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BAKER HUGHES DRILLING FLUIDS BAKER HUGHES DRILLING FLUIDS

Drilling Drilling Fluids Fluids Course Course


PERU PERU - - TALARA TALARA
August August 2005 2005
In 1850 Samuel Kier, a Pittsburg druggist, Pennsylvania
(EE.UU.), start selling the petroleum with the rock oil name or
petroleum.
In 1859 the well Edwin Laurentine Prake (1819- 1880) was drilled in
Pennsylvania
Oil for lights (1860-1900)
Gasoline and oil for car and planes
Liquids fuels
The meaning: The meaning: Rok Rok s s Oil. Oil.
Petroleum: Its Origin
The The Reservoir Reservoir
Sedimentary Sedimentary Rocks Rocks Origin Origin
Plants
Rock Origin
Chemical
Changes
Mechanical
Changes
Solution New Minerals
Coal
Biological origin
And
Precipitation
Precipitation
Limestones
Shales
Phosphates
Evaporites
(Limestone & )
Chert
Clays
Shales
Conglomerades
Sands
Lnea de alta presin
Unin Giratoria
Manguera Rotatoria
Tubo Vertical
Criba Vibratoria
Tanques de
succin
Bomba del
lodo
Tanques de
mezcla
Equipo de
Control de
slidos
Lnea de flujo
Piscina
Laboratorio de Lodo
Manguera
Rotaria
Cabeza
Rotaria
Kelly
Bombas
de Lodo
Qumicos
Drill pipe
Mezclador
Tanque de Lodo
Saranda
Collarn
Anulo
Mecha
Cortes
Tanque
de Lodo
Pozo
Fosa de Lodo
Drilling System
Wellhead Control Pressure
Retorno de lodo
con cortes
Lodo
hacia la
mecha
Drilling Fluid Drilling Fluid
A mud is a mixture of liquids, chemicals, and solids A mud is a mixture of liquids, chemicals, and solids
dissolved and suspended dissolved and suspended
commercial/non commercial/non- -commercial commercial
high and low specific gravity high and low specific gravity
inert and reactive inert and reactive
Reactive clays Reactive clays
Weight material, bentonite, drill solids Weight material, bentonite, drill solids
Drilling Fluid Classifications Drilling Fluid Classifications
Drilling FLuids
Oil Based
Fluids
Water based
Fluids
Pneumatic
Fluids
Diesel
Mineral
Non Petroleum
Hydrocarbon
Non inhibitive
Inhibitive
Polymer
Dry Gas
Mist
Foam
Gasified Mud
Water Based Fluids Water Based Fluids
Water Based Fluids
Non Inhibitive Inhibitive Polymer
Clear Water
Native
Bentonite/Water
Calcium Based
Salt Water Based
Potassium Based
Non Dispersed
High Temperature
Deflocculated
Lignite/Lignosulphonate Amine
Drilling Fluid Basic Components
Solids
Chemicals Fluids
Drilling Fluid Components Drilling Fluid Components
Fluids Fluids
Gas Gas Water Water Non Hydrous Non Hydrous
Fresh Brine Brackish Seawater Mixed salt
Inert
Solids
Weightng
Material
Older
Shales
Sand Silt
Barite
Hematite
Calcium Carbonate
Dolomite
Drilling Fluid Components Drilling Fluid Components
Reactive
Solids
Formation
Clays
Commercial
Clays
Drilling Fluid Drilling Fluid Aditives Aditives
Viscosifiers Viscosifiers
Weigthing Weigthing Materials Materials
Fluid Loss Fluid Loss
Deflocculants Deflocculants
Corrosion Control Corrosion Control
Shale Control Shale Control
Spotting Fluids Spotting Fluids
Lubricants Lubricants
Detergents Detergents
Defoamers Defoamers
Preservatives Preservatives
Oil Mud Additives Oil Mud Additives
Drilling Fluid Functions
Hole Cleaning
Transport and remove drilled cuttings
Release cuttings at the surface
Suspend cuttings and weight material
Pressure balance ( P = 0.052 * TVD * MW)
Wellbore Stability
Seal permeable formations
Prevent damage to producing zones
Provide hydraulic horsepower to bit and motors
Provides a communication medium for MWD tools
Clean, Cool, and Lubricate bit and drill string
Reduce Corrosion
Must be environmentally safe
Presin
P
r
o
f
u
n
d
i
d
a
d

3720 psi
8000
