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CHAPTER 2

Researching For a Paper


* What do you looking for in writing a research paper
! find new ways to use or understand info already a"aila#le$
! generate new knowledge$
! turn data you already ha"e into sa%ething %ore useful #y
adding a little of your inspiration$
! looking for info & that is already a"aila#le to help de"elop
ideas and %aking our ideas stranger and %ore tena#le$
* What are types of infor%ation$
'$ Pri%ary info & gain through e(perience$
2$ )econdary info & data get when so%eone relates his*her
finding or e(perience to other people or recording it$
+$ Tertiary info & the produce of people reflecting on the things
they or other people ha"e recorded$
* ,n line searching$
)earch Engines$
'$ straight forward search engines & searches its own data
#ase$
2$ the %et a search engine & searches a nu%#er of other
search engines for info$
E & te(ts
! co%plete #ooks and other long docu%ents$
! their copyright li%its ha"e e(pired$
!they are o"er 2- years old$
! #ut they do pro"ide in depth knowledge on %any areas$
*.irtual li#raries and oneline resources$
! access to actual li#raries through and li#rary syste%s$
! date processing progra%%es that keep track of #ooks
a"ai#le$
* The li#rary
! a well stocked and e/uipped li#rary is the #est source of in &
depth info$
* How to use a li#rary
! %ust #e organised
! #ooks can #e #orrowed
organised using the classification syste%$
!according to their su#0ect areas$
!1ewey syste% & #ased on %e%#ers$
!2i#rary of congress syste% & #ased on alpha#ets$
i$ call nu%#er
ii$ author3s na%e$
iii$ year of pu#lication$
i"$ %e%#er of copies a"aila#le$
* The Encyclopedia$
Ad"antage & gi"e a direct /uick look at the or idea you a
researching$
! looking for #asic infor%ation and in"ol"e proceses & look for
hand#ooks or %anuals$
! looking for other related words & use the dictionasies and
le(icons$
!infor%ation an places & look in the atleses$
!/uotations & consult /uotation #ooks$
!unleed to specific indi"iduals look up dictionation4
#iographies$
* Always look in the inde( first if you are searching for
infor%ation in the encyclopedia$
,n line searching
!search engine4 ! E!te(ts4
! "irtual li#raries and on!line resources$
The li#rary$
!the classification syste%$
! encyclopedia$
CHAPTER +
Writing the research paper$
)tep ' & refine your thesis state%ent$
! #ear in %ind the re/uired world & length of the paper$
! 2ook at the thesis state%ent to see whether it is clear4
warka#le and a#le to ser"e to guide for the whole research
paper$
! 2ook for the origins of the pro#le% on issue you are
e(a%inings$
! Pick up thread or line of thought$1i"ide into +5
! general su#0ect on area$
! spesific topic
! suggested thesis state%ent$
)tep 2 & write topic sentences and gi"e the% supporting
details$
! con"ey ideas that are easily understand and coherent &
rela"ant to the pri%ary thesis and %ust #e logically related to
one another$
! ,rganising idea according to ti%e and chronological for one
%ain idea$
)tep + & organising and connect your supporting details$
! organise idea according to ti%e and chronological order &
order of e%phasis 6using %arkers7 and using transitional
signals to connect details and argu%ents$
)tep 8 & writing clear sentences$
!easy to read and understand$
! not too long$
! co%plete sentence & one idea$
! a"oid writing frag%ents$
! careful of dependent words which$
!does not %ean %uch like if4 in order to$
! a"oid run sentences & two co%plete sentences without any
connecting$!correct "er# for%$
!su#0ects and "er#s %ust agree$
!proper use of pronouns$
!correct spelling$
!correct "oca#ulary$
!"ery stence structure$
