Al

I
Ce
Active Learning
In
Chemistry Education
"ALICE"
Copyright 1997, A.J.Girondi
505 Latshmere Drive
Harrisburg, PA 17109
alicechem@geocities.com
www.geocities.com/Athens/Oracle/2041
Welcome to ALICE! You are about to
begin a course which will probably be
unlike anything you have experienced
thus far in your formal education. ALICE
is a unique program in which you will
study chemistry in small groups. Your
group will be able to progress faster or
slower than other groups (to a limited
extent). ALICE does not make use of a
regular textbook. Instead, you will be
given printed pages which you will place
into your notebook. These pages include
reading material, laboratory activities, and
worksheets. By the end of the school
year, you will be leaving the course with
your own completed copy of ALICE.
Your instructor’s role will not be typical.
There will not be many long lectures. The
instructor will not be the center of attention
in ALICE. You will be! As a student in
ALICE, you will be given a great deal of
independence. A typical class period will
have several lab groups working on a
variety of different activities, while other
groups will be completing worksheets or
reading some text material. Others may
be talking to the instructor or witnessing a
demonstration. Not everyone will be
doing the same thing at the same time!
ALICE is an example of active learning
which means that the student is almost
always actively involved in what is going
on. This program is constantly being
updated and revised based on comments
and suggestions from students like you!
Welcome
ALICE
is taught
here
Even your reading assignments will keep
you active! You will be answering
questions or solving problems constantly
as you read. No more going to the end of
the chapter to find these things.
Hopefully, the use of active learning
techniques will make your study of
chemistry one that you will find
interesting, challenging, and enjoyable.
On most days you will find that the class
time seems to pass very quickly.
Of course, with more independ-
ence comes more responsibility. You will
be expected to use class time properly,
complete your work promptly, and come
to class prepared. Good class attendance
is a must. The responsibility for your
learning is yours! But, your instructor,
“the guide by the side,” will offer any
assistance you may need. Good luck!
ACTIVE LEARNING IN CHEMISTRY EDUCATION
“ALICE”
Copyri ght 1997, A. J. Gi rondi , Ph. D.
ACTIVE LEARNING I N CHEMISTRY EDUCATION
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Chapter
1. Laboratory Techniques and Concepts
2. Handling and Presenting Data
3. Physical States of Matter
4. The Gas Laws
5. Atoms and Molecules
6. Chemical Equations - Part 1
7. Chemical Equations - Part 2
8. The Mole Concept - Part 1
9. The Mole Concept - Part 2
10. The Mole Concept - Part 3
11. Periodic Classification of the Elements
12. Modern View of Atomic Structure - Part 1
13. Modern View of Atomic Structure - Part 2
14. Chemical Bonding - Part 1
15. Chemical Bonding - Part 2
16. Solutions - Part 1
17. Solutions - Part 2
18. Rates of Chemical Reactions
19. The Energy of Chemical Processes
20. Chemical Equilibrium
21. Acids and Bases - Behavior in Water
22. Acid – Base Reactions
23. Oxidation and Reduction - Part 1
24. Oxidation and Reduction - Part 2
25. Introduction to Organic Compounds - Part 1
26. Introduction to Organic Compounds - Part 2
27. Introduction to Organic Compounds - Part 3
28. Nuclear Chemistry - Part 1
29. Nuclear Chemistry - Part 2
Additional Materials: APPENDICES: A, B, C, D, E, F; Reference Notebook;
ALICE Activities - Materials & Equipment List
Active Learning In Chemistry Education
Material and Equipment List for Laboratory Activities
CHAPTER 1
ACTIVITY 1.3 Measuring Lengths
Meter stick or metric ruler
ACTIVITY 1.4 Uncertainty In The Measurement Of Temperature
Small beaker (100 or 150 mL); glass thermometer;
ACTIVITY 1.5 Uncertainty In Measuring Volumes Of a Liquid
50 mL graduated cylinder; small beaker of water
ACTIVITY 1.6 Use Of The Electronic Balance
Electronic balance; weighing papers; rock salt;
ACTIVITY 1.7 Uncertainty In The Measurement Of Masses
Electronic balance; small beaker (100 or 150 mL)
ACTIVITY 1.8 Qualitative and Quantitative Observations
Candle; cardboard; matches or lighter
ACTIVITY 1.9 Use of the Laboratory Burner
Laboratory burner; lighter
ACTIVITY 1.10 Working with Glass Tubing
Glass tubing; high-temperature burner or lab burner with flame spreader (wing top); steel file
ACTIVITY 1.11 Heating Liquids in Tubes - The Hot Water Bath
250 or 400 mL beaker; ring stand with ring and wire gauze; burner; dextrose solution;
Benedict's solution
ACTIVITY 1.12 Decanting Liquids
Solutions A and B (any combination which will form a precipitate will do); 100 or 150 mL beaker;
stirring rod; 10 mL graduated cylinder
ACTIVITY 1.13 How to Properly Filter Liquids
Funnel; filter paper; small beaker containing precipitate from Activity 1.12; ringstand with small
ring; stirring rod; balance
Materials List - Page 1
CHAPTER 2
ACTIVITY 2.13 Collecting and Graphing Experimental Data
Two 250 mL beakers; sodium chloride; stirring rod; two thermometers; eight ice cubes; timer or
watch with second hand
ACTIVITY 2.14 Cooling Rates of Evaporating Liquids
Thermometer; cotton or paper toweling; rubber band; timer or watch with second hand; string or
paper clip; ethyl alcohol; ring stand with utility clamp
CHAPTER 3
ACTIVITY 3.2 Identifying Metals By Physical Properties
Pieces of Metals "A" and "B"; 50 mL graduated cylinder; balance;
Handbook of Chemistry and Physics
ACTIVITY 3.3 Comparing the Densities of Liquids
10 mL graduated cylinder; bottles of ethyl alcohol, oil, and vinegar; balance
ACTIVITY 3.5 Energy Changes Which Accompany Phase Changes
250 mL beaker; burner; stopwatch or watch with second hand; test tube containing
paradichlorobenzene (PDB); thermometer; ringstand with ring and wire gauze
ACTIVITY 3.7 Physical and Chemical Changes
Four test tubes (three 100 mm tubes and one 150 mm tube); test tube rack; 0.1 M solutions of
AgNO3, K2CrO4, Pb(NO3)2, NaI, NaOH; 3 M solutions of HCl and H2 SO4; solid NaOH pellets;
thermometer; mossy zinc metal
ACTIVITY 3.9 Determining the Thickness of Aluminum Foil
One piece of regular aluminum foil and one piece of heavy duty aluminum foil (each 10 cm X 10
cm); metric ruler; balance
ACTIVITY 3.12 (Optional) The Barge Problem
100 mL beaker; 400 mL beaker; pieces of lead metal; grease pencil or marker or label tape
ACTIVITY 3.12 Sublimation (Teacher Demonstration)
Beaker; watch glass; ice cube; iodine crystals; burner; ringstand with ring and wire gauze
Materials List - Page 2
CHAPTER 4
ACTIVITY 4.2 Measuring the Effect of Pressure on Gas Volume
Boyle's law apparatus; 5 identical textbooks;
ACTIVITY 4.4 Measuring the Effect of Temperature on Gas Volume
Charles' law apparatus (glass tube containing mercury bead); metric ruler; large baker or flask;
burner; ringstand with ring and wire gauze
ACTIVITY 4.9 Measuring the Effect of Temperature on Pressure
Special manometer arrangement (see Figure 4.6)
ACTIVITY 4.10 Comparing Equilibrium Vapor Pressures
Special manometer arrangement (as used in Activity 4.9); acetone; ethyl alcohol;
isopropyl alcohol
ACTIVITY 4.12 A Teacher Demonstration of the Pressure–Temperature Relationship
Computer with special syringe and thermal probe attachment; Data Logger or equivalent software
CHAPTER 5
ACTIVITY 5.2 Properties of Iron In a Compound and In a Mixture
Mixture of iron filings and sulfur in a small container; small container of FeSO4
CHAPTER 6
ACTIVITY 6.2 An Experiment Involving the Heating of Copper
Copper turnings; crucible; ringstand, ring, and triangle; burner; balance
ACTIVITY 6.5 The Direct Combination Reaction of Copper and Sulfur
150 mm test tube; powdered sulfur; granular copper; small balloon; burner; balance;
ringstand with utility clamp
ACTIVITY 6.8 Observing the Decomposition Reaction of H2O2
150 mm test tube; 6% H2O2 Solution; MnO2 powder; wood splint; matches or burner
Materials List - Page 3
CHAPTER 7
ACTIVITY 7.2 Determination of the Activities of Selected Metals
10 mL graduated cylinder; six 150 mm test tubes; test tube rack; three small pieces each of
copper and zinc; 0.2 M solutions of KNO3, AgNO3, Pb(NO3)2
ACTIVITY 7.3 "Activities" of the Halogens
Five or six 100 mm test tubes; test tube rack; one or two long-stemmed pipets; small corks to fit
the test tubes; dropper bottles containing the following: TCE (trichloroethylene), fresh
chlorine water, 0.1 M NaCl, 0.1 M NaBr, 0.1 M NaI; a waste container for used TTE
ACTIVITY 7.5 Observation of Some Double Replacement Reactions
Dropper bottles containing 0.1 M BaCl2, 0.1 M K2 SO4, 0.1 M CuCl2, 1% (NH4)2S, 0.25 M NaI,
0.25 M Pb(NO3)2; a spot plate
ACTIVITY 7.9 Predicting the Formation of Precipitates
Dropping plate; 0.1 M Fe(NO3)3; 0.1 M CuCl2; 0.5 M KOH
ACTIVITY 7.10 (Optional) The Reaction Between NaOH and Ni(NO3)2
Nine 150 mm with the same internal diameter; test tube rack; grease pencil or marker;
5 mL and 10 mL volumetric pipets; 0.1 M Ni(NO3)2; 0.1 M NaOH; phenolphthalein solution;
corks to fit the test tubes
CHAPTER 8
ACTIVITY 8.1 Determining the Mass of Extremely Small Objects
Vial of rice; vial of lead shots; vial of staples; balance; empty vial
ACTIVITY 8.11 Percentage of Oxygen in Potassium Chlorate
Crucible and cover; triangle; ringstand with ring; KClO3; MnO2; balance; burner
CHAPTER 9
ACTIVITY 9.2 Determination of the Gram-Atomic Mass (GAM) of Silver
Crucible with cover; ringstand with ring; triangle; crucible tongs; burner; balance; Ag2O
ACTIVITY 9.4 Balancing an Equation by Experiment
250 mL beaker; CuCl2; two nails; sandpaper; forceps or crucible tongs; balance; 1.0 M HCl
Materials List - Page 4
ACTIVITY 9.6 The "Silver Tree" Reaction
Two beakers (100 or 150 mL); balance; copper wire; silver nitrate crystals; oven; the instructor will
provide a container for the product (silver metal)
CHAPTER 10
ACTIVITY 10.2 Determination of the Formula of an Oxide of Tin
Evaporating dish with watch glass cover; ringstand with ring and wire screen (gauze); granulated
tin (30-mesh); balance; 8 M HNO3 (nitric acid); burner; stirring rod
ACTIVITY 10.5 Determination of the Molar Volume of a Gas
Large beaker (600 mL or larger); magnesium metal ribbon; balance (accurate to 0.001 g); scissors;
fine copper wire; ringstand with clamp; gas-measuring tube; 6 M HCl (hydrochloric acid); rubber
stopper with 1 or 2 holes to fit gas tube; barometer
CHAPTER 11
ACTIVITY 11.3 Metals, Nonmetals, & Metalloids – Comparing Properties
Glass vials containing samples of aluminum, copper and tin, sulfur, and silicon; Handbook of
Chemistry and Physics; electrical conductivity testing apparatus
ACTIVITY 11.5 Properties of Alkaline-Earth Element Compounds
Four 150 mm test tubes; 0.1 M Mg(NO3)2; 0.1 M Ca(NO3)2; 0.1 M Na2CO3; 0.1 M Sr(NO3)2;
0.1 M Ba(NO3)2
ACTIVITY 11.6 The Properties of Halogen Compounds

