Sone FvoIIens oJ Fve-Bavoque AnaI¸sis· An Exaninalion oJ Josquin's 'Ave Mavia...

Vivgo
Sevena'
AulIov|s)· CvislIe CoIIins Judd
Souvce· Music AnaI¸sis, VoI. 4, No. 3 |Ocl., 1985), pp. 201-227÷229-239
FuIIisIed I¸· WiIe¸
SlaIIe UBL· http://www.jstor.org/stable/854096 .
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CBISTLE COLLINS
JUBB
SOME FBOBLEMS OF
FBE-BABOQUE
ANALYSIS·
AN E7AMINATION OF
JOSQUIN'S
AVE MABIA
. . .
VIBOO SEBENA
In lIe
anaI¸sis
oJ
pve-Bavoque nusic,
lecInicaI
slud¸
Ias
usuaII¸
invoIved one
oJ lvo
appvoacIes· descviplive-IislovicaI anaI¸sis
ov exaninalion vilI veJevence
lo lonaI slvucluve. TIe Jivsl
appvoacI allenpls
lo discuss vovIs in
conlenpov-
aneous levns and Jocuses on
conposilions
as IislovicaI
docunenls, deening
olIev nelIods oJ discussion 'anacIvonislic' and lIeveJove
inappvopviale.'
TIe
second connon
appvoacI
vesuIls Jvon a
leIeoIogicaI pevspeclive
oJ lIe
Iislov¸
oJ nusic· lIe nusic is exanined in levns oJ ils
posilion
as a
pvecuvsov
oJ
sevenleenlI- and
eigIleenlI-cenluv¸ lonaIil¸.2
TIis avlicIe exanines Jealuves oJ a
pve-Bavoque conposilion
vIicI cveale
IolI
diJJicuIl¸
and
conlvovevs¸
in lIe discussion oJ nusic
anaI¸sis.
TIe
anaI¸licaI
nelIod
pvoposed
Ieve does nol discavd lIe
inpovlanl
issues oJ
IislovicaI ov lonaI
appvoacIes,
Iul considevs lIen in a diJJevenl conlexl.

concevn is lo veIale nelIods oJ
discussing
nusic vIicI ave
incveasingI¸
vieved
as
excIusiveI¸
IislovicaI ov
excIusiveI¸ anaI¸licaI.
HislovicaI
descviplion
and
anaI¸sis
vIen laIen
sepavaleI¸ na¸ pvovide
an unIaIanced
pevspeclive
oJ lIe
nusic: cevlainI¸
as
vegavds
lIe nusic oJ lIe
Benaissance,
il is
onI¸ lIvougI
lIe
Ivoadesl
possiIIe
viev lIal
convincing anaI¸ses
ave lo Ie oIlained. TIe
anaI¸sis
pvesenled
Ieve
expIoves
lIe
appIicaIiIil¸
oJ
exisling lecIniques
lo lIis
vepevlov¸, suggesls
nodiJicalions oJ lIese
lecIniques
and
pvoposes
a
s¸slenalic
nelIod Jov lIe
appIicalion
oJ
aspecls
oJ Benaissance
lIeov¸
in an
anaI¸licaI,
as
veII as a
descviplive,
conlexl. TIe
puvpose
is lIveeJoId· lo oIlain a
'peviod'
undevslanding
oJ lIe vovI and Jvon lIis JovnuIale
anaI¸licaI
looIs Iased on
conlenpovaneous
lIeovelicaI
concepls,
lo exanine lIe nusicaI
oIjecl
and lo
pIace
lIe vovI in ils Ivoadev IislovicaI and
sl¸Iislic
conlexl. Five
aspecls
oJ
anaI¸sis
ave
expIoved· lexl, node,
avlicuIalion oJ
slvucluve, pilcI ovganizalion
and lonaI slvucluve. WIiIe il is
inpossiIIe
Jov sucI
calegovies
lo venain
nuluaII¸ excIusive,
lIese dislinclions ave useJuI Jov
deJining nelIodoIog¸.
TIe Jive concevns oJ lIis
anaI¸licaI
nelIod exisl in a
speciaI veIalionsIip.
TIe
Jivsl
lvo,
lexl and
node, enconpass genevaI
considevalions vIicI Iave Jav-
veacIing inpIicalions
Jov lIe olIev
anaI¸licaI aspecls
oJ
slvucluvaI,
neIodic and
MUSIC
ANALYSIS
4·3,
1985 201
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CBISTLE COLLINS
JUBB
lonaI
ovganizalion.
Texl and nodaI
lIeov¸ na¸
Ie undevslood as Iound
up
vilI
lIe Iunanisl and nusicaI cuIluve oJ lIe
peviod,
vIiIe
anaI¸sis
oJ slvucluve
|IolI
oJ lexl and
nusic) vepvesenls
oIsevvalion
apavl
Jvon nusicaI ov cuIluvaI
conlexl.3
M¸ anaI¸licaI
nelIod Jocuses on lIe covveIalion oJ lIese considev-
alions in lIe nusic oJ
Josquin. Hence,
lexl and node ave discussed Jivsl as
genevaI
lIeovelicaI issues and lIen nove
speciJicaII¸
as
lIe¸
veIale lo slvucluvaI
concevns. One
nolel,
Ave Mavia
... vivgo sevena,
Ias Ieen cIosen as a
sanpIe
vovI
lIvougI
vIicI lo denonslvale lIis
anaI¸licaI appvoacI.4
An
undevslanding
oJ lIe nusicaI eIenenls and conlexl oJ a vovI
na¸
Ie
oIlained
lIvougI
an
invesligalion
oJ lIe
ovganizalionaI pvincipIes
and
conposi-
lionaI
pvoceduves
vIicI
na¸
Iave inJIuenced
il.5 Concepls
discussed in
conlenpovaneous
lIeovelicaI lvealises ave a useJuI
slavling poinl
Jov
deveIoping
an
anaI¸licaI
nelIod Jov nusic Jvon aIoul 1500. WIiIe
InovIedge
oJ
Benaissance nusic
lIeov¸
is essenliaI in
souvce-slud¸,6
Jouv
inpovlanl aspecls
oJ sucI
lIeov¸ na¸
JuvlIev sevve as lIe souvce oJ an
anaI¸licaI
nelIod -
node,
counlevpoinl,
cadence and inilalion. Exaninalion oJ lIese
aspecls
can
pvovide
sonelIing
aIin lo a
sixleenlI-cenluv¸ pevspeclive
oJ a vovI and oJ
conposi-
lionaI
pvaclice,
and lIeveJove
guideIines
Jov lIis
aspecl
oJ
anaI¸sis.
1. Mode7
An
undevslanding
oJ nodaI 'aJJecl' is a
pvinav¸
considevalion in an
anaI¸sis
invoIving
lIe
veIalionsIip
oJ lexl and
nusic.8
ModaI aJJecl vas nol
sinpI¸
an
aIslvacl
pvecepl:
il vas a convenlion undevslood and
pvaclised
in
vav¸ing
degvees I¸
lIe
conposevs
oJ lIe
peviod.
WIiIe cIoice oJ lexl did nol delevnine
lIe exacl cIoice oJ
node,
il did excIude cevlain
possiIiIilies:
lIe cIoice oJ node
veJIecled lIe
pavlicuIav aspecl|s)
oJ lIe lexl vIicI lIe
conposev
cIose lo
enpIasize.
An avaveness oJ lIe use oJ node Jov
lexl-expvession na¸
veveaI lIe
Iavge-scaIe
slvucluve oJ a vovI.9 Mode is an
essenliaII¸
neIodic
concepl,
and lIe
cIavaclevislics oJ individuaI nodes
pvovide
a Iasis Jov nolivic
anaI¸sis.
ModaI
and IexacIovdaI lIeovies
na¸
aIso Ie used in Iineav-neIodic
anaI¸sis.
EacI oJ
lIe
eigIl
nodes is
individuaII¸
cIavaclevized and lIeveJove delevnines lIe
speciJic
naluve oJ sucI
anaI¸sis.
EacI node vas idenliJied

a
species
oJ oclave vIicI
vepvesenled
lIe
conjunclion
oJ a
species
oJ JouvlI vilI a
species
oJ JiJlI. A
speciJic
JouvlI ov JiJlI
descviIed an inlevvaI as veII as lIe noles conlained vilIin
il, veJIecling
an
innediale
veIalionsIip
oJ node and IexacIovdaI soInizalion. EacI node vas
deJined

ils
vange, vepevcussion, veciling lone,
JinaI and cIavaclevislic
neIodic
pallevns.
TIese
deJining
cIavaclevislics
pvovide
a
IievavcI¸
oJ
pilcIes
and
pallevns
vilIin lIe node and lIeveJove a neIodic
pvoJiIe
vIicI vavies vilI
eacI node. TIe dislinclion oJ
pIagaI
and aulIenlic nodes vas nol
neveI¸
a
lIeovelicaI
one,
Iul delevnined lIe ovevaII
vange
oJ lIe
conposilion
and lIe
veIalionsIip
Ielveen
voices,
as veII as
veJIecling pavlicuIav
lexluaI concevns oJ
lIe
conposev.IO
Ave Mavia
... vivgo
sevena
na¸
Ie used as a
speciJic exanpIe
oJ lIe
necessil¸
oJ
consideving
nodaI
lIeov¸
in
anaI¸sis.
TIis nolel is in Mode
VI, aIlIougI
202 MUSIC
ANALYSIS 4·3,
1985
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SOME FBOBLEMS OF
FBE-BABOQUE
ANALYSIS
JvequenlI¸
ciled as an
exanpIe
oJ lIe
Ionian
node.
¨
In lIe
eigIl-node s¸slen,
lIe
L¸dian
node on F
usuaII¸
incIuded a
'Ie¸ signaluve'
oJ one JIal. WIen
lvansposed,
Modes V and VI ave oJlen Jound on C
|a
JouvlI IeIov lIe novnaI
Iocalion)
vilI lIe JIal
canceIIed,
valIev lIan a JouvlI aIove vilI an added JIal lo
signiJ¸ lvansposilion.12
WIiIe lIe vocaI
vanges
oJ Ave
Mavia
do nol conJovn
exaclI¸
lo lIe lIeovelicaI
vanges
oJ Mode
VI,
lIe
vanges
sIovn in Ex.
1
pIace
lIe
nolel in lIis
calegov¸
and lIe
span
oJ lIe oclave
species
is
cIeavI¸
oulIined in lIe
aIlus
|Is 134-7)·
Ex.1
Bange
B A T
B
A A
TIcoivclicaIIF
Ave
Aavia'a
- . .
1
I 7.21J IV I .
?
-
I4

-|-)-4,1
|419
|-0Fv
TIe IexacIovdaI slvucluve Jov lIe
lvansposed
node on C is sIovn in
Fig.