CHAPTER 8
Referencing and editing$
9aking :uates and References$
Why
! to acknowledge ideas fro% other
writers$
! to let other4 readers know that you ha"e
done your ho%ework$
* :uoting
& #uilding /uotations into your prose$
! using fullstops and co%%as correctly$
! punctuation %arks not fro% an original
te(t placed the% ofter the last
/uotation %ark$
! include the na%e of the author4 the date
and the page 6na%e4year4page7
! :uoting short pieces4 8- words or less$
! :uoting longer pieces & indent the paragraph$
! ;sing ellipees and interpolation$
e$g The students responded$$$$in a co%prehension4
/uestioning session$
! the ethics of /uoting & do not
change the original words$
The Art of Editing$
When A day after we ha"e finished writing$
A & Editing For 2anguage$
'$ Clear sentences & easy toread and understand$
2$ Clear sentences & not too long$
+$ White co%plete sentences$
8$ A"oid writing frag%ents 6 in co%plete sentences7
<$ =e careful of dependent words 6after4 through4 #ecause4 etc7
& %ake sure the sentences they connected to is not %issing$
>$ A"oid run & out sentences 6two sentences put together
without connecting %arks7$
?$ ;se correct "er# for%s and su#0ect & "er# & agree%ent$
@$ ;se the correct pronouns$
A$ ;se correct purtuations %arks$
'-$ ;se correct spelling$
=$ Editing for content$
'$ 9ust #e coherent & e"ery ite% and e"ery thought %ust #e
rele"ant to the pri%ary thesis$
2$ ,rganise your paragraphs & one paragraphs are %ain idea$
CHAPTER <
Bntroduction of letter writing
What are the #asic of letter writing$
'$ Address* write and reader$
2$ Bntroduction * greeting4 thank4 info$
a$ always greet our reader*recipient
e$g 1ear )ir*9ada%4 1ear 1ato3 4
)ir or 9ada%
#$ Bf replying 4 always acknowledge the past letter or thank
her*hi% for writing$
e$g Bn response to your letter dated '2 Canuary 2--24 B would
like to $$$
e$g firstly4 B thank you for your interest in our co%pany$$$
c$ )elf & introduction 6hu%ility7
Bntroduce yourself for the first ti%e letter$
e$g D B a% writing to you on #ehalf of$$E is fine if you are writing
in as a representati"e of your organiFation$
d$ =e fle(i#le and creati"e$
Gi"e your reader a clear idea$
+$9iddle &content and purpose
! is the largest part$
! the sentences should #e short and precise
! straight to the point 6not flowering7
! always acknowledge and "alue the interest of your recipient$
! it should read and flow well$
8$ the end of the letter$
! #e co%ple%entary and polite$
! use a proper salutation$
e$g yours truly or yours sincerely$
Why we write a letter$
'$ to contact the reader who% we cannot %eet in person$
2$ they allow us to structure our thought in accurately$
+$can file or keep to and refer #ack when needed$
Hints in the letter writing$
'$ 1on3t write in haste #ut need to spend ti%e on$
2$ our thought %ust clear$
+$ need so%e practices$
CHAPTER >
The parts of a for%al letter$
'$ the letter head$
2$ the address$
+$ the date$
8$ the recipient3s adress$
<$ salutations$
>$ the su#0ect line
?$ the introduction$
@$ the %iddle*#ody
A$ the ending$
'-$ your closing solutations
''$ the sender3s na%e$
'2$ the sender3s tittle*position$
Type of letter$
'$ ,riginal letter
2$ Replying letter$
+$ Follow up letter
! unnoticed4 ! re%inder
8$ Conferences letter
1ifferences #etween writing an original letter and writing a
reply letter$
,riginal letter$
! you write a letter$
! Want infor%ation$
Reply letter$
! they ha"e sent you a letter$
! Gi"e infor%ation$
Follow up letter $Why
! your letter %ay ha"e #een unnoticed
! to %ake sure that your contacts
ha"e infor%ation a#out your
#usiness
! gi"e other person a chance$
! Cheaper that getting legal council
CHAPTER ?