0.1 M NaCl; 0.1 M AgNO3; 0.1 M NaBr; 0.1 M NaI; 6.0 M NH4OH; solution of an "unknown"
halogen; four 100 mm test tubes with corks to fit
ACTIVITY 11.8 Making, Collecting, and Studying Hydrogen Gas
Pneumatic trough with shelf; 125 or 250 mL Erlenmeyer flask with one-hole stopper to fit;
piece of glass tubing to fit stopper hole; rubber tubing; three or four 150 mm test tubes;
3 M HCl; mossy zinc metal; wooden splints; matches or burner
ACTIVITY 11.10 Reactions of Sodium and Potassium with Water (Teacher Demonstration)
Sodium metal; potassium metal; phenolphthalein solution; large beakers with watch glass covers

Materials List - Page 5
CHAPTER 12
ACTIVITY 12.4 The Emission Spectra of Elements
Burner; nichrome or platinum wire with loop; dropping plate; 0.1 M solutions containing strontium,
lithium, barium, calcium, copper, and sodium ions; 3.0 M solution of hydrochloric acid; high
voltage apparatus; gas discharge tubes containing different gases; hand-held spectroscopes
ACTIVITY 12.10 (Optional) The Colors of Transition Metal Chemistry
96-well microplate; plastic micropipets; toothpicks; 0.1 M solutions of KNO3, Ca(NO3)2, NH4VO3,
Cr(NO3)2, Mn(NO3)2, Co(NO3)2, Fe(NO3)3, Ni(NO3)2, Cu(NO3)2, Zn(NO3)2; 6.0 M ammonia (NH3);
1 M potassium thiocyanate, KSCN; 6 M hydrochloric acid (HCl); one sheet of white paper
CHAPTER 13
ACTIVITY 13.8 Creating a Probability Density Plot
Crayon; target (page 13-21)
CHAPTER 14
The are no laboratory activities in Chapter 14.
CHAPTER 15
ACTIVITY 15.5 Comparing Properties of Ionic and Covalent Compounds
Sodium chloride; naphthalene; table sugar; metal file; metal can lid; ringstand with ring;
burner; 100 mL beaker; stirring rod; electrical conductivity tester
ACTIVITY 15.7 Determining the Formula of a Hydrate
Porcelain crucible with cover; barium chloride hydrate crystals; balance; ringstand with ring;
triangle; burner
CHAPTER 16
ACTIVITY 16.3 A Study of Molecular Models
Molecular models of Cl2; HCl; BBr3; AlF3; BeI2; H2O; CF4; NH3; BHBr2; CF2Br2
ACTIVITY 16.4 Testing the Miscibility of Liquids
Large test tube (25 x 200 mm) with stopper or cork that fits; 2-butanol; colored water;
ethyl alcohol; bottle used as waste container for these liquids
Materials List - Page 6
ACTIVITY 16.6 Testing the Polarities of Solutes and Solvents
Four 150 mm test tubes with stoppers or corks to fit; marker or grease pencil; table sugar; small
piece of styrofoam; small iodine crystal; toluene
ACTIVITY 16.8 Determining the Solubility of Sodium Chloride
Saturated salt solution; 25 mL graduated cylinder; thermometer; evaporating dish with watch glass
cover; ringstand with ring and wire screen (gauze); burner;
ACTIVITY 16.9 Making a Saturated Solution (A Teacher Demonstration)
Large stoppered test tubes containing saturated solution of sodium acetate; 250 mL beaker;
ringstand with ring and wire screen (gauze); small crystals of sodium acetate; burner
ACTIVITY 16.10 Developing a Solubility Curve for NH4Cl
Large beaker (400 or 600 mL); ringstand with ring and wire screen (gauze); burner; NH4Cl;
thermometer
CHAPTER 17
ACTIVITY 17.2 Making and Using a 0.10 Molar Solution
100 mL volumetric flask; Pb(NO3)2; two 150 mL beakers; balance; K2CrO4; 50 mL graduated
cylinder; ringstand with ring and wire screen (gauze); triangle; filter paper; stirring rod; beaker
tongs; funnel; oven
ACTIVITY 17.5 The Freezing and Boiling Points of Salt Water
Saturated salt solution; thermometer; small beaker (100 or 150 mL); 3 or 4 crushed ice cubes;
stirring rod
ACTIVITY 17.6 The Relationship Between Boiling Point and Pressure (A Teacher Demonstration)
Vacuum pump; pressure probe; temperature probe; small beaker of water; bell jar fitted with 2-
holed stopper; computer; appropriate software (such as Data Logger)
ACTIVITY 17.10 A Laser-Aided Look at a Colloidal Suspension (A Teacher Demonstration)
Small bottles containing a suspension, a true solution, and a colloidal suspension; laser
Materials List - Page 7
CHAPTER 18
ACTIVITY 18.1
3 M HCl; two 150 mm test tubes; mossy zinc metal; piece of Mg metal ribbon (2 cm); wood splint;
matches or lighter or burner
ACTIVITY 18.5 Comparing the Rates of Two Reactions
Dropper bottle of 0.01 M KMnO4; two 100 or 150 mL beakers; FeSO4; oxalic acid; stirring rod
ACTIVITY 18.7 Solution Concentration and Reaction Rate
Solution 1:
Solution 2:
50 mL flask or beaker; stopwatch or watch with second hand
ACTIVITY 18.8 The Effect of Temperature on Reaction Rate
Solution 1:
Solution 2:
600 or 1000 mL beaker; ice cubes; burner; ringstand with ring and wire sreen (gauze);
two large (25 x 200 mm) test tubes;
ACTIVITY 18.9 The Effect of Surface Area on Reaction Rate
Steel wool; burner; iron filings or powdered iron; lycopodium powder; dust explosion apparatus
ACTIVITY 18.10 The Effect of a Catalyst on Reaction Rate
6% H2O2 solution; four 150 mm test tubes; MnO2; Fe2O3; dirt; granular aluminum
ACTIVITY 18.11 Catalysts in Matches and in Cigarette Tobacco (Teacher Demonstration)
Book of safety matches; two sugar cubes; ash from cigarette tobacco; watch glass
CHAPTER 19
ACTIVITY 19.4 Determination of the Specific Heats of Three Metals
400 mL beaker; ringstand with ring and wire sreen (gauze); burner; two cylinders each of iron,
copper, and aluminum metal; balance; 3 foam cups; 100 mL graduated cylinder; crucible tongs;
thermometer; stirring rod; cardboard lid for foam cups
ACTIVITY 19.9 How Much Heat is Required to Melt Ice?
Thermometer; foam cup; cardboard lid for cup; 100 mL graduated cylinder; 2 or 3 ice cubes;
balance
ACTIVITY 19.10 Measuring Enthalpy Changes
150 mm test tube; thermometer; forceps; pellets of NaOH; NH4NO3; 1 M HCl; 1 M NaOH
Materials List - Page 8
ACTIVITY 19.11 Heat of Condensation of Water
Foam cup with cardboard lid; 125 mL Erlenmeyer flask; one-hole stopper to fit flask; U-shaped
glass bend; burner; 50 mL graduated cylinder; thermometer; ringstand with ring and wire sreen
(gauze); balance
ACTIVITY 19.13 Superheated Steam (Teacher Demonstration)
1000 mL Erlenmeyer flask; 2 large burners; ringstand with ring, clamp, and wire sreen (gauze);
coiled copper tubing
CHAPTER 20
ACTIVITY 20.4 LeChatelier's Principle and Changes in Concentration
0.1 M Fe(NO3)3; 0.2 M Fe(NO3)3; 0.1 M KSCN; 100 or 150 mL beaker; four 150 mm test tubes;
6 M NaOH; 0.1 M AgNO3
ACTIVITY 20.9 Testing LeChatelier's Principle With Cobalt Ions
Two 50 mL Erlenmeyer flasks or beakers; CoCl2•6H2O; 6 M HCl; hotplate or burner; ice bath;
filter paper; crucible tongs
ACTIVITY E.2
0.1M Solutions of: NaHCO3; HCl; BaCl2; CuSO4; KNO3; Cu(NO3)2 (add blue food coloring to the
colorless solutions so that they look like the copper solutions); dropping plate;
red and blue litmus paper
CHAPTER 21
ACTIVITY 21.4 Comparing the Conductivity of Strong and Weak Acids
0.1 M HCl (hydrochloric acid); 0.1 M HC2H3O2 (acetic acid); 0.1 M H8C6O7 (citric acid); four 100 or
150 mL beakers (one for each acid and one for water); conductivity tester
ACTIVITY 21.7 Comparing the COnductivity of Strong and Weak Bases
0.1 M NaOH; 0.1 M NH3; three 100 or 150 mL beakers (one is for water); conductivity tester
CHAPTER 22
ACTIVITY 22.2 The Production of a Salt by an Acid-Base Reaction
Evaporating dish and watch glass; 1 M HCl; 1 M NaOH; burner; ringstand with ring and wire sreen
(gauze);
Materials List - Page 9
ACTIVITY 22.5 Acid–Base Indicator Solutions
Dropper bottle containing a solution with pH < 3.1; dropper bottle containing a solution with pH >
4.4; dropping plate; dropper bottle of methyl orange solution; dropper bottle containing a solution
with pH < 6.0; dropper bottle containing a solution with pH > 8.0; dropper bottle of bromthymol
blue solution; dropper bottle containing a solution with pH < 8.2; dropper bottle containing a
solution with pH > 10.0; dropper bottle of phenolphthalein solution; dropper bottle of white
vinegar; dropper bottle of household ammonia solution; dropper bottle of laboratory detergent
solution; dropper bottle of colorless soft drink; dropper bottle of tap water; pH meter
ACTIVITY 22.7 A Titration of Vinegar
Two 50 mL burets; ringstand with double buret holder; two small funnels; 0.50 M NaOH; whilte
vinegar; three 125 mL flasks; dropper bottle of phenolphthalein solution; magnetic stirrer (if
available)
CHAPTER 23
ACTIVITY 23.6 Observing Redox Reactions
0.2 M CuSO4; powdered zinc metal; 125 mL Erlenmeyer flask; 3.0 M HCl; 2 cm piece Mg ribbon;
small piece copper metal; 0.1 M HCl
CHAPTER 24
ACTIVITY 24.1 Redox Reactions in a Petri Dish
Two petri dishes; four iron nails; zinc wire; copper wire; agar-agar powder; 0.1 M K3Fe(CN)6;
phenolphthalein solution; stirring rod; 250 mL beaker; ringstand with ring and wire screen;
degreasing solvent such as 1,1,1-trichloroethane; burner; balance; pliers; forceps or crucible
tongs
ACTIVITY 24.3 Construction and Testing of Voltaic Cells
Voltaic cell apparatus (porcelain cup; glass cup or beaker; voltmeter; two wire leads with alligator
clips; strip of copper; strip of zinc; strip of lead; fine sandpaper or steel wool; solution of CuSO4
(0.1 M to 0.5 M will do); solution of ZnSO4 (0.1 M to 0.5 M will do); solution of Pb(NO3)2 (0.1 M to
0.5 M will do)
ACTIVITY 24.5 Batteries
1.5 volt cell and 9 volt battery each cut in half to expose the interiors
ACTIVITY 24.7 The Electrolysis of Water
Direct current power supply with adjustable voltage control; electrolysis of water equipment (such
as Hoffman apparatus); teacher will put some Na2SO4 into the water in the apparatus
ACTIVITY 24.8 Electroplating
A coin such as a nickel or quarter; 1 M HCl; two wire leads with alligator clips; 100 or 150 mL
beaker; copper strip; solution of copper sulfate in sulfuric acid; power supply or battery
Materials List - Page 10
NAME____________________________________ PER____________ DATE DUE____________
ACTIVE LEARNING I N CHEMISTRY EDUCATION
"ALICE"
CHAPTER 1
LABORATORY
TECHNIQUES
AND
CONCEPTS
1-1 © 1997, A.J. Girondi
NOTICE OF RIGHTS
All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form by any means,
electronic, mechanical, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the author.
Copies of this document may be made free of charge for use in public or nonprofit private educational
institutions provided that permission is obtained from the author . Please indicate the name and address
of the institution where use is anticipated.
© 1997 A.J. Girondi, Ph.D.
505 Latshmere Drive
Harrisburg, PA 17109
alicechem@geocities.com
Website: www.geocities.com/Athens/Oracle/2041
1-2 © 1997, A.J. Girondi
SECTION 1.1 An Introduction To "ALICE"
Welcome to ALICE (Active Learning in Chemistry Education). In this course you will learn the
basic principles of chemistry. It will help you to acquire some of the knowledge and skills which are
needed to understand many of the scientific and technological issues of our times. In addition to
providing you with a good background in chemistry, ALICE will help you to develop some logical methods
of solving problems. Unlike more traditional chemistry courses, ALICE is a program of study in which you
will be very independent. The teacher will not be the center of attention in your classroom. You will be!
Well, you and your fellow students will be. You will find that the teacher will be not be lecturing to your
class very often. Most of the time you will be working with other students in small groups. The teacher's
role will be that of a guide who will offer help and assistance to the small groups. He/she will provide you
with the laboratory materials you need, and from time to time he/she will perform various demonstrations
for your group or your class.
There is no formal textbook for ALICE. Instead, you will be given special printed materials, one
chapter at a time. These materials will be kept in your notebook which will eventually grow into a textbook
by the end of the year. However, it will be a textbook that you will help to write. ALICE involves "active
learning." That means that you will have an active role in almost everything that happens in the classroom.
As you read the materials, you will be responding to questions or solving problems. Most of the pages
you read will require one or more responses from you. The correct answers to questions and problems
can be found at the end of each chapter. You will frequently see sentences like the following: The
measurement of the amount of mass in a given volume of a substance is known as {35} . The
{35} which appears as a subscript before the blank is the method used to identify the response in the
answer key at the end of the chapter. The laboratory activities are built right into the reading materials.
The data that you collect and the conclusions that you draw will all become a part of your book. You will,
however, be expected to assume a lot of responsibility. You should budget your time wisely, come to
class prepared, be a contributing worker in your group, and stay on task when you are in class.
You should do your own work, even though you will be encouraged to cooperate with others in
your group. The kind of small group work that you will experience in ALICE is often called "cooperative
learning." That simply means that you will help others to learn, and that they will help you. Discussions
with your lab partner, classmates, and teacher will give you more insight into the concepts being
investigated. Hopefully, this style of learning will make the class more interesting to you, and will actually
help you to learn better than if you were in a more passive and traditional role.
The grade you earn is always determined by you. Quantity will not be the decisive factor in
obtaining a grade, but quality will be very important. Your grade will be your responsibility. Each chapter
will be checked by your teacher who will further explain the details of how you will be evaluated.
This may be the first time you will experience this form of freedom in the classroom. You can learn
as much, if not more, than you would in a conventional course. You have much more responsibility for
your own learning. The old saying, "you get as much out of something as you put into it," applies here.
Learning can be accomplished by doing, seeing, and listening. Learning is your responsibility. It always
has been, but now your responsibility has increased. Some of the equipment you will be using may be
expensive. Careful handling of this equipment is expected, and you must obtain an understanding of
how to use it properly. Your teacher will be available to help you with this. Some of this equipment is
pictured on the previous page. Learn the name and spelling of each piece illustrated.
Practice safety in the lab. Safety in the laboratory is a primary concern for everyone. Always and
immediately report any accident, injury, or equipment breakage to your teacher. Always wear safety
glasses and an apron when working in the laboratory. You can be sure that no childishness will be
tolerated in the lab.
Write careful responses. Your written work should be complete with proper grammar, punctuation,
and correct spelling. In addition, please be neat. No response has any value if it can't be read!
1-3 © 1997, A.J. Girondi
beaker
burner
dropper
volumetric flasks
clay triangle
crucible with lid
pipet
iron ring
triangular file
test tube holder
with test tube
funnel
wing tip
graduated cylinder
crucible
tongs
utility
clamp
watch glass
Florence
flask
thistle tube
glass bend
wide-mouth bottle
evaporating dish
buret
double buret holder
ring stand
test tube
brushes
pneumatic
trough
Erlenmeyer flask
Figure 1.1 Names of Laboratory Equipment
1-4 © 1997, A.J. Girondi
Some of the most important skills you will be developing in this course are those of observing and
measuring. Observation and measurement allow you to collect data and then to interpret that data in order
to figure out some of the "whys" and "hows" around you. Experimentation followed by observation and
measurement will allow you to answer many of these questions. Some such questions might include the
following. "Why do we put baking soda in most baked goods?" "What makes diamonds such hard