Fig.
1· HexacIovdaI Slvucluve
|JouvlI)
O A B C B E
ul ve ni Ja soI Ia
C B E F O
|JiJlI)
ul
ve ni Ja
soI
|vepevcussion)
TIe
pvinav¸
cadence lones ave lIe JinaI
|C)
and lIe JiJlI
|O).
TIe lIivd
degvee
|E)
is oJlen used lo slvess lIe
vepevcussion.
A connon neIodic
l¸pe
in Mode VI
is lIe conIinalion oJ lIe
vepevcussion
vilI lIe nodaI JouvlI. TIis neIodic
naleviaI is used
lIvougIoul
Ave Mavia
|see,
Jov
exanpIe,
lIe
opening poinl
oJ
inilalion,
Is
1-4).
TIese
genevaI
oIsevvalions aIoul cadenliaI and neIodic
naleviaI in Ave Mavia viII Ie discussed in JuvlIev delaiI in lIe slvucluvaI
anaI¸sis
oJ lIe vovI.
2. Texl
Texl is
especiaII¸ inpovlanl
in lIe
nolel,
a
genve
in vIicI lIe
conposev
Iad
sone Jveedon in ils
cIoice,
and
sixleenlI-cenluv¸
lIeovisls
pIaced gveal
enpIasis
on lIe voIe oJ sacved vocaI nusic as a neans oJ
enIancing
lIe lexl sel.
TIeovisls'
conposilionaI
vuIes
pvovide guideIines
Jov
exanining
lIe veIalion-
sIip
oJ lexl and nusic· lIe cIoice oJ
node
sIouId Ie
appvopviale
lo lIe
lexl:
MUSIC
ANALYSIS
4·3,
1985 203
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CBISTLE COLLINS
JUBB
cadences sIouId veJIecl
speciaI
lexluaI
neaning
and
slvucluve:
lIe nusicaI
lexluve sIouId veJIecl
speciaI
lexluaI Jealuves.
AddilionaII¸,
lIe souvce oJ a lexl
and ils
IiluvgicaI
ov
non-IiluvgicaI
Junclion
na¸
Ie veIaled lo exlva-nusicaI ov
s¸nIoIic
associalions and
pavlicuIav
nusicaI
Iovvovings.
SpeciJic
devices used
I¸ conposevs
in lIe sevvice oJ
lexl-expvession
incIuded
IilevaI lexl
painling
in addilion lo Iess oIvious
devices.'3
In
exanining
Josquin's
use oJ
pavlicuIav
devices Jov
lexl-expvessive Junclions,
IilevaI
devices,
depavluves
Jvon usuaI lexluve and
depavluves
Jvon lIe novns oJ nodaI
conposilion conpvise
lIvee aveas Jov considevalion. Al
lines,
lIese
calegovies
na¸ ovevIap·
sevevaI
cIanges na¸
occuv al once ov sevevaI
lecIniques na¸
Ie
used lo iIIuslvale a
nuIlipIicil¸
oJ
ideas.14
Since lIeve ave nunevous sludies oJ
sucI
Jealuves,
a IvieJ ovevviev oJ
onI¸
a Jev oJ lIese
l¸pes
oJ
lexl-expvessive
device as used in Ave Mavia
JoIIovs.15
One oJ lIe nosl oIvious
appvoacIes
lo
vovd-painling
invoIves neIodic
sIape·
a
vising
neIodic Iine lo iIIuslvale
ascenl,
a
descending
Iine Jov lIe
opposile.
AIlevalion oJ
vange na¸
aIso Ie a
signiJicanl lexl-expvessive
device.
Fov
exanpIe,
in Ave
Mavia
lIe condensed
vange
oJ lIe
discanlus, Ioveving
avound
g' |Is 94-110),
iIIuslvales lIe
conlvasling
ideas oJ
Iunanil¸
and
divinil¸
IeJove
veluvning
lo ils Jovnev
vange
vilI lIe FuviJicalion oJ lIe
Vivgin.
Expvessive puvpose na¸
aIso Ie veJIecled
lIvougI nanipuIalion
oJ
vI¸lIn
and
nelve· a
dispIaced
lenov in lIe
sequenliaI pallevns
oJ Is 44-54
enpIasizes jo¸
'JiIIing'
lIe vovId.
TvipIe
nelve is used
|aIong
vilI lIe conlvasl oJ
vange
ciled
eavIiev)
lo sel
apavl
lIe FuviJicalion
|Is 94-110).
And lIe IenioIa in lIe
discanlus and lenov oJ Is 135-41
na¸
Ie a
Tvinil¸ s¸nIoI.
TexluvaI
cIanges
Jov
lexl-expvessive puvposes
incIude vavialion Ielveen
IonopIonic
and inilalive lexluve and devialions Jvon lIe eslaIIisIed lexluve.
TIe use oJ
IonopIon¸
in a
lexl-expvessive
conlexl
na¸
Ie seen as
eavI¸
as
MacIaul: I¸
lIe JiJleenlI
cenluv¸
il vas used lo
IigIIigIl
individuaI vovds as
veII as
inpovlanl pIvases. Heve,
lIe naluve oJ lIe vovd 'soIenni' is
depicled I¸
ils
conlvasling IonopIonic selling
in Is
40-4.
Felilions sucI as lIe one vIicI
cIoses lIis vovI
|Is 142-55)
veve aIso
connonI¸
sel
IonopIonicaII¸.
In olIev
cases,
conlvasls oJ vocaI
vange
ave used lo
enpIasize
lIe
vepelilion
oJ a
IonopIonic pIvase.
TIis occuvs lvice in Ave
Mavia
|once
vilI lIe addilion oJ
an exlva
voice) deJining
lIe
slvopIic
lexl
|see,
Jov
exanpIe,
Is
31-9). Josquin's
use oJ JauxIouvdon is aIso
signiJicanl
in lIe
pIvase jusl
ciled· lIis is lIe
onI¸
pIvase
oJ lexl lo Ie so
vepealed
and lIe
onI¸
inslance oJ JauxIouvdon in Ave
Mavia. Bepelilion
and
sequence
in
sevevaI
voices
sinuIlaneousI¸
ave aIso used
Jov
lexl-expvessive puvposes |as
occuvs lvice in Ave
Mavia,
Is 44-54 and 127-
33),
as ave unusuaI inilalive
lecIniques
-
sucI as lIe
voice-paiving
Javouved
I¸ Josquin:
lIe
Iallev, Iovevev,
seens lo Iave Ieen used Jov JovnaI valIev lIan
lexl-expvessive puvposes
in Ave Mavia.16
Even lIis IvieJ
suvve¸
denonslvales a
gveal vaviel¸
oJ
lexl-expvessive
devices
avaiIaIIe lo
Josquin
and a Jev oJ lIe
va¸s
Ie
enpIo¸s
lIen in
cvealing
an
innediale
veIalionsIip
oJ lexl and nusic. Move
inpovlanl
as an
anaI¸licaI
considevalion Iovevev is lIe slvucluvaI
veIalionsIip
Ielveen lexl and nusic. Il
204 MUSIC
ANALYSIS 4·3,
1985
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SOME FBOBLEMS OF
FBE-BABOQUE
ANALYSIS
is lIis
veIalionsIip
vIicI
genevaled nan¸
oJ lIe
speciJic
concevns oJ lIe
anaI¸licaI
nelIod
pvoposed
Ieve. TIe lexl oJ Ave Mavia is a
vI¸ned, nelvic,
Jive-slvopIe I¸nn,
Jvaned al lIe
Ieginning I¸
lIe
opening
lexl oJ a
Sequence
|'Ave Mavia, vivgo sevena, gvalia pIena,
Boninus
lecun')
and al lIe end

an
independenl pIvase |'O
Malev
Bei,
nenenlo nei.
Anen.')·
Fig.
2· Texl
Ave
Mavia,
Ovalia
pIena,
Boninus
lecun, vivgo
sevena.
I. Ave
cujus conceplio,
SoIenni
pIena gaudio,
CoeIeslia, levveslvia,
Nova
vepIel
Iaelilia.
II. Ave
cujus
nalivilas
Noslva Juil soIennilas·
Ul IuciJev Iux
oviens,
Vevun soIen
pvaeveniens.
III. Ave
pia IuniIilas,
Sino vivo
Joecundilas,
Cujus annuncialio
Noslva Juil saIvalio.
IV. Ave veva
vivginilas,
InnacuIala
caslilas,
Cujus puviJicalio
Noslva Juil
puvgalio.
V. Ave
pvaecIava
onniIus
AngeIicis vivluliIus,
Cujus
Juil
assunplio
Noslva
gIoviJicalio.
O
Malev
Bei,
Menenlo nei. Anen.
EacI oJ lIe
slvopIes
oJ lIe inlevnaI
I¸nn covvesponds
lo one oJ lIe Jive Jeasls oJ
lIe
Vivgin |Conceplion, Nalivil¸, Annuncialion, FuviJicalion, Assunplion),
and lIe
Jvaning
oJ lIe lexl veinJovces ils associalion vilI lIe
Vivgin.'¨
In
addilion,
lIe exlva lexl
Ivings
lIe nunIev oJ seclions lo
seven,
a nunIev
lvadilionaII¸
associaled vilI
Mav¸.
EacI
qualvain
is cIavaclevized

lIe
'Ave'
opening
and lvo
paivs
oJ
eigIl-s¸IIaIIe
Iines. TIe
opening
Iines oJ
slvopIes II, III
and IV sIave lIe sane
vI¸ne,
vIiIe
III,
IV and V sIave lIe sane
cIosing vI¸ne.
TIe nusicaI slvucluve oJ lIis vovI veJIecls lIe
slvopIic
divisions oJ lIe lexl.
TIis is
appavenl lIvougI
lIe
nanipuIalion
oJ
lexluve,
dislviIulion and
l¸pes
oJ
cadences,
and vocaI
vange. Fig.
3 sIovs lIe cIose
veIalionsIip
Ielveen lexl
slvucluve and nusicaI avlicuIalion. EacI lexl division is avlicuIaled

lIe
disposilion
oJ
conlvasling l¸pes
oJ
counlevpoinl |inilalive
ov
nole-againsl-nole)
and oJ lIe nunIev oJ voices
sounding |lvo, Jouv,
ov duels oJ
paivs).
TIe
slvongesl cadences,
aII on lIe JinaI oJ lIe
node,
ave vesevved Jov lIe concIusion
oJ eacI
slvopIe.
In lIe inlevnaI
slvucluve,
I and
II, paived logelIev I¸
veJevence
lo
vejoicing,
ave lIe sane
IenglI. SiniIavI¸,
III and
IV, concenlvaling
on lIe
MUSIC
ANALYSIS 4·3,
1985 205
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All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
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1
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.
1
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2
.
2
0
0
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1
0
7

