.
10. Becht IV, C., Elastic Follow-up Evaluation of a Piping System with
a Hot Wall Slide Valve, Design and Analysis of Piping, Pressure
Vessels, and Components-1988, PVP-Vol. 139, The American
Society of Mechanical Engineers, 1988.
11. Bednar, H., Pressure Vessel Design Handbook, Van Nostrand
Reinhold Co., New York, 1986.
12. Becht, C., Chen, Y. and Benteftifa, C., Effect of Pipe Insertion on
Slip-On Flange Performance, Design and Analysis of Pressure
Vessels, Piping, and Components-1992, PVP-Vol. 235, The American
Society of Mechanical Engineers, 1992.
13. Sims, J., Development of Design Criteria for a High Pressure Piping
Code, High Pressure TechnologyDesign, Analysis, and Safety of
High Pressure Equipment, PVP-Vol 110, Ed. D. P. Kendall, The
American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 1986.
14. Piping Engineering, Sixth Edition, 1986, Tube Turns, Inc.
15. Piping Design & Engineering, Seventh Edition, 1995 Grinnell
Corporation.
16. STP-PT-028, Impact Testing Exemption Curves for Low Temperature
Operation of Pressure Piping.
17. Harvey, John F., Theory and design of modern pressure vessels, Van
Nostrand Reinhold Co., New York. 1974.
18. Short II, W. E., Overview of Chapter VII, Nonmetallic Piping and
Piping Lined with Nonmetals in the ASME B31.3 Chemical Plant &
Petroleum Renery Piping Code, Codes and Standards and
Applications for Design and Analysis of Pressure Vessel and Piping
Components-1989, ASME PVP-Vol. 161, American Society of
Mechanical Engineers, 1989.
19. Short II, W. E., Coverage of Non-Metals in the ASME B31.3
Chemical Plant and Petroleum Renery Piping Code, Journal of
Process Mechanical Engineers, IMechE Vol. 206, pp. 6772,
Institute of Mechanical Engineers, May 1992.
20. WRC 415, Literature Survey and Interpretive Study on Thermoplastic
and Reinforced-Thermosetting-Resin Piping and Component Standards,
W. E. Short II, G. F. Leon, G. E. O. Widera, and C. G. Zui, The
Welding Research Council, September, 1996.
21. Goodling, E.C. Buried Piping-An Analysis Procedure Update,
ASME Publication PVP-Vol. 77, pp. 225237, ASME Pressure
Vessels and Piping Conference, Portland, June 1983.
22. Nayyar, Mohinder L., Piping Handbook, Mcgraw-Hill Seventh
Edition.
23. ASME PCC-1, Guidelines for Pressure Boundary Bolted Flange
Joint Assembly, The American Society of Mechanical Engineers,
2010.
24. RTP-1, 2011, Reinforced Thermoset Plastic Corrosion-Resistant
Equipment.
25. ASME B31.1, Power Piping Code, 2010 Edition.
26. ASME B31.3, Process Piping Code, 2010 Edition.
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27. ASME B31.4, Liquid Transportation Systems for Hydrocarbons,
Liquid Petroleum Gas, Anhydrous Ammonia, and Alcohols; The
American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
28. ASME B31.5, Refrigeration Piping; The American Society of
Mechanical Engineers.
29. ASME B31.8, Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping Systems;
The American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
30. ASME B31.9, Building Services Piping; The American Society of
Mechanical Engineers.
31. ASME B31J, Standard Method to Develop Stress Intensication and
Flexibility Factors for Piping Components; The American Society of
Mechanical Engineers; under development.
API 526, Flanged Steel Pressure Relief Valves; The American Petroleum
Institute.
API 570, Piping Inspection Code: Inspection Repair, Alteration, and
Rerating of In-Service Piping Systems; The American Petroleum
Institute.
API 594, Wafer and Wafer-Lug Check Valves; The American Petroleum
Institute.
API 599, Metal Plug ValvesFlanged and Welding Ends; The American
Petroleum Institute.
API 600, Steel Gate ValvesFlanged, Threaded and Butt-Welding Ends
Bolted and Pressure Seal Bonnets; The American Petroleum
Institute.
API 602, Compact Steel Gate Valves Flanged, Threaded, Welding and
Extended Body Ends, The American Petroleum Institute.
API 603, Class 150, Cast, Corrosion-Resistant, Flanged-End Gate
Valves, The American Petroleum Institute.
API 608, Metal Ball Valves Flanged, Threaded, and Butt-Welding
Ends, The American Petroleum Institute.
API 609, Buttery Valves: Double Flanged, Lug- and Water-Type, The
American Petroleum Institute.
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section I, Power Boilers, The
American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section II, Part A, Materials,
Ferrous Material Specications; The American Society of Mecha-
nical Engineers.
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section II, Part B, Materials,
Nonferrous Material Specications; The American Society of
Mechanical Engineers.
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section III, Rules for
Construction of Nuclear Power Plant Components; The American
Society of Mechanical Engineers.
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section VIII, Division 1,
Pressure Vessels; The American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section VIII, Division 2,
Pressure Vessels, Alternative Rules; The American Society of
Mechanical Engineers.
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section IX, Welding and
Brazing Qualications; The American Society of Mechanical
Engineers.
ASME B16.1, Cast Iron Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings; American
National Standards Institute.
ASME B1.20.1, Pipe Threads, General Purpose (Inch); The American
Society of Mechanical Engineers.
ASME B16.3, Malleable Iron Threaded Fittings; The American Society
of Mechanical Engineers.
ASME B16.4, Gray Iron Threaded Fittings, The American Society of
Mechanical Engineers.
ASME B16.5, Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings, The American Society
of Mechanical Engineers.
ASME B16.9, Factory-Made Wrought-Steel Butt welding Fittings, The
American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
ASME B16.10, Face-to-Face and End-to-End Dimensions of Valves, The
American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
ASME B16.11, Forged Steel Fittings, Socket-Welding and Threaded, The
American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
ASME B16.14, Ferrous Pipe Plugs, Bushings, and Locknuts with Pipe
Threads, The American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
ASME B16.15, Cast Bronze Threaded Fittings, Classes 125 and 250, The
American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
ASME B16.18, Cast Copper-Alloy Solder-Joint Pressure Fittings, The
American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
ASME B16.22, Wrought Copper and Copper-Alloy Solder-Joint Pressure
Fittings, The American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
ASME B16.24, Bronze Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings, Classes 150,
300, 400, 600, 900, 1500, and 2500 and Flanged Fittings, Classes
150 and 300; The American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
ASME B16.26, Cast Copper Alloy Fittings for Flared Copper Tubes, The
American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
ASME B16.28, Wrought-Steel Buttwelding Short Radius Elbows and
Returns, The American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
ASME B16.34, ValvesFlanged, Threaded, and Welding End, The
American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
ASME B16.36, Orice Flanges, Classes 300, 600, 600, 900, 1500, and
2500; The American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
ASME B16.39, Malleable Iron Threaded Pipe Unions, Classes 150, 250,
and 300; The American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
ASME B16.42, Ductile Iron Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings, Classes
150 and 300; The American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
ASME B16.47, Large Diameter Steel Flanges, NPS 26 Through NPS 60;
The American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
ASME B16.48, Steel Line Blanks; The American Society of Mechanical
Engineers.
AWWA C110, Ductile-Iron and Gray-Iron Fittings, 3 Inch Through 48
Inch (75 mm Through 1200 mm), for Water and Other Liquids;
American Water Works Association.
AWWA C115, Flanged Ductile-Iron with Ductile-Iron or Gray-Iron
Threaded Flanges, American Water Works Association.
AWWA C207, Steel Pipe Flanges for Water Works Service, Sizes 4 Inch
Through 144 Inch (100 mm Through 3,600 mm); American Water
Works Association.
AWWA C208, Dimensions for Fabricated Steel Water Pipe Fittings,
American Water Works Association.
AWWA C 500, Metal-Seated Gate Valves for Water Supply Service,
American Water Works Associations.
AWWA C 504, Rubber-Seated Buttery Valves, American Water Works
Association.
MSS SP-42, Class 150 Corrosion-Resistant Gate, Globe, Angle, and
Check Valves With Flanged and Butt Weld Ends; Manufacturers
Standardization Society of the Valve and Fittings Industry, Inc.
MSS SP-43, Wrought Stainless Steel Butt Welding Fittings, Manufacturers
Standardization Society of the Valve and Fittings Industry, Inc.
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35-24 Chapter 35
MSS SP-44, Steel Pipe Line Flanges, Manufacturers Standardization
Society of the Valve and Fittings Industry, Inc.
MSS SP-51, Class 150 LW Corrosion-Resistant Cast Flanges and
Flanged Fittings, Manufacturers Standardization Society of the Valve
and Fittings Industry, Inc.
MSS SP-65, High-Pressure Chemical Industry Flanges and Threaded
Stubs for Use with Lens Gaskets, Manufacturers Standardization
Society of the Valve and Fittings Industry, Inc.
MSS SP-70, Cast Iron Gate Valves, Flanged and Threaded Ends,
Manufacturers Standardization Society of the Valve and Fittings
Industry, Inc.
MSS SP-71, Cast Iron Swing Check Valves, Flanged and Threaded Ends,
Manufacturers Standardization Society of the Valve and Fittings
Industry, Inc.
MSS SP-72, Ball Valves With Flanged or Buttwelding Ends for General
Service; Manufacturers Standardization Society of the Valve and
Fittings Industry, Inc.
MSS SP-73, Brazing Joints for Copper and Copper Alloy Pressure
Fittings.
MSS SP-75, Specications for High Test Wrought Buttwelding Fittings,
Manufacturers Standardization Society of the Valve and Fittings
Industry, Inc.
MSS SP-79, Socket-Welding Reducer Inserts; Manufacturers Standar-
dization Society of the Valve and Fittings Industry, Inc.
MSS SP-80, Bronze Gate, Globe, Angle, and Check Valves, Manu-
facturers Standardization Society of the Valve and Fittings Industry,
Inc.
MSS SP-81, Stainless Steel, Bonnetless, Flanged, Knife Gate Valves,
Manufacturers Standardization Society of the Valve and Fittings
Industry, Inc.
MSS SP-83, Class 3000 Steel Pipe Unions, Socket-Welding and
Threaded; Manufacturers Standardization Society of the Valve and
Fittings Industry, Inc.
MSS SP-85, Cast Iron Globe and Angle Valves, Flanged and Threaded
Ends, Manufacturers Standardization Society of the Valve and
Fittings Industry, Inc.
MSS SP-88, Diaphragm-Type Valves, Manufacturers Standardization
Society of the Valve and Fittings Industry, Inc.
MSS SP-95, Swage (d) Nipples and Bull Plugs, Manufacturers Standar-
dization Society of the Valve and Fittings Industry, Inc.
MSS SP-97, Integrally Reinforced Forged Branch Outlet Fittings
Socket Welding, Threaded, and Buttwelding Ends; Manufacturers
Standardization Society of the Valve and Fittings Industry, Inc.
MSS SP-105, Instrument Valves for Code Applications, Manufacturers
Standardization Society of the Valve and Fittings Industry, Inc.
MSS SP-58, Pipe Hangers and SupportsMaterials, Design, and
Manufacture; Manufacturers Standardization Society of the Valve
and Fittings Industry, Inc.
SAE J513, Refrigeration Tube Fittings General Specications; Society
of Automotive Engineers.
SAE J514, Hydraulic Tube Fittings; Society of Automotive Engineers.
SAE J518, Hydraulic Flange Tube, Pipe, and Hose Connections, Four-
Bolt Split Flanged Type; Society of Automotive Engineers.
WRC 107, Wichman, K., Hopper, A., and Mershon, J. (1979). Local
Stresses in Spherical and Cylindrical Shells due to External
Loadings, Welding Research Council, Bulletin 107, New York.
WRC 297, Mershon, J., Mokhtarian, K., Ranjan, G., and Rodabaugh, E.
(1984). Local Stresses in Cylindrical Shells due to External Loadings
on NozzlesSupplement to WRC Bulletin No. 107, Welding
Research Council, Bulletin 297, New York.
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36.1 COVERAGE
The ASME B31.3 Process Piping Code is one of a series of
piping codes which cover piping for various industries. The previ-
ous chapter covered the rst in the series which is ASME B31.1
the power piping code. Likewise, this and subsequent chapters or
sub chapters will cover the rest of the B31 series of piping codes.
This series of piping codes started with the Pressure Piping Code
which was rst published in 1935. More information on the his-
tory is printed in the forward of ASME B31.3 as well as others in
the series.
This chapter covers some of the other books in the B31 series
as listed below:
In PART A: B31.3 Process Piping;
In PART B: B31.52010 Refrigeration Piping and Heat Trans -
fer Components;
In PART C: B31.9-2011 Building Services Piping;
In PART D: B31E2008 Standard for the Seismic Design and
Retrot of Above-Ground Piping Systems;
In PART E: B31J2008 Standard Test Methods for Determin -
ing Stress Intensication Factors (i-Factors) for Metallic Piping
Components; and
In PART F: B31T2010 Standard Toughness Requirements for
Piping.
At the end of this chapter 36 references pertaining to all of the
above Parts A through F are provided. Whereas some of these ref-
erences are directly applicable to the discussions contained in this
chapter several others are noted for additional information.
PART A: ASME CODE B31.3 PROCESS
PIPING
36A1 INTRODUCTION
This part of the chapter is based on the 2010 Edition of the
ASME B31.3 Process Piping Code and will be referred to as the
Code hereafter.
The introduction of the any of the book sections as they are
referred to within ASME gives a brief description of the scope of
CHAPTER
36
ASME PIPING CODES: B31.3 PROCESS,
B31.5 REFRIGERATION,
B31.9 BUILDING SERVICES
AND
ASME STANDARDS FOR PIPING:
B31E SEISMIC DESIGN,
B31J STRESS I-FACTORS,
B31T TOUGHNESS REQUIREMENTS
Jimmy E. Meyer
1
1
Charles Becht IV was the author of Chapter 17 titled B31.3 PROCESS
PIPING for the original, second and third editions. Chapter 17 of the third
edition has been revised in its entirety and renumbered as Chapter 36 in the
current fourth edition. As noted in the title this chapter 36 for the fourth edi-
tion is authored by Jimmy E. Meyer who enlarged the scope of the chapter to
include additional ASME B31 Codes and Standards. (Editor)
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the book sections and identies the responsibility for the owner to
select the applicable Code section for the design of piping related
to their facility. This is one of several important responsibilities
assigned to the owner who is dened in the rst section of
B31.3 Paragraph 300(b)(1). Another useful piece of information
to understand is the numbering of paragraphs, gures and tables
in the piping codes. All of the numbered book sections started
from a single pressure piping code as noted above, as the specic
book sections were split apart for specic types of services or
industries, there was an attempt to maintain the paragraph num-
bering with the exception of rst number in the series. For exam-
ple all of the paragraphs in B31.1 are in the 100 series likewise all
of the paragraphs in B31.3 are in the 300 series. This is not an
absolute, but it will give you a good starting point if for the reader
to use more than one of the ASME B31 series in the readers
career.
The use of the term piping is meant to apply to more than Pipe.
Pipe, Piping, Piping Components, Piping Elements, Piping
Installation, and Piping Systems all have specic denitions pro-
vided in Para. 300.2 and should be reviewed to understand the
requirements in the B31.3 Process Piping code as well as the rest
of this chapter. Another important point which is made in the
introduction of B31.3 as well as other book section is the Code is
not a design handbook. Since this is not emphasized sufciently,
this will be repeated a few more times throughout this chapter.
Since this is a companion guide the code requirements will not be
duplicated, instead frequent references to the applicable para-
graphs and some insights to the requirements or a simpler way to
look at them to help the user understand them will be made. Many
of the explanations may be oversimplications and should not be
taken as the complete code requirements. The code is updated fre-
quently and is considerably more thorough than this guide.
After the Introduction, the Code is organized much the same as
a design and construction project for the rst Chapters:
Chapter I, Scope and Denitions
Chapter II, Design
Chapter III, Materials
Chapter IV, Standards for Piping Components
Chapter V, Fabrication, Assembly and Erection
Chapter VI, Inspection, Examination, and Testing
The last four chapters of the Code provide additional rules or
exemptions for specic materials or service conditions. These
chapters follow the same format as the previous chapters and
paragraph numbering with the exception of a letter designation
being added. If these chapters do not apply to a project or work,
there is no reason to deal with them:
Chapter VII, Nonmetallic Piping and Metallic Piping Lined with
Nonmetals.
