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# COURSE OUTLINE FOR MATH 109 FUNDAMENTALS OF COMPUTING 1

PRELIM I, II , III
MIDTERM IV VIII
PRE-FINAL IX XI
FINALS XII -> UP
I. Introduction to Computers (1 Hour)
1.1 Definition of a Computer
1.2 Definition of Software
1.3 Interpreter and Compiler
Definition of each
Comparison
Examples of each
II. Number System (1.5 Hours)
2.1 Introduction to Number Systems
Decimal
Binary
Octal
2.2 Memory Representation Integers
Ones Complement
Twos Complement
2.3 Number System Basic Operations
Subtraction
III. Algorithms (1.5 Hours)
3.1 Definition of an Algorithm
3.2 Algorithm Representations
Pseudo-code
Flowchart
Program
3.3 Problem Solving Process
3.4 Operators
Arithmetic (+ - * / %)
Relational (> >= < <= != ==)
Assignment (=)
3.5 Integer and Float Division
3.6 Variable as holder of value
3.7 Converting English statements to mathematical expressions
3.8 Programming Languages
High-level
Low-level
Machine-level

IV. Introduction to C (2 Hours)
4.1 History of C
4.2 General Structure of a C Program
4.3 Preprocessor Directives
#include
#define
4.4 Identifiers and Reserved words
4.5 Constants and Variables in the C language
Rules in naming variables and constants
V. Introduction to C Function (6 Hours)
5.1 Function Definition
5.2 Parts of a C function
Function Body
5.3 Function main()
5.4 Commonly used Library functions: printf(), scanf(), getch() and clrscr()
5.5 Commonly used Libraries: stdio.h and conio.h
5.6 Simple Function Call using Pass by copy
5.7 Difference between a program and function
VI. Data types in C (1.5 Hours)
6.1 Classification of data types
void
Scalar or Atomic
Aggregates or Data Structure
6.2 Primitive data types in C
Integral
a) char
b) int
Floating Point
a) float
b) double
6.3 char as a 1-byte integer
6.4 Data Type Qualifiers
signed, unsigned
short, long
6.5 Storage Requirement and range of values of variables of each data type
6.6 Conversion and Casts
Type promotion
Type Casting
VII. Elementary C Statements (1 Hour)
7.1 Assignment Statement
Lvalue and Rvalue
7.2 Output Statements
7.3 Input Statements
7.4 Conversion Specifiers used in printf () and scanf() functions
Conversion characters: d, c, o, x, X, f, e, and E
7.5 Basic Formatting Display
Flag characters: - , +, space, and #
7.6 Compound Statements
VIII. Operators and Expressions I (1.5 Hours)
8.1 Classification of C Operators according to operands
Unary, Binary and Ternary Operators
8.2 Converting mathematical expression to C expression
8.3 Operators according to function
Recall: Arithmetic, Relational and Assignment Operators
Logical (&& ||)
Increment/Decrement (++)
Conditional /Ternary (?:)
Short-circuit Evaluation of Boolean Expressions
IX. Control Structures I (5 Hours)
9.1 Sequence
9.2 Syntax and Semantics
9.3 Selection
Syntax and Semantics of Selection statements
The if and the else Statements
The switch statement
9.4 The break statement
X. Control Structures II (5 Hours)
10.1 Iteration statements in C
The while statement
The for statement
The do-while statement
10.2 The continue and break statements in loops
XI. Pointers in C (3 Hours)
11.1 Definition of a pointer variable
11.2 Declaration of a pointer variable
11.3 Assigning a value to a pointer
11.4 Dereferencing
11.5 Summary of Symbols used in pointer operations
XII. Function Specifics (10 Hours)
12.1 Review of Function Definition and Function Parts
12.2 Methods of Parameter Transmission
Pass by Copy
Pass by Reference
12.3 Function Invocation
Call by Copy
Call by Reference
12.4 The return statement
12.5 Function Parameters
Formal
Actual
12.6 Function Prototypes
12.7 Execution Stack
12.8 Other C Libraries
math.h
ctype.h
stdlib.h

XV. Single Dimensional Array (6 hours)
3.1 Introduction to Arrays
Array Definition
1D array Declaration and Initialization
Accessing the data in an array
Function prototypes on 1D array parameter/s
3.2 Arrays as Function Parameters
3.3 Using typedef to define array data type
3.4 Copying arrays using:
3.4.1 loop
3.4.2 memcpy()

XVII. Sorting Algorithms (3 hours)
6.1 Concepts on the implementation of the elementary sorting algorithms:
Selection Sort
Insertion Sort
Bubble Sort

XVIII. Strings (6 hours)
1.1 Definition of a String
1.2 String Initialization
1.3 The \0, end-of-string sentinel value
1.4 Character Input/Output Functions
1.5 String as Function Parameters
1.6 The importance of string.h and ctype.h Libraries
1.7 Commonly used string functions
strcmp(), strcpy(), strcat()
strrev(), strlen()
1.8 Internal implementation of commonly used string functions