Presin Anormal
Lnea de tendencia normal
Presin anormal
Functions of Drilling Fluids
Prevent Stuck Pipe
Improve Penetration Rates
Prevent bit balling
Provide filtration control
Poor cuttings removal
Hole Sloughing
Lost Circulation
Differential pressure Sticking
Key seating
Drilling Fluids Selection Criteria Drilling Fluids Selection Criteria
Lithology Concerns
Performance
Production Concerns
Cost
Logistics
Safety
Environmental Impact
Planning A Well
Geological prospect
Exploration
Development
Offset data
Geological
Engineering
Design criteria
Objectives of well (production, information, costs)
Surface & bottom hole locations
Well control
Bit selection
Drilling fluid selection
Casing design
Well Mechanical Design
Wellbore Instability
Lost Circulation
Low ROP in the shale
sections
Time exposure
Hole Cleaning
Troublesome
Zones
GPM, HSI and TFA
Decreased ROP Hydraulics
Reactive Clays
(Red Beds)
BUR and BHA
Designs
Problems to
be encountered
Litholgy
Mechanical Well Design
Required Information
Drilling Fluids Program
Drilling Fluid Properties
Density Density
Funnel Viscosity Funnel Viscosity
Rheology Rheology
Filtration Control or Fluid Loss Filtration Control or Fluid Loss
Solids Content Solids Content
Chemistry Chemistry
Density Density
Mud Scales - pounds per gallon, specific gravity, kilograms
per cubic meter.
Pressurized or regular.
Pressurized Balance
Drilling Fluid Tests - Marsh Funnel
Funnel Viscosity
A timed rate of flow from a specially designed funnel.
Multiple indicators
Drilling Fluid Tests - Bingham Values
Plastic Viscosity
Yield Point
Gel Strengths
Fann 6 speed VG meter
Drilling Fluid Tests - Filtration Control
Fluid Loss
Measure of the relative amount
of fluid lost through permeable
formations or membranes when
it subjected to pressure.
Types
API - 100 psi Differential
HTHP - 500 psi Differential at
elevated temperature
Filter cake evaluation
High Temperature - High Pressure Device
Drilling Fluid Tests - Solids Analysis
Retort
Solids
Liquids
Oil/Synthetic
Water
Sand Content
Methylene Blue Test (CEC)
Density
Drilling Fluid Tests - Solids Analysis
SOLIDS CONTENT
Measure of the amount and
type of solids present in the
fluid.
Retort of fluid to determine the
amount of fluid and solids
present.
SOLIDS INDICATORS
High fluid loss
Excessive wall cake
Increase in flow properties (PV
& GELS)
Increase in Density
Drilling Fluid Tests - Solids Analysis
Sand Content
Measure of the amount of
solids greater than 74 microns
in size.
Sand Content Tube is used.
Sand Indicators
High fluid loss
Excessive/poor quality wall
cake
Increase in flow properties (PV
& GELS)
Abrasion of tools occurring
Drilling Fluid Tests - Solids Analysis
Methylene Blue Test
Determination of the bentonite
equivalent in a drilling fluid.
Titration using Methylene Blue Solution
MBT Indicators
Improper bentonite additions
High concentration of bentonite
equivalent, due to shales
presence
Rheological problems (increased PV,
YP, Gels)
Drilling Fluid Tests Drilling Fluid Tests - - Chemistry Chemistry
pH pH
Alkalinity Alkalinity
Dissolved Solids (Chlorides and Hardness) Dissolved Solids (Chlorides and Hardness)
Salt Salt
Calcium Calcium
Magnesium Magnesium
Special Tests Special Tests
pH Measurement pH Measurement
Colorimetric pHydrion Paper
Electrometric pH meter
pH Indicators
Improper caustic/lime additions
Rheological problems (increased PV, YP, Gels)
Influx of acid gases
pH - the measure of the concentration of Hydrogen ions.
pH Control Concerns
Formations may be sensitive to high pH.
Products (esp. polymers) may be sensitive to pH.