Chapter VIII, Piping for Category M Fluid Service (Note, this is
for highly hazardous uid services which the owner designates
requires additional considerations and safeguarding.)
Chapter IX, High Pressure Piping
Chapter X, High Purity Piping (This is a new chapter which was
just added in the 2010 edition and addresses some different joint
designs and fabrication techniques for a number of industries
requiring extremely clean conditions.)
Treatment in this chapter follows the same order as shown
above. A list of references is provided at the end of the chapter for
the reader to explore the topics in more detail.
36A2 SCOPE AND DEFINITIONS
Para. 300.1.1(b) below specically lists a number of uids
which the Code applies to:
(b) This Code applies to piping for all uids, including
(1) raw, intermediate, and nished chemicals
(2) petroleum products
(3) gas, steam, air, and water
(4) uidized solids
(5) refrigerants
(6) cryogenic uids
The above list is not complete and B31.3 being the most
generic of the Pressure Piping Codes in the B31 series is also fre-
quently applied to the following industries or uid services:
Food and Pharmaceutical
Nuclear Fuel and Waste Processing
Semiconductor Manufacturing
Bioprocessing Industry
Most of the facilities listed above are the industries which
resulted in the need to add Chapter X to the code to address the
high purity requirements of these industries.
36A3 DESIGN
36A3.1 Chapter II, Part 1, Design Conditions
36A3.1.1 (Para. 301) Qualications of the Designer As
noted during the introduction, the Code is not a design handbook,
so Para. 301.1 identies experience/educational re quire ments for
a Piping Designer. This is very difcult to do be cause experience
and complexity of piping systems vary so widely so the option of
using less experienced design personnel is left to the owner.
Likewise, an experienced designer must be aware of piping sys-
tems or conditions where they might not have the required expe-
rience to safely design a piping system and seek more qualied
help.
The rest of paragraph 301 provides a short explanation of con-
ditions or considerations for the design of piping systems. It is a
fairly comprehensive list, but the owner or designer should always
be on the lookout for unique conditions which might not be
addressed.
36A3.2 (Para. 302) Design Criteria
This section denes the basis of the allowable stresses, quality
factors, etc. to be used for the design of piping systems. It also in -
cludes some references to listed and unlisted components and an
allowance for short term variations. The user is cautioned to be
sure they have enough understanding of future operation of the
system before they apply these allowances. Generally process pip-
ing facilities are designed for a 20-40 year life or more. Unless
the variations are self-limiting (for example a relief valve dis-
charging), it is difcult for a designer to assure himself of the
duration of variations to design conditions.
36-2 Chapter 36
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36A3.2.1 (Para. 302.3.5) Sustained Loads and Displacement
Strains This might be the most important paragraph to understand
the analysis and design requirements in the Code. The simplied
analysis requirements in the Code are separated into Sustained
Loads which will act until a system fails if it exceeds the limits of
the material and Displacement Strains (self limiting) or loads which
have a dened displacement and will not continue past this limit.
Examples of Sustained loads and Stresses:
Internal Pressure (hoop stress) S
h
Internal Pressure (longitudinal stress) (S
L
Para. 302.3.5(c))
Bending Stress from weight (longitudinal, shear or torsion)
(S
L
Para. 302.3.5(c))
Bending Stress from occasional loads such as wind, snow and
Seismic (S
L
*1.33 Para. 302.3.6)
As a footnote it can be mentioned that seismic loads are usu-
ally treated as sustained loads by various Codes, however a lot of
research indicates seismic failures are more closely associated
with fatigue or self limiting loads. References 25 to 31 pertinent
to Seismic Design in general are listed at the end of this chapter.
Examples of Displacement Strains (Self Limiting)
Stresses due to thermal Expansion S
a
f(1.25S
c
.25S
h
).
Anchor movements caused by settlement, equipment movement,
etc. S
a
f(1.25S
c
.25S
h
).
The limits for sustained loads are roughly 2/3 of the yield
strength of a material, or 1/3 of the tensile strength of a material.
The limit for displacement strains (self limiting stresses) can be as
high as twice the yield strength of the material. Equation (1a) is
the rst equation in the code and denes the allowable displace-
ment stress range S
a
f(1.25S
c
.25S
h
). S
c
and S
h
are the basic
allowable stress for the materials for at minimum and maximum
expected temperatures. f is a fatigue factor based on the number
of cycles expected during the service life of the system. The
fatigue factor f is 1 for less than 7,000 cycles unless the require-
ments for low cycle fatigue are met. See gure 36A3.2.1 for
determining an f factor for cycles other than 7,000.
The analysis requirements for both Sustained and Self Limiting
loads will be discussed later in this chapter, but the two load cases
are treated separately by the Code with two minor exceptions.
The rst is equation (1b): S
a
f[1.25(S
c
S
h
) S
L
].
This equation still does not do anything to combine the two
load cases. If studied carefully, it roughly increases the stress
range from 1.5 times the basic allowable stress to 2.5 times the
basic allowable stress minus the longitudinal stress from the com-
bination of sustained loads. So again, the code does not combine
sustained and self limiting load cases, it only allows an increase in
the displacement stress range allowable for any unused part of the
sustained stress allowable. The user is urged to review the require-
ments of this paragraph carefully to fully understand the differ-
ence between the two types of loading and the code treatment of
them. This will also be discussed during the analysis requirements
(Para. 319) later in this chapter.
The second exception is not even in the base code. It is found
in Appendix P which provides Alternative Rules for Evaluating
Stress Range. This appendix does not eliminate the requirement
to meet sustained load requirements in the base Code, it just pro-
vides an alternate method to evaluate the stress range require-
ments. This is a relatively new appendix in the code, and there are
COMPANION GUIDE TO THE ASME BOILER & PRESSURE VESSEL CODE 36-3
FIG. 36A3.2.1 STRESS RANGE FACTOR, f (Source: Fig. 302.3.5 of ASME B31.3, 2010)
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already some members of the Process Piping Code Section
Committee who feel is should be deleted from the code.
References 8, 9, 10, 14 and 21 provide more in depth informa-
tion on the stress range concept and associated stress intensica-
tion factors discussed later.
36A3.3 Part 2 Pressure Design of
Piping Components
36A3.3.1 (Para. 303) General The easiest way to meet the
pressure design for a component is to use components which are
manufactured to a standard listed in Table 326.1. These listed stan-
dards also provide pressure temperature ratings for the components,
either in the form of a table with coincident pressures/temperatures
(for example B16.5, B16.47, etc.), or ratings associated with com-
patible seamless pipe (for example B16.9, B16.11, etc).
Unlisted components may be used, however a lot more re -
sponsibility is put on the designer to verify they are good for the
pressure, temperature and other loading requirements in the code.
Reference 7 provides additional guidance for Unlisted Compo -
nents. The number of reference standards associated with piping
designs are quite signicant, the following Table 36A3.3.1 gives
some examples of how the piping codes are interrelated for some
common carbon steel (CS) and stainless steel (SS) Pressure
Rating/Dimensional Standards, Material Forming Standards and
Material Grades.
36A3.3.2 Pressure Design
36A3.3.2.1 Straight Pipe This section denes a lot of terms
associated with the calculation of the required wall thickness for
internal pressure.
During the development of the Code approximately 30 differ-
ent equations were considered for the calculation of required wall
thickness. If the piping were innitely thin, the simple equation of
tPD/2SEW where t minimum calculated wall thickness,
P design pressure, D Pipe Outside Diameter, SEW basic
allowable stress (including weld quality and weld strength reduc-
tion factors) would provide accurate or conservative results. Since
it must have some thickness, the Code settled on equation (3a)
tPD/2(SEWPy) because it is relatively simple and provide
good results compared with more complicated formulas. Table
304.1.1 provides values for the y factor which is .4 for most low
temperature ductile materials. Equation (3b) is also provided for
the user if they would like to start with the ID and calculate a
minimum wall thickness.
Equations (3a and 3B) are only for Diameter to wall thickness
ratios of 6 or greater. For thick wall designs where this require-
ment is not met, the user should consider such factors as theory of
failure, effects of fatigue, and thermal stress (see references at the
end of this chapter). Chapter IX was developed to provide extra
guidance/requirements for these high pressure applications.
References 1, 11, 13, 14, and 17 provide more detailed expla-
nations and the theory behind these equations.
36A3.3.2.2 Straight Pipe Under External Pressure For exter-
nal pressure whether from a vacuum condition in the pipe, or jack-
eting with steam, para. 304.1.3 of the Code refers to ASME Boiler
and Pressure Vessel Code Section VIII for the design requirements.
See References 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 17 for addition information on
External Pressure or Vacuum Design of piping and components.
36A3.3.2.3 Curved and Mitered Segments of Pipe Para.
304.2 has similar equations to those for straight pipe, these are
provided for piping bends and miters. While these equations are a
little more complicated than straight pipe, repeating them here
36-4 Chapter 36
TABLE 36A3.3.1 EXAMPLES OF LISTED STANDARDS FOR COMPONENTS AND MATERIAL
Component
Carbon Steel (CS) /
Stainless Steel (SS)
Dimensional Standard /
Pressure Rating
Material/
Forming Spec. Material Grade
Pipe Carbon Steel ASME B36.10 ASTM A106 or A53 Grade B (most common)
Pipe Stainless Steel ASME B36.19 ASTM A312 Type 304, 304L, 316, etc.
Forged Fittings 2 and Under (1) Carbon Steel ASME B16.11 ASTM A105 One Grade
Forged Fittings 2 and Under (1) Stainless Steel ASME B16.11 ASTM A182 Type 304, 304L, 316, etc.
Formed Fittings 2 and larger (1) Carbon Steel ASME B16.9 ASTM A234 Grade WPB to match pipe
Formed Fittings 2 and larger (1) Stainless Steel ASME B16.9 or
MSS SP 43 (2)
ASTM A403 Type 304, 304L, 316, etc.
Flanges (Forged) 24 and smaller Carbon Steel ASME B16.5 ASTM A105 One Grade
Flanges (Forged) 24 and smaller Stainless Steel ASME B16.5 ASTM A182 Type 304, 304L, 316, etc.
Flanges over 24 CS or SS ASME B16.47 (3) See CS or SS above See CS or SS above
Forged Valves 2 and Under (1) CS or SS No Std. ASTM A105 and
A182
Same as Forged Fittings
Valves Flanged or Butt Welded Carbon Steel ASME B16.34 ASTM A216 Grade WCB to match pipe
Valves Flanged or Butt Welded Stainless Steel ASME B16.34 ASTM A351 Type 304, 304L, 316, etc.
Notes:
1. The size ranges overlap, but generally 2 and under will be socket welded forged ttings and 2 and over will be butt weld (wrought)
ttings. Verify with project or client specications.
2. MSS SP 43 does not have the same pressure rating, or quality control as ASME B16.9. ASME B16.9 should be specied for any
pressure or hazardous applications.
3. Use caution on anges over 24. This standard has two sets of anges series A and Series B. They do not t up with each other! These
were previously MSS SP44 anges and API 605 anges.
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will not provide the user much additional value. Some of the ref-
erences provided at the end of this chapter will provide more in
depth explanation into the theory if required.
36A3.3.2.4 (Para. 304.4) Branch Connections Para. 304.3
of the Code provides rules based on area replacement as an alter-
nate to using listed branch components from Table 326.1. This
means when a hole is cut in the pipe wall, area removed is
replaced within a specic distance of the area which was
removed. The theory here is the hoop stress which is the basis of
the wall thickness calculation will remain constant if the area
remains constant. There are about four pages of gures and de-
nition of terms/areas associated with this concept. Appendix H
also provides 5 sample problems for branch connection rein-
forcement. One of these gures is 304.3.4, repeated below as g-
ure 36A3.3.2.5.
What makes it look complicated are all of the allowances on
the pipe wall and the possibility the branch is not at a right angle
to the pipe centerline. If not all of the existing wall is required for
pressure design (i.e. the actual pipe wall thickness exceeds the
minimum wall required), then this extra wall thickness may be
used for area replacement.
A simpler approach would be to calculate the minimum wall
thickness required for the run pipe or header. If the actual wall
thickness is not at least twice the calculated minimum wall thick-
ness, most likely some area reinforcement or replacement is
required. Unless it is very close, the author recommends specify-
ing 100% replacement of area. The reinforcement area is basi-
cally one branch diameter from the centerline of the branch on the
header, and 2.5 times the wall thickness of either the branch or the
header. This is fairly limiting, however if the reinforcing pad is
made from the same material and thickness as the header, and the
width is specied with the radius of the branch, it will produce a
pad which will replace all of the area which was removed. The
user is also cautioned the area replacement rules apply to the pres-
sure design, the branch connection will also have to be evaluated
for other sustained loads as well as the displacement stress range.
This topic will be address more in other parts of this chapter.
ASME B&PV Code, Section VIII, Div.1, Div.2 and Div. 3 all
provide alternate methods of evaluating the intersection of
cylinders for pressure and external loads. These methods vary
from a similar simplified approach to detailed finite element
analysis.
36A3.4 Part 3 Fluid Service Requirements for
Piping Components
Part 4 Fluid Service Requirements for
Piping Joints
In the denitions, the Code dened a number of different uid
services.
Category D Fluid Service Relatively low pressure/temperature,
nonhazardous, nonammable.
Normal Fluid Service Default uid service unless one of
the others was permitted by the
Owner.
Category M Fluid Service This uid service would present a
signicant risk to personnel with a
single exposure to a small quantity
of a toxic uid.
High Pressure Fluid Service Generally, this uid service would
apply to pressures which exceed the
ange rating of ASME B16.5, Class
2500 lb anges.
36A3.4.1 Both of these parts 3 and 4 address various piping
components or types of piping joints which might be limited to
nonhazardous uids, size limitation, or where additional require-
ment might be required. These requirements should be reviewed,
but there is no good way to summarize them. The user should
familiarize themselves with these requirements especially when
they are preparing new piping specications for a uid service, or
working on a piping design which does not have an approved pip-
ing specication.
COMPANION GUIDE TO THE ASME BOILER & PRESSURE VESSEL CODE 36-5
FIG. 36A3.3.2.5 BRANCH CONNECTION NOMENCLATURE (Source: Fig. 304.3.3 of ASME B31.3, 2010)
Limits of
reinforcement
zone
Mill tolerance
Normal thickness
Branch pipe
or nozzle
Branch pipe
or nozzle
Reinforcement
areas
Limits of
reinforcement
zone
Run pipe
Run pipe
A
2
A
2
A
3
D
b
T
b
A
3
A
1
A
4
A
4
Thickness, measured
or minimum per purchase
specifcation
Reinforcement
areas
Multiply this area by
(2 - sin ) to get
required area
Normal
thicknes
Mill tolerance
GENERAL NOTE: This Fiugure illustrates the nomenclature of para, 304.3.3. It does not indicate complete weldinf details or a preferred method
of construction. For typical weld details, see Fig. 328.5.4D
Pipe
d2
d1
L4
Dh d2
Tr
Tb
Th
Th
th
Tb
C
c
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36A3.5 Part 5 Flexibility and Support
36A3.5.1 Piping Flexibility
36A3.5.1.1 Basic Requirements Piping systems shall have
sufcient exibility to prevent thermal expansion or contraction or
movements of piping supports and terminals from causing
(a) failure of piping or supports from overstress or fatigue
(b) leakage at joints
(c) detrimental stresses or distortion in piping and valves or in
connected equipment (pumps and turbines, for example),
resulting from excessive thrusts and moments in the piping
The basic requirements noted above are what are normally con-
sidered in the piping analysis. The stress range concept is also
explained in more detail in this chapter, but it was mentioned ear-
lier when the allowable stress range was dened. The statement
made in the introduction of the Code the Code is not a design
hand book is probably most applicable to this chapter. The user
is also warned about the various piping analysis software products
available to meet the analysis requirements of this section. These
are great tools, and provide a great deal more analysis options and
load combinations than were available when the Code require-
ments were rst written.
As was noted, the Code treats the displacement stress range
separately from sustained loads. Most analysis products available
now combine sustained and displacement load cases in some
way. In most cases, they also calculate a stress associated with
this load case. There is no allowable stress associated with this
load case in the base Code. The explanation in Para. 319.2. cov-
ers displacement strains, displacement stresses, displacement
stress ranges and cold spring provide a good starting point for
understanding this concept. References 8, 14, 15, and 21 at the
end of this chapter also will go into the basis of this concept
more depth.