substances?" "Why are some things in our environment so harmful to plant and animal tissue?" You use
your senses to collect data everyday. You see, taste, smell, feel, and hear details from your surroundings.
Your senses are essential to the collection of data in your immediate environment. In the study of
chemistry or any other science, however, you will find that your senses alone will fall short of what is
needed. Your senses are valuable, but limited in scientific study. For example, through your sense of
sight, you may get the impression that one object is longer than another. However, it is extremely difficult
to get more than an impression without the instruments necessary to obtain more accurate
measurements. In the following exercises, you will be investigating the usefulness and accuracy of various
measuring instruments. You will first estimate the mass, length, volume, and temperature of several
objects. Then, you will check your estimates using various laboratory instruments. Laboratory measuring
instruments have their limits, just as your senses have their limits. One of your tasks, in addition to learning
how to use various measuring instruments properly, will be to determine the limits of accuracy of the
instruments. Follow the directions carefully, recording your data in the space provided.
SECTION 1.2 Uncertainty in the Measurement of Length
Distances are normally measured with a meter stick or ruler. The limit of accuracy of a meter stick
is indicated by how "close" you can read the length on the meter stick's scale (that is, how well you can
estimate the fractions of degrees between the marks). On the portion of the meter stick shown in Figure
1.2, the distance between the closest marks is 0.1 cm. The dotted line to the right of the meter stick is at a
length of 6.65 cm. The last decimal place, the 0.01 place, in the measurement is estimated.
You can usually estimate to one decimal place beyond the closest marks on any measuring
device. On this ruler, the closest marks are 0.1 cm apart, so you can estimate to the hundredths column,
0.01 cm. However, on this ruler the smallest marks are so close that it is all we can do just to determine that
the dotted line is between two of them - about half way. Therefore, your best estimate of the position of
the dotted line is 6.65 centimeters. We can say that the measuring instrument is readable to ±0.05 cm.
(The ±0.05 cm means that your measurement may be off by as much as 0.05 cm above or below its true
value. This value is called the uncertainty of the instrument.)
There are two additional dotted lines in Figure 1.2.
1. What distance is represented by dotted line a?{1}______________ cm
2. What distance is represented by dotted line b? {2}______________ cm
(The centimeter scale below has been enlarged for ease of reading.)
4 5 6 7
a b 6.65
FIGURE 1.2 Measuring With a Metric Rule
The scale shown in Figure 1.3a represents hypothetical units called "gorks." The closest lines on the
scale each represent 1 gork. The length of the dark line above the scale is 27.5 gorks. Since we can read
one decimal place beyond the closest lines, we can read this scale out to the tenths column. The line
appears to be about half-way between 27 gorks and 28 gorks. The length of the line appears to be about
0.5 gork away from each of the two closest lines. Therefore, the uncertainty is ±0.5 gorks.
1-5 © 1997, A.J. Girondi
4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48
Figure 1.3a The "Gork" Scale
The line above the scale in Figure 1.3b appears to extend right up to the 22 gork mark. Should we
express its length, then, as 22 gorks? Well, we noted above that the closest marks on this scale represent
1 gork. We recall that we can usually read a scale to one decimal place beyond the closest marks. We can,
therefore, read this scale to the tenths column. We can actually express the length of this line as 22.0
gorks. The lines on this scale are so close that about all we can do is tell whether a measurement lies on a
line or mid-way between two lines. The closest lines represent 1 gork each, so the uncertainty here is
again ±0.5 gork. So, the length of the line above Figure 1.3b is 22 gorks ±0.5.
4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48
Figure 1.3b The "Gork" Scale
The scale in Figure 1.4 below is calibrated in units called "flings." The closest lines on this scale each
represent 0.5 fling. The length of the dark line above the scale is determined to be between 16.5 and
17.0 flings. We, therefore, read its length as 16.75 flings. The value of 16.75 is 0.25 fling away from the
two closest lines. Since all we really know is that the length is somewhere between these two lines, the
uncertainty can be expressed as ±0.25 fling.
2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24
Figure 1.4 The "Fling" Scale
Problem 1. What is the length of the line above the "slurp" scale in Figure 1.5 below? _____________
How much uncertainty is there in this measurement? ______________
2 4 6 8 10 12
Figure 1.5 The "Slurp" Scale
Problem 2. What is the length of the line above the "klump" scale in Figure 1.6?_________________
How much uncertainty is there in this measurement?_______________
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110
Figure 1.6 The "Klump" Scale
1-6 © 1997, A.J. Girondi
Problem 3. What is the length of the line above the "glip" scale in Figure 1.7?___________________
How much uncertainty is there in this measurement?_______________
1 2 3 4
Figure 1.7 The "Glip" Scale
Problem 4. What is the length of the short line above the "zorch" scale in Figure 1.8? _____________
What is the uncertainty of this measurement? ____________ What is the length of the long line above
Figure 1.8?__________ What is the uncertainty of this measurement? ____________
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Figure 1.8 The "Zorch" Scale
ACTIVITY 1.3 Measuring Lengths
Estimate the length and width of this page in centimeters (cm) without using a measuring instrument.
1. What is your estimate of its length? __________ cm
2. What is your estimate of its width? __________ cm
Get a ruler or meter stick and measure the length and width of this page.
1. What is the length (in cm) between the closest marks on your measuring device? ________cm
2. What decimal place is your measuring device accurate to? ___ cm
3. What is the length of this page? cm
4. What is the width of this page? cm
5. How much uncertainty (in cm) is there in your measurements? ±__________cm
(The answers to the above questions will depend on the type of ruler you are using.)
ACTIVITY 1.4 Uncertainty In The Measurement Of Temperature
Next, you will be trying your skills at estimating temperature and learning how to read a
thermometer properly. This will not be as easy as it may seem. In science, temperature is usually
measured and recorded in degrees Celsius,
o
C. You are probably familiar with the Fahrenheit scale. The
Fahrenheit scale is most commonly used in daily weather reports. You should be able to make a ballpark
estimate in
o
C knowing that room temperature, usually about 72
o
F, is equal to 25
o
C.
1-7 © 1997, A.J. Girondi
Fill a small beaker about halfway with water. Now obtain a thermometer with a range of about 110 to 120
o
C. Use the same procedure used in determining the uncertainty of the meter stick to determine the
uncertainty of the thermometer.
How many degrees are represented between the closest two marks on the thermometer's
scale? {3}
o
C
To what column can the thermometer reading be estimated? {4}_____________________
Hold the thermometer in the water in the small beaker. Allow it to remain immersed until the temperature
stabilizes. Be sure to read the temperature to one decimal place beyond the smallest divisions marked on
the thermometer.
What is the temperature of the water? ___________
o
C
What is the uncertainty in the temperature value you obtained? {5} ±____________
o
C
Return the thermometer to the lab shelf, and save the beaker of water for the next section.
ACTIVITY 1.5 Uncertainty In Measuring Volumes Of A Liquid
The volume of a liquid is normally measured in liters (L) or in milliliters (mL) in the chemistry
laboratory. If you are not familiar with the quantity of a liquid that makes a liter or milliliter, you may have
some trouble estimating volumes. But don't worry, because by the end of this course, you will probably
be an expert. Almost every lab activity you will be doing throughout this course involves measuring
volumes.
Obtain a 50 mL graduated cylinder. Look at the cylinder and then at the water in the beaker used
in the previous section. What is your estimate in mL of the volume of water in the beaker? ________ mL
Before measuring the actual volume of the
liquid, you must learn how to read a graduated
cylinder properly. Many liquids in a graduated cylinder
have cohesive properties. This means the particles of
the liquid have a tendency to stick to each other.
There is also an adhesive property of most liquids to
glass, meaning unlike particles (liquid and glass) stick
to each other. These two properties (adhesion and
cohesion) combine to cause a liquid to "climb" the
walls of a graduated cylinder and form a bend or dip
on the surface of the liquid. This dip is called the
meniscus. When measuring the volume of a liquid, an
inaccurate measure will result if the meniscus is not
taken into account. When reading a volume from a
graduated cylinder, you should place your eye even
with the bottom of the meniscus. Read the scale
where the bottom of the meniscus rests. Study
Figure 1.3 carefully. The volume of the liquid shown
there is 55 mL.
Figure 1.3 Reading a Meniscus
20
40
Graduated cylinders come in a variety of sizes. Each size has a different degree of uncertainty.
When measuring small volumes, a small graduated cylinder should be used. Large graduates are used for
measuring large volumes. Let's compare the degree of uncertainty of various sizes of graduated cylinders.
1-8 © 1997, A.J. Girondi
Problem 5. Apply the procedure used previously to determine the uncertainty of the ruler and
thermometer. Obtain three different sizes of graduates (10 mL, 50 mL, and 100 mL). Examine each
closely and record your data in the chart below. Do not forget the units! In each case assume that the
level of liquid is located either at one of the closest marks or is halfway between two of them.
Size of Graduated Volume represented Amount of uncertainty
Cylinder by closest two marks (±)
a. 10 mL mL ± mL
b. 50 mL mL ± mL
c. 100 mL mL ± mL
Now pour the liquid from your beaker (from section 1.5) into the appropriate graduated cylinder (according
to size).
What is the measured volume of the liquid? _____________ mL (Be sure to express the volume to one
decimal place beyond the smallest divisions.)
ACTIVITY 1.6 Use Of The Electronic Balance
In chemistry, mass is generally measured in grams (g). There are various types of laboratory
balances used in chemistry classrooms. The balances used in high school laboratories today may be
either manual or electronic. We will assume that your lab is equipped with electronic balances.
Balances are delicate and expensive pieces of equipment and should always be handled
carefully. Locate an electronic balance in your laboratory. Note the positions of the "On/Off" control and
the "Tare/Rezero" control. The purpose of the on/off control is obvious. After they have been turned on,
electronic balances should be left on for the remainder of the class period. DO NOT turn them on and off
during each use. The "Tare" control is used to cancel out the mass of any object which is resting on the
balance pan. It is also use to "rezero" the balance. Let's now play with the balance a bit, to become familiar
with its use and controls.
Turn the balance off if it is already on. Now turn the balance on and notice what happens on the
display. The balance goes through a self-check each time it is turned on during which time the electronic
circuits are each tested to be sure they are working properly. The balance cannot be used until the self-
check is completed. This does not take very long. When the self-check is complete, the display should
read zero. If it does not, press the "Tare/Rezero" control. The display should now read zero. Note that
the balance at this point can measure out to either two or three decimal places (depending on the balance
you are using). This represents a high degree of sensitivity, so that even small breezes of wind may cause
fluctuations. Some balances will display masses to three decimal places up to a certain mass, and then
they will switch to two decimal places above that mass. Place an object on the pan and note the display.
Most of the work you will be doing in chemistry will require masses measured to two decimal places. There
is no scale to read on electronic measuring devices. You simply read a digital display. Therefore,
uncertainty in not estimated in the same way it is when reading a scale. The last digit in any measurement
is always uncertain. So, if the display reads 45.85 g, then the last 5 (in the hundreds column) is uncertain.
This means that the minimum uncertainty is ±0.01 since the uncertain digit is in the hundreds column.
However, the uncertainty could be greater than this, and you would have to check the specifications of
the instrument to determine that.
1-9 © 1997, A.J. Girondi
Dry chemicals are never placed directly on the balance pan. Instead they are placed on either a
piece of weighing paper or in a small cup or container. Note that a box of weighing paper is always found
close to the balances in the lab. Obtain a piece of weighing paper and put in on the balance pan. Note the
mass of the paper. We are now going to measure out about 5 grams of rock salt onto the weighing paper.
However, we do not want to include the mass of the paper. So, before we begin measuring out the salt,
press the "Tare/Re-zero" and note what happens. The mass of the paper has been eliminated, so that the
balance now reads 0.000 with the paper on the pan. Therefore, any mass we read on the display will be
that of the salt. Obtain a bottle of rock salt from the materials shelf, and use a spoon or scupula to add
about 5 grams of salt to the paper. Read the display.
What is the mass of salt on the pan? ________________ g
Be very careful if you decide to remove some substance from the balance pan. DO NOT press on the
balance pan with the spoon! (And, of course, never handle chemicals with your hands.) Remove the
paper and salt from the balance pan and return the salt to the container from which you obtained it. Do not
reuse weighing paper. Discard it after use.
Sometimes you may need to measure out more of a substance than a piece of weighing paper
can safety hold. In that case it is recommended that you use an object such as a small paper or plastic cup
in place of weighing paper. Some chemicals may react with paper or plastic, in which case glass containers
such as beakers may be used. The "Tare/Rezero" control is used to eliminate the mass of the cup or
container in that same way as was done with weighing paper.
Note that the "Tare" control is also the "Rezero" control. If you attempt to use the balance and
note that the display does not read zero even though nothing is on the pan, simply press the
"Tare/Rezero" control. BE SURE to leave the balance and the surrounding area clean after you have
used it. DO NOT leave chemical substances on or around the balance! Note that the pan can be lifted off
for easy cleaning underneath. Use a damp paper towel for cleaning.
Tare/Rezero ON/OFF
45.85 g
Figure 1.9
An Electronic Balance
1-10 © 1997, A.J. Girondi
ACTIVITY 1.7 Uncertainty In The Measurement Of Masses
Now it's time to make an estimate of mass and then to check that estimate using the laboratory
balance. Clean and dry the small beaker used in section 1.5. Place the beaker on the balance and
determine its mass in grams.
What is the measured mass of the beaker? ______________ g
What is the minimum amount of uncertainty for the balance you are using? ± ___________g