,riginal For%al 2etters
For original letters /uestion asked are5
'$ What is the pri%ary purpose of %y letter
2$ What do B want %y reader to know or do
+$ Bs there a second purpose
8$ Why do B want hi%*her*the% to know or do this
<$ How will they #enefit if they do what B want the% to do or
know
>$ Points that B want to include in %y letter$
?$ What approach do B want %y letter to take
How to add su#stance to your plan sheets
! transfer the sentences or ideas into a language that is %ore
fitting for for%al letter #y translating the plans into %ore
appropriate language$
CHAPTER @
Why do we need to reply letters and follow up letters$
'$ =ecause people needs %ore infor%ation$
2$ Bt is a tool of co%%unication$
+$ when the first letter did not gra# their attention$
What is the difference #etween original letters and reply
letters
,riginal letters are letters you send to so%eone #ut reply
letters is written to answer to so%eone who has sent a letter to
you$
Plan sheet for reply letter
'$ What is pri%ary purpose of the letter
2$ What does the writer want to know or what %e to do
CHAPTER A
F;H1A9EHTA2 )IB22)
Acade%ic Reading
'$ has to #e deli#erate & pay close attention to details & a#le to
use that info later$
2$ collecting infor%ation & trying to understand process &
facing different people with different puspecti"e on the sa%e$
+$ pleasura#le4 interesting and challenging$
8$ to ec/uire knowledge rele"ant to a specific course$
<$ ac/uire info that allow you e(ecute specific tasks like writing
an essay4 etc$
The Purpose ,f Acade%ic Reading$
To ac/uire5
'$ Bnfo & facts and opinions$
2$ Ter%inology and definitions$
+$ 9odels and paradig%s$
8$ Ha%es and deeds$
<$ How to process$
>$ Reading essential te(ts$
?$ Reading for and as assig%ent
@$ Reading for re"ision$
What do you get fro% reading
! to access specific kinds of infor%ation$
Why is it hard to differentiate #etween infor%ation facts and
opinions
'$ 9ost acade%ic authors try to con"ince that they are right$
2$ We ha"e atendency for us to accept so%ething 6idea4etc7 as
correct only #ecause it co%es fro% a #ook$
Clues that show the difference$
2e(ical clues$
e$g indicati"e words$
B #elie"e4 we propose %odal "er#s
5 %ust4 inargua#le4 perhaps4
esentially$
Why is reading essential te(ts
i%portant
=ecause we need to5
'$ know so that we can confidently
take e(a%inations$
2$ do assig%ents$
E"ery acade%ic disipline has a language of its own & these
languages are %ade up of special words called ter%inology$
Each of these na%e has its own definition its own %eaning$
How do you look for the %eaning of the ter%inology and
defination
'$ refer to the dictionary which is specified for a particular
discipline$
2$ When the defination different fro% one author to another4 it
is i%portant to ha"e you own understand of what the words
%ean$
9odel and Paradig%$
! a fra%ework of sche%e through which practitioners of the
decipline see and %ake sense of the word they o#ser"e$Thru
their own understanding$
Ha%es and 1eeds
B%portant na%es related to acade%ic
1iciplines$
How to recognise a paradig%
A paradig% often has its own worlds for
things5
!#oth real and a#stract
Bf words or ter%inology are #rought
together ! language is for%ed that can
e(plain the world4 %uch %ore accurate
than plain language$
The characteristics of process 6pg @27
'$ They are se/uential #ut when written
they %ay not #e presented in se/uence they work it$
2$ The se/uences are often laid out clearly$
+$ Each steps has its reasons$
Reading For Assign%ents
Why is reading for assign%ent has a sense
of urgency in it
=ecause
'$ Bf you do not read4 you will not ha"e enough info to co%plete
tasks$
2$ Jou will run out of ti%e
+$ if you do not do your assign%ent well4 you will get good
