PROJECT #1 SINE-∆ PWM INVERTER

JIN-WOO JUNG, PH.D STUDENT
E-mail: jung.103@osu.edu Tel.: (614) 292-3633

ADVISOR: PROF. ALI KEYHANI

DATE: FEBRUARY 20, 2005

MECHATRONIC SYSTEMS LABORATORY DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND COMPUTER ENGINEERING THE OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY

1. Problem Description

In this simulation, we will study Sine-∆ Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) technique. We will use the SEMIKRON® IGBT Flexible Power Converter for this purpose. The system configuration is given below:

Fig. 1 Circuit model of three-phase PWM inverter with a center-taped grounded DC bus. The system parameters for this converter are as follows: IGBTs: SEMIKRON SKM 50 GB 123D, Max ratings: VCES = 600 V, IC = 80 A DC- link voltage: Vdc = 400 V Fundamental frequency: f = 60 Hz PWM (carrier) frequency: fz = 3 kHz Modulation index: m = 0.8 Output filter: Lf = 800 µH and Cf = 400 µF Load: Lload = 2 mH and Rload = 5 Ω Using Matlab/Simulink, simulate the circuit model described in Fig. 1 and plot the waveforms of Vi (= [ViAB ViBC ViCA]), Ii (= [iiA iiB iiC]), VL (= [VLAB VLBC VLCA]), and IL (= [iLA iLB iLC]). 2

2. Sine-∆ PWM
2.1 Principle of Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) Fig. 2 shows circuit model of a single-phase inverter with a center-taped grounded DC bus, and Fig 3 illustrates principle of pulse width modulation.

Fig. 2 Circuit model of a single-phase inverter.

Fig. 3 Pulse width modulation. As depicted in Fig. 3, the inverter output voltage is determined in the following: When Vcontrol > Vtri, VA0 = Vdc/2 When Vcontrol < Vtri, VA0 = −Vdc/2

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Also, the inverter output voltage has the following features: PWM frequency is the same as the frequency of Vtri Amplitude is controlled by the peak value of Vcontrol Fundamental frequency is controlled by the frequency of Vcontrol Modulation index (m) is defined as:
vcontrol peak of (V A0 )1 = , vtri Vdc / 2 VA0

∴m =

where, (VA0 )1 : fundamental frequecny component of

2.2 Three-Phase Sine-∆ PWM Inverter Fig. 4 shows circuit model of three-phase PWM inverter and Fig. 5 shows waveforms of carrier wave signal (Vtri) and control signal (Vcontrol), inverter output line to neutral voltage (VA0, VB0, VC0), inverter output line to line voltages (VAB, VBC, VCA), respectively.

Fig. 4 Three-phase PWM Inverter.

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Fig. 5 Waveforms of three-phase sine-∆ PWM inverter. As described in Fig. 5, the frequency of Vtri and Vcontrol is: Frequency of Vtri = fs Frequency of Vcontrol = f1 where, fs = PWM frequency and f1 = Fundamental frequency The inverter output voltages are determined as follows: When Vcontrol > Vtri, VA0 = Vdc/2 When Vcontrol < Vtri, VA0 = −Vdc/2 where, VAB = VA0 – VB0, VBC = VB0 – VC0, VCA = VC0 – VA0

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3. State-Space Model
Fig. 6 shows L-C output filter to obtain current and voltage equations.

Fig. 6 L-C output filter for current/voltage equations. By applying Kirchoff’s current law to nodes a, b, and c, respectively, the following current equations are derived: node “a”:

iiA + ica = i ab + i LA

⇒ iiA + C f

dV LCA dV LAB =Cf + i LA . dt dt

(1)

node “b”:

iiB + i ab = ibc + i LB

⇒ iiB + C f

dV LBC dV LAB =Cf + i LB . dt dt

(2)

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node “c”:

iiC + ibc = ica + i LC

⇒ iiC + C f

dV LBC dV LCA =Cf + i LC . dt dt

(3)

where, iab = C f

dVLBC dVLCA dVLAB , ibc = C f , ica = C f . dt dt dt

Also, (1) to (3) can be rewritten as the following equations, respectively: subtracting (2) from (1):
dV ⎞ dV ⎞ ⎛ dV ⎛ dV iiA − iiB + C f ⎜ LCA − LAB ⎟ = C f ⎜ LAB − LBC ⎟ + i LA − i LB dt ⎠ dt ⎠ ⎝ dt ⎝ dt dV dV ⎞ ⎛ dV ⇒ C f ⎜ LCA + LBC − 2 ⋅ LAB ⎟ = −iiA + iiB + i LA − i LB dt dt ⎠ ⎝ dt

.