What was the unit used on the numerical answers above?
Note: After you have finished a laboratory activity, it is your responsibility to clean all of the equipment and
to return it to its proper place. You may also find it necessary to wipe up the lab table.
ACTIVITY 1.8 Qualitative and Quantitative Observations
Most of the information gathered in chemistry requires some type of direct observation. Some of
these observations rely solely on our senses. For example, observing that a particular solution is yellow
relies solely on our sense of sight. But, to determine that there are 15 mL of this yellow solution relies on
our sense of sight aided by a measuring instrument, the graduated cylinder in this case. Measuring tools
help us to extend our senses by allowing us to collect more accurate information. The two observations
made above are two rather different types of observations. In general, they are called qualitative and
quantitative observations. Qualitative observations are those that describe, in general, how something
looks, feels, tastes, and/or smells. Quantitative observations involve numerical measurements.
Example: I have a test tube in my hand containing 5 mL of a solution that is green in color. The fact
that I have identified a measurement (5 mL) would indicate a quantitative observation. By identifying the
color of the solution, I have made a qualitative statement.
In science, it is necessary to be able to make accurate observations. Most people need to
improve their observation skills. So let's do this. Obtain a candle, a square to set the candle on, and a
match or lighter. Light the candle and stand it on the cardboard. Some students are capable of making an
extraordinary number of observations of a lit and unlit candle. You will be asked to make only 10
observations - 5 qualitative and 5 quantitative. Use as many of the laboratory measuring devices
introduced earlier as possible to make your quantitative observations. Be certain that you are using the
instruments properly, that you always write the appropriate units after any numbers, and that you carry your
measurements out to as many decimal places as possible. Your observations may be of both a lit and an
unlit candle. (10 total observations) Write your observations in the table which follows in complete
sentences.
Qualitative Observations:
1.____________________________________________________________________________
2.____________________________________________________________________________
3.____________________________________________________________________________
4. ____________________________________________________________________________

5.____________________________________________________________________________
1-11 © 1997, A.J. Girondi
Quantitative Observations:
1.____________________________________________________________________________
2.____________________________________________________________________________

3.____________________________________________________________________________
4.____________________________________________________________________________