Safety - Rig Personnel
Solubilize Solubilize / Activate Organic / Activate Organic
Decrease corrosion rates Decrease corrosion rates
Improves tolerance of contaminants Improves tolerance of contaminants
Salt Salt
Calcium Calcium
Carbonates Carbonates
Acid Gases Acid Gases
Drilling Fluid Tests - Chemistry
Alkalinity
Determination of the
maximum equivalent
numbers of an acid
which can react with a base
and form a salt.
Titration with acid to a
certain end point.
Alkalinity Indicators
Influx of acid gases
Improper chemical
additions
Drilling Fluid Tests - Chemistry
Salt Content
Chlorides
Hardness
Calcium
Magnesium
Special Titrations
Potassium
Sulfites
Polymers
Clays and Shales
What are they and What changes do they produce?
API Definition
those particles that are two microns or less in size.
Definitions
Clay
Mineral
Argillaceous sediment still in plastic state due to high water
content -30-70%.
Shale
Rock fine grained, fissile, composed mainly of silt and clay
particles. Degree of preferred orientation.
Classifying Clays
Physical Properties
Chemical & Mineral Properties
Particle Size
Structure
Reactivity in Water Swelling/Non-Swelling
Clays Types
Layered Clays
Smectite (Montmorillonite)
Illite
Kaolinite
Chlorites
Vermiculites
Mixed Layer Clays
Chain Type Clays
Attapulgite
Sepiolite
Montmorillonite Structure Basic Crystal
Silica
Tetrahedron
Silica
Tetrahedron
Alumina
Octahedron
Unit Layer
Basal Plane
(Na,Ca,Mg,etc.,&H
2
O)
- - - - -
- - - - -
Silica
Tetrahedron
Silica
Tetrahedron
Alumina
Octahedron
Unit Layer
Basal Plane
(Na,Ca,Mg,etc.,&H
2
O)
- - - - -
- - - - -
Clay Types
Smectite
The least stable
Most susceptible to hydration
Most susceptible to diagenetic alteration
Montmorillonite and Bentonite
Clay Swelling Mechanisms
Surface Hydration
results from adsorption of water on the basal surfaces (external
and internal).
Osmotic Swelling
Occurs because the concentration of cations between layers is
greater than bulk solution, drying water between the layers.
No semi-permeable membrane is involved
Causes a large increase in bulk volume.
Chemical/Physical Processes
Shale Hydration Swelling / Dispersion of Shale
Consequences:
Bit Balling
Mud Rings / Gumbo Attacks
Hole Washout
Elliptical Wellbores
Increased Solids Content in the Fluids
Tight Hole
Stuck Pipe
States of Clays
Aggregation
- Clay platelets are stacked parallel to each other
- Exists when not hydrated
Dispersion
- Occurs when the clay platelets separate
Aggregated or dispersed clays can undergo
flocculation or deflocculation
Clay Particle Association
DEFLOCCULATION
AGGREGATION
(FACE TO FACE)
DISPERSION
FLOCCULATION
(EDGE TO FACE) (EDGE TO EDGE
Water Base Mud Types
Spud Muds / Lightly Treated Systems
Vary in make up water and composition
Typically unweighted
Flocculated
Require good hole cleaning characteristics
Fluid loss usually not required
Spud Muds - Components
FRESH WATER
MILGEL 20-25 ppb
MIL-LIME 1-2 ppb
SUPER-COL 10-12 ppb
Soda Ash as needed to soften water
MIL-BAR as needed for slugs or weight maintenance
SEA WATER
MILGEL Prehydrate 30-40 ppb in fresh water and mix
50/50 with seawater
Caustic 0.5-1.0 ppb
MIL-LIME 0.5-1.5 ppb
MIL-BAR as needed for slugs or weight maintenance
PHPA Systems -- NEW-DRILL
Benefits
Effective on many shales.
Works with many other mud
systems.
Environmentally safe.
Low pH.
Very good lubricity and hole
conditioning.
Guidelines
Really good solids control
needed.
pH control important.
Calcium control important.
Cement contamination very
damaging.
