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Possible History Essays

Impact of Geography
5 themes:
1. Location: the position of earths surface
a. Relative location measures the place of somewhere in relation to another
b. Latitude and longitude lines help measure location
i. Latitude lines run north and south of equator
ii. Longitude lines run east and west of prime meridian
2. Movement: is the spread of a product through trade and communication
a. Trade: importing and exporting goods from one place to another
b. Through movement, different cultures are able to share in other cultures
3. Place: can be described by what physical and human characteristics there are
Physical Human
Geography (how the land is)
Way of life (culture)
4. Interaction between people and their environment
a. People have learned to adapt to their environment
b. People also learned to adopt new ways of life when outside forces affect it
c. Also measured by how people change their environment
5. Region: What a civilization looks like
a. Can be classified in for ways:
i. Physical
ii. Economical
iii. Cultural
iv. Political

Early Civilizations
1. Olmec: (1200-400BC) 1
know civilization in Mesoamerica
Influenced Maya
San Lorenzo= oldest city
i. Known for colossal stone heads (may depict gods)

2. Teotihuacan: place of the gods
Main street= avenue of the dead
Lined with temples and palaces
Major trade city
Famous for usage of Obsidian tools (volcanic glass)
City was destroyed and abandoned (800bc)
3. Maya (300-900 AD)
Farmed in rainforests
i. Grew maize and cacao
ii. Chocolate= beverage of the rich
iii. Cacao beans =$ in market
Wrote in hieroglyphics
Supreme god= Itzamna: lizard house
Pok-a-tok: losing team gets sacrificed (like basketball)
Known for calendar
4. Toltecs
War like
Known for working with metal (gold, silver, copper)
Quetzalcoatl: god of learning, culture and wind; featured as a serpent
Toplitzin: high priest; exile, vowed to return in the east
5. Aztecs
Huitzilopochtli: would give sign where to settle
i. Comes as an eagle, perched on a cactus
ii. Lake Texacoco
Built city of Tenochtitlan
Triple alliance= Tenochtitlan, Tetzcoco, Tiacopan
Chinampas- swampy islands of land
Ometotl: all powerful force of the heavens
Try to delay destruction of world by sacrificing
6. Incas
Pachacuti= leader
Cuzco- city in the mts
Quecha= language
Terrance farming- fields cut into sides of mts
24,000 miles of roads and suspension bridges
Machu Picchu
i. Stairway to hitching post to the sun
Solar observatory
Quipu= system of knotted strings
World Religions
1. Islam
a. Supreme God= Allah ; Muhammad= prophet
b. Medinah= city of the prophet
c. 622- first day of muslim calendar
d. 5 pillars of faith
i. Proclaim your Belief- god= Allah, Muhammad is his prophet
ii. Prayer- pray 5x a day facing mecca
iii. Charity- to the poor and aged
iv. Fasting sunrise to sunset of Ramadan
v. Hajj- pilgrimage to mecca once
Visit kabba, walk around 7 times, touch black stone
e. Dont eat pork or drink alcohol
2. Hinduism
a. Veda= external truths
b. Brahman= supreme force
c. Main gods= Brahman, Vishnu and Shiva
d. Atman= each persons universal self
e. Nonviolence
f. Reincarnation- rebirth of the soul
g. Moksha- freeing of the soul so that it cant reunite with Brahman
i. Takes two lifetimes
h. Karma- to do
i. Caste system
3. Buddhism
a. Buddha = enlightened one
b. Four noble truths
c. Nirvana= freedom from cycle of rebirth and death
d. Three baskets of wisdom= written beliefs
e. Siddhartha Gautama
i. Founded Buddhism
ii. Believed to be Buddha
4. Jainism
a. Reform Buddhism
b. Mahavira- founder
c. Reincarnation
d. Nonviolence
e. Strict vegetarians
5. Sikhism
a. Combines Hinduism and Islam
Effects of Imperialism: what did European countries take over (Portuguese, GB)
Philosophies: Theravada vs. Mahayana Buddhism
Independence movements: Gandhi, jawaharl Nehru, Rajiv Ganghi
Important people: look on your review sheet
World Conflicts: trade, land, beliefs