5.____________________________________________________________________________
ACTIVITY 1.9 Use of the Laboratory Burner
As you work in the chemistry laboratory, there are several procedures or techniques that are
commonly used. You will now be given an opportunity to practice some of these basic procedures. One
piece of equipment you will frequently be using is a burner. Figure 1.10 illustrates the anatomy of a typical
burner. Your burner may be different from the one shown. Most burners have an adjustment for air flow -
usually this involves turning the barrel of the burner. Some also have a gas flow adjustment - usually
controlled by a valve at the base of the burner.
Attach your burner to the gas outlet at your lab station using a two or three foot length of rubber
tubing which is in good condition. Be sure that the connections are tight. Obtain a flame igniter or lighter.
Be very careful if you have long hair. Hair will burn very quickly if it gets too close to the flame! It is a good
idea to tie long hair back. Turn the gas on so that the valve is completely open - this means that the handle
of the valve should be located directly overtop of the valve itself. The flow of gas should be not be
controlled from the main valve, but rather it should be controlled by the valve on the burner itself. The
main valve should be completely open when in use. Step back from the burner and light the gas. If you
cannot light it, do not allow gas to continue to flow. Turn it off and ask the teacher for assistance.
Barrel - rotate to adjust air flow
Gas Inlet
Valve - rotate to adjust gas flow
FIGURE 1.10 Anatomy of a Laboratory Burner
The burner flame should be blue in color and about 1 to 2 inches in height. If the flame is yellow,
more air is needed (turn the barrel counterclockwise). If the flame keeps blowing out, less air is needed
(turn the barrel clockwise). If your flame is too long or too short, adjust the gas flow by turning the valve at
the base. Ask your teacher to help you if you are uneasy with the process. The hottest part of the flame is
at the tip of the inverted light blue cone within the flame. The tip of this cone should touch the bottom of
1-12 © 1997, A.J. Girondi
the object being heated for maximum efficiency. Before moving on, be sure you can light and adjust your
laboratory burner properly and with confidence.
Safety is always a concern, and it will be brought to your attention many times. The use of safety
glasses to protect your eyes may well be the most important piece of equipment you will ever use in a
chemistry lab. They must be worn at all times in the lab. Wear them during this next activity.
A larger high-temperature burner is also available in your lab. These burners are used for bending
glass tubing and for specific experiments where high temperatures or heating large volumes of liquids are
required. You will be told when high-temperature burners should be used. DO NOT use them unless you
are directed to do so. You will be using high-temperature burners during activity 1.10.
ACTIVITY 1.10 Working with Glass Tubing
Occasionally, you will be doing laboratory activities that require the manipulation of glass tubing.
At this point, your teacher will demonstrate to you the proper way to cut, bend, fire-polish, and seal glass
tubing using a large high–temperature burner or a regular burner with a "wing top" attachment. The
teacher will demonstrate these techniques in front of the entire class. Caution! Hot glass cools very
slowly, so allow it to cool completely before touching it. Water may cause hot glass to shatter - even Pyrex!
Never put a liquid into hot glass - even Pyrex. After the teacher demonstration, you will be given specific
tasks to perform with the glass tubing. Each student will be required to:
1. File and break two pieces of glass tubing to a proper length (15 to 20 cm in length). Use those pieces
of tubing to:
2. Make a 90-degree glass bend fire-polished at each end.
3. Make a stirring rod (about 15 to 20 cm long) sealed at both ends.
Check with your teacher after you have completed the tasks, and show him/her your glass bend and
stirring rod.
ACTIVITY 1.11 Heating Liquids in Tubes - The Hot Water Bath
If you wish to heat a liquid in a test tube, you should never put the test tube containing the liquid
directly into the burner flame. If placed directly into the flame, the solution may "bump" and shoot out of
the tube, possibly in someone's face. It's safer to heat the tube in a hot water bath as shown in Figure
1.11. Let's try an activity using this technique. To set up the water bath you will need a 250 mL or 400 mL
beaker about
1
/2 full of tap water. Put this on a wire gauze supported by an iron ring attached to a ring
stand. A test tube containing the sample to be heated can then be placed into the water. Light the burner
under the water bath. Begin heating the water. The tip of the light blue cone of the flame should touch
the bottom of the wire gauze. Next, obtain the dextrose solution and the Benedict's solution from the
materials shelf. Measure out 5 mL of dextrose solution and place it in a large test tube.
Qualitatively describe the dextrose solution._____________________________________________
Quantitatively describe the dextrose solution.____________________________________________
Qualitatively describe the Benedict's solution.____________________________________________
1-13 © 1997, A.J. Girondi
Next, add 3 drops of Benedict's solution to the dextrose solution in the test tube. Immerse the test tube
in the water bath. When it gets hot enough, the solution in the tube will change.
Describe any changes that occur as you heat it. ___________________________________________
Was your observation above more QUALitative or QUANTitative?______________________________
Allow your apparatus to cool, and then clean up the lab area.
The tip of the light blue cone
in the flame should touch
the bottom
Figure 1.11 Hot Water Bath
stirring rod
Figure 1.12 Decanting
ACTIVITY 1.12 Decanting Liquids
It will frequently be necessary for you to separate a solid from a liquid. There are several ways in
which to do this. The simplest way is to let the solid settle out and then pour off the liquid - leaving the
solid in the container. This technique is called decanting. To avoid splashing, the liquid is slowly poured
down a stirring rod. The technique is shown in Figure 1.12. It takes a bit of practice to do this properly, so
try it. Get solutions A and B from the materials shelf. Mix 7 mL of solution A with 7 mL of solution B in a
small beaker. Describe what happens using qualitative terms. ________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
The solid that is formed is called a precipitate. Decant the liquid from the precipitate following the
procedure shown in Figure 1.12. The liquid that you pour off is called the decantate. Save the beaker
containing the precipitate for Activity 1.13.
ACTIVITY 1.13 How to Properly Filter Liquids
When a solution is decanted, the precipitate left behind is quite wet. In many experiments it will be
necessary to determine the mass of the precipitate. In these cases, it is not enough to decant the liquid
off of the precipitate. Instead, the solid is filtered through fine paper. In the filtration technique, the liquid
soaks through filter paper while the solid becomes trapped. The filter paper containing the precipitate can
then be dried and weighed. Follow the procedure below to determine the mass of your precipitate.
1-14 © 1997, A.J. Girondi
1. Obtain a piece of filter paper and measure its mass using a balance. Record the mass of the paper in
Table 1.1. Fold the filter paper as shown in Figure 1.9 below.
2. Pull one layer of the folded paper away from the rest forming a cone. Place the filter paper cone in a
funnel and wet it with distilled water. Press the paper carefully with your thumbs so that it fits snugly in the
funnel. Put the funnel into a small iron ring attached to a ring stand. (If you can't find a small enough ring to
hold your funnel, you can put the funnel into a pipestem triangle which can then be placed on a larger
ring.) Note that the tip of the funnel should touch the upper inside wall of the beaker to prevent splashing.
3. Pour the precipitate and any liquid still remaining in the beaker into the filter paper cone. If all the solid
does not come out of the beaker, rinse the beaker with extra water from your wash bottle, and then pour
this extra water and the remainder of the precipitate into the filter paper cone.
4. Use a magic marker to put your initials on a 100 mL beaker. Then, when filtering is complete, put the
filter paper cone containing the precipitate into the beaker.
5. Allow the filter paper and the precipitate in the beaker to dry overnight in an oven. After that time,
remove the dry paper cone from the beaker, and determine the mass of the filter paper and precipitate.
Record all of your data in Table 1.1. Discard the paper and precipitate.
2
1
3
4
Press moistened
paper against funnel
with thumbs to seal.
Figure 1.9 Folding Filter Paper and Filtering Apparatus
Filtrate