Polymer Muds
PAC or Starch
Xamplex D / Kelzan XCD
Low solids, Acid soluble
Able to control fluid loss & viscosity
Other Products
1. Weighting agents
Barite - BaSO
4
(S.G. - 4.2)
Calcium carbonate - CaCO
3
(S.G. - 2.8)
Hematite - Fe
2
O
3
(S.G. - 5.3)
2. LCM Agents
Fibers - sawdust, kwikseal
Flakes - cellophane, mica
Carbonates
Silicates
Many other agents
Other Products
3. Deflocculant/Thinners
lower fluid loss - 1 function
viscosity of bentonite fluids
low cost additives
4. PHPA (Mud system)
wellbore coating of shales
borehole stability additive
acid insoluble forms gunk
Other Products
5. Lubricants
Either water soluble/dispersible or beads
s/d additives - oil + surfactants
Used for torque/drag
Two-Phase Glycols - Characteristics
Absorb onto clay surfaces (surfactant)
Becomes insoluble with temperature increase.
Cloud Point
Coats cuttings to inhibit swelling/dispersion
Plugs pores in shale formations to prevent pressure transfer
Down hole the Glycol
forms droplets which coat
out on wellbore and
cuttings
As temperature decreases the Glycol
goes below its cloud point and
becomes miscible in solution again.
Cloud Point Application
Below Cloud Point
Soluble glycol enters pores,
warms up, and clouds out.
The glycol droplets prevent further
fluid invasion into the formation.
Above Cloud Point
Emulsion droplets block pores
Glycol around and in cuttings
inhibits their dispersion.
Lubricity improved.
Lignosulfonate Chemistry
Derived from the waste by-products of
the production of cellulose pulp from
wood, to make paper.
Organic Acid
Polymer
Rheological Control
Inhibition of Clays
Emulsification of Oil
Uses of Lignosulfonate
Lignosulfonate Systems - Components
Bentonite 12-20 ppb
Lignosulfonate 2-8 ppb
Caustic Soda pH 10.0 - 10.5
Lignite 2-6 ppb
Wt. Material As Needed
Lignosulfonate Systems - Limitations
Limited Inhibition due to:
High pH
High concentration level required
Solids Buildup Causes:
Rheology Control
Slow Penetration Rates
Environmental Considerations - Chrome
Potential for Formation Damage
Highly Dispersive system (pH and Lignosulfonate)
What is What is Rheology Rheology? ?
Rheology is the science of fluid flow as influenced by time,
velocity, temperature and pressure.
The Drilling Fluids The Drilling Fluids Rheology Rheology afects afects : :
Fluid flow profile Fluid flow profile
Slip Velocity Slip Velocity
Viscosity Viscosity
Hole cleaning ability ( carrying capacity) Hole cleaning ability ( carrying capacity)
Flow Regime, and the Flow Regime, and the
Annular hydraulics. Annular hydraulics.
Fluid Fluid Rheology Rheology also affects the suspending also affects the suspending
characteristics of the Drilling Fluid. characteristics of the Drilling Fluid.
Basic Terms
Shear stress () is stress resulting from force applied to two
moving side-by-side bodies.
= Force/area
Unit of is Pa (SI) or lb/100ft2 (Imperial).
Shear stress originates from breakage of intermolecular or
interparticulate bonds.
Shear rate () is velocity gradient of bodies sliding by each
other.
Shear Rate Meaning?
V
V=0
Bob
V
In the Fig.
In the Viscometer

= Velocity / distance

= ?
Rheologycal Models
Models used to predict flow characteristics/viscosity at various
shear rates.
Plots are invariably shear stress () vs. shear rate ().
Models used include:
Newtonian.
Bingham Plastic.
Power Law.
Modified Power Law.
Power Law with stress.
Casson Model.
Ellis Model.
Rheological Models
The Newtonian Model
The ratio of the SHEAR STRESS to SHEAR RATE is
constant. ( / / = = ) )
We call this constant the VISCOSITY.
All gasses (at ambient temperature and pressure) and most
simple fluids exhibit NEWTONIAN behavior.
Water is a NEWTONIAN fluid.
Any fluid that does not have this constant ratio is called a
NON-NEWTONIAN fluid.
Non Non- -Newtonian Fluids Newtonian Fluids
A Non A Non- -Newtonian fluid is basically any fluid that does not Newtonian fluid is basically any fluid that does not
behave in a manner similar to a Newtonian fluid. behave in a manner similar to a Newtonian fluid.
Examples: Examples:
paint paint
cream cream
printing ink printing ink
Virtually all Drilling Fluids Virtually all Drilling Fluids. .
They contain solid particles of various sizes that form a They contain solid particles of various sizes that form a
structure resistant to flow. structure resistant to flow.