36A3.5.2 Cold Spring The B31.1 Power Piping Code (Para.
119.9) provides a little more explanation on the concept and require-
ments of cold spring. Cold spring was used more widely in the
Power Piping because of the large diameter hot piping connected to
the turbine. It is very difcult to meet the allowable force and
moment loading on the turbine, and cold spring was one technique
to help reduce the loads. Many client/owner specications now pro-
hibit the use of cold spring. This is because it is extremely difcult
to verify the cold spring is correctly installed during the construc-
tion, and even more difcult to be sure it is maintained during main-
tenance throughout the life of the plant. Also see Para. 319.5.1 for
formulas to be used in calculating reaction loads when cold spring is
used.
36A3.5.3 Properties for Flexibility Analysis Appendix C and
D are referenced as the source for thermal expansion data, modu-
lus of elasticity and exibility and stress intensication factors.
This section also identies specic temperatures to be used for the
analysis. For example the expansion value for the stress range is
the algebraic difference between the minimum and maximum tem-
peratures for the thermal cycle under analysis, while the expansion
value for reactions is the expansion value from the expected
installed temperature to the maximum (or minimum) temperature
under analysis. Appendix D contains the stress intensications fac-
tors to be used with the simplied analysis methods described in
the Code. These exibility and stress intensication factors were
rst developed in the 1950s. Many have not been updated since
then, so the Code permits the use of better data if it is available
to the user. ASME B31J provides a consistent method to experi-
mentally develop stress intensication and exibility factors. This
standard is discussed later, but it is worth noting the scope of this
standard is being expanded to provide updated factors which have
been developed by more recent research and will be available for
use with all of the B31 Code Sections. Also, see references 8, and
14, at the end of this chapter for more information on the develop-
ment of these stress intensication and exibility factors and the
theories behind them.
36A3.5.4 Flexibility Analysis Requirements These are
interesting sections, and the user should be aware they were
written and have been in the Code since before there was easy
access to Piping Analysis Software. The analysis software
available in the early 1970s (and before) required a main
frame computer and piping input decks with three computer
punch cards per piping element. A piping analysis model
which can be developed in much less than an hour today, could
have taken a week to input, verify and run back then. As a
result a number of approximation methods were (and still are)
available. Some of these methods include Guided Cantilever
Charts, Tube Turn, Grinnell, and the formula provided in
ASME B31.3, equation (16). ASCE Manual on Steel construc-
tion contains beam formulas which form the basis of most for-
mal analysis software, these beam formulas can also be used to
approximate results from formal analysis. There are a lot of
warnings and precautions for any of these methods, however
many of the same references and warnings also apply to formal
analysis. It now takes more time to document the acceptability
of an approximation method than to develop a formal model,
however without a good understanding of the approximation
methods, the user may not have the knowledge to recognize
when there is an error in the formal analysis. References 14,
15, and 19 provide a number of simplified methods for this
purpose.
The user is strongly encouraged to have a basic expectation of
the results of any formal computer analysis whether from piping
analysis software, or nite element analysis. These are sometimes
referred to as sanity checks, rules of thumb, simplied ap -
proxi mation methods, etc. but regardless of what they are called,
it is important to understand when the results of the computer
analysis are conservative, or when they give you the answer you
want to hear. Note the term conservative versus the term correct.
It is very unlikely the analyst could ever calculate an accurate
stress on a piping element after it has experienced a few thermal
cycles and the tolerances associated with fabrication and con-
struction. The goal is to envelop everything the piping system
could possibly experience and make sure it is safe for those
conditions.
36A.3.5.5 (Para. 319.4.3) This is a very short paragraph, how-
ever it is extremely important to getting good conservative result
from a formal or approximation analysis. These are sometimes
referred to as boundary conditions, and many problems encoun-
tered in the eld are the result of inaccurate modeling of these con-
ditions. One of the most important conditions is the stiffness of the
supports or restraints. Unless provided, most commercial analysis
software will assume supports, restraints and anchors (usually
equipment nozzles) are very rigid. This is a good assumption for
36-6 Chapter 36
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maximizing the stresses developed in a piping system, but may
result in a load being shifted to the wrong location because of the
relative stiffness of the supports.
36A3.5.6 Flexibility Stresses The equations for calculating
and combining bending and torsion stresses are provide in this sec-
tion. It is important to understand how the Code requires loads to
be combined, however most commercially available software will
correctly meet these requirements if appropriate Code and de-
fault requirements are set and veried prior to the analysis being
performed.
36A3.5.7 Required Weld Quality Assurance It is good prac-
tice not to push the design of a piping system right up to code
limits because of problems which could be encountered during con-
struction for the severe cyclic conditions. If the limits are pushed
to within 80% of the allowable stress range and the number of
associated thermal cycles is over 7000, the designer is responsible
to specify additional weld inspection
Para. 319.6 and 319.7 provide some additional guidance on cal-
culating movements, separating analysis into smaller simpler sub-
systems (highly recommended by the author) and means of
increasing exibility are covered in these sections and are covered
in these sections.
Before moving to the next section, the user should note signicant
attention has been spent on piping exibility analysis. The next sec-
tion moves on to support of the piping systems. Para. 302.3.5 identi-
ed requirements for sustained loads like pressure and weight. Most
of the requirements which apply to formal analysis for piping exi-
bility can also be applied to formal analysis of piping for these sus-
tained loads. As will be noted in the next section, there are a number
of approximation methods which were used before the availability
of analysis software. One useful rule of thumb the user might nd
useful is if the piping system is designed to the maximum possible
pressure per equation (3a), the longitudinal stress from pressure will
be approximately 50% of the allowable. The other 50% of the basic
allowable longitudinal stress should be available for stresses devel-
oped from the weight of the piping system.
36A3.6 Piping Support
Pipe supports are obviously an important part of the piping
design. This chapter is relatively straight forward and provides
information to be considered during the design and support of
piping systems. In addition to the requirements in this section of
the code, MSS-SP58, 2002 edition, and the support manufactures
provide additional information on the design of pipe supports. A
point worth highlighting the term support also applies to re -
straints. The term restraint is more likely to apply to restraints in
the axial or lateral direction relative to the pipe. These restraints
are important for seismic or wind loading as well as restraints
required to control the thermal expansion of the piping. Where
restraints are used to control the thermal expansion of long
straight runs of thermal expansion, the user must make sure loads
from friction are added to the loads from the exibility analysis.
While friction can be included in the exibility analysis, this can
be complicated and it is common practice to calculate frictional
loads separately and add them to the support loads. The most
important consideration with friction is it can never help the user.
This is probably the best reason not to include it in the piping
analysis, because the analysis is performed without being sure it
is helping one of the load cases.
36A3.6.1 Anchors and Guides (c) Piping layout, anchors,
restraints, guides, and supports for all types of expansion joints
shall be designed in accordance with para. X301.2 of Appendix
X.
This is a very small little paragraph, but when dealing with
expansion joints it is extremely important. The user must under-
stand the pressure thrusts developed by expansion joints and
restraint systems associated with them. Failure to understand this
resulted in one of the worst industrial accidents in the 1970s
which killed about 29 workers. Most expansion joint manufac-
tures provide very good design information on calculating and
controlling this pressure thrust as well is information on the
allowable movements associated with their products. This infor-
mation as well as appendix X should be reviewed and understood
before an expansion joint is used in a design.
36A3.6.2 Resilient Supports Spring supports discussed in
para. 321.2.3 are an important part of supporting piping systems
when there are signicant movements in the vertical direction.
Sometimes very small vertical movements can be signicant if the
user is trying to protect equipment from thermal expansion loads.
Other times, a piping system may run vertically for long distances.
This makes it very difcult to distribute the piping loads without
the use of spring supports. References 14, 15, and 21 provide
excellent guidance on how to design supports to meet the require-
ments in this section.
36A3.7 Systems
The design section in the Code refers to specic systems, some
of which are covered here. Because ASME B31.3 is the most
generic of the Pressure Piping Series, no attempt is made to cover
all of the possible systems. Instead, only Instrumentation, Pres -
sure Relief Systems and Pressure Relief Discharge Piping are
addressed.
Instrumentation piping is included because of a frequent mis-
understanding it is not covered by the piping Code. If the instru-
ment is in line, or the tubing is part of the piping system pressure
boundary, the instrument piping is included in the scope of the
Code. This also applies to the air or hydraulic uid used to oper-
ate valves or control apparatus.
Pressure Relieving Systems receive special attention because of
their importance in maintaining the piping system within the
design pressure.
Pressure Relief Discharge Piping has unusual design considera-
tions which are briey discussed.
Pressure Relief Devices are designed to ASME BPV Code
Section VIII Div 1 and appropriate sections of ASME BPV Code
Section VIII Div 1 are referenced in this section.
36A4 MATERIALS
Chapter III of the Code addresses limitations on materials
used for Code construction. For the most part, the Code pro-
vides an extensive list of acceptable materials and limitations
for the use of these materials as part of Appendix A. Appendix A
and its organization will be described in more detail later in this
chapter. After providing a brief set of requirements for the use
of materials not listed in Appendix A, the rest of the 10 page
chapter is really devoted to the use of materials at the lower
temperature limit. The object of all of these requirements is
either to make sure the material and any welds to the material
COMPANION GUIDE TO THE ASME BOILER & PRESSURE VESSEL CODE 36-7
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are tough enough so they will not fail in a brittle manor. This
seems to be a very difficult concept to describe clearly and
results in a significant amount of the inquiries submitted to the
Code. The ASME has all of the published interpretations posted
on their web site and if the user has trouble understanding the
requirements, the published interpretations on the subject might
be worth the time to review them. ASME B31T has also re-
cently been published to provide a little clearer approach to this
same subject.
Material toughness is affected by:
Material Properties
Material Thickness
Temperature
Welding
Stress level
When determining the adequacy of a material for low tempera-
ture service, the rst step should always be to determine if the
material will be used below the minimum temperature listed for
the material in Appendix A. This is either listed as a temperature
limit or a letter designation, the letter designation is a reference to
Figure 323.2.2A or Table 323.2.2A. Both the table and gure pro-
vide a Design Minimum Temperature which varies with the
Nomi nal Thickness of the material.
Additional requirements for impact testing may still be
required if the material is to be used below -29C (-20F). These
requirements are identied in Table 323.2.2. This table also pro-
vides additional requirements or exceptions if the material did not
meet the requirements above.
Some relief is provided in Para. 323.2.2(d)(1), however the
requirements/exemptions in this paragraph are only applicable
above -48C (-55F).
For temperatures between -48C (-55F) and -104C (-155F)
Para. 323.2.2(d)(2) provides one more possibility for relief from
impact testing if the material stress ratio dened in Fig 323.2.2B
is below 0.3.
The requirements for additional impact testing in the Code
apply in addition to those in ASME B&PV Code Section IX. This
is because the Code requirements for low temperature service are
specic to the service temperatures not addressed by the welding
requirements in Section IX. If the user has any doubts on the
requirements associated with low temperature service, an experi-
enced welding or metallurgical engineer should be consulted to be
sure the requirements in this chapter of the Code are being cor-
rectly implemented. ASME B31T and reference 16 provide addi-
tional information on this topic.
36A5 STANDARDS FOR PIPING
COMPONENTS
Standard components were discussed in paragraph 36A3.3.1
with the discussion and Table 36A3.3.1 giving examples of how
component standards work together to provide dimensional and
pressure temperature ratings. Chapter IV, Table 326.1 (repeated
below as Table 36A5) provides a list of acceptable standards for
Code construction. The user is cautioned while these standards
are acceptable they are only acceptable within the limits provided
in the reference standard and in some cases additional limitations
of the Code. Chapter IV of the code provides requirements/
responsibilities so the user can qualify unlisted components for
Code use. See reference 7 for additional guidance.
36A6 FABRICATION, ASSEMBLY AND
ERECTION
36A6.1 Welding, Preheating and Post Weld Heat
Treat
This is Chapter V in the Code and it addresses Welding re -
quirements and Welding Qualication. Many of the welding
requirements are referenced back to ASME B&PV Code Section
IX . As was noted earlier, because the Code has specic service
requirements, the requirements in ASME B31.3 should be applied
in addition to the requirements of ASME B&PV Code Section IX.
Some of the differences between the various Codes are not associ-
ated with service requirements, a signicant effort is being made
to minimize these differences and this continues to be an ongoing
effort by committee members.
36A6.1.1 Welding Procedure Specication (WPS) A WPS is
a written welding procedure for making production welds to speci-
ed requirements. The WPS or other document is used to capture the
essential variables of a welding procedure which will be qualied by
destructive testing, then provide direction to the welder or welding
operator to production welds have comparable properties.
Procedure Qualication Record(s) (PQR) provide documenta-
tion of the testing required to qualify a procedure. The ASME
Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section IX, QW-482 gives a sug-
gested format for Welding Procedure Specications (WPS).
36A6.1.2 Welder Performance Qualication The manufac-
turer or contractor is responsible for conducting tests to qualify
welders and welding operators in accordance with qualied weld-
ing procedure specications. The purpose of welder and welding
operator qualication tests is to ensure that the welder(s) and
welding operator(s) following the procedures are capable of
developing the minimum requirements specied for an acceptable
weldment. Performance qualication tests are intended to deter-
mine the ability of welders and welding operators to make sound
welds.
36A6.2 Preheating
Preheating requirements are provided in Para. 330 of the Code.
Preheating is used, along with heat treatment, to minimize the
detrimental effects of high temperature and severe thermal gradi-
ents in welding and to drive out hydrogen that could cause weld
cracking, and improve metallurgical properties. The effect of
reducing hydrogen cracking is accomplished by a variety of fac-
tors, including driving off moisture, reducing the cooling rate, and
increasing the rate of hydrogen diffusion in the material.
The preheat requirements, which are applicable to all types of
welding including tack welds, repair welds, and seal welds of
threaded joints, are provided in Table 330.1.1.
36A6.3 Heat Treatment
Postweld heat treatment is performed to temper the weldment,
relax residual stresses, and remove hydrogen. The consequential
benets are avoidance of hydrogen-induced cracking and
improved ductility, toughness, corrosion resistance, and dimen-
sional stability.
Heat treatment requirements are provided in para. 331 of
ASME B31.3. The Code requires heat treatment after certain
welding, bending, and forming operations. Specic requirements
for post-weld heat treatment are provided in Table 331.1.1.
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COMPANION GUIDE TO THE ASME BOILER & PRESSURE VESSEL CODE 36-9
TABLE 36A5 COMPONENT STANDARDS (Source: Table 326.1 of ASME B31.3, 2010)
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36-10 Chapter 36
TABLE 36A5 (CONTINUED)
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Brinell hardness testing after the heat treatment is performed is
required for low alloy steel as a means of quality control, to
ensure that the metal has been properly tempered. See 331.1.7
when hardness values are provided in Table 331.1.1.
ASME B31.3, Para. 331.2, permits exceptions to the heat treat-
ment requirements of Table 331.1.1 where warranted based on
knowledge or experience of the service conditions. Normalizing,
or normalizing and tempering, or annealing may be used in lieu of
the heat treatment of Table 331.1.1 provided the material proper-
ties of the weld and base material meet the specication require-
ments after heat treatment. This requires approval of the designer
and if less-stringent, the designer must demonstrate to the owner
it is adequate. The WPS must also be developed and qualied
with the same heat treatment, or lack thereof.
36A6.3.1 Governing Thickness for Heat Treatmen When
using Table 331.1.1, the thickness to be used is generally the thick-
er of the two components, measured at the joint, that are being
joined by welding. For example, if a pipe is welded to a heavier wall
valve, but the valve thickness is tapered to the pipe thickness at the
welded joint, the governing thickness will be the greater of the valve
thickness at the end of the taper at the weld joint (presumably the
nominal pipe wall thickness) or the pipe thickness. Two special
cases are branch connections and llet weld joints. For branch con-
nections, it is the thickness of the weld that is considered. Only half
of the thickness of the weld is used as the governing thickness (or,
as stated in the Code, the thickness through the weld is compared to
twice the minimum material thickness requiring heat treatment in
Table 331.1.1). This includes the dimension through the penetration
weld joining the run and branch pipe and reinforcement, if any, as
well as the cover llet weld. Specic guidance for determining the
weld thickness is provided in para. 331.1.3(a). Note that for the
cover llet, the throat dimension is used.