TABLE 1.1 Det ermining t he Mass of a Precipit at e
Mass of Filt er Paper g
Mass Paper + Precip g
Mass of Precipit at e g
1-15 © 1997, A.J. Girondi
Write two qualitative observations about the activity above.
(1)____________________________________________________________________________
(2)____________________________________________________________________________
Write two quantitative observations about the activity above.
(1)____________________________________________________________________________
(2)____________________________________________________________________________
SECTION 1.14 Chemistry In Our Daily Lives
From the historical point of view, the development of the science of chemistry is very fascinating.
In one sense, chemistry can trace its origins to prehistoric times when humans first discovered fire and
how it could be used to cause chemical changes. (But is was not a science then!) About 30,000 years ago
people were using paints and pigments for a variety of uses. About 8,000 to 10,000 years ago people
were producing copper and tin metal by treating ores and minerals with fire. About 3,000 to 4,000 years
ago people were producing bronze, iron, and steel for use as weapons and utensils. They also had
become fascinated with such metals as gold and silver, which they regarded as solid forms of sunlight and
moonlight. A certain group of individuals became so interested in metals that they attempted to convert
the more common metals (such as iron, copper, and tin) into gold and silver. These people became
known as ALCHEMISTS, a term from which the modern word chemistry comes. For 1,500 years
alchemists tried in vain to find a way to produce gold from other things. In their attempts, they developed
many methods and techniques to separate and purify chemical substances in nature.
The science of chemistry started approximately 400 years ago when people motivated by
curiosity became interested in studying the properties and behavior of natural substances. They learned
the differences between solids, liquids, and gases. They discovered the existence of many elements and
compounds. Through laboratory experimentation, it became apparent that elements and compounds
were composed of atoms and molecules. It also became clear that there were groups of elements that
acted in a similar fashion, and they came to be known as "chemical families." A large amount of chemical
information accumulated during the period from 1700 to 1900 as scientists learned to recognize that there
were a limited number of chemical elements (about 90) of which the "stuff" of nature was composed.
During the 20th century we have learned much more about chemical substances and the laws
governing their behavior. We have created new elements in our laboratories that do not exist in nature.
We have even learned enough that we know how to change certain metals into gold, though the process
would be very difficult and expensive. The dream of the alchemists turned out to be within our reach!
The historical view of the development of chemistry provides a further reason to study the
knowledge that we have gained over the past 10,000 years. We are privileged to inherit 100 centuries of
accumulated knowledge. One of the most important reasons that we should learn as much as we can
about chemistry is because of the role it plays in our lives. Almost every aspect of our lives involves
chemistry to some extent. The food we eat contains chemical substances added to it to help prevent it
from spoiling. The farmer uses chemicals to protect food crops from pests and weeds. The farmer uses
synthetic chemicals produced in a laboratory to fertilize his land. All aspects of modern agriculture rely to
some degree on chemicals and chemical knowledge.
Our knowledge of chemistry has allowed us to develop drugs to treat and prevent sickness and to
help make life more comfortable. Research is currently progressing toward the development of new and
better drugs for treating diseases and health problems that are a serious threat to the well-being of us all.
1-16 © 1997, A.J. Girondi
The clothing that most of us wear is made largely from synthetic fibers that have been developed in
chemistry laboratories. Many materials are now made from plastics which have helped to raise our standard
of living by making inexpensive products available to a larger number of people. The household products
used for cleaning and washing are another example of better living made possible through chemistry.
These products are being improved continuously by the chemical industry as we learn new and better
ways to produce them.
We all use energy, and in our country each person uses much more than most people in other
parts of the world. As energy supplies are being consumed, we will need to find ways to make coal, our
most plentiful energy resource, usable without polluting our environment. Recovering more oil from
depleted well and from oil shale is yet another challenge for chemists. From these examples, you can see
that chemistry is an important part of your life. The more you know about it, the more responsible you will
be as a citizen when you and others encounter the problems of a highly technical society.
SECTION 1.15 Learning Outcomes
Review the learning outcomes listed below. Check off each one which you feel you have
mastered. Go back and review any material which you still feel uncertain about. When you have checked
off all of the outcomes, you will be prepared for the exam on Chapter 1.
_____1. Identify the proper names of some common pieces of laboratory
equipment.
_____2. Set up and use a hot water bath.
_____3. Distinguish between qualitative and quantitative observations.
_____4. Read laboratory measuring instruments properly, recognizing the
amount of uncertainty in the measurements.
_____5. Properly decant and filter solutions.
_____6. List several reasons illustrating the important role of chemistry in our daily lives.
1-17 © 1997, A.J. Girondi
SECTION 1.16 Answers to Questions and Problems
Questions:
{1} 5.25 cm; {2} 5.85 cm; {3}
o
C; {4} tenths; {5} 0.5
o
C
Problems:
1. 7 slurps, ±1 slurp
2. 75 klumps, ±5 klumps
3. 1.45 glips, ±0.05 glip
4. 4.5 zorches, ±0.5 zorch; 5.0 zorches, ±0.5 zorch
5. a. 0.1 mL; 0.05 mL (as long as you can read a level between the closest lines. If you can't the
uncertainty would be 0.1 mL.)
b. 1 mL on most 50 mL graduates; 0.5 mL
c. 1 mL; 0.5 mL (as long as you can read a level between the closest lines. If you can't the
uncertainty would be 1 mL.)
1-18 © 1997, A.J. Girondi
NAME_______________________________________ PER_____________ DATE DUE______________
ACTIVE LEARNING I N CHEMISTRY EDUCATION
"ALICE"
CHAPTER 2
HANDLING
AND
PRESENTING
DATA
2-1 © 1997, A.J. Girondi
NOTICE OF RIGHTS
All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form by any means,
electronic, mechanical, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the author.
Copies of this document may be made free of charge for use in public or nonprofit private educational institutions
provided that permission is obtained from the author . Please indicate the name and address of the institution
where use is anticipated.
© 1997 A.J. Girondi, Ph.D.
505 Latshmere Drive
Harrisburg, PA 17109
alicechem@geocities.com
Website: www.geocities.com/Athens/Oracle/2041
2-2 © 1997, A.J. Girondi
SECTION 2.1 Use of Scientific Notation
Much of this chemistry course will deal with experimentation. In chapter 1 you tried many of the more
commonly used laboratory techniques. Being skilled with the laboratory equipment will help you to carry out
experiments more efficiently. Every experiment you perform has a purpose. You are usually trying to answer a
question or to discover some relationship that may exist between variables. The conclusions you draw from
experiments often depend on how you organize your data. This is a very important part of chemistry. As a result,
we are devoting this entire chapter to the handling of data.
When you work with chemistry concepts, you will often be using extremely large or extremely small
numbers. For example, the speed of light is 30,000,000,000 cm per second. The mass of the Earth is
6,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 kg. The mass of an electron is very, very small. In fact it is
0.000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,091 g. The wavelength of yellow light is about 0.000059 cm.
Numbers expressed in this way are awkward and have little meaning to us. They cannot be quickly comprehended
at first sight. Therefore, a more convenient way to express such numbers is in a form called "exponential
notation."
In exponential notation, numbers are expressed as multiples or powers of ten. Exponential numbers are a
form of what is called "scientific notation." The following examples illustrate how common numbers may be
expressed in exponential notation.
10 = 1 X 10
1
0.01 = 1 X 10
-2
123 = 1.23 X 10
2
0.1 = 10
-1
100 = 1 X 10
2
1000 = 1 X 10
3
0.001 = 1 X 10
-3
10,000 = 1 X 10
4
0.0001 = 1 X 10
-4
When writing in scientific notation, there should be only one digit (not a zero) to the left of the decimal point.
The exponent is determined by the number of digits the decimal is moved to get it to the proper position.
For example, 1,300 can also be written as 1.3 X 10
3
- the decimal moves 3 places to the left so the exponent on
the ten is a 3. If we would have had to move the decimal point three places to the right, then the exponent on the
10 would have been a negative three (-3). That is, 0.0013 = 1.3 X 10
-3
. Notice also that the trailing or leading
zeros in the original numbers are no longer used.
Problem 1. Complete the following by writing the numbers in either exponential form or regular form.
a. 190,000 _______________ b. 1.986 X 10
5
_______________
c. 528 _______________ d. 1.986 X 10
8
_______________
e. 4,400,000 _______________ f. 1.75 X 10
7
_______________
g. 9700 _______________ h. 3.33 X 10
4
_______________
i. 49 _______________ j. 2.5 X 10
1
_______________
k. 0.056 _______________ l. 9.28 X 10
-8
_______________
m. 0.113 _______________ n. 1.411 X 10
-3
_______________
o. 0.00000035 _______________ p. 6.275 X 10
-6
_______________
q. 0.00077 ______________ r. 2.79 X 10
-4
_______________
s. 0.00000512 ______________ t. 1.3 X 10
-1
_______________
2-3 © 1997, A.J. Girondi
NOTE! NOTE! NOTE! Check with your teacher at this point to see if you should read and complete the work
on uncertainty in measurement in Appendix A. If so, do that now and then return to section 2.2, and finish this
chapter.
To Appendix A -----> ??????
SECTION 2.2 Calculations Involving Scientific Notation
Using exponential numbers can save you a lot of time when doing calculations. For example, if you were
asked to multiply a number such as 1,400,000 by 3,200, the amount of time spent carrying decimal places would
be considerable. Assuming that you did not have a calculator available, it would take time to complete such a
calculation. You can solve the problem quite easily using exponential notation. The problem would take this form:
(1.40 X 10
6
) X (3.20 X 10
3
) = 4.48 X 10
9
How was this answer obtained? First multiply the regular numbers by one another, then add the exponents to get
the correct final exponent in the answer. To divide using exponential numbers, you must change the sign of the
exponent in the denominator and add it to the exponent in the numerator.
Example 1:
8.0 X 10
6
2.0 X 10
3
=
8.0 X 10
+6(-3)
2.0
= 4.0 X 10
3
Example 2:
9.0 X 10
4
4.5 X 10
-7
= 2.0 X 10
+4(+7)
= 2.0 X 10
11
You should also try to do these problems using a scientific calculator. The exponent key on most scientific
calculators is designated as the "EXP" key or the "EE" key. In order to enter an exponential number into a
calculator the exponent key is used as follows. To enter 8.6 X 10
6
, you should enter 8.6 then press the exponent
key then enter the exponent. That would be: 8.6 [EE] 6. Notice that you would NOT press the multiplication key
and you would NOT enter the ten. On most calculators, the exponent is shown at the extreme right of the display
and usually without the ten showing (we assume it is there).
Many students get confused about how to solve more complex problems when using a calculator. Let's
try an example:
(5.6 X 10
3
)(2.4 X 10
2
)
(5.8 X 10
5
)(3.6 X 10
3
)
= 6.4 X 10
-4
To solve this problem on a calculator without using any subtotals, simply enter the first number in the numerator
(5.6 X 10
3
), then divide by (5.8 X 10
5
). Now, multiply by (2.4 X 10
2
), and then divide by (3.6 X 10
3
). Calculators are
fussy about the way you enter your data. It is best to alternately multiply and divide such as was done above.
Here is another example:

45
(32) (88)
= ??
If you enter 45 in the calculator, and then divide by the product of 32 and 88 you will get the wrong answer. You
can solve this problem correctly in one of two ways. You can enter 45 in the calculator, then divide by 32, then
multiply by 1, and finally divide by 88. This is the alternating pattern mentioned above. Or, you can enter 45 into
the calculator and then divide by the quantity (32 X 88). This method requires the use of the parentheses found
on scientific calculators. Try it both ways. You should get 0.016 (rounded off).
2-4 © 1997, A.J. Girondi
Problem 2. Practice doing calculations such as those below. You should give each answer in scientific notation.
You may use a calculator to solve these problems, but try doing several of them using only a pencil - just to be sure
you can.
Sample Problem: (7.0 X 10
27
)(4.0 X 10
-10
) = 28 X 10
27-10
= 28 X 10
17
= 2.8 X 10
18