When sufficient force is applied the structure When sufficient force is applied the structure yields yields and and
begins to move. begins to move.
Bingham Plastic Model
Used extensively to describe mud rheology.
Model has moderate accuracy but simple to use.
Bingham model is dependant upon drilled solids concentration
and size as well as particle interactions.
= YP + PV()
Requires two measurements of at two , commonly 600
and 300 rpm.
2
The n Value indicate the flux behavior
and describe the fluids thinner
tendency and coul control the flux
distribution in the excentricity drill pipe
case
Which model? Which model?
API uses Power Law. API uses Power Law.
Most operators are familiar with the Power Law model. Most operators are familiar with the Power Law model.
Baker Hughes Drilling Fluids hydraulics analysis Baker Hughes Drilling Fluids hydraulics analysis
programs enable calculations to be made with programs enable calculations to be made with
Power Law Power Law
Robertson Robertson- -Stiff Stiff
Herschel Herschel- -Bulkley Bulkley models. models.
The ADVANTAGE software determines the best fit and The ADVANTAGE software determines the best fit and
allows you to choose. allows you to choose.
Fluid Fluid Rheology Rheology
Common Rheological Values Common Rheological Values
Funnel Viscosity Funnel Viscosity
Plastic Viscosity Plastic Viscosity
Yield Point Yield Point
Gel Strength Gel Strength
Bob
Plastic Viscosity Plastic Viscosity
PLASTIC VISCOSITY = 600 Reading PLASTIC VISCOSITY = 600 Reading - - 300 Reading 300 Reading
Plastic Viscosity is a measurement of the size, shape and Plastic Viscosity is a measurement of the size, shape and
concentration of the solids in the mud and the viscosity of the concentration of the solids in the mud and the viscosity of the
fluid phase. fluid phase.
Effected by Solids: Effected by Solids:
Size Distribution Size Distribution
Shape Shape
Concentration Concentration
Effected by Fluid Phase Viscosity. Effected by Fluid Phase Viscosity.
Yield Point - Definitions
YP = 300 RPM Rdg - Plastic Viscosity.
Yield Point is a measurement of the Yield Point is a measurement of the
chemical and electro chemical and electro- -chemical charge chemical charge
attractions of the solids and explain us the attractions of the solids and explain us the
force /area required to start the flux. force /area required to start the flux.
A Measure of Flocculation.
Gives some indication of the hole cleaning
ability of the fluid, when the fluid is in
motion.
Gel Strength Gel Strength - - Definition Definition
Attraction between solids under static conditions Attraction between solids under static conditions. .
Closely related to Yield Point. Closely related to Yield Point.
An Indication of Low Shear Rate Rheologic Properties.
Too low may cause:
Settling Barite and/or Cuttings
Cutting Beds Buildup
Too high may cause:
Pressure Surges
Swabbing
Types: Types:
Fragile or Flat Fragile or Flat
Progressive or Elevated Progressive or Elevated
What is Hole Cleaning
The effective The effective transport and removal transport and removal of drilled cuttings of drilled cuttings
from the from the wellbore wellbore. .
Velocity
Density
Pipe Rotation
Hole Angle
The Result of Poor Hole Cleaning? The Result of Poor Hole Cleaning?
Hole Problems! Hole Problems!
Stuck Pipe. Stuck Pipe.
High Torque. High Torque.
Drag. Drag.
Tight Connections Tight Connections. .
Other Problems! Other Problems!
Increasing solids in the drilling Increasing solids in the drilling
fluid.( fluid.( Difficulties to control the Difficulties to control the
rheology rheology) )
Increased Costs. Increased Costs.