(4)

subtracting (3) from (2):
dV ⎞ dV ⎞ ⎛ dV ⎛ dV iiB − iiC + C f ⎜ LAB − LBC ⎟ = C f ⎜ LBC − LCA ⎟ + i LB − i LC dt ⎠ dt ⎠ ⎝ dt ⎝ dt dV dV ⎞ ⎛ dV ⇒ C f ⎜ LAB + LCA − 2 ⋅ LBC ⎟ = −iiB + iiC + i LB − i LC dt dt ⎠ ⎝ dt

.

(5)

subtracting (1) from (3):
dV ⎞ dV ⎞ ⎛ dV ⎛ dV iiC − iiA + C f ⎜ LBC − LCA ⎟ = C f ⎜ LCA − LAB ⎟ + i LC − i LA dt ⎠ dt ⎠ ⎝ dt ⎝ dt dV dV ⎞ ⎛ dV ⇒ C f ⎜ LAB + LBC − 2 ⋅ LCA ⎟ = −iiC + iiA + i LC − i LA dt dt ⎠ ⎝ dt

.

(6)

To simplify (4) to (6), we use the following relationship that an algebraic sum of line to line load voltages is equal to zero:

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VLAB + VLBC + VLCA = 0. Based on (7), the (4) to (6) can be modified to a first-order differential equation, respectively:
⎧ dV LAB 1 1 (i LAB ) iiAB − = ⎪ 3C f 3C f ⎪ dt ⎪ dV LBC 1 1 iiBC − (i LB C ) , = ⎨ dt 3C f 3C f ⎪ ⎪ dV LCA 1 1 (i LCA ) iiCA − = ⎪ 3C f 3C f dt ⎩

(7)

(8)

where, iiAB = iiA ─ iiB, iiBC = iiB ─ iiC, iiCA = iiC ─ iiA and iLAB = iLA ─ iLB, iLBC = iLB ─ iLC, iLCA = iLC ─ iLA.

By applying Kirchoff’s voltage law on the side of inverter output, the following voltage equations can be derived:
⎧ diiAB 1 1 V LAB + ViAB =− ⎪ Lf Lf ⎪ dt ⎪ diiBC 1 1 V LBC + ViBC . =− ⎨ Lf Lf ⎪ dt ⎪ diiCA 1 1 ⎪ dt = − L V LCA + L ViCA f f ⎩

(9)

By applying Kirchoff’s voltage law on the load side, the following voltage equations can be derived:
⎧ ⎪V LAB = Lload ⎪ ⎪ ⎨V LBC = Lload ⎪ ⎪ ⎪V LCA = Lload ⎩

di LA di + Rload i LA − Lload LB − Rload i LB dt dt di LC di LB + Rload i LB − Lload − Rload i LC . dt dt di LC di + Rload i LC − Lload LA − Rload i LA dt dt

(10)

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Equation (10) can be rewritten as:
⎧ di LAB R 1 V LAB = − load i LAB + ⎪ Lload Lload ⎪ dt ⎪ di LBC R 1 ⎪ V LBC . = − load i LBC + ⎨ Lload Lload ⎪ dt ⎪ di LCA R 1 V LCA = − load i LCA + ⎪ ⎪ dt Lload Lload ⎩

(11)

Therefore, we can rewrite (8), (9) and (11) into a matrix form, respectively:

dVL 1 1 = Ii − IL 3C f 3C f dt dI i 1 1 =− VL + Vi dt Lf Lf R dI L 1 = VL − load I L dt Lload Lload where, VL = [VLAB VLBC VLCA]T , Ii = [iiAB iiBC iiCA]T = [iiA-iiB iiB-iiC iiC-iiA]T , Vi = [ViAB ViBC ViCA]T , IL = = [iLAB iLBC iLCA]T = [iLA-iLB iLB-iLC iLC-iLA]T. Finally, the given plant model (12) can be expressed as the following continuous-time state space equation
& X(t ) = AX(t ) + Bu(t ) ,