a. (4.0 X 10
20
)(3.0 X 10
15
) =
b. (9.0 X 10
17
)(4.0 X 10
-4
) =
c. (8.0 X 10
22
)(8.0 X 10
22
) =
d. (5.0 X 10
12
)(5.0 X 10
-12
) =
e. (4.0 X 10
15
)
÷
(2.0 X 10
20
) =
f. (3.0 X 10
-12
)
÷
(3.0 X 10
-14
) =
g. (7.0 X 10
6
)
÷
(3.5 X 10
-10
) =
h. (8.2 X 10
-20
) ÷ (4.1 X 10
-20
) =
i. (2.88 X 10
23
) ÷ (2.0 X 10
13
) =
j.
(3.0 X 10
17
)(4.0 X 10
-4
)
(6 X 10
-5
)
=
k.
(7.0 X 10
-10
)(7.0 X 10
-4
)
(7 X 10
-14
)
=
l.
(4.0 X 10
2
)(4.0 X 10
6
)
(1.6 X 10
6
)
=
m.
(3.2 X 10
1
)(6.4 X 10
1
)
(1.6 X 10
3
)
=
n.
(5.0 X 10
5
)(6.0 X 10
4
)
(3.0 X 10
7
)(1.0 X 10
-6
)
=
o.
(6.4 X 10
4
)(7.0 X 10
3
)
(3.2 X 10
-4
)(3.5 X 10
-3
)
=
SECTION 2.3 "GuEstimating"
Because it is easy to make an error when entering a number into a calculator, you should estimate (or
"guEstimate") your answer first. In this way, you will be able to quickly recognize any unreasonable answer
obtained with a calculator. For example, suppose we wanted to multiply 6821 by 499. By rounding the numbers
to 7000 and 500 and putting them in exponential form, we get (7 X 10
3
)(5 X 10
2
) = ? It is easy to guesstimate the
answer as 35 X 10
5
or 3.5 X 10
6
. The actual answer obtained with a calculator is 3,403,679. Our guesstimate
indicates that the answer obtained is, indeed, reasonable. (It is about 3.4 X 10
6
.)
2-5 © 1997, A.J. Girondi
Problem 3. To practice this procedure, solve the problems below. Round off the numbers first, then convert to
exponential form where necessary, then perform the operation and obtain your "guesstimate." (Don't worry about
rounding the GuEstimate properly.) Do all this without the use of a calculator. Finally, use a calculator to obtain the
answer and compare it to your guesstimate.
"GuEstimate" Calculated Answer
a. (4,851,300 m)(6,200,111 m) ____________________ ______________________
b. 80,109 mm
2
÷ 411 mm ____________________ ______________________
c. (0.0000500 cm)(49,850 cm) ____________________ ______________________
d. (30,011 km)(299 km) ____________________ ______________________
e. (400,102 m)(6.0 X 10
23
m) ÷ 310 m ____________________ ______________________
SECTION 2.4 Metric Abbreviations and Equivalents
Scientists normally use the metric system to define physical and chemical quantities. In so doing,
abbreviations are used to eliminate the need to write the words defining a unit. The following are the proper
abbreviations for frequently used units of measurement in chemistry. You should study and remember these
units and abbreviations.
Problem 4. After each measure, indicate whether each is a measure of mass, volume, or length. Note which
letters are CAPITALIZED, and which are lowercase.
a. gram (g) ____________ b. milliliter (mL) ____________ c. meter (m) ____________
d. milligrams (mg) ____________ e. millimeter (mm) ___________ f. liter (L) ___________
g. centimeter (cm) ____________ h. kilogram (kg) ____________
i. cubic centimeter (cm
3
) ____________
You may frequently have to change one metric unit into another. The metric equivalents listed below are
commonly used in chemistry and are needed to make conversions. You will be expected to know them.
1 kg = 1000 g; 1 m = 100 cm; 1 L = 1000 mL; 1 g = 1000 mg; 1 m = 1000 mm; 1 cm = 10 mm
Problem 5. Table 2.1 contains masses of several objects each given in a particular unit of measure. Complete
the table by converting the masses to the units needed to fill in the blanks. Any very small or very large numbers
can be expressed in exponential form. 1 mg = 0.001 g 1 kg = 1000 g
2-6 © 1997, A.J. Girondi
Table 2.1 Mass Conversions
Object g mg kg
small beaker _____78.96_____ _______________ _______________
pencil _______________ _____6783_____ _______________
large flask _______________ _______________ ____ 0.378______
SECTION 2.5 Celsius Versus Fahrenheit Temperatures
Another important property that we frequently measure in science is temperature. You have already used
a Celsius thermometer in Chapter 1. The temperature scale that is commonly used in our everyday lives is the
Fahrenheit scale. Because of the way this scale was originally devised, the temperatures 0
o
F and 100
o
F are not
equal to the freezing and boiling points of water. Scientists more commonly use the Celsius scale. This scale was
devised by the Swedish astronomer, Anders Celsius, in the early 1700's. The reference point of 0
o
C is the
temperature at which water freezes, and the 100
o
C reference point is the temperature at which water boils (both
under standard pressure of 1 atmosphere). If room temperature is taken to be 77
o
F, this is then equivalent to
25
o
C. There are formulas available to change a temperature in one scale to an equivalent temperature in the
other. However, since Fahrenheit temperatures are rarely ever used in chemistry, we will not do such conversions
here.
SECTION 2.6 Rules for Handling Units During Calculations
Notice that all of the problems which you have completed so far have units as a part of the answer. In
Chapter 1, it was explained that numbers without units are meaningless. Therefore, we must be able to handle
both numbers and their units with efficiency. In fact, your ability to work with units in a chemistry problem will be an
important aid to your success in chemistry. There are two rules that you must use when units are involved in
problems. They are:
1. Only quantities with the same units can be added or subtracted. You cannot add or subtract apples and
oranges.
2. When quantities are multiplied or divided, their units are also multiplied or divided.
To illustrate this, imagine trying to add 50.0 mm Hg to 3.50 atm. Both mm Hg and Atm are units of pressure. We
know that the mathematical sum is 53.5, but what are the units? Are the units "mm Hg" (millimeters of mercury) or
"atm" (atmospheres)? The answer of 53.5 has no meaning because the units on each number are not the same.
Therefore, can we add the pressures in the forms given? No! However, if you know that 1 atm = 760 mm Hg, you
can convert 3.50 atm to mm Hg and add the results to 50.0 mm Hg. This is done for you below.
3.50 atm X
760 mm Hg
1 atm
= 2660 mm Hg
Now use this information to solve problem 6.
2-7 © 1997, A.J. Girondi
Problem 6. 50 mm Hg + 2660 mm Hg = ___________ mm Hg
Suppose we wanted to convert 4.00 hours to seconds. One method of setting up the problem is shown below.
4.00 hr X
60 min
1 hr
X
60 sec
1 min
= 14,400 sec
Notice that all of the units except seconds canceled out.
SECTION 2.7 Dimensional Analysis - A Powerful Way To Solve Problems
Units are a part of all problems. If the units cancel out correctly leaving you only with the units you want in
the answer, you know you have set up the problem correctly. This powerful method of setting up problems is
known as "dimensional analysis" or "unit analysis." Because of the way the set-up of the problem looks on paper,
it is sometimes referred to as a "fencepost."
You are ready to try some sample problems involving units and their cancellation. After you have some
experience with these types of problems, you will realize that you are capable of working many types of problems
without memorizing formulas. Dimensional analysis is not always the shortest way to solve a problem. However, as
problems get more and more complex, dimensional analysis gets more and more powerful because it can guide
you through the logic required, and it allows you to set up large parts of the problem at once, rather than doing a
complicated problem in small parts - one at a time. In addition, you will find that you can solve problems without
knowing anything about the meanings of the terms involved.
Work the following problems. The problems have been partially set up for you. Cancel out units and place
the correct units on your answers. Never express answers as fractions!
Problem 7. If 1 tree = 10 branches, and 15 nests = 15 eggs, and 1 baby bird = 1 egg, and 2 trees = 1 yard, and
5 branches = 5 nests, how many baby birds are there in 1 yard behind a house? (Start with the information given,
1 yard, and solve for baby birds.)
1 yard X
2 trees
1 yard
X
10 branches
1 tree
X
5 nests
5 branches
X
15 eggs
15 nests
X
1 baby bird
1 egg
= ________ baby birds
(Notice how all units cancel except baby birds.)
Problem 8. Two warts = 1 querk, 3 querks = 1 gag, 5 gags = 6 nerfs, and 4 nerfs = 5 wigs. How many warts are
there in 1 wig? Don't panic! You are looking for warts, and you are given wigs. So, we start the fencepost with 1
wig and set up the units so that they cancel and leave you with warts. Finish the set-up below and calculate the
answer.
1 wig X
nerfs
wigs
... = ______ warts
2-8 © 1997, A.J. Girondi
SECTION 2.8 Use of Complex Units of Measure
A word that we use a lot with units is per. We say miles per gallon (mi/gal) or miles per hour (mi/hr) or grams
per mole (g/mol). These are common units, and they are used in the following problems. Solve these problems
making certain that you show all of your work, including units.
Problem 9. 1.00 case of apples costs $16.00. What is the cost per dozen if a case contains 14.0 dozen apples.
(You want to end with units of $/doz.)
1.00 case
14 dozen
X =
$
1 dozen
Problem 10. A car travels 300.0 miles on 11.0 gallons of gas. How many miles is the car able to travel when 143
gallons of gas are used? (Be sure to use dimensional analysis.)
143 gal X

= ________ miles
The term "per" can be denoted by a single line. For example, miles per gallon can be written as mi/gal. The term
also gives a clue as to the mathematical process that is involved. Is the process addition, subtraction,
multiplication, or division? {1}___________________________
SECTION 2.9 Practice Problems Involving Units of Measure
The following problems are designed for you to practice canceling out units as they fit into the problems.
Note that singular and plural units that are otherwise the same are considered identical and can cancel each other.
For example, apple can cancel apples.
Probl em 11. Indicate for each problem, what units are left after all canceling has been done.
Examples:
L X
mL
L
= mL sec
2
X
feet
sec
= (sec)(feet)
a. mole X
g
mole
=
b. hrs X
miles
hr
=
c.
feet
sec
X
sec
min
X
min
hr
=
d.
g
mole
X
mole
L
=
2-9 © 1997, A.J. Girondi
e. moles X
mole
g
=
f. moles X
g
mole
=
g. g X
mole
g
X
g
mole
=
h. mole X
mg
L
X
L
mole
X
atm
mg
=
i.
cm
3
m
X
m
dm
X
dm
cm
X
1
hec
=
j.
g
mole
X
mole
g
=
If you can handle numbers and units, you should be able to do problems such as the following example. If
a person can run 100. yards in 10.5 seconds, how fast is he/she running in miles per hour? (1760 yd = 1 mi). First
set up the unit analysis for solving the problem:
yd
sec
X
mi
yd
X
sec
min
X
min
hr
=
mi
hr
Notice how all units cancel except those we wanted to keep in the answer. Substitute the proper numbers and
solve the problem in the space below. See if you get the answer given.
yd
sec
X
mi
yd
X
sec
min
X
min
hr
=
19.5 mi
1.00 hr
Probl em 12. Make the following conversions using dimensional analysis. Show your work neatly.
a. Change 400.0 ounces to its comparable figure in tons. (16 ounces = 1 pound, and 2000 pounds = 1 ton.)
b. Calculate the number of seconds in 1.000 week.
c. Convert 2.00 miles to fathoms. (1 fathom = 6 feet; 1 mile = 5280 feet)
2-10 © 1997, A.J. Girondi
d. Change 400. cubic feet per 1.00 second to quarts per minute. (0.265 gallons = 0.0353 ft
3
; 4 quarts =
1 gallon)
400. ft
3
1.00 sec
X
SECTION 2.10 Practice With Dimensional Analysis
Problem 13. Use the information below to solve the problems by unit analysis (dimensional analysis). Some
problems have been started for you.
1 sack = 7 bips; 4 tolls = 3 smacks; 12 tolls = 1 lardo; 5 smacks = 1 bip; 8 lardos = 7 fleas
a. Calculate the number of smacks in 1.00 lardo.
b. Calculate the number of lardos in 1.00 bip.

c. How many sacks are in 1.00 smack?
d. 12 bips equal how many fleas?
2-11 © 1997, A.J. Girondi
e. How many tolls are equivalent to 49 fleas?
Problem 14. Since you will be using the metric system exclusively in chemistry class, you should be able to
convert one metric unit into another. The metric equivalents presented earlier in this chapter are given again
below for your convenience. Solve the problems below using "fenceposting" to set up and solve the problems,
and be sure to SHOW YOUR WORK.
1 kg = 1000 g; 1 m = 100 cm; 1 L = 1000 mL; 1 g = 1000 mg; 1 m = 1000 mm; 1 cm = 10 mm
a. Convert 1.4 kg to g.
b. Convert 896 mL to L
c. Convert 6785 mg to kg
d. Convert 0.458 m to mm
2-12 © 1997, A.J. Girondi
e. Try this one now! Convert 4.5 m
3
to cm
3
. Hmmmm. This could be tough because you were not given any
relationship between cubic meters (m
3
) and cubic centimeters (cm
3
). Therefore, you will need to derive such a
relationship before you can calculate the answer. Do it this way. A scale model of a cubic meter is drawn in the
space below. Since all sides of a cube are equal in length, each side has a length of 1 meter. Now label each
side's length in centimeters. (You will recall that the relationship between meters and centimeters is 1 m = 100
cm.) O.K. Now, since the volume of a cube is s
3
where s is the length of a side, you can calculate the volume of
the cube in cubic centimeters. Do that in the space below the box.
Now, complete the following: 1 m
3
= ___________________ cm
3
. You can check your answer by using it in part f
below.
f. Using the relationship you just calculated, you can now convert 4.5 m
3
to cm
3
. Show the set-up and answer
below.
SECTION 2.11 Practice With Algebra Skills
Chemistry uses a lot of mathematics. But, do not be alarmed! We are going to give you examples of how
to work through the problems, and if you get stuck, you can get plenty of help from your teacher. One of the fun
math forms is algebra. The problems below introduce you to some basic algebra problems. These are the types of
math computations you will use most often in this course.
The first type of algebraic equation you will be using is:
a
b
=
c
d
This equation can be rearranged to solve for a as follows:
a =
cb
d
2-13 © 1997, A.J. Girondi
The equation to solve for b would be:
b =
a d
c
Probl em 15. Use your algebra skills to solve the following.
a. Write the equation you would use to solve for c.
b. Write the equation you would use to solve for d.
Another algebraic form you will use is ax + b = cx + d. To solve for x in this equation, begin by moving all x
terms to the left side of the equation: ax - cx = d - b. Factor out the x term: x(a - c) = d - b. Then solve for x by
dividing both sides of the equation by the quantity a - c:
x(a-c)
a- c
=
d-b
a-c
which yields x =
d-b
a-c
c. Now follow the steps shown above and solve this next problem. Show all of the steps in solving for x.
5x + 2 = 3x + 8
Problem 16. Solve the following problems for x. Show work as well as the answer. Since measurements are
not involved here, do not be concerned about rounding.
a.
8
x
=
4
3
b.
12x
3
= 24
c.
2x + 5
30
=
4 - 2x
12
d. 2x - 3 = 1 - 5x
2-14 © 1997, A.J. Girondi
e. 40(x + 4) = 88