o
n

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u
n
,

9

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a
r

2
0
1
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0
9
:
4
9
:
5
4

A
M
A
l
l

u
s
e

s
u
b
j
e
c
t

t
o

J
S
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s

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d
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t
i
o
n
s
SOME FBOBLEMS OF
FBE-BABOQUE
ANALYSIS
Iunan vivlues oJ lIe
Vivgin,
ave
paived logelIev
in
IenglI
and
vange.
TIe
saIulalion oJ lIe
opening Sequence
lexl
covvesponds
lo lIe JinaI
slvopIe
and lIe
cIosing pelilion
acls as a codella. EacI Iine oJ lIe lexl is sel
individuaII¸.
TIe
paived
scIene oJ lIe
I¸nn qualvains
is
enpIasized I¸
nusicaI
vepelilion.
WilI
one
exceplion,
lIe
slvopIes
ave sel as aaII' ov
aaIc,
vilI
veIaliveI¸ conlvasling
nusicaI naleviaI inlvoduced Jov eacI
slvopIe.'8
TIe Jivsl
slvopIe,
vIeve lIe
lexl 'Ave
cujus conceplio'
is
vepealed
vilI ils
nusic,
is
exceplionaI
-
and il
JoIIovs lIal
Josquin
nusl
conpose
nev nusic Jov lIe second Iine oJ lIe
qualvain.
3. TexluvaI
dislviIulion:
inilalion
ConlvapunlaI lIeov¸
Jovns an
inpovlanl
avea in lIe
anaI¸sis
oJ lIis
vepevlov¸.
TIe
Iislov¸
and
deveIopnenl
oJ
conlvapunlaI lIeov¸
ave Iased on lIe exlension
oJ lIe
pvincipIes
oJ
lvo-pavl
discanl
lIeov¸
lo
lIvee,
Jouv and nove
voices.19
MusicaI slvucluve as descviIed
I¸ lIeovisls, Iovevev,
sliII veIied
pvinaviI¸
on a
lvo-pavl
inlevvaIIic
JvanevovI,
vilI lIe discanlus and lenov as lIe
pveJevved
slvucluvaI voices.20
A
signiJicanl aspecl
oJ lIe slvucluve oJ sucI a vovI is ils lexluvaI
dislviIulion.
TIe sIeIelaI scove oJ Ex. 2 iIIuslvales lIis in Ave Mavia and
Fig.
4 sIovs lIe
nanipuIalion
oJ inilalive
lenpovaI
dislance. Il is evidenl lIal lIe
slvopIic
naluve oJ lIe lexl is avlicuIaled
lIvougI
lIe conIinalion oJ lexluvaI and
inilalive vavialion vilIoul acluaI
vepelilion
oJ nusicaI naleviaI.
CIeavI¸,
in lIis
vovI lIe discanlus and lenov ave eslaIIisIed as slvucluvaI voices
lIvougI
lIe
dislviIulion oJ inilalive naleviaI. EacI JovnaI seclion
Iegins
vilI a
poinl
oJ
inilalion. Tvo
seclions,
lIe
opening
canlus Jivnus
Sequence
and lIe JiJlI
slvopIe,
ave inilalive
lIvougIoul,
vilI eacI
pIvase
oJ lexl
veceiving
a nev
poinl
oJ inilalion
|Is
1-31 and
111-41).
In
IolI,
lIvee oJ lIe Jouv enlvies ave
veguIavI¸ spaced
vilI lIe inilalive
lenpovaI
dislance oJ one
enlv¸
decveased
|Is
25 and
127-9).
TIe
opening Sequence
and lIe second
slvopIe
ave lIe
onI¸
seclions vIicI use
Jouv-pavl inilalion:
in lIe second
slvopIe, Iovevev,
lIe
decveased inilalive
lenpovaI
dislance Ielveen aIlus and lenov
|Is
55-9 and
66-7)
Ias lIe eJJecl oJ
paived
voices
|B-A
and
T-B),
valIev lIan slvicl
Jouv-pavl
inilalion. TIe Jivsl and lIivd
slvopIes
conlain
onI¸
one
poinl
oJ inilalion
|Ielveen
discanlus and
lenov)
aJlev vIicI lIe seclion conlinues
JveeI¸ |in
pvinaviI¸ IonovI¸lInic Jouv-pavl counlevpoinl
in lIe Jivsl
slvopIe,
and as an
aIlevnalion oJ
paived
voices in lIe
lIivd).
TIe JouvlI
slvopIe
is
IonopIonic
in
naluve Iul vilI a canon al lIe seniIveve Ielveen discanlus and lenov
lIvougIoul. ManipuIalion
oJ lexluve and inilalion is one oJ lIe nosl
inpovlanl
aspecls
in lIe exaninalion oJ JovnaI and slvucluvaI avlicuIalion in
Josquin's
nolels.21
4. Cadence
CadenliaI lIeov¸
IinIs lIe concevns oJ nodaI
lIeov¸ |lIe
lone oJ lIe
cadence)
and
conlvapunlaI
lIeov¸ |lIe pvescviIed
inlevvaIIic slvucluve oJ lIe
cadence).
FovnaI divisions oJ
conposilions
ave
novnaII¸
navIed

a
pevJecl
conson-
MUSIC
ANALYSIS 4·3,
1985 207
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CBISTLE COLLINS
JUBB
Ke¸·
Voice
sounding |non-inilalive naleviaI)
HonopIon¸
FovnaI division
Foinl oJ inilalion
\ Inilalive
lenpovaI
dislance
[
Faived voices
a, I, a',
I' FIvases oJ Canlus Fivnus
SI Bepelilion
208 MUSIC
ANALYSIS 4·3,
1985
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SOME FBOBLEMS OF
FBE-BABOQUE
ANALYSIS
Ex. 2 ·
ManipuIalion
oJ Texluve and Inilalion
Ave Mavia
Sequence
a
Iv-
B isc a nlu s ¨
-l
l.
.
a A- -ve Ma- -
-a, Ova- -l-
A
-ve Ma-
-i- -a,
A- -ve
Ma-Ma- -vi-
C11-
Tenov
A- -ve Ma cu- - -a,
Bassus
A- -ve- Ma- .-vi-
Ova-
-
-
na,
Bo-
Ova- p,,I
¨
,,
I
.
-na,
J-4 0 F o
-a, Oa- --li- a pIe- -na,
Bo-
B-cn,
,Bo-
-ni- nus e-
-cun--
se-1
1
-
Viv -
-go se- -ve- -na
MUSIC ANALYSIS 4·3,
1985 209
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CBISTLE COLLINS JUBB
-o So- -Ien- ni
pIe-
na
-o
So- -Ien- ni
A- -ve
cu-
-jus
con- cep- -li- -o
So- -Ien-
-ni pIe-
na
A
-
-vjus con-cep-
-li- -.
So- -Ien- -ni
FA
gau- di- -o,
Coe-
-Ies-
-li- -a
leI-
-ve-
-slvi-
-a
No- -va ve-
-pIel
gIau- di- -0, Coec-Ies- -li- -a l11- -IC- -sl1i- -a No- -va Ive- Ie-
Coe-
-Ies- -li-
-a
lev- -ve-
-slvi-
-a
No- -va ve-
-pIel
1a-
A -ve
cu- -Jus
na-
-li- -vi- -las,
na-
li-
A-
-ve
cuI-
-jus
na-
-li-
-
i
- - I
¨-
.-a
.
-
-c -- eva
--
-
--as,
Ul Iu- c
-Jev
Iux
--
las, Ul
-slva
Ju- il so-
-Ienn-
-ni- -las,
so- IevI-
-ni- las,
No- -slva Ju-. il. so- -Ien- -ni-
-las,
210
MUSIC
ANALYSIS 4·3,
1985
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SOME FBOBLEMS OF
FBE-BABOQUE
ANALYSIS
o- -vi- ens,
Iu-
-ci- -Iev Iux o- -i- -ens
l
Iu-'-ci-,
-Jev
Iux o-
-.i-
-ens, Ve-
-.
vun
so-
Iecn
Ul Iu- -ci- -I1v -Iux o-
-v i -
.-ens,
Vc-
.-vun
so-
II
A- -ve
pi-
.-a Iu-.ni-
-i- -las,
Si---ne vi-a-vo JIe-cun
-Ien Si- -ne vi- .-vo loe.-cun-
-di- -las,
-di-
-las,
A-
e e- -va viv-
-gi'-
.-ni-
--las,
In--na- -cu-
I
.
A- ve ve- va
viv-.gi-
-ni- las,
In- na-
MUSIC ANALYSIS
4·3,
1985 211
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CBISTLE COLLINS
JUBB
-Ia-- -la ca- -sli-
-las,
Cu-
-jus pu-
-vi- --i- -ca- -li- -o No- -slva Iu--
-ci- -Ia- -la ca- -sli- las, C- us
pu-
vi- -Ji- ca- -li- o No- slva
-il
-ga- -l- -o.A- -ve
pvae-
-cIa- -
-
-va on-
A-
-
vae- -cIa-
JI-
-il
puv-
-ga-.
li-
-o. I
A-
A-
ni- -Ius An-
-ge-
-i- -cis
An-
-ge- -Ii-
.-\ pva·-
-cIa- --va on-
.
-ni- -Ius.
-vc.
pvce-
-cIa-
-V-o
iv- -lu
-
-li-
-I)s, Cu-
An-
- -ge- -Ii-
-cis-l -
-li- -Ius,
An- -ge-
-Ii-
212 MUSIC
ANALYSIS
4·3,
1985
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SOME FBOBLEMS OF
FBE-BABOQUE
ANALYSIS
JjU i- - -il as-
-
np- -l
gIo-
-
.----
---
TV
o
o
Cu- -jus
- -
-as- -sunip-
-l
No- -sl
va
gIo- -- - -i- - -a- - -li
-
-o.
-o No- -slva
gIo- - vi-
- -i-
CIosing
pelilion
|) ca- lIv Be- -
Ia- lcv
)-
-
-i.
-ca-
--l
- o
0.
|, )NLA- lce v e- c
-
¨
M -
-
n- lo n$I -
-l \
-0n__
Mec-
ncl_-
lo
Il
nc-
-
¨
¨\-
-
ln.
Me- -nen- lo ne- - -i A-
- -nen.
MUSIC
ANALYSIS
4·3,
1985 213
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CBISTLE COLLINS
JUBB
Fig.