,

(12)

(13)

⎡ ⎢ 0 3×3 ⎢ VL ⎤ ⎡ ⎢ I i ⎥ , A = ⎢− 1 I where, X = ⎢ L 3×3 ⎢ ⎥ f I L ⎥ 9×1 ⎢ ⎢ ⎦ ⎣ ⎢ 1 I 3×3 ⎢L ⎣ load

1 I 3×3 3C f 0 3×3 0 3×3

⎤ 1 I 3×3 ⎥ ⎡ 0 3×3 ⎤ 3C f ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ , B = ⎢ 1 I 3×3 ⎥ , u = [V ] . 0 3×3 i 3×1 ⎥ ⎢Lf ⎥ ⎥ ⎢0 ⎥ Rload ⎥ ⎣ 3×3 ⎦ 9×3 − I 3×3 ⎥ Lload ⎦ 9×9 −

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Note that load line to line voltage VL, inverter output current Ii, and the load current IL are the state variables of the system, and the inverter output line-to-line voltage Vi is the control input (u).

4. Simulation Steps
1). Initialize system parameters using Matlab 2). Build Simulink Model Generate carrier wave (Vtri) and control signal (Vcontrol) based on modulation index (m) Compare Vtri to Vcontrol to get ViAn, ViBn, ViCn. Generate the inverter output voltages (ViAB, ViBC, ViCA,) for control input (u) Build state-space model Send data to Workspace 3). Plot simulation results using Matlab

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5. Simulation results

Vtri and Vsin and ViAn Vtri, Vsin [V] 1 0 -1 0.902 0.904 0.906 0.908 0.91 0.912 0.914 0.916 0.918 0.92 Vtri Vsin

0.9 500 ViAn [V]

0

-500 0.9 Vtri, Vsin [V] 1 0 -1

0.902

0.904

0.906

0.908

0.91

0.912

0.914

0.916

0.918 Vtri Vsin

0.92

0.9 500 ViAn [V]

0.901

0.902

0.903

0.904

0.905

0.906

0.907

0.908

0.909

0

-500 0.9

0.901

0.902

0.903

0.904 0.905 T ime [Sec]

0.906

0.907

0.908

0.909

Fig. 7 Waveforms of carrier wave, control signal, and inverter output line to neutral voltage. (a) Carrier wave (Vtri) and control signal (Vsin) (b) Inverter output line to neutral voltage (ViAn) (c) Enlarged carrier wave (Vtri) and control signal (Vsin) (d) Enlarged inverter output line to neutral voltage (ViAn)

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Inv erter output line to line v oltages (ViAB, ViBC ViC ) , A 500

ViAB [V]

0

-500 0.9 500

0.91

0.92

0.93

0.94

0.95

0.96

0.97

0.98

0.99

1

ViBC [V]

0

-500 0.9 500

0.91

0.92

0.93

0.94

0.95

0.96

0.97

0.98

0.99

1

ViC [V] A

0

-500 0.9

0.91

0.92

0.93

0.94

0.95 T ime [Sec]

0.96

0.97

0.98

0.99

1

Fig. 8 Simulation results of inverter output line to line voltages (ViAB, ViBC, ViCA)

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Inv erter output currents (iiA, iiB, iiC ) 100 50 iiA [A] 0 -50 -100 0.9 100 50 iiB [A] 0 -50 -100 0.9 100 50 iiC [A] 0 -50 -100 0.9 0.91 0.92 0.93 0.94 0.95 T ime [Sec] 0.96 0.97 0.98 0.99 1 0.91 0.92 0.93 0.94 0.95 0.96 0.97 0.98 0.99 1 0.91 0.92 0.93 0.94 0.95 0.96 0.97 0.98 0.99 1

Fig. 9 Simulation results of inverter output currents (iiA, iiB, iiC)