It is actually required to also consider the thickness of the parts
joined by welding in branch connections as well as the weld
metal; however, metal added as reinforcement, whether an inte-
gral part of a branch tting or attached by welding, need not be
considered. Since branch connections are required by the Code to
be full-penetration welded, it is unlikely that a circumstance will
arise where the base material is thicker than the weldment. For
example, while integrally reinforced branch connection ttings
often have substantial thickness, the weld size would govern since
the additional thickness of the tting is entirely reinforcement.
For llet welds at slip-on and socket weld joints DN 50 (NPS
2) and smaller, for seal welding of threaded joints in piping DN
50 (NPS 2) and smaller, and for attachment of external non-pressure
parts such as lugs, the heat treatment is based on the larger of
either the thickness through the weld or the thickness of the parts
that are joined by the weld, with certain exceptions. As with
branch connections, when evaluating the weld, it is based on half
of the thickness (or the thickness through the weld is compared to
twice the thickness in Table 331.1.1). For larger pipe, only the
base material thickness, not the weld thickness, is considered.
The exceptions permit consideration of the weld only, neglecting
the base material thickness. These exceptions, which exempt cer-
tain llet welds from heat treatment are covered in Para. 331.1.3.
36A6.4 Pipe Bends
Pipe may be hot or cold bent (Reference Para. 332.2). For cold
bending of ferritic materials, the temperature must be below the
transformation range. For hot bending, the temperature must be
above the transformation range. The thickness after bending must
comply with the design requirements. See reference 21 for addi-
tional information on pipe bending.
36A6.5 Brazing and Soldering
Brazing procedures, brazers, and brazing operators are required
to be qualied in accordance with ASME B&PV Code, Section
IX, Part QB. An exception is for piping in Category D uid ser-
vice with a design temperature not exceeding 93_C (200_F); for
this condition, the owner can waive the requirements for such
qualications.
Solderers are required to follow the procedures in the Copper
Tube Handbook of the Copper Development Association. See ref-
erence 24 at the end of the chapter.
Aside from these requirements, general good practice require-
ments for brazing and soldering are specied in para. 333 of
ASME B31.3.
36A6.6 Welded Joint Details
Welded joint details, including socket weld joints, socket weld
and slip-on anges, and branch connections are provided in
Chapter V. Standard details for slip-on and socket welding ange
attachment welds are provided in Fig. 328.5.2B.
A couple of points worth noting are the llet weld size, which
is 1.4 times the nominal pipe wall thickness (or the thickness of
the hub, whichever is less), and the small gap shown between the
anges face and the toe of the inside llet for slip-on anges. The
small gap is intended to avoid damage to the ange face due to
welding. It indicates a gap, but there is no specic limit. This dif-
fers from Section VIII, Division 1, which specify the gap to be
1/4.
The question arose as to whether a specic limit to the gap
between the llet weld and ange face was appropriate. Studies,
including nite element analysis and earlier Markl fatigue testing,
indicated that it essentially did not matter how much the pipe was
inserted into the ange. Insertion by an amount equal to the hub
height was optimal for fatigue life, but there was not a signicant
difference. To minimize future confusion, inclusion of minimum
insertion depth has been recommended and may be specied in a
future edition of B31.3. Reference 12 provides a more detailed
evaluation on llet welds and insertion depth effect on a joint.
The required llet weld size for socket welds other than socket
weld ange is specied in Fig. 328.5.2C which is shown in gure
36A6.6 below.
The specied llet weld was recently revised to be tied to the
nominal wall of the pipe instead of a calculated wall which was
impractical.
A second issue with this gure which has caused considerable
controversy is the 1.5 mm (1/16 in.) approx. gap before welding.
This is a requirement for a gap before welding, so that weld
shrinkage will be less likely to cause small cracks in the root of
the llet weld. The user can nd a number of interpretations on
this subject on the ASME web site, but the llet weld should be
acceptable if it did not crack. There is no Code requirement for a
gap after it has been welded.
36A6.7 Assembly and Erection
Some of the requirements in this section are included to make
sure assumptions back in the analysis and design requirements
remain valid during construction. When piping does not t, sig-
nicant stresses can be developed if it is forced into position. This
is essentially cold springing the piping, only it was not specied
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in the design, or if cold springing was specied to be sure it prop-
erly incorporated in the construction.
36A6.7.1 Bolted Joints Proper assembly of bolted joints is
essential to avoid leakage during service. This includes not only
visible leaks, but also minimizing fugitive emissions, which are an
important consideration in the United States as a result of environ-
mental regulations. Information on ange bolting is provided in
Appendix S of Section VIII, Division 1. An ASME guideline on
ange bolt-up procedures, PCC-1, Guidelines for Pressure
Boundary Bolted Flange Joint Assembly, 2010 is listed as refer-
ence 22 at the end of the chapter.
ASME B31.3 provides some good practice with respect to
ange bolt-up in para. 335. This includes requiring repair or
replacement of anges with damaged gasket seating surfaces, uni-
formly compressing the gasket during ange bolt-up, and use of
only one gasket between seating surfaces.
36A6.7.2 Other Joints Used for Assembly Threaded, expanded,
caulked, compression, tubing and other special joints are also
addressed briey in this section. If any of these joints are used this
section has some simple requirements and considerations.
36A7 INSPECTION, EXAMINATION, AND
TESTING
36A7.1 Inspection
This can be thought of as more of a Quality assurance function.
The owners Inspector oversees the work performed by the exam-
iner. It is the Inspectors responsibility to verify that all the
required examinations have been completed and to inspect the
piping to the extent necessary to be satised that it complies with
all of the applicable examination requirements of the Code and of
the engineering design. Note that the process of inspection does
not relieve the manufacturer, fabricator, or erector of their respon-
sibilities for complying with the Code. The owners Inspector is
also required to be qualied to perform the work, see para. 340.4
The owners Inspector may be an employee of the owner, or an
employee of an engineering or scientic organization, or of a rec-
ognized insurance or inspection company, acting as the owners
agent. Some limits apply to avoid a conict of interest for the
inspector(s).
36A7.2 Examination
Overview of Examination Requirements.
ASME B31.3 requires that examination of the piping be per-
formed by the piping manufacturer, fabricator, and/or erector as a
quality control function. These examinations include a number of
different methods based on the type of material or fabrication.
The examiner is required to be an individual that is qualied to
perform the examination work. They are required to have training
and experience commensurate with the needs of the specied
examination, with records of such qualications maintained by
their employer. While there are no specic requirements, ASME
B31.3 refers to SNT-TC-1A, Recommended Practice for Non -
destructive Testing Personnel Qualication and Certication, as
an acceptable guide.
Requirements for the examination processes are described in
Section V of the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, with limited
exceptions and additions. The required degree of examination and
the acceptance criteria for the examinations are provided in
Chapter VI of ASME B31.3. The examiner is required to have a
written procedure for their examination work (para. 343).
36A7.2.1 Progressive Examination ASME B31.3 includes the
concept of progressive examination in para. 341.3.4. The concept
applies to all random examinations the items to be examined are
separated into lots. Pipe Fabrication Institute, PFI ES-48, Random
Examination provides some guidance on how lots can be selected,
see reference 23. Some percent (e.g., 5% of girth welds for normal
uid service) of the items are selected at random and examined.
For each item found to be defective, two more are selected from
the same lot and given the same type of examination. This progres-
sion continues until a point where no defects are found, or the lot
of welds have enough defects that 100% examination is required.
Lots provide an opportunity for the organization to balance a
number of different quality control concepts.
Too large a lot size would leave the owner vulnerable to 100%
examination of a large quantity of welds based on a localized
problem.
If the 5% examination requirement is completed too soon, the
welders/contractor might take short cuts knowing no more of their
welds would be examined.
A lot where no welds are examined until the end of the project
would leave the project exposed to a quality problem which could
have been corrected early in a project.
Progressive examination has proved to be an effective tool for
verication of quality control, however it must be applied with
some experience to be sure it is a cost effective method of verify-
ing weld quality. A number of inquiries/interpretations have been
issued because defects were found after the piping was examined
in accordance with the Code requirements. These should be
reviewed prior to writing construction or fabrication contracts to
be sure additional requirements which might be warranted for a
specic service is adequately addressed.
36-12 Chapter 36
FIG. 36A6.6 MINIMUM WELDING DIMENSIONS FOR SOCKET
WELDING COMPONENTS OTHER THAN FLANGES (Source:
Fig. 328.5.2C of ASME B31.3-2010)
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36A7.2.2 Types of Examination Visual examination (VT)
means using the unaided eye (except for corrective lenses) to
inspect the exterior and readily accessible internal surface areas of
piping assemblies or components. It does not include nor require
remote examination such as by the use of boroscopes. Visual
examination is used to check materials and components for confor-
mance to specications and freedom from defects; fabrication
including welds; assembly of threaded, bolted, and other joints;
piping during erection; and piping after erection.
Radiographic examination (RT) means using x-ray or gam-
maray radiation to produce a picture of the subject part, including
subsurface features, on radiographic lm for subsequent interpre-
tation. It is a volumetric examination procedure that provides a
means of detecting defects that are not observable on the surface
of the material. Requirements for radiographic examination of
welds are provided in Section V, Article 2.
Ultrasonic examination (UT) means detecting defects using
high-frequency sound impulses. The defects are detected by the
reection of sound waves from them. Ultrasonic examination is
also a volumetric examination method that can be used to detect
subsurface defects. It can be used as an alternative to radiography
for weld examination. The requirements for ultrasonic examina-
tion of welds are provided in Section V, Article 4, with an alterna-
tive for basic calibration blocks provided in para. 344.6 ASME
B31.3. The acceptance criteria for ultrasonic examination are
given in para. 344.6.2.
In-process examination is a visual examination of the entire
joining process, as described in para. 344.7 ASME B31.3. It is
applicable to welding and brazing for metals and bonding for non-
metals. Since radiographic examination is not considered to pro-
vide useful results in brazing and bonding, in-process examination
is used for these instead of radiography. For welding, it is permit-
ted as a substitute for radiographic examination if specied in the
engineering design or specically authorized by the Inspector.
Liquid-penetrant examination (PT) means detecting surface
defects by spreading a liquid dye penetrant on the surface, remov-
ing the dye after sufcient time has passed for the dye to penetrate
into any surface defect, and applying a thin coat of developer to the
surface, which draws the dye from defects. The defects are observ-
able by the contrast between the color of the dye penetrant and the
color of the developer. Liquid-penetrant examination is used for the
detection of surface defects. It is used in the examination of socket
welds and branch connections in severe cyclic service that cannot
be radiographed; and for the examination of all welds, including
structural attachment welds, that are not radiographed when the
alternative leak test (ASME B31.3, para. 345.9) is used. Liquid
penetrant examinations can cause problems for vacuum jacket pip-
ing because it is difcult to evacuate the jacketed area after the
examination because the liquid penetrant continues to off gas.
Magnetic-particle examination (MT) employs either electric
coils wound around the part or prods to create a magnetic eld. A
magnetic powder is applied to the surface and defects are revealed
by patterns that the powder forms in response to the magnetic
eld disturbances caused by defects. This technique reveals sur-
face and shallow subsurface defects. As such, it can provide more
information than liquid-penetrant examination. However, its use is
limited to magnetic materials. Magnetic-particle examination is
an alternative to liquid-penetrant examination wherever such an
examination is required in ASME B31.3 (except in the case of
metallic bellows). The requirements for magnetic-particle exami-
nation of welds and components other than castings are provided
in Section V, Article 7.
Hardness testing is required after heat treatment under some
cir cumstances, as specied in Table 331.1.1 of ASME B31.3.
Hard ness testing is not required for carbon steel (P-1), ferritic and
austenitic stainless steel (P-7, P-8), high nickel alloys (P-9A,
P-9B), as well as some less commonly used alloys. It is required
in some circumstances for low and intermediate alloy steels. For
welds, the hardness check includes both the weld and the heat
affected zone. It is a quality control procedure to make sure that
the heat treatment was effective.
ASME BPV Code Section V provides many of the examination
requirements and procedures which are used in the Code.
36A7.2.3 Required Examination The required examination
depends on the category of uid service. Different degrees of
examination are required for Category D, Normal, and Category M
uid services. More examination is required for more hazardous or
severe services.
36A7.3 Testing Pressure Testing
36A7.3.1 Overview of Pressure Test Requirements ASME
B31.3 requires leak testing of all piping systems with a few excep-
tions (based on the hazard, or service and with owners approval).
The various options for leak testing are noted below. The hydrotest
is the primary method, but there are a number of places where a
hydrotest is not practical and the other tests can be used within the
limits provided in this section of the Code.
(1) hydrostatic test,
(2) pneumatic test,
(3) hydropneumatic test, and
(4) alternative leak test.
The leak test is required to be conducted after any heat treat-
ment has been completed.
36A7.3.2 Hydrostatic Test A hydrostatic test is the safest test,
so it is conducted at a higher pressure, this has beneficial effects
such as crack blunting and warm prestressing. These reduce the
risk of crack growth and brittle fracture after the hydrotest when
the pipe is placed in service. The test is generally conducted at a
pressure of 1.5 times the design pressure times a temperature cor-
rection factor. The temperature correction factor compensates for
the fact that the test may be conducted at a lower temperature
than the system will be design for. This correction factor is an
attempt to stress the material to a level higher than it will experi-
ence during operation. Reference equation (24), para. 345.4.2. A
number of exceptions are provided to this requirement so the
higher pressure does not over pressurize any components or
attached equipment.
36A7.3.3 Pneumatic Test A pneumatic test is more hazardous
due to the amount of stored energy in the compressed gas. A rupture
could result in an explosive release of this energy. It is also more dif-
cult to locate leaks associated with a pneumatic leak test. The tem-
perature correction factor is not applied to pneumatic testing and
additional rules permit the reduction of test pressure while the welds
are being examined.
36A7.3.4 Alternative Leak Test An alternative leak test is per-
mitted, with the owners approval, when neither a hydrostatic nor
pneumatic leak test would be possible or safe. Para. 345.9 of the
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Code has the requirements associated with the use of an Alternate
Leak Test.
36A7.3.5 Sensitive Leak Test A sensitive leak test is a
required part of an alternative leak test and is also required for
Category M uid service piping. This is a test performed at low
pressures to test for leaks. Methods for performing this type of test
are described in Section V, Article 10.
36A7.3.6 Jacketed and Vacuum Piping Piping that is
designed for external-pressure condition is generally tested with
internal pressure. The test pressure is required to be the greater of
1.5 times the design differential pressure or 105 kPa (15 psi).
Jacketed or other double-wall piping requires leak testing of both
the inner pipe and the jacket. The jacket is tested as normal piping
based on its design pressure, unless otherwise specied in the
engineering design. The inner pipe is normally designed to carry
the jacket pressure with no internal pipe pressure, without buck-
ling.
The requirement that all joints be visually observed during a
leak test can be problematic for jacketed or double containment
piping. Code Case 180 provides some relief in the form of alter-
native rules.
36A7.3.7 Initial Service Leak Test For piping in Category D
uid service, ASME B31.3 permits an initial service leak test in
lieu of other leak tests such as hydrostatic or pneumatic. In this
test, the system is pressurized with the process uid and the joints
are inspected for leaks.
36A7.3.8 Closure Welds In the 1996 edition, addenda c
(1998), closure welds were added [para. 345.2.3(c)] as an accept-
able exemption from leak testing. A closure weld is a nal weld
connecting piping system or component that has been success-
fully leak tested. The closure weld does not require leak testing if
it passes 100% radiographic or ultrasonic examination and is in-
process examined.
While the Code does not address existing piping, closure welds
are an important tool to connect new piping construction to an
existing system.
36A8 NONMETALLIC PIPING AND
PIPING LINED WITH NONMETALS
The user is cautioned the Non-metallic industry is not as standard-
ized as steel and other metal products, as a result the compliance with
supplier requirements and recommendations is important with most
nonmetallic piping materials and components.
The rules for nonmetallic piping and piping lined with non-
metals are located in Chapter VII of ASME B31.3. These
paragraphs follow the same paragraph numbering of the base
Code, Chapters I through VI, but start with the letter A. If require-
ments located elsewhere in the Code apply to these piping sys-
tems, they are referenced from a paragraph in Chapter VII. The
behavior of nonmetallic piping is different than metallic piping,
and the design criteria are signicantly less well developed.
Supplemental rules are also provided for nonmetallic lining of
metallic piping.
References 18 and 19 provide background on Chapter VII.