ManipuIalion
oJ Inilalive
TenpovaI
Bislance
5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55
B
A
T
B
60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110
B
A
T
B
115 120 125 130 135 140 145 150 155
B
A
T I
B
.,,,,,,
¨
*
Foinl oJ inilalion
\ Inilalive
lenpovaI
dislance
\ Voice-paiving
I
FovnaI division
ance, usuaII¸
a unison ov an
oclave, appvoacIed I¸
lIe neavesl
inpevJecl
consonance. TIe nolion lo lIe
pevJecl
consonance deJined lIe lvo slvucluvaI
voices oJ a
cadence,
and addilionaI voices veve added
accovding
lo lIe Iineav-
inlevvaIIic vuIes oJ
conlvapunlaI lIeov¸. Conlenpovaneous lIeov¸
consideved
lIe discanlus and lenov as lIe essenliaI and
node-delevnining
voices oJ a
conposilion,
lIus lIese veve lIe
slvongesl
voices Jov a cadence. Cadences
ovnanenled vilI a
s¸ncopaled suspension Jiguve
-
'JovnaI' cadences
-
usuaII¸ signaI
JovnaI divisions and concIusions.22 InlevnaI cadences veve
genevaII¸ 'sinpIe' cadences
vIicI IacIed lIe
suspension Jiguve
oJ lIe JovnaI
cadence,
ov IaIJ cadences vIicI avvived al lIe
pevJecl
consonance

olIev
voice-Ieading
neans
|see
Ex.
3).23
Ex.3 Cadences
FoInaI
SinpIe
7--6
8 2-3 1 6 8 3 1
TIe lvadilionaI cadence Iad an
ascending
second in lIe discanlus
|canlizans)
and
descending
second in lIe lenov
|lenovizans):
nolion oJ a JiJlI in lIe Iass
|Iasizans)
vas aIso
Ieconing
nove connon in
Josquin's line,
and
veavvanging
lIe lvo cadenliaI voices couId veaIen ov
slvenglIen
a cadence.24 WeaIev
214
MUSIC
ANALYSIS
4·3,
1985
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CBISTLE COLLINS
JUBB
cadenliaI
voicings
couId Ie used lo
enpIasize
nusicaI
pIvases
ov Iines oJ
lexl,
vesevving
lIe
slvongesl voicing
Jov
especiaII¸ inpovlanl
cadences. TIe cIoice oJ
cadence lone
vepvesenled
a JinaI neans oJ
eslaIIisIing
a cadenliaI
IievavcI¸.
TIeovisls
JvequenlI¸ conpaved
cadences lo vIelovicaI
punclualion:
lIus lIe
dislviIulion oJ cadences sIouId nivvov lIe
punclualion
oJ lIe lexl.25
SpeciJic anaI¸licaI concepls na¸
Ie
pvoposed
in veJevence lo cadenliaI and
conlvapunlaI lIeov¸.
TIe conIinalion oJ lIe
l¸pe
oJ
cadence,
ils
voicing,
and
ils lone
pvovides
a
IievavcI¸
oJ slvucluvaI
pallevns.
A laIuIalion oJ lIe
dislviIulion and
l¸pes
oJ
cadences,
and lIe
pIacenenl
oJ slvucluvaI
cadences,
pvovides
an ovevaII viev oJ a
vovI,
as
Fig.
5 sIovs oJ Ave Mavia.
TIe
onI¸
slvucluvaI cadences ave on lIe JinaI oJ lIe node and
lIe¸
coincide
vilI lexl divisions. AII Iul one oJ lIese slvucluvaI cadences ave JuvlIev
slvenglIened I¸
lIe addilion oJ lIe Iasizans. TIe cadence oJ lIe
opening
seclion, IacIing
lIe
Iasizans,
is veinJovced

Jvee lvealnenl oJ lIe vovd 'sevena'
Ex. 4
· BislviIulion oJ Cadences
Cadence lone
C O E
.F
0.T·c2
F
B,T·q
F· BA·e2 F·
AOB·e'
ModeI
JovnaI 7-6
8
2-31 7-6 8 2-3
1'
cadence
.
F· 0,T·c2 F· T,A·g F· BT·g F· B,A·g'
F
B,A·e2 F· T,B·e1
' I .
I
,
I .
.
!'
z ,
--4
II
·
,T,
2
F· Bg
S A Bg' S
A·e2
S
TAe1
ModeII
sinpI.e 3 1 68 68 1
cadence
S TB c
SAB·91
S· TAeI
S TI
Il

BT,|B'C2
,S- TB-eI
I-l
-
-I
216 MUSIC
ANALYSIS
4·3,
1985
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SOME FBOBLEMS OF
FBE-BABOQUE
ANALYSIS
and

aIlevalion oJ lIe inilalive
pallevn
and
lenpovaI
dislance. Tvo seclions
sIovn in lIe laIIe do nol concIude vilI slvucluvaI cadences. TIe lIivd and
JouvlI
slvopIes
ave IinIed
logelIev,
as Ias Ieen discussed
eavIiev:
lIe lIivd ends
vilI a IaIJ cadence and lIe
Ieginning
oJ lIe JouvlI is navIed

a
cIange
lo
IonopIonic
lexluve. TIe end oJ lIe JiJlI
slvopIe
is navIed

a Iveve vesl and
lIe slvucluvaI cadence
deIa¸ed
unliI lIe cIose oJ lIe vovI.
Ex. 4 is a JuvlIev exaninalion oJ lIe dislviIulion oJ JovnaI and
sinpIe
cadences. TIe cadences on lIe JinaI and JiJlI oJ lIe
node,
lIe nosl
JvequenlI¸
used,
sIov lIe nosl consislenl
pallevn.
Cadences on lIe JinaI nove Jvon lIe
sixlI lo lIe oclave and lIose on lIe
JiJlI,
vilI one
exceplion,
nove Jvon lIe
lIivd lo lIe unison. FovnaI valIev lIan
sinpIe
cadences
pvedoninale
and lIe
nosl
Jvequenl
vavialion oJ lIe cadence nodeI is lIe addilion oJ a lIivd
voice,
usuaII¸
lIe Iasizans.
An oulIine oJ cadenliaI
pallevns
veJIecls lIe avlicuIalive JvanevovI oJ lIe
conposilion
and a veduclive
gvapI
oJ nolion lo cadences iIIuslvales lIe
slvucluvaI lvo-voice
undevpinning
oJ lIe individuaI nusicaI
pIvase |see
Ex. 5
IeIov).
TIis
gvapI
sIovs lvo slvucluvaI
voices, vaviousI¸ paived
in accovdance
vilI lIe dislviIulion oJ cadenliaI
naleviaI,
vIicI
pvovide
a consislenl
inlevvaIIic
pallevn suppovling
lIe
conposilion.
TIis
lvo-pavl counlevpoinl
veJIecls in inlevvaI slvucluve lIe
pvincipIes
oJ
conposilion
as Iaid oul

conlenpovaneous
lIeovisls and a slvucluvaI ovdev in vIicI lIe Iasic
pvincipIes
ave neIodic valIev lIan
Iavnonic,
vilI eacI 'slvucluvaI voice'
veJIecling
cIavaclevislic
pallevns
oJ lIe node. TIis
anaI¸sis
is Iased on lIe
pvenise
lIal
lIeve ave lvo voices on vIicI lIe slvucluve
depends
delevnined

lIe
dislviIulion oJ cadenliaI naleviaI· lIeve ave nol conlinuous slvucluvaI
voices,
as
in a ScIenIevian
anaI¸sis:
nov is lIeve a sense oJ
IeveIs, Ie¸ond
lIe
anaI¸licaI
pvocess
oJ
IuiIding
Jvon
pvolol¸picaI
cadenliaI slvucluves lo essenliaI Jove-
gvound
eIenenls. Ex.
5,
Jvon lIe
opening
oJ Ave
Mavia,
iIIuslvales lIese
oIsevvalions. Nole lIal in Is 1-18 lvo voices vesuIl Jvon inilalive Jealuves
|cadences
ave eIided and
onI¸
lvo voices sound al a
line)
valIev lIan cadenliaI
nolion. TIis is JoIIoved
I¸ l¸picaI
cadenliaI
pallevning.
TIe
opevalive
voices
ave discanlus-lenov
|Is 19-22),
aIlus-lenov
|Is 23-5)
and discanlus-lenov
|Is
25-30).
TIe seclion cuIninales vilI a slvucluvaI cadence and lIe nosl
exlensive divecled nolion lo lIal cadence.
5. Buvalion
Ave Mavia is
conposed
oJ lvo seclions oJ
neavI¸ equaI
duvalion
|as
sIovn in
Fig. 6),
suIdivided inlo
s¸nnelvicaI pallevns and,
al lIe nosl delaiIed IeveI oJ
suIdivision,
inlo lIe
as¸nnelvicaI pallevns
oJ lIe lexl decIanalion. TIe
Iavge
division oJ lIe IaIves oJ lIe nolel
covvesponds
lo a
cIange
in lIe lexluaI
slvucluve:
lIe JocaI vovd oJ lIe
slvopIe |lIal is,
lIe
pavlicuIav
Jeasl oJ lIe
Vivgin) appeavs
al lIe end oJ lIe Jivsl Iine in lIe Jivsl and second
slvopIes
Iul
al lIe end oJ lIe lIivd Iine in lIe
lIivd, JouvlI and JiJlI
slvopIes.
TIe
gvoupings
sIovn in
Fig.
6 ave
suppovled
nol
onI¸ I¸
duvalionaI
covvespon-
dences,
Iul aIso

lexluvaI and aJJeclive coincidences ciled aIove. TIis
MUSIC
ANALYSIS 4·3, 1985 217
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All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
CBISTLE COLLINS
JUBB
Ex. 5· CadenliaI Beduclion
l o
13
,-TV
a
*
.
.....
A
- ve Ma -vi -
a, Ova
- li - a
pie
-
_0--------c ¯ _
A,-
ve
Ma
- vi - a, va -
A - ve
Ma - vi - a,
A - ve Ma
-
vi
-
a,
Cadences
Cadence
l¸pe
2 -
Cadenli aI
vecIuc lion
- na, Bo ni-nus le -
li
a
pie na,
Bo -
ii-nus
le -
cun,
Ova
-
l - a
pie na, Bo ni-nus
Ova
-
li
-
a
pie
-
na,

B,0
2 H·T 8, ·c2
-
-
-.
--
.
218 MUSIC
ANALYSIS 4·3,
1985
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All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
SOME FBOBLEMS OF
FBE-BABOQUE
ANALYSIS
_ 030
-
cun,
Viv -
go
se ve -
na,
se ve
na.
v
-i go
se - ve -
le - - -
cun, Viv
go
se-
ve
na.
Bo - ni-nus le
-
cuv Viv
go
se
- ve na
l
÷