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Load line to line v oltages (VLAB, VLBC VLC ) , A 400 200 VLAB [V] 0 -200 -400 0.9 400 200 VLBC [V] 0 -200 -400 0.9 400 200 VLC [V] A 0 -200 -400 0.9 0.91 0.92 0.93 0.94 0.95 T ime [Sec] 0.96 0.97 0.98 0.99 1 0.91 0.92 0.93 0.94 0.95 0.96 0.97 0.98 0.99 1 0.91 0.92 0.93 0.94 0.95 0.96 0.97 0.98 0.99 1

Fig. 10 Simulation results of load line to line voltages (VLAB, VLBC, VLCA)

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Load phase currents (iLA, iLB, iLC ) 50

iLA [A]

0

-50 0.9 50

0.91

0.92

0.93

0.94

0.95

0.96

0.97

0.98

0.99

1

iLB [A]

0

-50 0.9 50

0.91

0.92

0.93

0.94

0.95

0.96

0.97

0.98

0.99

1

iLC [A]

0

-50 0.9

0.91

0.92

0.93

0.94

0.95 T ime [Sec]

0.96

0.97

0.98

0.99

1

Fig. 11 Simulation results of load phase currents (iLA, iLB, iLC)

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500 ViAB [V]

0

-500 0.9 100 iiA, iiB, iiC [A]

0.91

0.92

0.93

0.94

0.95

0.96

0.97

0.98

0.99 iiA

1

0

iiB iiC 0.91 0.92 0.93 0.94 0.95 0.96 0.97 0.98 0.99 VLAB VLBC VLC A 0.91 0.92 0.93 0.94 0.95 0.96 0.97 0.98 0.99 iLA 1 1

VLAB, VLBC VLC [V] , A iLA, iLB, iLC [A]

-100 0.9 400 200 0 -200 -400 0.9 50

0

iLB iLC 0.91 0.92 0.93 0.94 0.95 T ime [Sec] 0.96 0.97 0.98 0.99 1

-50 0.9

Fig. 12 Simulation waveforms. (a) Inverter output line to line voltage (ViAB) (b) Inverter output current (iiA) (c) Load line to line voltage (VLAB) (d) Load phase current (iLA)

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Appendix
Matlab/Simulink Codes

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A.1 Matlab Code for System Parameters
% Written by Jin Woo Jung, Date: 02/20/05 % ECE743, Simulation Project #1 (Sine PWM Inverter) % Matlab program for Parameter Initialization clear all % clear workspace % Input data Vdc= 400; % DC-link voltage Lf= 800e-6;% Inductance for output filter Cf= 400e-6; % Capacitance for output filter Lload = 2e-3; %Load inductance Rload= 5; % Load resistance f= 60; % Fundamental frequency fz = 3e3; % Switching frequency m= 0.8; % Modulation index % Coefficients for State-Space Model A=[zeros(3,3) -eye(3)/Lf eye(3)/(3*Cf) zeros(3,3) -eye(3)/(3*Cf) zeros(3,3) -eye(3)*Rload/Lload]; % system matrix

eye(3,3)/Lload zeros(3,3) B=[zeros(3,3) eye(3)/Lf

zeros(3,3)]; % coefficient for the control variable u C=[eye(9)]; % coefficient for the output y D=[zeros(9,3)]; % coefficient for the output y Ks = 1/3*[-1 0 1; 1 -1 0; 0 1 -1]; % Conversion matrix to transform [iiAB iiBC iiCA] to [iiA iiB iiC]

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A.2 Matlab Code for Plotting the Simulation Results
% Written by Jin Woo Jung % Date: 02/20/05 % ECE743, Simulation Project #1 (Sine-PWM) % Matlab program for plotting Simulation Results % using Simulink ViAB = Vi(:,1); ViBC = Vi(:,2); ViCA = Vi(:,3); VLAB= VL(:,1); VLBC= VL(:,2); VLCA= VL(:,3); iiA= IiABC(:,1); iiB= IiABC(:,2); iiC= IiABC(:,3); iLA= ILABC(:,1); iLB= ILABC(:,2); iLC= ILABC(:,3);

figure(1) subplot(3,1,1) plot(t,ViAB) axis([0.9 1 -500 500]) ylabel('V_i_A_B [V]') title('Inverter output line to line voltages (V_i_A_B, V_i_B_C, V_i_C_A)')