Solids Solids Control Control Equipment Equipment Sequence Sequence
1/2 inch x 1/2 inch x 1/2 inch 1/2 inch x 1/2 inch x 1/2 inch
1/4 inch x 1/4 inch x 1/4 inch 1/4 inch x 1/4 inch x 1/4 inch
1 inch x 1 inch x 1 inch 1 inch x 1 inch x 1 inch
Poor Hole Cleaning and fines dispersion
Typical Surface Adsorption Problems
Bit Balling Bit Balling
Mud Rings/ Gumbo Attacks Mud Rings/ Gumbo Attacks
Hole Washout Hole Washout
Elliptical Elliptical Wellbores Wellbores
Increased Solids Content Increased Solids Content
Tight Hole Tight Hole
Stuck Pipe Stuck Pipe
Tricks To Improve Hole Cleaning
Theoretically, turbulent flow is best for hole cleaning Theoretically, turbulent flow is best for hole cleaning
Low viscosity Sweeps, followed by high viscosity sweeps Low viscosity Sweeps, followed by high viscosity sweeps
Low viscosity induces turbulence and erosion of bed Low viscosity induces turbulence and erosion of bed
High viscosity High viscosity- -laminar removal of dispersed cuttings laminar removal of dispersed cuttings
Periodic short trips Periodic short trips
Recommend every 1000 feet of new hole drilled Recommend every 1000 feet of new hole drilled
Control rate of penetration Control rate of penetration
Keep annular cuttings concentration < 5 % by volume Keep annular cuttings concentration < 5 % by volume
Rotate Pipe Rotate Pipe
Velocity
Gradient
No
Rotation
Rotating
Torque
Effect
Centrifugal
Effect
Drill String Rotation & Cuttings Transport Drill String Rotation & Cuttings Transport
Factors Affecting HOLE CLEANING Factors Affecting HOLE CLEANING
Controllable Variables Controllable Variables
Flow rate Flow rate
Rate of Penetration Rate of Penetration
Fluid Fluid Rheology Rheology
Flow Regime Flow Regime
Fluid Density Fluid Density
Hole Angle Hole Angle
Hole Size Hole Size
String Rotation String Rotation
Uncontrollable Variables Uncontrollable Variables
Drill String Eccentricity Drill String Eccentricity
Cuttings Density Cuttings Density
Cuttings Size Cuttings Size
Drill String
FLOW RATE FLOW RATE - - Volume Unit/ Time Unit Volume Unit/ Time Unit
The drilling fluid must be circulated at a Flow Rate sufficient The drilling fluid must be circulated at a Flow Rate sufficient
to lift, suspend and remove drilled cuttings from the well to lift, suspend and remove drilled cuttings from the well
bore. bore.
Limiting Factors: Limiting Factors:
Rheology Rheology
Pump Pressure Pump Pressure
Flow Regime Flow Regime
RATE OF PENETRATION RATE OF PENETRATION
The The Rate of Penetration Rate of Penetration, , in combination with the Flow Rate, in combination with the Flow Rate,
directly affects the directly affects the Annular Cuttings Concentration. Annular Cuttings Concentration.
Limiting Factors: Limiting Factors:
The The Annular Cuttings Concentration Annular Cuttings Concentration cannot be allowed cannot be allowed
to exceed the ability of the to exceed the ability of the Flow Rate Flow Rate to clean the hole. to clean the hole.
A generally accepted maximum Annular Cuttings A generally accepted maximum Annular Cuttings
Concentration is around 4%. Concentration is around 4%.
Advantage Hole Cleaning Software Advantage Hole Cleaning Software
Wellbore Wellbore Stability (ALPLEX) Stability (ALPLEX)
Aluminum Aluminum Chemistry Chemistry
Shales Shales Inhibition (CLAY Inhibition (CLAY- -TROL) TROL)
Clays Clays Encapsulation Encapsulation
Semipermeable Semipermeable Membrane Membrane
Preventing swelling Preventing swelling cutttings cutttings
Metal Wettings ( Metal Wettings (Penetrex Penetrex L) L)
Bit balling Bit balling Preventor Preventor
Decrease the Decrease the torq torq and raise the Lubricity and raise the Lubricity
Friendly with the Friendly with the Enviroment Enviroment
BAKER HUGHES DRILLING FLUIDS
Polymer / Alplex / Clay - Trol
Aluminum Complex for a greater shale stabilization
ALPLEX
Argillaceous Formation
Argillaceous Formation
Hollow Protected with Al(OH)3
Covering with
Al(OH)3
produced by the
precipitated one
in the porales
throats.