T,
B·eI

TA·g1

0,T·c2
. ¨
3.
¨
.
¨I
inlevpvelalion vepvesenls
one oJ sevevaI duvalionaI JvanevovIs
opevalive
in Ave
Mavia.
Fig.
6· Buvalion
155
77 15578
opening I,
II
III,
IV
V,
Coda
30V2 2x231/2 2x16 31÷14
2x|7÷8) 9÷|2x4)÷6 |2x5)÷7÷6 |2x3)÷|2x5) |2x4)÷4÷5 |2x8)÷7÷8 4÷5÷4
6. Molivic slvucluve
AIoul IaIJ oJ
Josquin's
nolels ave Iased in sone
va¸
on
pve-exisling
nodeIs
sucI as lvadilionaI
Ovegovian
neIodies ov
poI¸pIonic conposilions.26
WIiIe il
na¸
Ie
possiIIe
lo lvace lIe souvce oJ neIodic
inlegvalion
in a vovI Iased on a
canlus Jivnus
-
especiaII¸
in a vovI Iased on a JovnuIaic cIanl
neIod¸
-
lIe
cIavaclevislic conslvuclion oJ eacI node
na¸
aIso Ie used lo
pvovide
lIe
JvanevovI Jov neIodic
anaI¸sis.
An exaninalion oJ neIodic
unil¸
in Ave
Mavia,
a vovI vIicI uses a canlus
Jivnus Jov lIe
opening
and is lIen
JveeI¸ conposed,
viII Iesl denonslvale lIe
MUSIC ANALYSIS
4·3,
1985 219
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All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
CBISTLE COLLINS
JUBB
use oJ nodaI
lIeov¸
in a nolivic conlexl. TIe canlus Jivnus is lIal oJ lIe
Sequence
Jvon vIicI lIe
opening
lexl is
laIen·27
Ex.6 Canlus Fivnus
Ave Ma-vi - a,
gvali
-a
pIe--na,
Boninus le
--cun,Vivgo s-ve--
na
Josquin's
slvicl inilalion JoIIovs lIis canlus Jivnus aInosl
exaclI¸.
TIe cIanl
veJIecls lIe lvo
inpovlanl
neIodic cIavaclevislics oJ Mode VI ciled eavIiev· lIe
pIagaI
JouvlI
|g-c)
and lIe
vepevcussion |c-e).
As is sIovn in Ex.
7,
lIese lvo
neIodic
Jiguves
ave lIe nolivic Iasis Jov nucI oJ lIe
conposilion. Fig.
7
sIovs

neans oJ a lexl oulIine lIe dislviIulion oJ lIese lvo Iasic
nolives,
vIicI ave
expvessed I¸
sone voice Jov
neavI¸ evev¸
Iine oJ lexl
|dislviIulion
oJ
nolivic naleviaI does nol
uniJovnI¸
coincide vilI lIe inilalive 'lIenes' oJ lIe
vovI)·
Fig.
7· Texl OulIine oJ Molive BislviIulion
Bepevcussion FIagaI
JouvlI
Bescending
sixlI
Ave Mavia
gvalia pIena
doninus lecun
vivgo sevena
|doninus lecun)
Ave
cujus conceplio
soIenni
pIena gaudio
coeIeslia,
levveslvia
nova
vepIel Iaelilia
Ave
cujus
nalivilas
noslva Juil soIennilas
ul IuciJev Iux oviens
vevun soIen
pvaeveniens
Ave
pia
IuniIilas
sino vivo Joecundilas
cujus
annuncialio
noslva Juil
puvgalio
Ave
pvaecIava
onniIus
angeIicis
vivluliIus
cujus Juil
assunplio
noslva
gIoviJicalio
O
Malev
Bei,
nenenlo nei.
220 MUSIC
ANALYSIS
4·3,
1985
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SOME FBOBLEMS OF
FBE-BABOQUE
ANALYSIS
Ex. 7· Molivic
Ovganisalion
JouvlI÷vepevcussion |vepevclssion
onI¸)
JouvlI÷JouvlI
Iul JJaa Ja ul l Ja
0)1 ,
&
B
0B,O
?A,
5·--
1
7B 12·T
AII
T,
·B T
O·A
00,
26 B
I I
26·T
-
I
BI ,T
I
i,
I I I
I
I
·I9
,O·TB
1
III
I
I
SI IT
I
_1
I
I
T
. -
_-¨
-¨ I
I
l--

9
·,
0..'
I1- - I v
¨
MUSIC ANALYSIS
4·3,
1985
221
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CBISTLE COLLINS
JUBB
TIe
exceplions |in
lIe lIivd coIunn oJ
Fig. 7)
sIave a
descending
sixlI
-
a
Jiguve
inlvoduced in lIe eIaIovalion oJ lIe discanlus
on
'Boninus lecun'
|Is
19-22),
lIe Jivsl enIeIIisInenl oJ lIe canlus Jivnus and a vesuIl oJ IilevaI lexl-
painling.
BislviIulion oJ nolivic naleviaI does nol
appeav
lo
depend
on lexl
slvucluve and
inilalion,
ov lo Ie
s¸slenalic
in ilseIJ· il
na¸
Ie
inlevpveled
as a
souvce oJ
vaviel¸ counlevacling
lIe
slvong
slvucluvaI conlvoI exevled