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grid subplot(3,1,2) plot(t,ViBC) axis([0.9 1 -500 500]) ylabel('V_i_B_C [V]') grid subplot(3,1,3) plot(t,ViCA) axis([0.9 1 -500 500]) ylabel('V_i_C_A [V]') xlabel('Time [Sec]') grid

figure(2) subplot(3,1,1) plot(t,iiA) axis([0.9 1 -100 100]) ylabel('i_i_A [A]') title('Inverter output currents (i_i_A, i_i_B, i_i_C)') grid subplot(3,1,2) plot(t,iiB) axis([0.9 1 -100 100]) ylabel('i_i_B [A]') grid subplot(3,1,3)

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plot(t,iiC) axis([0.9 1 -100 100]) ylabel('i_i_C [A]') xlabel('Time [Sec]') grid figure(3) subplot(3,1,1) plot(t,VLAB) axis([0.9 1 -400 400]) ylabel('V_L_A_B [V]') title('Load line to line voltages (V_L_A_B, V_L_B_C, V_L_C_A)') grid subplot(3,1,2) plot(t,VLBC) axis([0.9 1 -400 400]) ylabel('V_L_B_C [V]') grid subplot(3,1,3) plot(t,VLCA) axis([0.9 1 -400 400]) ylabel('V_L_C_A [V]') xlabel('Time [Sec]') grid figure(4) subplot(3,1,1) plot(t,iLA) axis([0.9 1 -50 50])

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ylabel('i_L_A [A]') title('Load phase currents (i_L_A, i_L_B, i_L_C)') grid subplot(3,1,2) plot(t,iLB) axis([0.9 1 -50 50]) ylabel('i_L_B [A]') grid subplot(3,1,3) plot(t,iLC) axis([0.9 1 -50 50]) ylabel('i_L_C [A]') xlabel('Time [Sec]') grid figure(5) subplot(4,1,1) plot(t,ViAB) axis([0.9 1 -500 500]) ylabel('V_i_A_B [V]') grid subplot(4,1,2) plot(t,iiA,'-', t,iiB,'-.',t,iiC,':') axis([0.9 1 -100 100]) ylabel('i_i_A, i_i_B, i_i_C [A]') legend('i_i_A', 'i_i_B', 'i_i_C') grid

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subplot(4,1,3) plot(t,VLAB,'-', t,VLBC,'-.',t,VLCA,':') axis([0.9 1 -400 400]) ylabel('V_L_A_B, V_L_B_C, V_L_C_A [V]') legend('V_L_A_B', 'V_L_B_C', 'V_L_C_A') grid subplot(4,1,4) plot(t,iLA,'-', t,iLB,'-.',t,iLC,':') axis([0.9 1 -50 50]) ylabel('i_L_A, i_L_B, i_L_C [A]') legend('i_L_A', 'i_L_B', 'i_L_C') xlabel('Time [Sec]') grid

%For only Sine PWM figure(6) subplot(4,1,1) plot(t,Vtri,'-', t,Vsin,'-.') axis([0.9 0.917 -1.5 1.5]) ylabel('V_t_r_i, V_s_i_n [V]') legend('V_t_r_i', 'V_s_i_n') title('V_t_r_i and V_s_i_n') grid subplot(4,1,2) plot(t,ViAn) axis([0.9 0.917 -500 500]) ylabel('V_i_A_n [V]') grid

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subplot(4,1,3) plot(t,Vtri,'-', t,Vsin,'-.') axis([0.9 0.909 -1.5 1.5]) ylabel('V_t_r_i, V_s_i_n [V]') legend('V_t_r_i', 'V_s_i_n') grid subplot(4,1,4) plot(t,ViAn) axis([0.9 0.909 -500 500]) ylabel('V_i_A_n [V]') xlabel('Time [Sec]') grid

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A.3 Simulink Code

Simulink Model for Overall System

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Simulink Model for “Sine-PWM Generator”

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