ASME BPV Code Section X, ASME RTP-1 Reinforced Thermoset
Plastic Corrosion-Resistant Equipment (Reference 32) and WRC
415 (Reference 20) provide a lot of information on Reinforced-
Thermosetting Resin design and component standards.
36A8.1 Allowable Stress
Various nonmetals have different, established methods of deter-
mining allowable stresses. Some limited allowable stress values
are provided in Appendix B for thermoplastic and reinforced ther-
mosetting resin pipe. For the most part, allowable stresses or pres-
sure ratings must be determined from tests performed by the
manufacturer.
36A8.2 Pressure Design
The philosophy of the base Code with respect to metallic pip-
ing applies to nonmetallic piping. The primary differences are that
the table of listed components for nonmetallic piping is Table
A326.1 rather than Table 326.1, and the pressure design equations
are slightly different than the base Code.
Listed components with established ratings are accepted at
those ratings. Listed components without established ratings, but
with allowable stresses listed, can be rated using the pressure
design rules of A304; however, these are very limited. In the cases
of listed components without allowable stresses or unlisted com-
ponents, components must be rated per para. A304.7.2. Many
times this may be done by the manufacturer, however the designer
is still responsible for verifying the manufactures qualication
meet the requirements of the Code.
The equations that are available for sizing nonmetallic compo-
nents are very limited in this chapter. These equations relate to
straight pipe, anges, and blind anges. The use of the referenced
ange design method (per Section VIII, Division 1, Appendix 2 is
questionable for many nonmetallics. As a result, for pressure
design most nonmetallic piping components must be either per a
listed standard (i.e., listed in Table A326.1) or qualied per
Paragraph A304.7.2.
36A8.3 Limitations on Components and Joints
Fluid service requirements for nonmetallic piping components
are covered in Part 3 of Chapter VII. Fluid service requirements for
nonmetallic piping joints are covered in Part 4 of Chapter VII. For
the most part, the requirements are similar to the base Code
requirements, with relevant paragraphs on nonmetallic components
and joints substituted for paragraphs on their metallic counterparts.
36A8.4 Flexibility and Support
Rules regarding exibility and support for nonmetallic piping
are provided in Part 5 of Chapter VII. ASME B31.3. This section
does not provide detailed rules for evaluation of nonmetallic pip-
ing systems for thermal expansion. However, it requires a formal
exibility analysis when the listed exemptions from formal exi-
bility analysis are not met. Probably the most important exemption
is to employ joining methods or expansion joint devices, in accor-
dance with the manufacturers instructions and recommendations.
One of the signicant differences from metallic systems is that
fully restrained designs are commonly used. That is, systems
where the thermal expansion is offset by elastic compression/
extension of the piping between axial restraints. This is possible
because of the relatively low elastic modulus of plastic piping.
The resulting loads are generally reasonable for the design of
structural anchors. Note, however, in performing a computer exi-
bility analysis of such systems, the axial load component of ther-
mal expansion stress must be included.
36-14 Chapter 36
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A lot of other warnings or requirements are included in this
section and should be reviewed before any nonmetallic piping is
designed or analyzed.
36A8.5 Materials
Thermoplastic materials may only be used for ammable uid
service when they are underground. In any use other than Category
D uid service, thermoplastic piping is required to be safeguarded.
Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) and Chlorinated poly(vinyl chloride)
(CPVC) are prohibited from compressed air or other compressed-
gas service due to the potential for brittle failure.
Reinforced Plastic Mortar (RPM) piping is required to be safe-
guarded when used in other than Category D uid service.
Reinforced Thermosetting Resin (RTR) piping may be used in
toxic or ammable uid service, but requires safeguarding. It is
generally acceptable for other services, subject to suitability of
the material.
Borosilicate glass and porcelain are brittle materials and are
limited in the services where they can be used.
Recommended maximum and minimum temperatures are gen-
erally provided. If a material is to be used at a temperature below
the minimum temperature listed in Appendix B, the designer must
have some test results at or below the lowest use temperature that
ensure that the materials and bonds will have adequate toughness
and are suitable at the design minimum temperature. Unlike
metallic materials, specic tests such as Charpy are not specied.
36A8.6 Bonding of Plastics
One of the key elements to successful construction of a plastic
piping system is the joints. ASME B31.3 requires a formal
process of developing, documenting, and qualifying bonding pro-
cedures and personnel performing the bonding. The joints in plas-
tic (RTR, RPM, and thermoplastic) piping are called bonds. The
requirements are similar to the requirements for qualication of
welds and welders in the base Code for metals.
The rst step is to have a documented bonding procedure speci-
cation (BPS). The specication must document the procedures
for making the joint, as set forth in para. A328.2.1. This proce-
dure must be qualied by a bonding procedure qualication test.
Once it is so qualied, it may be used by personnel to bond
nonmetallic ASME B31.3 piping systems. Those bonders, how-
ever, must also be qualied to perform the work. Bonders are
qualied in a performance qualication test. The qualication test
for the bonding procedure and the bonder are the same. Also sim-
ilar to welding, if the bonder has not used the procedure for a
period of time, they must be requalied. While this may seem like
a lot for a procedure which seems to require a lot less skill than
welding, many of the problems associated with nonmetallic pip-
ing are the result of not understanding or following the correct
bonding procedures.
Under some circumstances, it is not possible to pass a qualica-
tion test using the hydrostatic test method because the compo-
nents fail at a pressure that is lower than the test pressure; thus, it
is not possible to test the joint at the test pressure. In this circum-
stance, the burst test method should be used. With the burst test
method, it is only necessary to demonstrate that the joint is
stronger than the weakest component; i.e., the criterion is that
failure initiates outside of any bonded joint.
Welding of metallic piping lined with nonmetals generally fol-
lows the base Code requirements for welding of metallic piping.
Precautions are provided in para. A329. For example, precautions
are required to avoid damage to the nonmetallic lining. If such
damage occurs, it must be repaired. Qualication of a welder or
welding operator for a WPS for lined pipe is specic to the lining;
a different qualication test is required for each lining material.
This, of course, only applies to pipe that has already been lined,
not welding of piping prior to lining it.
36A8.7 Examination and Testing
The nondestructive examination techniques for nonmetallic
piping are not nearly as well developed as for metallic piping. As
a result, the techniques that are used are visual and in-process
examination or specic to the manufacture of the components.
36A8.8 Requirements for Leak Testing Nonmetallic
Piping
The leak test rules in the base Code, described in the prior para-
graphs, are generally applicable to nonmetallic piping, with a few
exceptions. The hydrotest pressure for nonmetallics other than ther-
moplastics (e.g., RTR, berglass pipe) and metallic piping lined
with nonmetals are 1.5 times the design pressure, but not more than
1.5 times the maximum rated pressure of the lowest-rated compo-
nent in the system. There is no temperature correction factor. It is
particularly important not to overpressure ber glass piping systems.
Excessive hydrotest pressures in berglass systems have caused
subsequent failures in service. The overload condition can damage
the material without evidence of a leak during the test itself.
The following warning is not included in the code at this time,
however it should be considered when working with nonmetallic
piping. During pressurizing and particularly during pressure test,
nonmetallic piping will elongate (if not restrained) signicantly
more than metallic piping. This can cause the piping to jump or
move signicantly during a failure of a joint during hydrotesting
of long runs of piping. Additional safety precautions should be
taken to protect personnel while the piping is pressurized to 1.5
times the design pressure.
The alternative leak test is not permitted for nonmetallic piping.
36A9 CATEGORY M FLUID SERVICE
When to Use the Rules for Category M Fluid Service:
The rules in Chapter VIII of ASME B31.3 are used when the
owner designates a piping system to be in Category M uid ser-
vice. The owner is guided in the classication for the piping sys-
tem by the denition of Category M uid service in Chapter I of
ASME B31.3. This denition is the Code rule relative to classi-
cation. A guide to the application of these rules is provided in
Appendix M, which contains a ow chart to assist the owner in
classifying uid services.
All criteria must be satised for the service to meet the deni-
tion of Category M.
Note that the Code considers many very hazardous uid ser-
vices to be normal uid service. The design and construction rules
for normal uid service are suitable for hazardous services.
Category M provides a higher level. If higher integrity piping is
desired by the owner, even though the uid does not meet the def-
inition of Category M, the owner can still specify the additional
design, construction, examination, and testing requirements that
are provided in Chapter VIII.
Hydrouoric acid is one example of a uid for which many
owners specify more stringent requirements than are provided in
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the Code for normal uid service, although it would be consid-
ered normal uid service.
A key part of the denition often neglected, are the words in
which the potential for personnel exposure is judged to be signi-
cant. A piping system for which the potential for the exposure of
personnel to the uid is judged to be insignicant would not sat-
isfy the denition of Category M.
Another consideration that is often missed is that the denition
requires the uid to be toxic. Dangerous uids are not necessarily
Category M. According to the denition, exposure to a very small
quantity is required to cause serious irreversible harm. Thus, the
presence of H2S in the system would not necessarily make it
Category M Fluid Service.
Examples of systems for which personnel exposure may be
judged to be insignicant include double-containment piping with
leak detection and piping systems that people may not be exposed
to by virtue of isolation or other means of personnel protection. As
such, chemicals such as phosgene and MIC, which may be classi-
ed as Category M in a single-wall piping system, may be classi-
ed as normal uid service in a double-containment piping system.
Another key consideration is that only the owner has the right
and responsibility to select the uid service.
36A9.1 Organization of Chapter VIII
Chapter VIII follows the same paragraph numbering as the
base Code, Chapters I through VI. However, the paragraphs start
with M for metallic piping in accordance with Chapter VIII and
MA of nonmetallic piping in accordance with Chapter VIII.
To determine the rules for piping systems in Category M uid
service, simply refer to Chapter VIII. If rules elsewhere in the
Code apply, they will be referred to in Chapter VIII. In general,
Chapter VIII refers to the base Code for metallic piping and
Chapter VII for nonmetallic piping.
Chapter VIII makes no provision for severe cyclic conditions,
as stated in para. M300(e). Severe cyclic conditions should be
avoided by design in these systems. This simply requires, for sys-
tems with greater than 7,000 equivalent cycles, the inclusion of
enough exibility to reduce the thermal expansion stress range to
80% or less than the allowable. If, for some reason, this is not fea-
sible, ASME B31.3 requires that the engineering design specify
any necessary provisions.
36A9.2 Overview of Metallic Rules
The metallic rules prohibit the use of certain components con-
sidered to have lower integrity, and they require additional design
considerations, additional examination, and additional testing.
The measures are intended to result in a piping system that is less
likely to leak. The following are highlights of some of these
requirements. It is not an all-inclusive list; refer to ASME B31.3
for the complete requirements.
(1) The presumptive degree of ambient cooling (e.g., 5% for
uninsulated pipe) provided in the base Code is not permit-
ted. Rather, the design metal temperature, if less than the
uid temperature, must be substantiated by heat transfer cal-
culations conrmed by tests or by experimental measures.
(2) Increased pressure temperatures for short-term variations
(allowances for variations) are not permitted.
(3) Lower integrity piping and components are prohibited.
(4) Special consideration is required for prevention of valve
stem leakage to the environment. Specic requirements are
provided for valve bonnet or cover plate closures.
(M307.2)
(5) Single-welded slip-on, expanded-joint, and threaded (with
certain exceptions) joint anges are prohibited. (M308.2)
(6) Expanded joints are prohibited. (M313)
(7) Additional limitations are provided for threaded joints.
(M314)
(8) Joints such as caulked (M316), soldered and brazed
(M317), and bell-type joints (M318) are prohibited.
(9) Pipe supports are required to be constructed of listed mate-
rials. (M321)
(10) Specic provisions for instrument piping [e.g., limiting
tubing to 16 mm (5/8 in.) diameter maximum, accessible
block valves required to be available to isolate the instru-
ment piping from pipeline]. (M322.3)
(11) The design pressure is not permitted to be exceeded by
more than 10% during pressure relief. (M322.6.3)
(12) The low-stress exemption from impact testing is not per-
mitted. (M323.2)
(13) Cast iron and ductile iron are not permitted for pressure
containing parts, and lead and tin may only be used as lin-
ings. (M322.4.2)
(14) Less-stringent heat treatments than required in Table
331.1.1 are not permitted. (M331)
(15) Additional examination is required. While the acceptance
criteria of the base Code are applicable, the amount of radiog-
raphy is increased from 5% to 20% and random visual exam-
ination is generally increased to 100% visual examination.
(16) In addition to the testing required for normal uid service,
an additional sensitive leak test is required to ensure piping
is free from small leaks.
36A9.3 Overview of Nonmetallic Rules
The nonmetallic rules prohibit the use of certain components con-
sidered to have lower integrity, and they require additional design
considerations, additional examination, and additional testing. The
measures are intended to result in a piping system that is less likely to
leak. These rules generally refer to Chapter VII. The following are
highlights of some of these requirements. It is not an all-inclusive
list; refer to ASME B31.3 for the complete requirements.
(1) The piping is not permitted to exceed the design pressure
under any circumstance, including pressure-relief condi-
tions. This is the same as the rule for nonmetallic piping.
(MA 302.2.4)
(2) Nonmetallic fabricated branch connections are prohibited.
(MA 306.5)
(3) Nonmetallic valves and specialty components are prohibited.
(MA 307)
(4) Hot-gaswelded, heat-fusion, solvent-cemented, and adhe-
sive bonded joints are not permitted except in linings.
(MA311.2)
(5) Expanded, nonmetallic threaded, and caulked joints are
prohibited. (MA313, MA314, MA316)
(6) Thermoplastics and reinforced plastic mortar are permitted
only as linings and, for thermoplastics, gaskets.
(MA323.4.2)
(7) The examination and testing rules of Chapter VII apply
except that 100% visual examination of all fabrication as
well as bolted and mechanical joints is required and in-
process examination is increased from 5% to 20%.
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36A9.4 General Comments
The rules of Chapter VIII are intended to provide greater assur-
ance of leak tightness. An example is the requirement that a sensi-
tive leak test be performed in addition to the standard leak test
(e.g., hydrotest). The ASME B31.3 Section Committee does not
generally spend a great deal of time on this section. However, the
rules may not be sufcient for the extremely dangerous chemicals
that t the denition of Category M. Additional precautions should
be considered, such as 100% radiography or double containment.
36A10 HIGH PRESSURE PIPING
36A10.1 Scope of Chapter IX, High-Pressure Piping
Chapter IX of ASME B31.3 only applies when the owner speci-
es its use. It applies to piping in high-pressure uid service. Note
that the denition of high-pressure uid service simply requires
that the owner specify use of Chapter IX. Some guidance is pro-
vided in K300(a), which states that High pressure is considered to
be pressure in excess of that allowed by the ASME B16.5 PN 420
(Class 2500) rating for the specied design temperature and mater-
ial group. This is not a requirement, and the base Code may be
satisfactorily used at pressures higher than ASME B16.5 PN 420
(Class 2500). However, the base Code rules become increasingly
conservative and, in fact, impossible to use as the pressure
approaches the allowable stress (including quality factors).
The rules provide a combination of considerations. While
reduced wall thicknesses and provisions that are specic to the
needs of high pressure (e.g., not including thread depth as an
allowance under specic conditions), additional material toughness,
analysis during design, inspection, and testing are required. A back-
ground paper on these rules by Sims [13] is listed in the references.
There are no provisions for Category M Fluid Service.
The criteria consider limit load failure and fatigue. Elevated
temperature creep effects are not included; thus, the use of
Chapter IX is limited to temperatures below the creep regime for
the materials of construction.
See the ASME B31.3 Code for specic requirements. Section
VIII, Division 3, Pressure Vessels, Alternative Rules for Con -
struction of High Pressure Vessels, was completed after Chapter
IX. As a result, there are various references to the requirements of
Section VIII, Division 2 that have been changed to either include
Division 3 as an acceptable alternative or to simply require the
Division 3 rules rather than the Division 2 rules. The Division 3
rules are generally more applicable, as they were developed for
high-pressure equipment. Reference 13 provides more insight on
the development of rules in this chapter.
36A10.2 Organization of Chapter IX
Chapter IX follows the same paragraph numbering as the base
Code, Chapters I through VI; however, the paragraphs start with
K for high-pressure piping in accordance with Chapter IX. To
determine the rules for high-pressure piping systems, simply refer
to Chapter IX. If rules elsewhere in the Code apply, they are refer-
enced in Chapter IX.