lIe lexl
in olIev donains oJ lIe nusicaI
ovganizalion.28
7.
Voice-Ieading
FevIaps
lIe nosl conlvovevsiaI avea in lIe
anaI¸sis
oJ
pve-Bavoque
nusic is in
lIe
appIicalion
oJ ScIenIevian
voice-Ieading lecIniques.
ScIenIev IinseIJ
IeIieved lIal
pve-Bavoque
vocaI nusic IacIed
an¸
seIJ-conlained neans oJ
s¸slenalic ovganizalion
and vas
dependenl
on ils lexl Jov
slvucluve:
ils IacI oJ a
sense oJ
pvoIongalion pvecIuded anaI¸sis
in Iis levns.29
SaIzev,
NovacI and
Bevgquisl
Iave
pvoposed gvapIic voice-Ieading anaI¸ses
in veJevence lo vovIs oJ
Josquin.30
WIiIe SaIzev's
anaI¸ses
in SlvucluvaI
Heaving
ave oJ a
genevaI naluve,
Bevgquisl
and NovacI deaI
speciJicaII¸
vilI lIe
vepevlov¸
in
queslion
Ieve.
Bevgquisl vejecls conlenpovaneous lIeov¸
as a suJJicienl Iasis Jov
anaI¸sis
and
pvoposes JuII¸-JIedged
lonaI slvucluves Jov lIe vovIs Ie
anaI¸ses.
NovacI's
appvoacI
is nove sensilive lo IislovicaI
concevns,
Iul Iis
anaI¸ses veI¸
on
sevevaI
assunplions,
lIe nosl Iasic oJ vIicI is lIal lIe nusic
conpvises
lonaI
pvoIongalions
al slvucluvaI IeveIs
covvesponding
lo ScIenIev's nodeI Jov lonaI
nusic. Move
speciJic assunplions
ave lIal lIe oulev voices Junclion as
slvucluvaI voices and lIal a
'nodaIil¸-lonaIil¸'
issue is ivveIevanl. WilI eacI oJ
lIese
sludies,
lIeve seens lo Ie nove
enpIasis
on lIe denonslvalion oJ lIe
univevsaIil¸
oJ ScIenIevian
pvincipIes
lIan on
anaI¸sis
oJ a
pavlicuIav
vovI ov
vepevlov¸. TIe¸
ave
especiaII¸ pvovocalive
Iecause nusic Jvon eavIiesl
nonopIon¸
lo Monlevevdi is
calegovized sinpI¸
as
'eavI¸
nusic' and lIus
suIjecled
lo lIe sane
lIeovelicaI-anaI¸licaI
considevalions.
Allenpls
lo
nodiJ¸
ScIenIevian
anaI¸sis lIvougI
conIinalion vilI olIev
lIeovies seen even nove
queslionaIIe.
FvedevicI BasIouv is concevned vilI
lIe nusic oJ
BuJa¸,
Iul
pvoposes
a nelIod lIal is cIained lo Ie nove
genevaII¸
appIicaIIe.¨
He
allenpls
lo conIine lIe neIodic
pvincipIes
oJ
Ovegovian
cIanl
lIeov¸
and
conlvapunlaI pvincipIes
oJ discanl
lIeov¸
vilI lIe ScIenIevian
concepls
oJ
pvoIongalion,
slvucluvaI IeveIs and
voice-Ieading.
TIeve is no
allenpl
lo discovev a JundanenlaI Iavnonic Iine ov slvucluvaI Iavnonic
cadence·
BasIouv
pvoposes
slvucluvaI IeveIs said lo veJIecl
IacIgvound
inlevvaIIic
pvogvessions
siniIav lo lIe
pvogvessions
oJ discanl
lIeov¸.
TIe
vesuIling anaI¸ses
lIus denand
veinlevpvelalion
oJ lIe lIeovies invoIved.
ScIenIevian IeveIs
veI¸
on a FundanenlaI
Slvucluve,
discanl
lIeov¸ opevales
as
an innediale
Jovegvound conposilionaI slvucluve,
and cIanl vesuIls Jvon
unique
neIodic nodaI
JovnuIalions,
so lIal a
singIe
Iavnonic FundanenlaI
Slvucluve oJ lIe
l¸pe
on vIicI ScIenIev's lIeovies ave
dependenl
is
inappvopvi-
ale. And ScIenIev's vovI veIied on a Fuxian nodeI oJ
counlevpoinl
vIicI
diJJevs
vadicaII¸
Jvon lIe
conlvapunlaI lIeov¸
oJ lIe JiJleenlI
cenluv¸
lo vIicI
222 MUSIC
ANALYSIS 4·3,
1985
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SOME FBOBLEMS OF
FBE-BABOQUE ANALYSIS
BasIouv veJevs. TIe JinaI
diJJicuIl¸
oJ BasIouv's vovI as a nodeI Jov
anaI¸sis
is
ils
speciJicil¸.
TIe nusic oJ
BuJa¸
vilI vIicI Ie is concevned uses lIvee voices
oJ vIicI lvo ave delevnined lo Ie
slvucluvaI:
il is
IavdI¸
lo Ie
expecled
lIal an -
appvopviale anaI¸licaI
nelIod vouId Ie suilaIIe Jov olIev
vepevlovies.
NevevlIeIess,
lIe
cIaIIenge
oJ
voice-Ieading anaI¸sis
oJ
Fve-Bavoque vepev-
lovies cannol Ie
evaded,
and lIis is
cevlainI¸
lvue Jov lIe nolels oJ
Josquin
vIicI Iave eIenenls lIal
na¸
seen lo
pvesage
an
'enevging' lonaIil¸. TIvougI
lIe exaninalion oJ vIal can and cannol Ie
gvapIed appvopvialeI¸,
an
undevslanding
oJ
appavenlI¸
lonaI eIenenls
na¸ enevge,
and lIis is lo Ie
vaIued since lIe
lvenlielI-cenluv¸
oIsevvev
na¸ pevceive
IolI lonaI and nodaI
eIenenls in a
conposilion. M¸ voice-Ieading gvapIs
oJ Ave Mavia
|see
Appendix, pp.
229-39
IeIov)
Iave Ieen
juxlaposed
vilI
gvapIs
Iased on
cadenliaI slvucluves.
Appavenl
'conlvadiclions' in lIis
juxlaposilion pvovide
an
undevslanding
oJ connon eIenenls oJ
nodaIil¸
and
lonaIil¸,
lIose eIenenls
vIicI viliale
an¸ allenpl
lo
cIassiJ¸
vovIs Jvon lIis
peviod
as
excIusiveI¸
nodaI ov lonaI.
AIlIougI niddIegvound
and
IacIgvound gvapIs
Iave Ieen
pvovided,
lIe lvo
Jovegvound gvapIs
and cadenliaI veduclion ave oJ
gvealesl
inlevesl, especiaII¸
in lIeiv
dispIa¸
oJ nodaI-lonaI and JovnaI-slvucluvaI
veIalionsIips.
AIlIougI
node is a neIodic valIev lIan Iavnonic
pvincipIe
oJ
ovganizalion,
nodaI inlevvaIIic slvucluve is veJIecled in lIe lonaI
anaI¸sis·
lIe descenl Jvon 3
vepIicales
lIe nodaI
vepevcussion enpIasized nolivicaII¸
in lIe
vovI,
and lIe
nolivic nodeIs oJ
pIagaI
JouvlI and
descending
sixlI
pevneale
lIe IeveIs oJ lIe
voice-Ieading anaI¸sis.
Because a Iiniled nunIev oJ cadence lones is used in a
slviIingI¸
consislenl and
s¸slenalic
JasIion
|as
sIovn
eavIiev),
IillIe divecl
conlvadiclion vesuIls Ielveen lonaI and nodaI
inlevpvelalions.
TIe voice-
Ieading anaI¸sis
sIovs a cIose
aJJinil¸
Ielveen lIe slvucluvaI
pilcIes
oJ Mode VI
and lIe
najov
lonaI
scaIe:32
lIe Iasizans nolion oJ slvucluvaI cadences is
vepvesenled I¸
a V-I Iavnonic nolalion.
Hovevev,
lIeve is an
inpovlanl
conlvasl vilI veJevence lo lIe voIe oJ e2
in
Ave Mavia· il is lIe
pvinav¸
nole in
lIe
voice-Ieading anaI¸sis,
Iul lIe veaIesl and Ieasl
enpIasised
cadence lone
in lIe nodaI-cadenliaI slvucluve. TIis conlvasl is
easiI¸
oIsevved al lIe avvivaI
oJ lIe
pvinav¸
nole
|I. 35: Appendix, OvapI 3). CIeavI¸ pvoIonged
Jvon lIis
poinl,
e2
pIa¸s
a
covvespondingI¸
ninov voIe in lIe cadenliaI slvucluve
|OvapI 1,
Is
35JJ.).
EacI
slvopIe
is sel
apavl
in lIe cadenliaI
gvapI I¸
slvucluvaI cadences ov
aIlevalion oJ inilalive
pvoceduve: siniIavI¸,
eacI
slvopIe
is denavcaled in lIe
voice-Ieading anaI¸sis I¸
a
Jovegvound
descenl Jvon 3. TIe Iocalion oJ lIese
Jovegvound
descenls does nol
aIva¸s covvespond, Iovevev,
lo lIe
pIacenenl
oJ
concIuding
cadences
|see,
Jov
exanpIe, SlvopIe III, OvapIs 1-3).
TIe
cIange
in
vegislev
oJ lIe lIivd and JouvlI
slvopIes |I. 80),
an
inpovlanl
lexl-aJJeclive
and JovnaI device discussed
aIove,
vesuIls in a
pvoIonged
covev lone ovev lIe
pvinav¸
nole
|a
vesuIl oJ oclave lvansJev lo an innev
voice), accenlualing
lIe
lonaI conneclion oJ lIese
seclions:
lIe nodaI-cadenliaI
anaI¸sis poinls
lo
pallevns
vIicI
dislinguisI
valIev lIan unile lIe individuaI
slvopIes. OvapI
2
MUSIC
ANALYSIS 4·3,
1985 223
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CBISTLE COLLINS
JUBB
veJIecls lIe Ivoad lexluvaI and
vegislvaI
concevns oJ lIe
conposilion,
vIiIe
OvapIs
1
and 3 iIIuslvale lvo diJJevenl
l¸pes
oJ slvucluvaI
pvoceduve
oIsevved
vilIin lIe Ioundavies oJ lIose concevns.
TIese
l¸pes
oJ conlvasl iIIuslvale lIe veIevance oJ lIe lvo
anaI¸licaI
appvoacIes
denonslvaled in lIe
Appendix· voice-Ieading gvapIs
ave aIIe lo
denonslvale
Iongev-levn nolion,
conneclion and slvucluve vIiIe
veJIecling
nolivic nodaI
considevalions:
cadenliaI
gvapIs
iIIuslvale nove innediale
conponenls
oJ lIal
slvucluve,
JovnaI avlicuIalion and
conlenpovaneous
lIeovelicaI
concepls.
8.
Sunnav¸
AInosl
evev¸ aspecl
oJ Ave
Mavia...
vivgo sevena, incIuding
nodaI
pvoceduve,
cadenliaI
slvucluve,
invenlion oJ nolivic naleviaI and
conlvapunlaI lvealnenl,
is
devived,
lo sone
exlenl,
Jvon ils lexl. Yel lIe
conposilion
exIiIils a
puveI¸
nusicaI IaIance oJ duvalionaI
pvopovlions,
dislviIulion oJ lexluves and
conlvapunlaI devices,
and ovevaII nolivic and slvucluvaI coIevence. Il vouId Ie
possiIIe
lo uncovev lIe nusicaI IaIance oJ Ave Mavia vilIoul veJevence lo
pvincipIes
oJ Benaissance
lIeov¸
and
IacIgvound
IislovicaI
concevns,
Iul il
vouId Ie diJJicuIl lo
pevceive
lIe IeveI lo vIicI lIal IaIance is inJIuenced and
genevaled I¸
lexl.
SiniIavI¸,
an oul-oJ-Iand
vejeclion
oJ nodevn
anaI¸licaI
lecIniques
vouId Iindev lIe
undevslanding
oJ
nan¸
oJ lIe
puveI¸
nusicaI
veIalionsIips
oJ lIis vovI and oJ ils Ivoadev IislovicaI conlexl. TIe exaninalion
oJ Ave Mavia denonslvales a
nuIlipIicil¸
oJ
va¸s
in vIicI cuIluvaI and
slvucluvaI concevns ave
covveIaled,
as ave lexluaI and nusicaI considevalions. Il
is
Ioped
lIal lIe nuIli-Jaceled
appvoacI pvoposed
Ieve viII conlviIule lo a
gvealev undevslanding
and deJinilion oJ
Josquin's pevsonaI sl¸Ie
and lo lIe
anaI¸licaI undevslanding
oJ lIis
vepevlov¸
vIicI seens lo Iave Ieen so eIusive.
NOTES
1. Fov
exanpIe,
see Fulnan
AIdvicI,
'An
AppvoacI
lo lIe
AnaI¸sis
oJ Benaissance
Music',
Music
Beviev,
VoI.
30, 1969, pp.
1-21.
2.
ExanpIes
oJ lIis nelIod oJ
exanining pve-Bavoque
nusic ave Edvavd
LovinsI¸'s
Secvel CIvonalic Avl in lIe NelIevIands
Molel,
lvans. C. BucInan
|Nev
YovI·
CoIunIia
UF, 1946)
and
TonaIil¸
and
AlonaIil¸
in
SixleenlI-Cenluv¸
Music
|BevIeIe¸·
UC
Fvess, 1961),
and HeinvicI BesseIev's Bouvdon und FauxIouvdon
|Leipzig· BveilIopJ
und
HavleI, 1950). LovinsI¸
and BesseIev IolI viev lIe
V-I
cadence and use oJ lviadic sonovilies as lIe 'cvadIe oJ
lonaIil¸',
and lIe idenliJicalion
oJ sucI Jovnalions is JoIIoved

JunclionaI Iavnonic
anaI¸sis. AIlIougI
nunevous
indispulaIIe
cvilicisns veve voiced