Precipitated of
Al(OH)3 in
Microfracturas
Al(OH)4- ; pH > 10.3
Al(OH)3 ; pH < 10.3
P
1
P
2
Fluids Fluids
Entrance Entrance
P
1
> P
2
Conventional Conventional
Polymer Fluid Polymer Fluid
P
2
P
1
P
1
P
2
P
1
> P
2
Aluminum Aluminum
Complex Complex
P
2
P
1
Fracture Fracture
Propagation Propagation
Precipitates Precipitates
Fluids Fluids
Entrance Entrance
The aluminum complexes are in
solution to greater values of pH of 10
and minors of 3
They form precipitated of Aluminum to
intermediate values of pH
The precipitations happen in pores of
clays and micro fractures to the contact
with the innate water
Stabilization of the walls of the well
when sealing micro fractures within the
Shales, originating an organic layer in
the wall of the well
Sealing mechanism of the Aluminum Complex Sealing mechanism of the Aluminum Complex
Shale
sample
Fluid
in
Fluid out
Fluid flow as a
result of
pressure
transmission
P
w
P
F
t
0
t
P
w
> P
F
P
w
> P
F
P
w
= P
F
good fluid
bad fluid
Pore Pressure Transmission Tester
Measures the rate which pore pressure is transmitted from the
drilling fluid through the shale.
Wellbore Formation
Pore Transmition
Hours
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

(
p
s
i
)
0
50
100
150
200
300
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
2 2 - - 3% Salt Water 3% Salt Water
20% Solucin NaCl
80/20 Sintetic / 20% CaCl2
20% NaCl - Polymer
Aluminum Complex + Amphoteric Amine
pf -pw
Negative, GF
Positive, BF
Mixture of Primary, secondary and cyclical Primary, secondary and cyclical anphoteric anphoteric amines amines
It contains both basic groups ("+") and (" It contains both basic groups ("+") and ("- -") ")
Suppressor of Suppressor of hidratability hidratability and soluble water dispersion. and soluble water dispersion.
It can be used in fresh or salty water It can be used in fresh or salty water muds muds and is environmentally safe. and is environmentally safe.
R - N - CH CH C - OH
2 2
H O
H
R - N - CH CH C - O
2 2
O
H
Cationic: Floculants
Anionic: No adsorbents
R - N - CH CH C - O
2 2
H O
H
CLAYTROL : CLAYTROL : Anphoteric Anphoteric Amines Amines
It incorporates a unique mixture of organic ingredients, with
superficial activity, that increase the rate of penetration without
affecting negatively the environmental acceptance of the water
base mud
Aluminum Complex / Surfactant Conventional Polymer Mud
PENETREX L: PENETREX L: Surfactant Surfactant
Prevent infiltration water between the cuttings Prevent infiltration water between the cuttings
Minimize adding of fines at the cutter Minimize adding of fines at the cutter
Moisturize the Bit, BHA, Drill String and Cuttings, Moisturize the Bit, BHA, Drill String and Cuttings,
that reduce torque and drag that reduce torque and drag
Optimize polished cutter bit performance in non Optimize polished cutter bit performance in non- -
dispersed, polymer fluids dispersed, polymer fluids
Incorporates a unique blend of organic, surface Incorporates a unique blend of organic, surface- -active active
ingredients to increase ROP without impacting a ingredients to increase ROP without impacting a
water water- -base fluid base fluid s environmental acceptability s environmental acceptability
Penetrex L Film between
the cuttings
Coating with surfactant,
prevents the water
absorption
Prevention of cuttings accretion Prevention of cuttings accretion
It avoids the agglomeration of cuttings
Prevents the overload with cuttings in annulus
Drilling Cuttings Drilling Cuttings
What is a Drill What is a Drill- -In Fluid? In Fluid?
Basic design criteria combine:
Drilling mud properties.
Completion fluid properties.
Desired results:
Trouble-free drilling in production sands.
Simplified clean-up & completion.
Maximize reservoir production.