%arks$
How do you fulfill your assign%ents well
! analyse the tasks gi"en carefully
! understand keywords & defining*paraphrasing or e(plicating
the%
! need to look for a"aila#le solutions
! Heed to plan out how you intend to co%plete the assign%ent
When do %odels and paradig%s show up
! when they are used in analysis
! when you analyse the thinking of the author
Co%%on sense principles a#out language
'$ The word is not the thing
2$ Hard to pin down the %eanings of general4 a#stract4 relati"e
ter%s$
+$ Conte(t deter%ines %eanings$
8$ 1on3t %i( inference and facts$
<$ There are different kinds of truth$
>$ )o%e state%ents infor% other direct
?$ Words ha"e hidden e%otional content$
Reading For Re"ision
Bn re"ision5
! we already know the te(t 6no looking for new info 7
! reading to clarify your %e%ory of te(ts
What do you do in re"ision
! %ake certain of things already known a#out the su#0ect$
! Heed to identify he parts4 issues4 etc need to clarified$
! Heed to distinguish #etween things to %e%orise and things
to understand$
Why should you read early in the course
=ecause there is often %uch to do in the course you take$
What are the two technic/ues of fast reading
)ki%%ing and scanning$
)ki%%ing
! try to pick out i%portant points
! looking for so%ething in particular
)canning
! looking for o"erall structure of the te(t
! #y running your eyes /uickly ones a #lock of te(t$
CHAPTER '-
):+R Reading
):+R & )ur"ey4 :uestion 4 Read4 Recite and Re"iew
! it is a study skill %ethod
! teach how to e(tract4 process4 store4 use infor%ation you
gain fro% your reading in effecti"e and useful ways$
Why ):+R
! we learn and re%e%#er things #etter when they %ake sense
! we %ake an e%otional connection to the issue i$e ena#le us
to %ake connections in the knowledge gain$
! Bt %akes us read and learn %ore effecti"ely$
);R.EJ
What do we look for when we sur"ey the te(t
'$ Read and undestand the title
2$ Read the introduction and su%%ary$
+$ Take note of each #old face heading and su#heading$
8$ look for reading aids 6italics4 #old print7 and graphics
6charts4 %aps4 diagra%s7
Why do we sur"ey
=ecause it sa"es us a lot of ti%e to understand the te(t$
:uestioning The Te(t
How do we /uestion the te(t
Take the #oldface headings and turn each of the% into a
/uestion
REA1BHG THE TEKT
What %ust you ha"e #efore starting the reading of the te(t
! #uilt an ela#orate %ental structure that needs to #e fleshed
out$
How do you read
! %ake /uestions and outline are hardy
! read acti"ely with /uestions in %ind
! read section #y section
! after each section4 try to answer the /uestions written$
! Re"iew what you ha"e read
! Gi"e yoursel"es /uiFFes or with apartner
How do we enhance reading
! use a highlighter to %ark i%p$ Points
! set a ti%e goal so that ou can pace your reading
Points to re%e%#er
! read at your own co%forta#le speed
! concentrate when you read & find a co%forta#le and /uiet
place to read$
RECBTBHG AH1 RECA22BHG THE TEKT
)teps to recite and recall
'$ recite the te(t as you read & help your %ind to concentrate
on the te(t$
2$ recall the /uestions for the section and see if you can
answer the%$ Bf not read again$
+$ ;se %ne%onics to re%e%#er$
8$ Write down key words4 key phrases and points$
Why do we recite and recall
! To ensure that you understand the %aterial
! To %ake sure you ha"e understood and re%e%#ered the
%aterial after you read it$
Points o re%e%#er while reciting and recalling
;se your own words
RE.BEWBHG THE TEKT)
How do we re"iew
'$ Go through the te(t again
2$ look at the /uestions for%ulated #efore and answer the%$
+$ look at the keywords and phrases for each section$
8$ Bf we can re%e%#er what the i%p$ things for each section
are then re"iewing is done$