lIe advocales oJ 'IislovicaI'
anaI¸sis |see,
Jov
exanpIe,
BicIavd CvocIev's veviev oJ
TonaIil¸
and
AlonaIil¸,
JouvnaI oJ
Music
TIeov¸,
VoI.
6,
No.
1, 1962, pp. 142-53),
Jev iJ
an¸
aIlevnalives
apavl
Jvon
genevaI descviplion
veve
posed.
OJ an even nove
queslionaIIe
naluve
ave ScIenIevian
anaI¸ses
vIicI
expanded
Jvon lIe
pvenise
oJ
LovinsI¸
and
BesseIev lo
pvopose JuII¸-JIedged
lonaI slvucluves Jov sucI vovIs.
3. HavoId
Fovevs,
in 'TonaI
T¸pes
and ModaI
Calegovies
in Benaissance
FoI¸pIon¸',
224 MUSIC
ANALYSIS
4·3,
1985
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SOME FBOBLEMS OF
FBE-BABOQUE
ANALYSIS
JouvnaI oJ
lIe Anevican
MusicoIogicaI Sociel¸,
VoI.
34,
No.
3, 1981, pp. 428-70,
uses lIe
anlIvopoIogicaI
levns 'elic' and 'enic' lo
dislinguisI
Ielveen lIese
anaI¸licaI pevspeclives
in Iis discussion oJ node.
4. TIe edilion veJevved lo in lIis
anaI¸sis
is WevIen van
Josquin
des
Fves,
ed. AIIevl
Snijevs |Anslevdan· Veveeniging
Voov NedevIandscIe
MuzieIgescIiedenis,
1921-1967), Molellen,
VoI.
1,
No.
1, 1923, B1967, pp.
1-4. Ave Mavia ...
vivgo
sevena is one oJ lIe nosl
JvequenlI¸
ciled vovIs in discussions oJ
Josquin.
TIe
esleen in vIicI il vas IeId
I¸ conlenpovavies
is veJIecled in ils
posilion
al lIe Iead
oJ Felvucci's
Molelli
A
|1502),
and il vas
given
a siniIav
pIace
in
Snijevs
edilion oJ
lIe
conpIele
vovIs. A vecenl case in vIicI lIis vovI is laIen as a
slavling poinl
Jov
a discussion oJ lIe nolels and as lIe
¸avdslicI I¸
vIicI vavious vovIs ave
conpaved
is
Jeven¸ NoIIe,
TIe Nev Ovove
HigI
Benaissance Maslevs
'Josquin
Bespvez' |MacniIIan· London, 1984), pp.
27-39.
SiniIavI¸,
Leenan
FevIins,
'Molel',
TIe Nev Ovove
Biclionav¸ oJ
Music and
Musicians,
VoI.
12, pp. 632-4,
uses lIe scove oJ Ave Mavia as lIe nusicaI iIIuslvalion Jov lIe discussion oJ
Josquin's
nolels. BolI
exanpIes
ave
pavl
oJ a
Iong nusicoIogicaI
lvadilion
|Ieginning
vilI
OIavean)
vIicI Ias
vecognised
lIis vovI as one oJ
Josquin's
naslevpieces.
In
IigIl
oJ lIe
nan¸
sludies vIicI use Ave Mavia lo denonslvale
vavious Jealuves oJ
Josquin's conposilionaI sl¸Ie,
il seened
apl
lIal a delaiIed
slud¸
oJ lIis vovI sIouId Ie used lo iIIuslvale an
anaI¸licaI appvoacI
vIicI Ias vesuIled
Jvon veJevence lo lIe
covpus
oJ
Josquin's
nolels.
5. An
exanpIe
oJ sucI a
slud¸
is Leenan
FevIins,
'Mode and Slvucluve in lIe Masses
oJ
Josquin',JAMS,
VoI.
26,
No.
2, 1973, pp.
189-239.
6. TIe
anaI¸sl
nusl Iave a lIeovelicaI
undevslanding
oJ lIe
sl¸Ie
lo eslaIIisI lIe
edilion on vIicI lIe
anaI¸sis
is Iased.
Concepls
oJ nusica
Jicla
and vecla and
IexacIovdaI soInizalion
pvaclice
vIicI ave essenliaI in
souvce-slud¸
viII nol Ie
discussed Ieve. An ovevviev is
pvovided
in Oaslon
AIIaive,
TIe
TIeov¸ oJ
HexacIovds, SoInizalion,
and lIe ModaI
S¸slen, MusicoIogicaI
Sludies and
Bocunenls 24
|Anevican
Inslilule oJ
MusicoIog¸, 1972).
7. TIe Jivsl lIeovisl lo deaI
exlensiveI¸
vilI node in
poI¸pIon¸
vas Fielvo
Aavon,
vIose
vvilings
Iave Ieen used as lIe
pvincipaI conlenpovaneous
souvce Jov
aspecls
oJ nodaI
lIeov¸
in lIis
anaI¸sis.
TIe nosl
conpveIensive slud¸
in
EngIisI
oJ
Aavon's vovI is Ed Felev
Bevgquisl,
'TIe TIeovelicaI
Wvilings
oJ Fielvo Aavon'
|FIB Bissevlalion,
CoIunIia
Univevsil¸, 1964, UMI-65-7496).
8. A delaiIed
conpavison
oJ lIeovisls'
undevslanding
oJ nodaI aJJecl and a
Iislov¸
oJ
lIe
deveIopnenl
oJ nodaI
lIeov¸
in lIe Jivsl IaIJ oJ lIe sixleenlI
cenluv¸
is
pvovided
in EIIen
BeeIe,
'Slvucluve and Texl
Expvession
in lIe Molels oJ
JacoIus
CIenens non
Fapa' |FIB Bissevlalion,
YaIe
Univevsil¸, 1976, UMI-77-14020).
9. TIis is
especiaII¸
lvue oJ lIe
FIv¸gian
nodes and lIe use oJ connixluve. See
BevnIavd
Meiev,
Bie Tonavlen dev IIassiscIen
VoIaIpoI¸pIonie |UlvecIl· OoslIoeI,
ScIeIena and
HoIIena, 1974), pp.
269-314.
10. An
inpovlanl
discussion oJ lIe
veIalionsIip
oJ
pIagaI
and aulIenlic nodes is
Fovevs, op.
cil.
11. TIis
pvoIaII¸
slens Jvon OIavean's use oJ Ave Mavia as an
exanpIe
oJ Iis
H¸po-
ionic node in lIe
deveIopnenl
oJ a lveIve-node
s¸slen. BodecacIovdon,
lvans.
CIenenl MiIIev
|Anevican
Inslilule oJ
MusicoIog¸, 1967),
VoI.
1, p. 236,
VoI.
2,
p.
463.
12.
BeeIe, op. cil., p.
198.
13. TIese devices Iave Ieen exanined

nunevous aulIovs.
Anong inpovlanl
vovIs
MUSIC
ANALYSIS
4·3,
1985 225
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CBISTLE COLLINS
JUBB
ave
BeeIe, op. cil.,
Fvilz
FeIdnan, 'UnlevsucIungen
zun
Wovl-Ton-VevIaIlnis
in den OIovia-Cvedo-Salzen von
BuJa¸
Iis
Josquin',
Musica
BiscipIina,
VoI.
8,
1954, pp. 141-71: Meiev, op. cil., pp. 338-57: JosepI MiiIIev-BIallau,
Bev
VevIaIlnis von Wovl und Ton in dev OescIicIle dev MusiI
|Slullgavl· J.
B.
MelzIev,
1952).
14. TIese
calegovies
ave Iased on
Meiev, op. cil.,
Favl II and
BeeIe, op. cil.,
pp.
266JJ.
15.
LilevaI
devices in Ave Mavia ave discussed in
Ludvig FinscIev,
'Zun
VevIiIlnis
von InilalionslecIniI und Texl
BeIandIung
in ZeilaIlev
Josquins',
Benaissance-
Sludien· HeInulI
OslIoJJ
zun 80.
OeIuvlslag |Tulzing·
Hans
ScIneidev, 1979),
pp.
69-72.
16. TIe JinaI
calegov¸
-
expvessive depavluves
Jvon lIe nodaI novn - incIudes
cIanges
in
an¸
oJ lIe
deJining
cIavaclevislics oJ lIe
pvevaiIing
node. TIese
vav¸
Jvon
sinpIe
neIodic aIlevalion lo unusuaI dislviIulion oJ
cadences,
ov even a
conpIele
sIiJl in lIe
govevning
node Jov a
pIvase
ov
Iongev.
Ave
Mavia, Iovevev,
does nol seen lo use lIese devices Jov
lexl-expvessive puvposes.
Fov an
exanpIe
oJ veII-Inovn nolels oJ
Josquin
vIicI
do,
see A
IsaIon, JiIi
ni ov lIe seconda
pavs
oJ Tu
soIus, qui Jacis
nivaIiIia.
17. Al Ieasl lIvee vevsions oJ lIe lexl oJ lIe Jivsl
slvopIe
oJ Ave Mavia ave exlanl. Fov
a discussion oJ lIe lexl souvce see O.
Benoil-CasleIIi,
'L'Ave Mavia de
Josquin
des
Fvez el Ia
sequence
¨Ave Mavia ...
vivgo
sevena¨
',
Eludes
gvigoviennes,
VoI.
1,
1954, pp. 187-94:
and
JacqueI¸n MallJeId,
'Canlus Fivnus in lIe
LiluvgicaI
Molels oJ
Josquin
des Fvez'
|FIB Bissevlalion,
YaIe
Univevsil¸, 1959,
UMI-66-6841),
pp..43-7,
and 'Sone
BeIalionsIips
Ielveen Texls and Canlus
Fivni in lIe
LiluvgicaI
Molels oJ
Josquin
des
Fves',JAMS,
VoI.
14,
No.
2, 1961,
pp.
171-3.
18. TIis naleviaI is