36A10.3 Pressure Design of High-Pressure Piping
Beyond a certain pressure, it is not possible to design piping in
accordance with the basic wall thickness equation, equation 3, in
the base Code. Assuming Y is equal to zero (note that Y
approaches zero as the inside diameter approaches zero; see den-
ition of Y in para. 304.1.1), the required wall thickness is equal to
the outside radius of the pipe when the pressure is equal to the
allowable stress times the quality factor. However, heavy wall
pipe has substantial pressure capacity beyond the point where the
circumferential stress at the bore reaches yield. For high internal
pressure, the radial stresses due to the surface traction of internal
pressure signicantly affect yielding of the material on the inside
of the pipe, considering the Von Mises or Tresca yield theory.
Equation 34 in Chapter IX provides the required thickness for
high-pressure straight pipe. Rather than being based on maximum
circumferential stress, as in the base Code, it is based on limit
load pressure. The following equations for calculation of required
wall thickness are provided. Equations 35a and 35b in the Code
provide the allowable pressure based on available thickness.
These equations provide a margin of 1.732 (which is ) relative
to through-thickness yielding, based on von Mises theory, and
elastic-perfectly plastic material behavior when the allowable
stress is based on two-thirds yield. When the allowable stress is
based on 90% of the yield strength, the factor is reduced to as low
as 1.5 at elevated temperatures.
There is not a quality factor included since the minimum per-
mitted quality factor in Chapter IX is 1.0.
When the mechanical allowances are not specied to be internal
or external, they are assumed to be internal. The external thread on
pipe can be neglected in the mechanical allowances when a number
of criteria are met. This recognizes that the threaded tting, typi-
cally a threaded ange, to which the pipe is attached can effectively
reinforce the pipe for internal pressure under certain conditions.
The allowable stress in Chapter IX is based on yield strength and
not tensile strength, as a result, there will be a greater advantage
with respect to wall thickness to use Chapter IX for steels with high
yield to tensile strength ratios. This is because the base Code allow-
able stress would be controlled by one-third the tensile strength.
Similar to but more limited than the base Code, provisions for
design of specic types of components are provided, and listed
components are accepted. The table of listed components is Table
K326.1.
36A10.4 External Pressure
Buckling due to external pressure is not generally a concern
for high-pressure piping. However, the limit pressure deter-
mined using equations 34 and 35 is not always conservative for
external pressure on straight pipe, considering buckling and,
under rare circumstances, when external pressure does not cause
axial compression of the pipe. In the latter case, collapse can be
predicted by triaxial stress states and yield theory. When D/t <
3.33 and at least one end of the pipe is exposed to full external
pressure, which produces compressive axial stress, equations 34
and 35 for internal pressure can be used. In all other circum-
stances, the base Code rules for external pressure design of
straight pipe are used.
36A10.5 Design for Sustained and Occasional Loads
The criteria for sustained loads is the same as the base Code.
The longitudinal stress due to pressure, weight, and other sus-
tained loads must be less than Sh. The criteria for occasional
loads is more conservative than the base Code. A factor of 1.2
times the allowable stress is used (the same as Section VIII,
Division 1) rather than a factor of 1.33.
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36A10.6 Design for Thermal Expansion and Fatigue
Flexibility analysis is conducted similar to the base Code.
However, only the more conservative equation for SA, which
assumes that SL Sh, is used (equation 32). The allowable
stresses from Appendix K are used rather than the allowable
stresses from Appendix A. These will be higher when tensile
strength controls the allowable stresses in Appendix A.
Chapter IX (para. 304.8) requires a detailed fatigue analysis in
addition to the exibility analysis provided in the base Code. For
this analysis, the allowable stress amplitude from the fatigue
curves in Section VIII, Division 2, Part 3 para. 3.15 and Annex
3.F are used or the fatigue analysis is based on ASME BPVC,
Section VIII, Div 3.
The fatigue analysis should include the typically high strains
due to internal pressure, in particular those at the bore of the
pipe, as well as the stress due to thermal expansion. Since the
calculated stress is compared to the polished bar fatigue curve,
rather than a butt-welded pipe fatigue curve, the stresses calcu-
lated in accordance with the exibility analysis rules of ASME
B31.3 in most cases need to be multiplied by a factor of two. All
components with stress intensication factors greater than one
and pipe at girth welds should have the stresses multiplied by
two.
The requirements for fatigue analysis pose some challenging
problems to the designer. Some of these are highlighted below.
(1) The designer must consider both pressure and displacement
cycles. Thus, a load histogram and a procedure such as
rainow counting is appropriate to determine the variety of
stress ranges and numbers of cycles at each stress range that
the piping must be designed for. For example, there may be
normal pressure cycles, which may be more numerous than
thermal displacement cycles, and also pressure pulsations.
There will be some number of cycles at a maximum stress
range, which could be the normal pressure plus pulsation
plus displacement stress, plus many cycles with smaller
stress ranges to consider.
(2) Fatigue analysis per Section VIII, Division 2 deals with
stresses at a point, whereas the exibility analysis rules of
ASME B31.3 do not inform the designer as to the location
and direction of stresses that are calculated. For example,
the stresses in an elbow due to in-plane bending are through
wall bending and greatest in the circumferential direction,
and should be directly added to the pressure stress; whereas
the stresses due to bending in straight pipe are gross bend-
ing on the pipe section and longitudinal, and should be
combined with the pressure stress to determine Tresca
stress intensity.
(3) The stresses due to internal pressure vary through the
thickness; this should be considered in determining what
pressure stress to combine with the deflection stresses
(e.g., bore stress should be considered for an elbow and
the outside stress should be considered for a threaded
joint).
(4) The radial stress through the wall of the pipe [compressive
and equal to internal pressure on the inside surface and gen-
erally considered to be zero on the outside surface (for a
pipe under internal pressure)] can be a signicant compo-
nent of the Tresca stress intensity. All these mean that a
designer tackling a fatigue analysis for Chapter IX piping
should be an expert, intimately familiar with the stress dis-
tributions in thick-wall piping components.
ASME B31.3 provides the equation (37) for the stress intensity
on the inside surface of straight pipe due to internal pressure.
Note that this is not likely to be the controlling location in the sys-
tem. As such, its usefulness is limited.
36A10.7 Materials
The allowable stress is provided in Appendix K, Table K-1. It
is two-thirds of the material yield strength, to be consistent with
the pressure design equation. For solution-heat-treated austenitic
stainless steels and certain nickel alloys with similar stress-
strain behavior, the minimum of two-thirds the specified mini-
mum yield strength and 90% of the yield strength at temperature
is used. Similar to the base Code, this is because the material
has significant strength beyond the nominal 0.2% offset yield
stress.
The same as the base Code, these higher stress values provided
for stainless steel and similar material are not recommended for
anges and similar components where slight deformation can
cause leakage or other malfunction.
The impact test requirements are a very important part of the
material requirements in Chapter IX for high-pressure piping.
Essentially all high-pressure piping materials and welds must be
impact tested to determine that they have sufcient notch tough-
ness for any temperature condition at which stresses exceed 41
MPa (6 ksi). Impact test requirements are provided in para.
K323.3.
For materials, at least one set per lot is required. For impact
tests on welds, signicantly more testing is required than the base
Code. Whereas the base Code only requires impact testing as part
of the weld procedure qualication, Chapter IX requires impact
testing for each welder, welding procedure, type of electrode, or
ller metal, and each ux to be used. For tests on welds, separate
tests are not required for each lot of material. Test specimens for
the welds and heat-affected zones are required.
The minimum permissible temperature for a material is the
minimum temperature at which an impact test that satises the
Code requirements was performed. The only exception to this is
the 41 MPa (6 ksi) exemption, but that exemption may only be
used down to 46
0
C (50
0
F). Impact testing, regardless of stress,
is required for use at temperatures below that temperature.
36A10.8 Fabrication
Requirements for qualication of welding procedures and
welders or welding operators follow Section IX. However, there
are additional requirements and limitations.
General fabrication requirements pertaining to end preparation,
alignment, welding, preheat, and postweld heat treatment are pro-
vided. They are largely similar to the base Code with some varia-
tions. For example, the recommended preheat temperature, per
Table 330.1.1, in the base Code is required for Chapter IX.
36A10.9 Examination
In general, Chapter IX requires 100% examination. This
includes 100% visual examination of materials and components;
fabrication; threaded, bolted, and other joints; piping erection;
and pressure-containing threads. All girth, longitudinal, and
branch connection welds are required to be 100% examined by
radiography. Ultrasonic and inprocess examination are not accept-
able alternatives. The acceptance criteria for welds are provided
in Table K341.3.2.
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36A10.10 Testing
All elements, including all components and welds, of a high
pressure piping system, except for bolting and gaskets used dur-
ing nal system assembly, are required to be subjected to a full
pressure test. This pressure test need not be performed on the
installed piping system, but can be done on piping subassemblies
prior to erection. The full pressure test is the base Code hydrotest
pressure (1.5) times the design pressure times the temperature
correction factor, except that there is no limitation on the tempera-
ture correction factor. Furthermore, if this test is performed as a
pneumatic test, the same full pressure, as for a hydrotest, is
required. Some minor exceptions are permitted based on limiting
components.
36A10.11 Records
Chapter IX contains more substantive requirements for record
transfer to the owner and the retention of records than the base
Code. For example, the base Code does not contain requirements
relative to documentation of the engineering design. However,
Chapter IX requires records of the following to be provided to the
owner or the (owners) Inspector:
(1) the engineering design;
(2) material certications
36A11 CHAPTER X, HIGH PURITY PIPING
This is a new part of the B31.3 Code termed as Chapter X,
High Purity Piping developed as the result of a lot of hard work
by ASME volunteers over the past few years. This chapter has
been closely coordinated with another new ASME standard on
Bioprocessing Equipment (BPE). The need for specic changes to
the code was required to address maintaining hygienic design
practices for the bioprocessing, semiconductor, pharmaceuticals
manufacturing, biofuels, and food production.
Chapter X is organized like the rest of the base code, and only
addresses requirements which are different than those in the base
code. The owner is responsible for designating a uid service as
High Purity Fluid Service and to allow the alternative rules of
this chapter to be applied.
Specic differences in Chapter X include the following:
High Purity Fluid Service valves,
Flanged Joints are not recommended,
Expanded Joints in accordance with para. 308.2.2 are not
permitted,
Expanded joints, ared tube ttings and caulked joints
described in paras. 313, 315 and 316 are not permitted,
Threaded joints are not recommended,
Face seal or hygienic clamp-type ttings are discussed and
recommended,
Brazing and Soldering are not permitted.
Orbital welding and Weld Coupon Examination are addressed.
This may be one of the most signicant changes which were
made to the base code for High Purity Service. The requirements
for orbital welding and verication of the quality of the weld
without compromising the cleanliness of the system is discussed
at length under Part 10 Inspection, Examination and Testing.
Finally, alternative leak tests are permitted as an alternate to
pneumatic leak testing. Pneumatic leak testing is identied as the
preferable method, however with the owners approval, a helium
mass spectrometer test may be used.
Part 11 of Chapter X provides for additional considerations
when both High Purity and Category M uid service are applica-
ble. The user is cautioned these requirements would apply to both
a highly hazardous uid service and also where very high purity
requirements apply. While the code attempts to provide guidance
and rules, the Code is not a design handbook and one should not
rely strictly on Code rules in these types of uid services.
36A12 APPENDICES IN THE CODE
A number of appendices are included in the Code as listed
below with a brief description of each and if they are mandatory
or if they are provided for additional guidance.
Appendix A Allowable Stresses and Quality Factors for
Metallic Piping Bolting Materials
Table A-1 Basic Allowable Stress in Tension for Metals The
allowable stress tables provide allowable stresses for materials
which are listed in the Code, these are currently in US
Customary Units, however they are being converted to Metric and
as the conversion is made, Metric versions are posted on the
ASME web site for information only. These should become the
required tables sometime in the future. The appendix is organized
by material type and within those types are component types like
Pipe and Tubes, Forgings and Fittings, and Plates and Sheets,
Castings, etc.
Along with allowable stress at temperature, these tables provide
a lot of other important information including P numbers
for Welding, Minimum Temperatures, warning notes, Specied
Minimum Yield and Tensile Strengths. The important part of using
these tables is making sure the user is familiar with all of the infor-
mation provided and the notes associated with the material.
Table A-1A Basic Casting Quality Factors Ec Table A-1A
provides quality factors and references associated with listed cast-
ing specications to be applied to the basic allowable stresses for
the casting materials.
Table A-1B Basic Quality Factors for Longitudinal Weld
Joints Both Table A-1B and Table 302.3.4 provide a factor to apply
to the basic allowable stress which is used in the calculation of
wall thickness or the circumferential stress.
Table A-2 Design Stress Values for Bolting Materials
Similar to Table A-1 for Bolting Material.
Appendix B Stress Tables and Allowable
Pressure Tables for Nonmetals
Requirements
This table is similar to Table A-1 except it applies to Non-metals
covered in Chapter VII. The user is cautioned the Non-metallic
industry is not as standardized as steel and other metal products,
as a result the compliance with supplier requirements and recom-
mendations is important with most nonmetallic piping materials
and components.
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Appendix C Physical Properties of Piping Materials
Requirements
As noted in the title, this appendix provides physical properties
required for the analysis of piping systems. This information is
provided for convenience and if the user has better data, it can and
should be used.
Appendix D Flexibility and Stress Intensication
Factors Requirements
As discussed in 36A3.5.3 and several references, most of the
stress intensication factors provided in this appendix were devel-
oped from fatigue testing which was completed more than 50
years ago. Recent research on these factors will hopefully be
available in ASME B31J in the future. Until then, if the user has
better information on Flexibility or Stress Intensication Factors
they should be used.
Appendix E Reference Standards Requirements
Any listed standards or references in the Code are to a generic
standard without the edition or date. The most recently approved
edition is noted in this appendix. This is a very difcult task and
this appendix is frequently out of date in the ASME B31.3 Code
and other ASME Codes. ASME is currently working on this issue
and hopes to improve how approved editions are reviewed and
updated in the future.
Appendix F Precautionary Considerations Guidance
This is a very important appendix for the user to become famil-
iar with. While it does not contain any requirements, it does
provide warnings for situations which might otherwise be over-
looked. It kind of goes along with the introduction statement the
Code is not a design handbook.
Appendix G Safeguarding Guidance
Guidance provided here would generally apply to Chapter VIII
Category M uid service, however they could be applied to any
hazard.
Appendix H Sample Calculations for Branch
Reinforcement Guidance
As was noted in 36A3.3.2.5, the branch reinforcement rules
and gures can be confusing, therefore this appendix was pro-
vided just to give the user some examples of how to apply the
rules. This appendix will also be provided in SI units in the 2012
edition of the Code.
Appendix J Nomenclature Information
A useful list of the Symbols used in the code along with deni-
tion and reference to paragraphs where they are used.
Appendix K Allowable Stresses for High Pressure
Piping Requirements
Similar to Appendix A, however requirements are applicable
only when use of Chapter IX is specied.
Appendix L Aluminum Alloy Pipe Flanges
Specication
Contains pressure-temperature ratings, materials, dimensions,
and markings of forged aluminum alloy anges.
Appendix M Guide to Classifying Fluid Services
Guidance
A Simple ow chart to help the Owner make the decision to
classify a uid service.
Appendix P Alternative Rules for Evaluating Stress
Range Requirements
The alternate method in this appendix was discussed in
36A3.2.1, Code requirements for Sustained and Self Limiting
Loads. As was noted then, this Appendix is the only place where
these two load cases are combined. These are alternative require-
ments to the self limiting or thermal loads, however base code
requirements for sustained loads must still be met.
Appendix Q Quality System Program Guidance
This appendix provides an option for the owner to specify a
quality system program. When specied by the owner, it would
become mandatory.
Appendix S Piping System Stress Analysis Examples
Guidance
This appendix is trying to provide generic examples of piping
analysis for both sustained and self limiting loads. The examples
have proved difcult to develop with the consensus of the Section
Committee Members, so this appendix will continue to grow
slowly.
Appendix V Allowable Variations in Elevated
Temperature Service Guidance
Guidance on systems which operate in the creep range and
emphasis on temperature excursions on the design life of piping
systems in this range.
Appendix X Metallic Bellows Expansion Joints
Requirements
Rules associated with Expansion Joint Design, and Design con-
siderations when expansion joints are included in the design.