Formaci Formaci n n Revoque Revoque
Pore Plugging (Particle Invasion)
Pore Bridging with Sized CaCO
3
Good Bridge -
Pore
Invasion -
Pore
Simple formulation
Carbonato de calcio dolomtico
metamorfizado de amplio espectro
Thin and dispersal Cake
Applicable in different permeability ranks
Acid soluble components
Design in accordance to needs
No formation damage
Back Flow
Applicable in over balance and balance
conditions
Simple formulation Simple formulation
Carbonato de calcio dolom Carbonato de calcio dolom tico tico
metamorfizado de amplio espectro metamorfizado de amplio espectro
Thin and dispersal Cake Thin and dispersal Cake
Applicable in different permeability ranks Applicable in different permeability ranks
Acid soluble components Acid soluble components
Design in accordance to needs Design in accordance to needs
No formation damage No formation damage
Back Flow Back Flow
Applicable in over balance and balance Applicable in over balance and balance
conditions conditions
Characteristics Characteristics
CaCO
3
Dolomtico - Series
Producto d50, m Rango m
CaCO
3
Dol. 13 -17 0 - 200
CaCO
3
Dol - 5 5 - 7 0 - 50
CaCO
3
Dol - 25 20 - 30 0 - 150
CaCO
3
Dol - 50 40 - 55 0 - 400
CaCO
3
Dol - 150 150 - 200 0 - 600
CaCO
3
Dol - 450 450 - 500 0 - 1,200

0
20
40
60
80
100
Particle Size,
Percent Less Than Percent Less Than
1 1.5 2 3 4 6 8 12 16 24 32 48 64 96 1 28 192
0
20
40
60
80
100
Particle Size,
Percent Less Than Percent Less Than
1 1.5 2 3 4 6 8 12 16 24 32 48 64 96 1 28 192
Design the drill-in fluid in accordance
to the field conditions
.- Select the right seal particles size
.- Select enough of them
(concentration)
.- Form an internal thin plaster
Adequate displace process
.- Remove complete the Drill-In fluid
out of the hole
.- Remove the external plaster (static)
.- Replace with clean brine (filtrated)
Design Design the drill the drill- -in fluid in accordance in fluid in accordance
to the field conditions to the field conditions
. .- - Select the right seal particles size Select the right seal particles size
. .- - Select enough of them Select enough of them
(concentration) (concentration)
. .- - Form an internal thin plaster Form an internal thin plaster
Adequate displace process Adequate displace process
. .- - Remove complete the Drill Remove complete the Drill- -In fluid In fluid
out of the hole out of the hole
. .- - Remove the external plaster (static) Remove the external plaster (static)
. .- - Replace with clean brine (filtrated) Replace with clean brine (filtrated)
Keys to Increment Productivity
Keys to Increment Productivity
Select bridging rule:
Select Pore Size:
Pore SizeD-90 89 microns
Mean Pore Size 35 micons
Pore Size D-10 2 micons
Bridging material concentration: 50 ppb
Select PSD Data to be used:
Calculation method:
Select products below to be used Need to add 0.0
Try these ppb Product % ppb ppb
MILCARB 25 50 MILCARB 100% 50
NA 0% 0
Select a 3rd product if desired NA 0% 0 0.0
Total 50.0
D- 90 75 50 25 10
Target Particle size 89.0 23.3 11.6 5.0 2.0
Result of product mix 104.3 61.5 13.7 4.8 1.9
Variance 15 38 2 (0) (0)
Sum of Variance 56
Pore Size or Fracture Width
Vickers Method: ABZ Lab
MILCARB
Required and Resultant PSD
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
0 50 100 150 200
Particle Size [microns]
C
u
m
m
u
l
a
t
i
v
e

V
o
l
u
m
e

[
%
]
Target
Product mix
MILCARB Series
Input Graphics
Targets & Results
Loss Circulation
Bridging
User defined PSD's Help Start
Calculator to determine concentration mix
Optimal Bridging Particle Optimal Bridging Particle
Formation
Internal Thin
Cake
300 f/min 300 f/min
External External
Cake Cake
Drilling Fluids and Drilling Fluids and
Solids Solids
Displace by brine with high
circulation rates causes
excessive lost? True or False
Displace by brine with high Displace by brine with high
circulation rates causes circulation rates causes
excessive lost? True or False excessive lost? True or False
False the primary cake
(internal) stays in its
place if it maintain 500
psi of over balance in
the well face at every
moment
False False the primary cake the primary cake
(internal) stays in its (internal) stays in its
place if it maintain 500 place if it maintain 500
psi psi of over balance in of over balance in
the well face the well face at every at every
moment moment
Running liner eram and
remove the cake? True or
False
Running liner Running liner eram eram and and
remove the cake? True or remove the cake? True or
False False
False No, if it is design
correctly, the seal
material (CaCO
3
) form a
thin internal cake
False False No, if it is design No, if it is design
correctly, the seal correctly, the seal
material (CaCO material (CaCO
3 3
) form a ) form a
thin internal cake thin internal cake
Wrong Common Concepts
Wrong Common Concepts Wrong Common Concepts