no neans
'nev', Iovevev,
as viII Ie sIovn in lIe discussion oJ
canlus Jivnus and nolivic
inlegvalion.
19. BicIavd
CvocIev, 'Biscanl, Counlevpoinl,
and
Havnon¸', JAMS,
VoI.
15,
No.
1, 1962, pp.
1-21.
20.
ConlvapunlaI
and inilalive
lIeov¸
viII nol Ie discussed al
IenglI Ieve,
as il Ias
Ieen
expIoved I¸
nunevous vvilevs.
21. A delaiIed exaninalion oJ
nanipuIalion
oJ lexluve and inilalive
lenpovaI
dislance
pvovides
a useJuI Iasis Jov
aiiaI¸sis
and
conpavison
oJ a
gvoup
oJ vovIs as
veII as
insigIl
inlo lIe
speciJic veIalionsIip
oJ
lexl,
lexl
slvucluve,
nusicaI Jovn
and nusicaI slvucluve oJ lIe individuaI
conposilion.
SucI
conpavisons
ave
veadiI¸ acconpIisIed lIvougI
IilevaI
gvapIic vepvesenlalions
oJ lexluvaI-inilalive
slvucluve and
nanipuIalion
oJ inilalive
lenpovaI
dislance
|see
CvislIe CoIIins
Judd,
'An
AnaI¸licaI Slud¸
oJ SeIecled Molels oJ
Josquin
des
Fvez',
M.Mus.
SpeciaI Slud¸, King's CoIIege London, 1984).
A
suvve¸
oJ
l¸pes
oJ inilalive
lecIniques
and lIeiv
appIicalion
in
vovIs oJ
Josquin
is IsaIeIIe
WiIIians,
'ManipuIalion
oJ Inilalive
TenpovaI
Bislance in TexluvaI
Fvogvession
oJ
Josquin
des Fvez'
|FIB Bissevlalion, Univevsil¸
oJ
MicIigan, 1975, UMI-75-20482).
22. TIeve ave
exceplions.
Il is nol unconnon Jov a vovI lo end vilI a
sinpIe
cadence
vIicI is
slvenglIened lIvougI
duvalion valIev lIan
sl¸Iized
ovnanenlalion.
See,
Jov
exanpIe,
lIe JinaI cadence oJ Ave Mavia.
23. TIe
levninoIog¸
used Jov cadence
l¸pes
is Iased on
Meiev, op. cil., pp. 75-102,
and CIavIes
BiII, 'Non-cadenliaI AvlicuIalion oJ Slvucluve in Sone Molels oJ
Josquin
and
Moulon', Cuvvenl
MusicoIog¸,
VoI.
33, 1982, pp.
37-56.
226 MUSIC
ANALYSIS 4·3,
1985
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SOME FBOBLEMS OF
FBE-BABOQUE
ANALYSIS
24. TIe levns
canlizans, lenovizans,
and Iasizans
na¸
Ie used lo indicale lIe slvucluvaI
nolion lo a
cadence:
lIus canlizans indicales an
ascending second,
lenovizans a
descending second,
and Iasizans a
JaIIing
JiJlI lo lIe cadence lone.
Meiev, op. cil.,
adopls
lIese levns Jvon
sevenleenlI-cenluv¸ usage.
25.
UndouIledI¸,
lIe
veIalionsIip
oJ vIelovic and cadenliaI
lIeov¸
in lIis
peviod
couId
Ie oJ use in
JovnuIaling
addilionaI
aspecls
oJ an
anaI¸licaI
nelIod.
26. An exceIIenl
slud¸
is
MallJeId,
'Canlus Fivnus in lIe
LiluvgicaI
Molels oJ
Josquin
des
Fves', op.
cil. See aIso WiIIen
EIdevs,
'FIaincIanl in lIe
Molels, H¸nns,
and
MagniJical
oJ
Josquin
des
Fvez',Josquin
des
Fvez,
ed. E.
LovinsI¸ |London· OUF,
1976), pp.
523- 42.
27. TIe souvce oJ lIis canlus Jivnus is exanined in
Benoil-CasleIIi, op.
cil.
28. TIis Iasis Jov nolivic
anaI¸sis,
devived Jvon lIe
deJining
cIavaclevislics oJ lIe
govevning
node
|vepevcussion, species
oJ JouvlI and
JiJlI, pvincipaI
cadence
lones)
diJJevs in
pvenise
Jvon lIal
pvoposed I¸ Ivving Oodl,
'Molivic
Inlegvalion
in
Josquin's Molels', JouvnaI oJ
Music
TIeov¸,
VoI.
21,
No.
2, 1977, pp. 264-93,
vIicI seeIs a
singIe genevaling
nolive
suIjecled
lo lvansJovnalion
lIvougI
velvogvade, invevsion,
elc.
29.
S¸Ivan KaIiI,
'TIivleen
Essa¸s
Jvon lIe TIvee YeavIooIs
.. .' |FIB
Bissevla-
lion· NovlIveslevn
Univevsil¸, 1973, UMI-73-30626), pp. 372-9,
443-5.
30. FeIix
SaIzev,
SlvucluvaI
Heaving |Nev
YovI·
Bovev, 1962),
Exs
156, 184, 273, 539:
SauI
NovacI,
'TIe
AnaI¸sis
oJ
Fve-Bavoque Music', Aspecls oJScIenIevian TIeov¸,
ed. Bavid BeacI
|Nev
Haven· YaIe
Univevsil¸ Fvess, 1983), pp. 113-34,
'Fusion
oJ
Besign
and TonaI Ovdev in Mass and
Molel',
TIe Music
Fovun,
VoI.
2, 1970,
pp. 187-263,
and 'TonaI Tendencies in
Josquin's
Use oJ
Havnon¸', Josquin
des
Fvez
|London· OUF, 1976), pp. 317-33:
Felev
Bevgquisl,
'Mode and
FoI¸pIon¸
avound 1500·
TIeov¸
and
Fvaclice',
TIe Music
Fovun,
VoI.
1, 1967, pp. 99-161:
Bavid
Slevn,
'TonaI
Ovganizalion
in ModaI
FoI¸pIon¸', TIeov¸
and
Fvaclice,
VoI.
6,
No.
2, 1981, pp. 5-39,
and 'A
Quolalion
Jvon
Josquin
in ScIenIev's Fvee
Conposilion', TIeov¸
and
Fvaclice,
VoI.
7,
No.
2, 1982, pp.
33-40. Slevn aIso
discussed sevevaI
Josquin exanpIes
in a
papev given
al lIe HeinvicI ScIenIev
S¸nposiun
in Nev YovI in MavcI
1985, incIuding
lIe JouvlI
slvopIe
oJ Ave
Mavia . . .
vivgo
sevena as an iIIuslvalion oJ conceaIed
vepelilion.
An
inpovlanl
discussion oJ lIe
appIicalion
oJ
voice-Ieading lecIniques
lo
pve-Bavoque vepevlov-
ies is BanieI
LeecI-WiIIinson,
'MacIaul's
Bose, Iis
and lIe FvoIIen oJ
EavI¸
Music
AnaI¸sis',
Music
AnaI¸sis,
VoI.
3,
No.
1,
MavcI
1984, pp.
9-28. LeecI-
WiIIinson's vovI Ias nol Ieen veJevved lo
diveclI¸
in lIis
avlicIe, Iovevev,
Iecause
oJ ils concenlvalion on MacIaul.
Cvoss-vepevlov¸
veJevence in
anaI¸sis
oJ
pve-
Bavoque
nusic oJ ilseIJ vaises
signiJicanl
issues vIicI ave oulside lIe
scope
oJ lIis
avlicIe.
31. FvedevicI
BasIouv,
'A ModeI Jov lIe
AnaI¸sis
oJ SlvucluvaI LeveIs and TonaI
Movenenl oJ
Conposilions
oJ lIe FiJleenlI
Cenluv¸' |FIB Bissevlalion,
YaIe
Univevsil¸, 1975, UMI-7524499),
and 'Tovavds a Move
Bigovous MelIodoIog¸
Jov
lIe
AnaI¸sis
oJ lIe Fve-TonaI
Bepevlov¸', CoIIege
Music
S¸nposiun,
VoI.
19,
No.
2,
1978, pp.
140-53.
32. An exaninalion oJ a
FIv¸gian
nolel sucI as
Josquin's O
Ione el duIcissine
Jesu
veveaIs
gveal
conlvadiclion Ielveen nodaI and lonaI IievavcIies and iIIuslvales lIe
sensilivil¸
vilI vIicI lIe
anaI¸sl
nusl
appI¸
lIe
lecIniques
discussed Ieve.
MUSIC
ANALYSIS 4·3,
1985 227
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CBISTLE COLLINS
JUBB
OBAFHIC SYMBOLS USEB IN THE AFFENBI7
CadenliaI Beduclion
JovnaI division
=
Jvaning pilcIes
oJ cadenliaI nolion
[
]=
lvo-voice JvanevovI delevnined

inilalive valIev lIan cadenliaI
pvoceduves
= divecled nolion lo cadence
= nodaI-nolivic eIenenls
=
slvucluvaI
voicing
oJ cadence
|canlizans
in lIe
discanlus:
lenovizans in lIe
lenov)
Cadence
l¸pes·
Ex.

B, T:
c2
T¸pe
oJ canlizans lenovizans
IigIesl sounding
cadence· voice voice cadence lone
F= FovnaI
S =
SinpIe
B
=
discanlus
H = HaIJ A
=
aIlus
T = lenov
B = Iassus
Voice-Ieading OvapIs
TIe
gvapIic lecIniques
ave Iased on lIose used

FeIix SaIzev in SlvucluvaI
Heaving.
To oIsevve suIlIe diJJevences in lIe
appIicalion
oJ lIese
lecIniques
lo lIe nusic oJ
Josquin, conpave
Is 40-6 oJ lIe
Appendix
vilI SaIzev's
gvapI |Ex. 273,
SlvucluvaI
Heaving).
TIe
onI¸
Iavnonic
s¸nIoIs
vIicI Iave Ieen used ave V and
I,
vIicI
covvespond
lo lIe Iasizans nolion oJ lIe cadenliaI slvucluve. TIe
gvapI pa¸s pavlicuIav
allenlion lo nodaI-nolivic naleviaIs in ils
disposilion
oJ sIuvs and in lIe indicalion oJ
Iong-levn
nolion.
MUSIC
ANALYSIS 4·3,
1985 229
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CBISTLE COLLINS
JUBB
Appendix
Sequence
1
_
-
CadenliaI
veduclion
H·B,
2B
H· TB,
Fovegvound
I
3
Fovegvound
II
230 MUSIC ANALYSIS
4·3,
1985
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SOME FBOBLEMS OF
FBE-BABOQUE
ANALYSIS
2 vN AJ ¯
c
S·T,B:e1 F·T,A:g

B,T: c2
vI
I
-so
-I
|3)
|I)
MUSIC
ANALYSIS
4·3,
1985 231
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All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
CBISTLE COLLINS
JUBB
--
-----
1-
l------------
-
.
.---
2

B,A:e2
F·T,B.
e

g F·
B,T:
c2
A -
I I 1I
8 6 6 6 6 6 6
8 6 O
667-
I
8
3
3334-3
5
|V
)
/ a -- -
Z- N·
232 MUSIC
ANALYSIS 4·3,
1985
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All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
SOME FBOBLEMS OF
FBE-BABOQUE
ANALYSIS
iI
e
II

BA:c2 F·T,B:c1
F·BT:c2
S/I1
- p
C- *-j'
F
IC
MUSIC ANALYSIS
4·3,
1985 233
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All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
CBISTLE COLLINS
JUBB
AIV
vv

BA: g1

B,T: g

A,B: e1
F·TB.:c1
6lI
II
/'
I I |
OLL
3 2
-.
cI
/ -
-¯ .- p -*
F- ¯ F
|3 2 i
ez -¯ -
234 MUSIC ANALYSIS
4·3,
1985
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All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
SOME FBOBLEMS OF
FBE-BABOQUE
ANALYSIS
Al
HA,
c H·A,
:C1
H· T:
c F·
BT:c2
i-v - 3 2 1
77 1
----------
/
-
.p
-
-

l\
v
I___
___ ___
_' 'W 'I --' B
..Wp
__-
i.-
.A.
_ _
___-_-
. . -0
-4--
I
¯i
MUSIC ANALYSIS 4·3,
1985
235
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All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
CBISTLE COLLINS
JUBB
70
AV--
-
,*,,.
-4

B,T:g
F.
B: T, g
c.S.
236 MUSIC ANALYSIS 4·3,
1985
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All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
SOME FBOBLEMS OF
FBE-BABOQUE
ANALYSIS
O
v
S·T,
B.eI
S·T,B:
c
-÷----
-9-
-
-------
MUSIC ANALYSIS 4·3,
1985
237
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CBISTLE COLLINS
JUBB
O?
O?O
|CIosing
.
I
MiddIcegIoundI
I
|S·A,
B:gI)F·
BT: c2
N 32
SMiddIcgvolnd
II/1
BacIgIovound
IF
I I
I
238 MUSIC ANALYSIS 4·3,
1985
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SOME FBOBLEMS OF
FBE-BABOQUE
ANALYSIS
O OO O O? O O O O O
|321) |3
-
2 21)
:,
1 -I
cs. I I
I
N 32¯
VI
MUSIC ANALYSIS
4·3,
1985 239
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