Appendix Z Preparation of Technical Inquiries
Requirements
ASME procedures have specic administrative requirements
associated with how inquires can be submitted to the Code, and
what types of questions will and will not be answered by the
Section Committee. This Appendix provides the user some infor-
mation on how to submit an inquiry or request to the committee
for Code revisions.
PART B: ASME CODE B31.5
REFRIGERATION PIPING AND
HEAT TRANSFER COMPONENTS
36B.1 INTRODUCTION
This section is based on the 2010 edition of ASME B31.5, and
will provide frequent reference to other chapters covering B31
Codes in this book that provide background information, not spe-
cic to this Code.
The rst thing to note is B31.5 paragraphs are numbered in the
500 series. This coincides with the previous two codes/chapters
where B31.1 was numbered with 100 series, and B31.3 was num-
bered with the 300 series.
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36B.2 SCOPE
This code is specic to refrigeration piping and heat transfer
components. By limiting the scope, it allows the user to concen-
trate on the refrigeration system and not have to become familiar
with the more general codes previously discussed. The scope is
limited to 320F, so any piping colder than this should be
designed, fabricated and constructed with materials within the
scope of B31.3 piping.
36B.3 REFRIGERANT SAFETY
CLASSIFICATION
This is the rst signicant difference between the previous
codes. Table 500.2-1, provides a list of safety classications for
refrigerants and refrigerant Blends (Table 500.2-2) with a specic
refrigerant number, Chemical Name, Chemical Formula and
Safety Group if it has been assigned.
Refrigerant and refrigerant mixtures: the uid used for heat
transfer in a refrigerating system that absorbs heat during evapo-
ration at low temperature and pressure, and releases heat during
condensation at a higher temperature and pressure. The safety
classication group consists of two characters (e.g., A1 or B2).
The capital letter indicates the toxicity and the Arabic numeral
indicates the ammability, based on the criteria in Tables 500.2-1
and 500.2-2.
These numbers and classications are for use in the design of
the refrigeration system; subsequent requirements in the code
refer to the toxicity or ammability of the refrigerants for addi-
tional considerations.
36B.4 DESIGN CONDITIONS AND
CRITERIA
Part 1 covers the design criteria and includes the allowable
stresses for materials. The previously covered code sections
included this information in the stress tables as part of an
Appendix A. While the materials are similar, the number of mate-
rials included is much more limited, and the temperature range is
limited to 400 degrees F. This is a reection of the limited scope
of this book section as well as a limitation of some of the materi-
als which are permitted.
36B.4.1 Pressure Design
Part 2, Pressure Design is covered in the 504 series of para-
graphs with the same basic criteria as B31.1 (series 104) and
B31.3 (series 304). The basis and formulas are almost identical,
so no further explanation is provided on pressure design.
36B.4.2 Piping Component and Joints
Parts 3 and 4 (Paragraphs 505 through 518) cover specic
requirements and limitations for piping, piping components and
joints. These requirements are based on size, temperature and
safety classication of refrigerants and should be reviewed care-
fully when developing a piping specication for a particular
refrigerant system.
36B.4.3 Expansion Flexibility and Supports
Part 5 (Paragraphs 519 through 521) is a condensed version of
the Part 5 in B31.1 and B31.3. See Chapter 35 on power piping
for a detailed discussion on the basis of these requirements. B31.5
includes a lot of information which is provided in various appen-
dices in both B31.1 and B31.3 in the book section itself, so to
actually use, or follow the requirements might be a little easier.
36B.4.4 Materials
Chapter III covers acceptable materials, material requirements
such as impact testing and how to qualify unlisted materials for
use in B31.5 applications. Again, the chapter is very similar to the
requirements in the previous chapter on B31.3. In a few cases, the
requirements might be slightly different or more straight forward
because of the more limited scope. Also note B31T which is cov-
ered later in this chapter will cover similar requirements for mate-
rial toughness.
36B.4.5 Dimensional Requirements
Chapter IV on dimensional requirements provides a list of ref-
erence standards which are approved by the standard. It also pro-
vides requirements for components which are not listed. Table
526.1 which lists the approved dimensional requirements is simi-
lar to Table 126.1 in B31.1 and Table 326.1 in B31.3. Again, the
limited reference standard reects the narrower scope of this code
section.
36B.4.6 Fabrication and Assembly
Chapter V on fabrication and assembly is again very similar to
the Chapters in B31.1 and B31.3. They are not identical however
and the user is cautioned to follow the appropriate design code
carefully. Notable differences are a number of typical details on
the use of backing rings so that considerable attention to accept-
able and unacceptable weld details for plate closures are required.
36B.4.7 Examination, Inspection, and Testing
Chapter VI on Examination, inspection and testing is the nal
chapter and is also similar to the B31.1 and B31.3 chapters relat-
ing to these topics. While format and type of requirements are the
same, the specic code must be followed and the user is cautioned
the requirements do change between sections and editions.
PART C: ASME CODE B31.9
BUILDING SERVICES PIPING
36C.1 INTRODUCTION
This section is based on the 2008 edition of B31.9 Code. The
organization of the code is the same as the preceding 3 Code
books (Part A, B and C), so only the differences are going to be
highlighted as part of this discussion. Similar to B31.5, the scope
of Building Services piping is limited. The intent is to provide
simplied rules for piping which would typically be found in
industrial, institutional, commercial, and public buildings, and
multi-unit residences.
36C.2 SCOPE
The services are limited by the requirements in 900.1.2 to what
would be typical utilities such as water, antifreeze solutions for
heating and cooling, steam, condensate, vacuum systems, com-
pressed air or other nontoxic, nonammable gases, and com-
bustible liquids including fuel oil.
COMPANION GUIDE TO THE ASME BOILER & PRESSURE VESSEL CODE 36-21
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Boiler external piping similar to the piping discussed in
Chapter 35 on B31.1 is included, but only as limited by the fol-
lowing pressures and temperatures:
Steam Boilers 15 psig max.
Water Heating Units 160 psig max. and 250F max.
Other Material and Size limits are as follows:
Carbon Steel: NPS 48 and .5 wall
Stainless Steel: NPS 24 and .5 wall
Aluminum NPS 12
Brass and Copper NPS 12 (12.125 OD for Copper Tubing)
Thermoplastics: NPS 24
Ductile Iron NPS 48
Reinforced Thermosetting Resin NPS 24
This list does not prohibit other materials which may be used as
noted in Chapter III.
Pressure limits, piping systems designed to ASME B31.9 are
limited to pressures as noted below:
Steam and Condensate not in excess of 150 psig
Liquids not exceeding 350 psig
Vacuum is limited to 1 atmosphere external pressure
Compressed air and gas not in excess of 150 psig
Temperature limits, piping systems designed to ASME B31.9
are limited to at or below the temperature noted below:
Steam and Condensate: 366F
Other gases and vapors: 200F
Other nonammable liquids: 250F
The minimum temperature for all services is 0F
Any piping outside of the above limits should be designed to
another section of the B31 series of pressure piping codes such as
B31.1, B31.3, B31.5, etc. as determined by the owner. See intro-
duction to any of the piping code sections for additional guidance.
36C.2.1 Design
The design requirements in Chapter II are similar to the other
pressure piping codes discussed previously. One notable differ-
ence is paragraph 921.1.3 where deection of piping under dead-
weight is limited. The calculated stresses associated with the
piping span also have a specic limit as opposed to the other pip-
ing codes which limit just the longitudinal stress associated with
sustained loadings. Span charts are also provided for a number of
typical piping materials in gures 921.1.3-1 and 921.1.3-2.
Another noticeable difference is 921.2.1 Fixtures where specic
requirements are provide for guides and anchors associated with
expansion joints. While the other previous codes require these to be
considered, this paragraph provides specic formulas for buckling.
36C.2.2 Materials
Similar to other sections of the pressure piping codes previously
discussed, specic materials and limitations are noted in Chapter III
and should be reviewed prior to any design work under this Code.
36C.2.3 Component Requirements and Standard
Practices
Listed standards which are acceptable to B31.9 piping systems
are identied in Chapter IV. While design to alternate nonstan-
dard components are permitted by para 904, adherence to the
listed standards is recommended.
36C.2.4 Fabrication, Assembly, and Erection
Chapter V is similar to the other Pressure Piping Code Sections
with one or two notable exceptions.
The wall thicknesses and material limits in the scope are such
that Post Weld Heat Treatment is not required for any of the pip-
ing which is permitted under B31.9 unless specied in the engi-
neering design.
Para. 930.2 permits Mechanically Formed Extruded Outlets in
Copper Tube. This paragraph provides a formula for calculating
the allowable pressure for these outlets.
36C.2.5 Inspection, Examination, and Testing
Chapter VI provides similar requirements to the other Pressure
Piping Codes for verication of the piping systems to meet the
requirements of the code that will pass appropriate leak tests.
PART D: ASME STANDARD B31E:
SEISMIC DESIGN AND RETROFIT
OF ABOVE-GROUND PIPING
SYSTEMS
36D.1 INTRODUCTION
This is a new standard which was issued for the rst time with
the 2008 edition. This standard is very different than the other
book sections which have been discussed so far. B31E is not asso-
ciated with specic piping system, instead it is intended to pro-
vide more explicit and structured guidance for seismic design of
new or existing piping systems. Currently most of the B31
Pressure Piping Book Sections require some sort of consideration
of seismic design for piping systems; however they give little or
no guidance on how this should be accomplished. Likewise build-
ing codes and ASCE 7 provide requirements for the seismic
design of structures, but do not have rules which address the pres-
sure design of piping systems during the seismic event.
B31E is the rst attempt to put specic rules together which
can be applied to new or existing piping systems to insure they
will function as intended during a seismic event. There are still
some issues being worked out between the requirements of the
piping code and the structural design codes to make sure they are
working together well. The user is cautioned to watch for the lat-
est changes to both ASME B31E and ASCE 7.
36D.2 SCOPE
The rules and basis for the seismic design are in a large part
based on the performance of existing piping systems built to one
of the B31 Pressure Piping Code Sections which were studied
after past seismic events. As a result, the requirements in this
standard are only valid when the piping system complies with the
materials, design, fabrication, examination, testing, and inspection
requirements of the applicable ASME B31 Code section.
Para. 1.3 identies a number of required inputs which are
required before a piping system can be evaluated in accordance
with this standard. These inputs provide the required information
to correctly classify the importance of a piping system and haz-
ards involved, function required of the piping system during and
after the seismic event, free-eld seismic input, in-structure seis-
mic response spectra and a number of other responsibilities asso-
ciated with issues which could affect the seismic performance of
36-22 Chapter 36
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the piping system or attached active components. It is very impor-
tant to understand and assign these responsibilities prior to evalu-
ating the potential performance of a piping system during a seismic
event.
36D.3 MATERIAL
This is a very short section which reinforces the materials must
be to one of the applicable ASME B31 Code sections, including
evaluation of the condition of existing systems and supports to be
sure they still meet the intent of the original construction code.
36D.4 DESIGN
36D.4.1 Seismic Loading
Seismic Loading discussed in Para. 3.1 are described with ref-
erence to standards such as ASCE 7. As noted earlier, the coor-
dination with this standard is an ongoing activity and care must
be taken to verify the requirements of a specific B31E edition
are consistent with the requirements and associated factors pro-
vided by specific edition of ASCE 7 or other structural design
standard.
36D.4.2 Design Method
ASME B31E provides two different methods for the evaluation
of piping systems based on the classication of the system, mag-
nitude of the seismic input, and pipe size.
36D.4.3 Design by Rule
Design by Rule is a very simple approach which provides for
lateral supporting of the piping based on span charts, or formulas.
This approach was commonly referred to as spacing criteria in the
seismic design of small bore nuclear piping. See ASME B31E,
Para. 3.3 for the specic piping systems where this approach is
acceptable as well as the span requirements between lateral sup-
ports. Table 1 from ASME B31E (Figure 36D.4.3-1) and Table 2
(Figure 36D.4.3-2) are shown below.
36D.4.4 Design by Analysis
Design by analysis is covered in ASME B31E, Para. 3.4. The
analysis requirements are similar to the analysis which would be
done on any piping system to verify the sustained and self-limiting
stresses are within the applicable B31 code allowable stress limits,
however the piping is exposed to loadings from the seismic event.
These loadings may be calculated by static or dynamic analysis.
Allowable stress limits are provided, however the user is cautioned
changes to the loading criteria from the structural standards are
still being resolved with ASME B31E to produce results which are
consistent with the past research.
36D.4.5 Other Considerations
The remainder of the document contains a number of very
important items which must be considered as part of a seismic
design including mechanical joints, seismic restraints, equipment
and components, and seismic interactions.
36D.4.6 References
A number of important references are provided in ASME
B31E, the user may also nd some of the following references
useful which document the performance of piping systems which
have been exposed to real as well as simulated seismic events on
shaker tables.
References 25 to 31 pertinent to this Code and Seismic Design
in general are listed at the end of this chapter.
COMPANION GUIDE TO THE ASME BOILER & PRESSURE VESSEL CODE 36-23
TABLE 36D.4.3-1 SEISMIC DESIGN REQUIREMENTS, APPLICABLE SECTIONS
(Source: Table 1 of ASME B31E, 2008)
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PART E: ASME STANDARD B31J:
STANDARD TEST METHOD FOR
DETERMINING STRESS
INTENSIFICATION FACTORS
(I-FACTORS) FOR METALLIC
PIPING COMPONENTS
36E.1 INTRODUCTION
This standard was originally developed to provide an experi-
mental method to determine SIFs for components or joints which
have not been provided in the ASME B31 Pressure Piping Code
sections. It is currently being revised to increase this scope to
include updated SIFs and exibility factors for common compo-
nents and branch to header connections of various sizes. This
change in scope is the rst step in incorporating recent research
sponsored by ASME. Once this is complete, B31 Pressure Piping
Book Sections can reference B31E for SIFs.
36E.2 TEST PROCEDURE
The test equipment shown in Fig. 3.1 of B31J is similar to the
test equipment described at length in references 8 & 14.
Non-mandatory Appendix A in B31J is a commentary on this
document, so no further commentary is provided in this chapter.
PART F: ASME STANDARD B31T:
STANDARD TOUGHNESS
REQUIREMENTS FOR PIPING
36F.1 INTRODUCTION
B31T was published for the rst time in 2010 and this commen-
tary is based on this edition. Each of the previously discussed B31
Pressure Piping Code Sections had material requirements associ-
ated with low temperature and the possibility for brittle failure.
The requirements were similar, but not identical and sometimes
very difcult to follow. This standard was developed to try to make
these requirements easier to understand and improve the consis-
tency of the requirements. In the future, the B31 Pressure Piping
Code sections may invoke this document in whole, or in part and
in that case, the requirements in this document would become
mandatory.
36F.2 MATERIALS
Materials are grouped by a T-Number, which are shown in
Table 3.2-1. The minimum temperatures permitted and associated
impact test requirements are shown in Table 3.1.1 based on this
group number which is shown in Column 1. Table 3.1.1 is provided
in both SI and US Customary Units. An example of part of this
table is shown below in Figure 36F.2-1
Column 2 lists the thickness of materials where requirements
vary by thickness.
Column 3 lists any notes which may be applicable to this material
group or the maximum possible size of the impact test specimen.
Column 4 is the lowest temperature at which the material can
be used without addition testing or stress limits, so if the design
minimum temperature is above this number, no other low temper-
ature requirements apply.
Columns 5 & 6 list minimum temperatures for the material
with and without impact tests. Where the material thickness does
not permit impact testing,
Column 7, 8 & 9 are applicable to any welds which must be
qualied for the low temperature. The stress ratios above and
below .3 are listed separately because low stressed materials are
less prone to brittle failure.
Columns 1017 provide additional temperature limits based on
stress ratios from 1 to .3 where a lot of carbon steel materials are
given some addition relief if they are not highly stressed.
Column 18 provides the minimum temperature where the mate-
rial can be used if the Stress Ratio is less than .3. This stress ratio
is the same as keeping the stress in the material at less than 10%
of the tensile strength.
36F.3 FABRICATION
Section 3.7 covers fabrication and requirements associated with
the low temperature limits and weld qualication and impact test-
ing requirements similar to all of the B31 Pressure Piping Codes
which had been discussed as part of the material and weld proce-
dure qualications in the previous section. This section also
36-24 Chapter 36
TABLE 36D.4.3-2 MAXIMUM SPAN, FT (M), BETWEEN LATERAL SEISMIC RESTRAINTS FOR STEEL PIPE WITH A YIELD
STRESS OF 35 KSI (238 MPA), IN WATER SERVICE AT 70F (21C) (Source: Table 2 of ASME B31E, 2008)
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COMPANION GUIDE TO THE ASME BOILER & PRESSURE VESSEL CODE 36-25
TABLE 36F.2-1 LOW-TEMPERATURE SERVICE REQUIREMENTS BY MATERIAL GROUP
(Source: First page of Table 3.1-1 of ASME B31T, 2010 )
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includes some additional and restrictions associated with forming
operations which could also affect the impact properties of the
material and how they should be qualied.
36F.4 TESTING
Section 4 provides requirements for impact testing when it is
required based on Table 3.1.1 and the design minimum tempera-
ture and associated stress level.
36F.5 APPENDICES
A number of tables are available in Mandatory Appendices
which provide temperature/thickness curves, stress ratio curves,
and listing of material specications by T-numbers.
Finally, Non-mandatory Appendix A provides a ow chart for
using the document, and Appendix B provides guidelines for
establishing T-number groups for materials which were not cov-
ered by this document.
36.2 REFERENCES
1. Boardman, H. C., Formulas for the Design of Cylindrical and
Spherical Shells to Withstand Uniform Internal Pressure, The Water
Tower, vol. 30, 1943.
2. Bergman, E. O., The New-Type Code Chart for the Design of
Vessels Under External Pressure, Pressure Vessel and Piping
Design, Collected Papers 19271959, The American Society of
Mechanical Engineers, 1960, pp. 647654.
3. Holt, M., A Procedure for Determining the Allowable Out-of-
Roundness for Vessels Under External Pressure, Pressure Vessel and
Piping Design, Collected Papers 19271959, The American Society
of Mechanical Engineers, 1960, pp. 655660.
4. Saunders, H. E., and Windenburg, D., Strength of Thin Cylindrical
Shells Under External Pressure, Pressure Vessel and Piping Design,
Collected Papers 19271959, The American Society of Mechanical
Engineers, 1960, pp. 600611.
5. Windenburg, D., and Trilling, C., Collapse by Instability of Thin
Cylindrical Shells Under External Pressure, Pressure Vessel and
Piping Design, Collected Papers 19271959, The American Society
of Mechanical Engineers, 1960, pp. 612624.
6. Windenburg, D., Vessels Under External Pressure: Theoretical and
Empirical Equations Represented in Rules for the Construction of
Unred Pressure Vessels Subjected to External Pressure, Pressure
Vessel and Piping Design, Collected Papers 19271959, The
American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 1960, pp. 625632.
7. Biersteker, M., Dietemann, C., Sareshwala, S., and Haupt, R. W.,
Qualication of Nonstandard Piping Product Form for ASME Code
for Pressure Piping, B31 Applications, Codes and Standards and
Applications for Design and Analysis of Pressure Vessels and Piping
Components, PVP vol. 2101, The American Society of Mechanical
Engineers, 1991.
8. Markl, A., Fatigue Tests of Piping Components, Pressure Vessel
and Piping Design, Collected Papers, 19271959, The American
Society of Mechanical Engineers, pp. 402418, 1960.
9. Robinson, E. Steam-Piping Design to Minimize Creep
Concentrations, Pressure Vessel and Piping Design, Collected
Papers, 19271959, pp. 451466, 1960.
10. Becht IV, C., Elastic Follow-up Evaluation of a Piping System with
a Hot Wall Slide Valve, Design and Analysis of Piping, Pressure
Vessels, and Components-1988, PVP-Vol. 139, The American
Society of Mechanical Engineers, 1988.
11. Bednar, H., Pressure Vessel Design Handbook, Van Nostrand
Reinhold Co., New York, 1986.
12. Becht, C., Chen, Y. and Benteftifa, C., Effect of Pipe Insertion on
Slip-On Flange Performance, Design and Analysis of Pressure
Vessels, Piping, and Components-1992, PVP-Vol. 235, The American
Society of Mechanical Engineers, 1992.
13. Sims, J., Development of Design Criteria for a High Pressure Piping
Code, High Pressure TechnologyDesign, Analysis, and Safety of
High Pressure Equipment, PVP-Vol 110, Ed. D. P. Kendall, The
American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 1986.
14. Piping Engineering, Sixth Edition, 1986, Tube Turns, Inc.
15. Piping Design & Engineering, Seventh Edition, 1995 Grinnell
Corporation.
16. STP-PT-028, Impact Test Exemptions.
17. Harvey, John F., Theory and design of modern pressure vessels, Van
Nostrand Reinhold Co., New York. 1974.
18. Short II, W. E., Overview of Chapter VII, Nonmetallic Piping and
Piping Lined with Nonmetals in the ASME B31.3 Chemical Plant &
Petroleum Renery Piping Code, Codes and Standards and
Applications for Design and Analysis of Pressure Vessel and Piping
Components-1989, ASME PVP-Vol. 161, American Society of
Mechanical Engineers, 1989.
19. Short II, W. E., Coverage of Non-Metals in the ASME B31.3
Chemical Plant and Petroleum Renery Piping Code, Journal of
Process Mechanical Engineers, IMechE Vol. 206, pp. 6772,
Institute of Mechanical Engineers, May 1992.
20. WRC 415, Literature Survey and Interpretive Study on
Thermoplastic and Reinforced-Thermosetting-Resin Piping and
Component Standards, W. E. Short II, G. F. Leon, G. E. O. Widera,
and C. G. Zui, The Welding Research Council, September, 1996.
21. Nayyar, Mohinder L., Piping Handbook, Mcgraw-Hill Seventh
Edition.
22. ASME PCC-1, Guidelines for Pressure Boundary Bolted Flange
Joint Assembly, The American Society of Mechanical Engineers,
2010.
23. Pipe Fabrication Institute, PFI ES-48 Random Radiography, 2008.
24. The Copper Tube Handbook; The Copper Development Association,
New York, 1995.
25. NUREG/CR-6239 ORNEL/Sub/94-SD427/2/V1, Volume 1: Survey
of Strong Motion Earthquake Effects on Thermal Power Plants in
California with Emphasis on Piping Systems.
26. NUREG/CR6358 entitled Assessment of United States Industry
Structural Codes and Standards for Application to Advanced Nuclear
Power Reactors.
27. Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Recommended Piping
Seismic Adequacy Criteria Based on Performance Duringand after
Earthquakes, Report NP-5617, January 1988.
28. Electric Power Research Inst., (EPRI)-Report-NP-6593, The New
Zealand earthquake of March 2, 1987: Effects on electric power and
industrial facilities 1989 Nov 01.
29. EPRI, NP-7500-SL, The October 17, 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake:
Effects onselected power and industrial facilities, September 1991.
30. Welding Research Concil (WRC) Bulleting 423, Evaluation Of
Seismic Response Data For Piping, by Gerry C. Slagis- July 1997.
36-26 Chapter 36
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31. Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI) Piping and Fitting Dynamic
Reliability Programs (PFDRP), EPRI Contract RP 1543-15.
32. ASME RTP-1, Reinforced Thermoset Plastic Corrosion-Resistant
Equipment, 2011.
GENERAL REFERENCES
API 526, Flanged Steel Pressure Relief Valves; The American Petroleum
Institute.
API 570, Piping Inspection Code: Inspection Repair, Alteration, and
Rerating of In-Service Piping Systems; The American Petroleum
Institute.
API 594, Wafer and Wafer-Lug Check Valves; The American Petroleum
Institute.
API 599, Metal Plug ValvesFlanged and Welding Ends; The American
Petroleum Institute.
API 600, Steel Gate ValvesFlanged, Threaded and Butt-Welding Ends
Bolted and Pressure Seal Bonnets; The American Petroleum
Institute.
API 602, Compact Steel Gate Valves Flanged, Threaded, Welding and
Extended Body Ends, The American Petroleum Institute.
API 603, Class 150, Cast, Corrosion-Resistant, Flanged-End Gate
Valves, The American Petroleum Institute.
API 608, Metal Ball Valves Flanged, Threaded, and Butt-Welding
Ends, The American Petroleum Institute.
API 609, Buttery Valves: Double Flanged, Lug- and Water-Type, The
American Petroleum Institute.
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section I, Power Boilers, The
American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section II, Part A, Materials,
Ferrous Material Specications, The American Society of
Mechanical Engineers.
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section II, Part B, Materials,
Nonferrous Material Specications; The American Society of
Mechanical Engineers.
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section III, Rules for
Construction of Nuclear Power Plant Components; The American
Society of Mechanical Engineers.
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section VIII, Division 1,
Pressure Vessels; The American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section VIII, Division 2,
Pressure Vessels, Alternative Rules; The American Society of
Mechanical Engineers.
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section IX, Welding and Brazing
Qualications; The American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
ASME B31.1, Power Piping; The American Society of Mechanical
Engineers.
ASME B31.3, Process Piping; The American Society of Mechanical
Engineers.
ASME B31.4, Liquid Transportation Systems for Hydrocarbons, Liquid
Petroleum Gas, Anhydrous Ammonia, and Alcohols; The American
Society of Mechanical Engineers.
ASME B31.5, Refrigeration Piping; The American Society of
Mechanical Engineers.
ASME B31.8, Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping Systems; The
American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
ASME B31.9, Building Services Piping; The American Society of
Mechanical Engineers.
ASME B31J, Standard Method to Develop Stress Intensication and
Flexibility Factors for Piping Components; The American Society of
Mechanical Engineers; under development.
ASME B16.1, Cast Iron Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings; American
National Standards Institute.
ASME B1.20.1, Pipe Threads, General Purpose (Inch); The American
Society of Mechanical Engineers.
ASME B16.3, Malleable Iron Threaded Fittings; The American Society
of Mechanical Engineers.
ASME B16.4, Gray Iron Threaded Fittings, The American Society of
Mechanical Engineers.
ASME B16.5, Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings, The American Society
of Mechanical Engineers.
ASME B16.9, Factory-Made Wrought-Steel Butt welding Fittings, The
American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
ASME B16.10, Face-to-Face and End-to-End Dimensions of Valves, The
American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
ASME B16.11, Forged Steel Fittings, Socket-Welding and Threaded, The
American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
ASME B16.14, Ferrous Pipe Plugs, Bushings, and Locknuts with Pipe
Threads, The American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
ASME B16.15, Cast Bronze Threaded Fittings, Classes 125 and 250, The
American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
ASME B16.18, Cast Copper-Alloy Solder-Joint Pressure Fittings, The
American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
ASME B16.22, Wrought Copper and Copper-Alloy Solder-Joint Pressure
Fittings, The American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
ASME B16.24, Bronze Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings, Classes 150,
300, 400, 600, 900, 1500, and 2500 and Flanged Fittings, Classes
150 and 300; The American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
ASME B16.26, Cast Copper Alloy Fittings for Flared Copper Tubes, The
American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
ASME B16.28, Wrought-Steel Buttwelding Short Radius Elbows and
Returns, The American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
ASME B16.34, ValvesFlanged, Threaded, and Welding End, The
American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
ASME B16.36, Orice Flanges, Classes 300, 600, 600, 900, 1500, and
2500; The American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
ASME B16.39, Malleable Iron Threaded Pipe Unions, Classes 150, 250,
and 300; The American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
ASME B16.42, Ductile Iron Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings, Classes
150 and 300; The American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
ASME B16.47, Large Diameter Steel Flanges, NPS 26 Through NPS 60;
The American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
ASME B16.48, Steel Line Blanks; The American Society of Mechanical
Engineers.
AWWA C110, Ductile-Iron and Gray-Iron Fittings, 3 Inch Through 48
Inch (75 mm Through 1200 mm), for Water and Other Liquids;
American Water Works Association.
AWWA C115, Flanged Ductile-Iron with Ductile-Iron or Gray-Iron
Threaded Flanges, American Water Works Association.
AWWA C207, Steel Pipe Flanges for Water Works Service, Sizes 4 Inch
Through 144 Inch (100 mm Through 3,600 mm); American Water
Works Association.
COMPANION GUIDE TO THE ASME BOILER & PRESSURE VESSEL CODE 36-27
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AWWA C208, Dimensions for Fabricated Steel Water Pipe Fittings,
American Water Works Association.
AWWA C 500, Metal-Seated Gate Valves for Water Supply Service,
American Water Works Associations.
AWWA C 504, Rubber-Seated Buttery Valves, American Water Works
Association.
MSS SP-42, Class 150 Corrosion-Resistant Gate, Globe, Angle, and
Check Valves With Flanged and Butt weld Ends; Manufacturers
Standardization Society of the Valve and Fittings Industry, Inc.
MSS SP-43, Wrought Stainless Steel Butt welding Fittings, Man-
ufacturers Standardization Society of the Valve and Fittings
Industry, Inc.
MSS SP-44, Steel Pipe Line Flanges, Manufacturers Standardization
Society of the Valve and Fittings Industry, Inc.
MSS SP-51, Class 150 LW Corrosion-Resistant Cast Flanges and
Flanged Fittings, Manufacturers Standardization Society of the Valve
and Fittings Industry, Inc.
MSS SP-65, High-Pressure Chemical Industry Flanges and Threaded
Stubs for Use with Lens Gaskets, Manufacturers Standardization
Society of the Valve and Fittings Industry, Inc.
MSS SP-70, Cast Iron Gate Valves, Flanged and Threaded Ends,
Manufacturers Standardization Society of the Valve and Fittings
Industry, Inc.
MSS SP-71, Cast Iron Swing Check Valves, Flanged and Threaded Ends,
Manufacturers Standardization Society of the Valve and Fittings
Industry, Inc.
MSS SP-72, Ball Valves With Flanged or Buttwelding Ends for General
Service; Manufacturers Standardization Society of the Valve and
Fittings Industry, Inc.
MSS SP-73, Brazing Joints for copper and copper Alloy pressure ttings.
MSS SP-75, Specications for High Test Wrought Buttwelding Fittings,
Manufacturers Standardization Society of the Valve and Fittings
Industry, Inc.
MSS SP-79, Socket-Welding Reducer Inserts; Manufacturers Standardization
Society of the Valve and Fittings Industry, Inc.
MSS SP-80, Bronze Gate, Globe, Angle, and Check Valves, Manufacturers
Standardization Society of the Valve and Fittings Industry, Inc.
MSS SP-81, Stainless Steel, Bonnetless, Flanged, Knife Gate Valves,
Manufacturers Standardization Society of the Valve and Fittings
Industry, Inc.
MSS SP-83, Class 3000 Steel Pipe Unions, Socket-Welding and
Threaded; Manufacturers Standardization Society of the Valve and
Fittings Industry, Inc.
MSS SP-85, Cast Iron Globe and Angle Valves, Flanged and Threaded
Ends, Manufacturers Standardization Society of the Valve and
Fittings Industry, Inc.
MSS SP-88, Diaphragm-Type Valves, Manufacturers Standardization
Society of the Valve and Fittings Industry, Inc.
MSS SP-95, Swage (d) Nipples and Bull Plugs, Manufacturers
Standardization Society of the Valve and Fittings Industry, Inc.
MSS SP-97, Integrally Reinforced Forged Branch Outlet Fittings
Socket Welding, Threaded, and Buttwelding Ends; Manufacturers
Standardization Society of the Valve and Fittings Industry, Inc.
MSS SP-105, Instrument Valves for Code Applications, Manufacturers
Standardization Society of the Valve and Fittings Industry, Inc.
MSS SP-58, Pipe Hangers and SupportsMaterials, Design, and
Manufacture; Manufacturers Standardization Society of the Valve
and Fittings Industry, Inc.
SAE J513, Refrigeration Tube Fittings General Specications; Society
of Automotive Engineers.
SAE J514, Hydraulic Tube Fittings; Society of Automotive Engineers.
SAE J518, Hydraulic Flange Tube, Pipe, and Hose Connections, Four-
Bolt Split Flanged Type; Society of Automotive Engineers.
WRC 107, Wichman, K., Hopper, A., and Mershon, J. (1979). Local
Stresses in Spherical and Cylindrical Shells due to External
Loadings, Welding Research Council, Bulletin 107, New York.
WRC 297, Mershon, J., Mokhtarian, K., Ranjan, G., and Rodabaugh, E.
(1984). Local Stresses in Cylindrical Shells due to External
Loadings on NozzlesSupplement to WRC Bulletin No. 107,
Welding Research Council, Bulletin 297, New York.
36-28 Chapter 36
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