f.
16 x
1
=
50.0
2

g.
4x + 16
2
= 12
SECTION 2.12 Graphing Skills and Terms
You will be collecting data from time to time that will be more easily interpreted in the form of a graph.
There is a correct way to graph data. A well-designed graph should tell the observer a lot about the data collected.
It also includes a descriptive title that describes what the graph is all about. A complete key is a good explanation
that allows viewers to know what data they are looking at. The sample graph below is a plot of data collected from a
laboratory investigation. Note that each set of data has been graphed with a symbol. This allows each set of data
to be easily distinguished from the other. Answer the following questions related to the graph.
What would a good title be for this graph? {2}___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
What is the unit used on the vertical, or Y, axis? {3}_______________________________________________
What is the unit used on the horizontal, or X, axis? {4}_____________________________________________
All properly constructed graphs should have equally spaced numbers on both axes. (It is not necessary, however,
to use the same spacing on both axes.) What is the value assigned to each square on the X axis?
{5}_________________ What is the value assigned to each square on the Y axis? {6}____________________
The normal practice to follow when constructing a graph is to place the independent variable on the X axis and the
dependent variable on the Y axis. The independent variable is controlled by the experimenter and the dependent
variable responds accordingly. What variable is being controlled in the graph below? {7}____________________
What is the dependent variable? {8}_______________________
2-15 © 1997, A.J. Girondi
3
2
1
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
*
*
*
x x
* x x x
* x
x
x
Volume of Sodium Carbonate Used (mL)
Rate of Precipitate
Formation (g/min)
* = situation 1
o = situation 2
x = situation 3
Figure 2.1 A Sample Graph
ACTIVITY 2.13 Collecting And Graphing Experimental Data
Before you are given some practice at graphing, it's important to identify two major terms that relate to any
science investigation. They are variable and control. A variable can be defined as something that changes -
usually a property that is being measured. Unlike a variable, a control does not change and thus, gives us
something with which to compare a variable. To illustrate a variable and a control, get two 250 mL beakers and put
100 mL of tap water in each. Place about 30 g of sodium chloride (table salt) in one beaker and stir until most or all
of the salt is dissolved. (Note that the quantity is about 30 g. This means it does not have to be exact.) Use a
magic marker to label this beaker as the variable. The beaker containing the pure water is the control.
Use two thermometers to measure the initial temperature of the contents of each beaker. In Table 2.2
record these original temperatures at time = 0 sec. Now place four ice cubes in each beaker, start timing and start
stirring. Measure and record the temperature of the contents of each beaker at 30-second intervals (continue
stirring). Record all data in Table 2.2.
What was one thing that was different between your variable and control beakers? {9}___________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
What was the purpose of the control in this experiment?___________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
2-16 © 1997, A.J. Girondi
Tabl e 2. 2
An Experiment Using Variable and Control Factors
Time (sec) Temp. Water Temp. Water
(variable) (control)
0 __________________________________
30 __________________________________
60 __________________________________
90 __________________________________
120 __________________________________
150 __________________________________
180 __________________________________
Keep in mind that the line you draw on a graph does not necessarily have to actually pass through each data point.
The best line may actually pass between the points, depending upon the amount of error in your data. It is usually
better to draw a smoothly flowing line with curves, rather than a choppy one obtained by trying to connect the
points. See the example below.
Figure 2.2 A Smooth Curve
2-17 © 1997, A.J. Girondi
Now graph your data on the blank grid below. Follow the procedures outlined in section 2.13 for
preparing graphs. Remember, a well-designed graph has:
1. a descriptive title
2. independent variable on the X axis; dependent variable on the Y axis
3. both axes labeled correctly, including units
4. a key, if more than one line is plotted on the same graph
5. equally spaced increments on both axes.
2-18 © 1997, A.J. Girondi
ACTIVITY 2.14 Cooling Rates Of Evaporating Liquids
To reinforce your skills in data collecting and graphing, complete this lab activity. Collect the necessary
data and graph the results.
1. Obtain a thermometer and wrap some
cotton (or paper toweling) around the
bulb at the end so that the wrapping is
about as thick as the thermometer itself.
Use a rubber band to secure the
wrapping to the bulb.
2. Attach a buret clamp to a ring stand,
and use a piece of string or a paper clip to
hang the thermometer from the clamp.
(See Figure 2.3 below.)
3. Read the temperature of the
thermometer and record this as the
temperature at time zero in Table 2.3.
4. Obtain a bottle of ethyl alcohol which
is at room temperature.
5. Briefly dip the wadded end of the
thermometer into the alcohol. Begin
measuring time as soon as the
thermometer is removed from the
alcohol.
6. Read the thermometer every 30
seconds and record the temperature in
Table 2.3.
7. Continue this process for five minutes
or until you obtain two temperature
readings which are equal.
Tabl e 2. 3
Time Versus Temperature
Time (sec) Temp. (
o
C)
0
Prepare a graph of temperature versus time on the grid on the next page. Remember to place the
independent variable on the horizontal (X) axis.
Fi gure 2. 3
2-19 © 1997, A.J. Girondi
What is the title of your graph? _____________________________________________________________
What is the dependent variable in this experiment? {10}___________________
What is the label for the vertical (Y) axis? {11}_______________________
What is the label for the horizontal (X) axis? {12}_________________________
What is the interval you used on the Y axis? __________X axis?_________
Referring to your data, what data did you collect that would be considered quantitative? {13}_________________
Make a general statement about how the temperature changed with respect to time: ______________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
2-20 © 1997, A.J. Girondi
SECTION 2.15 Learning Outcomes
This chapter was designed to lay the groundwork for future chapters. Review Chapter 2 (and Appendix A
if applicable) carefully and when you are satisfied that you understand the learning outcomes listed below, check
off each one. Arrange to take the quiz or exam on chapter 2.
_____1. Express numbers in scientific notation and back to ordinary form.
_____2. Multiply and divide exponential numbers.
_____3. Use metric units for mass, length, and volume.
_____4. Use dimensional (unit) analysis to solve problems.
_____5. Perform simple algebraic computations.
_____6. Distinguish between variables and controls in an experiment.
_____7. Properly construct and interpret a graph.
You should check the remaining learning outcomes only if you were directed to complete the work in Appendix A.
_____8. Distinguish between those digits in a measurement which are significant and those which are not.
_____9. Express answers to calculations using the correct number of significant digits (also called significant
figures).
2-21 © 1997, A.J. Girondi
SECTION 2.16 Answers to Questions and Problems
Questions:
{1} division; {2} Rate of Precipitate Formation With Respect to Volume of Sodium Carbonate Used;
{3} g/min; {4} mL; {5} 5 mL; {6} 1 g/min; {7} volume; {8} rate; {9} salt is variable & control used for comparison;
{10} temperature; {11} temperature (
o
C); {12} Time (sec); {13} temperature and time
Problems:
1. a. 1.9 X 10
5
; b. 198,600; c. 5.28 X 10
2
; d. 198,600,000; e. 4.4 X 10
6
; f. 17,500,000; g. 9.7 X 10
3
;
h. 33,300; i. 4.9 X 10
1
; j. 25; k. 5.6 X 10
-2
; l. 0.0000000928; m. 1.13 X 10
-1
; n. 0.001411;
o. 3.5 X 10-7; p. 0.000006275; q. 7.7 X 10
-4
; r. 0.000279; s. 5.12 X 10
-6
; t. 0.13
2. a. 1.2 X 10
36
; b. 3.6 X 10
14
; c. 6.4 X 10
45
; d. 2.5 X 10
1
; e. 2.0 X 10
-5
; f. 1.0 X 10
2
; g. 2.0 X 10
16;
h. 2.0 X 10
0
; i. 1.4 X 10
10
; j. 2 X 10
18
; k. 7 X 10
0
; l. 1.0 X 10
3
; m. 1.3 X 10
0
; n. 1.0 X 10
9
; o. 4.0 X 10
14
3. a. GuEstimate: (5 X 10
6
)(6 X 10
6
) = 3 X 10
13
m
2
; Calculated answer: 3.0079 X 10
13
m
2
b
.
GuEstimate: (8 X 10
4
mm) ÷ (4 X 10
2
mm) = 2 X 10
2
mm; Calculated answer: 195 mm or 1.95 X 10
2
mm
c. GuEstimate: (5 X 10
-5
cm)(5 X 10
4
cm) = 2.5 X 10
0
cm
2
; Calculated answer: 2.49 cm
2
d. GuEstimate: (3 X 10
4
km)(3 X 10
2
km
)
=

9 X 10
6
km
2
; Calculated answer: 8.97 X 10
6
km
2
e. GuEstimate: (4 X 10
5
m)(6 X 10
23
m) ÷ (3.00 X 10
2
m) = 8 X 10
26
m; Calculated answer: 7.7 X 10
26
4. a. mass; b. volume; c. length; d. mass; e. length; f. volume; g. length; h. mass; i. volume
5. small beaker: 78.96 g, 78,960 mg, 0.07896 kg
pencil: 6.783 g, 6783 mg, 0.006783 kg
large flask: 378 g, 378,000 mg, 0.378 kg
6. 2710 mm Hg
7. 20 baby birds
8. 4 warts
9. $1.14/1 doz
10. 3900 mi.
11. a. g; b. miles; c. feet/hr; d. g/L; e. moles
2
/g; f. g; g. g; h. atm; i. cm
2
/hec; j. 1
12. a. 0.01250 ton; b. 6.048 X 10
5
sec; c. 1760 fathoms; d. 7.21 X 10
5
qts/min
13. a. 9.00 smacks; b. 0.556 lardos; c. 0.0286 sacks; d. 5.8 fleas; e. 672 tolls (670 rounded)
14. a. 1400 g; b. 0.896 L; c. 6.785 X 10
-3
; d. 458 mm; e. 1 X 10
6
cm
3
; f. 4.5 X 10
6
cm
3
15. a. c = ad/b; b. d = bc/a; c. x = 3
16. a. x = 6; b. x = 6; c. x = 0.7; d. x = 0.57; e. x = -1.8; f. x = 1.56 g; g. x = 2
2-22 © 1997, A.J. Girondi
NAME____________________________________ PER____________ DATE DUE____________
ACTIVE LEARNING I N CHEMISTRY EDUCATION
“ALICE”
CHAPTER 3
PHYSICAL
STATES
OF
MATTER
3-1 © 1997, A.J. Girondi
NOTICE OF RIGHTS
All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form by any means,
electronic, mechanical, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the author.
Copies of this document may be made free of charge for use in public or nonprofit private educational
institutions provided that permission is obtained from the author . Please indicate the name and address
of the institution where use is anticipated.
© 1997 A.J. Girondi, Ph.D.
505 Latshmere Drive
Harrisburg, PA 17109
alicechem@geocities.com
Website: www.geocities.com/Athens/Oracle/2041
3-2 © 1997, A.J. Girondi
SECTION 3.1 Physical Properties of Matter
You have already seen that chemistry is a science that deals with the composition of substances
and the changes in composition that they may undergo. By simply observing a chemical substance, you
cannot always determine the composition of that substance. You can usually distinguish one chemical
substance from another by experimentation. Sometimes the experiments you perform will be qualitative
activities, and at other times they will be mainly quantitative.
Chemical substances are usually distinguished by their appearance, taste, odor, feel, and other
similar properties. Such characteristics are called physical properties. We can recognize specific
substances by their physical properties. Just as you can recognize your friends by their physical
appearance, you can also recognize chemical compounds by their physical appearance and properties.
To obtain a better understanding of physical properties, we will attempt to distinguish between two
different metals on the basis of their physical properties.
ACTIVITY 3.2 Identifying Metals By Physical Properties
Get a sample of metal A and a sample of metal B from the materials shelf. Metals A and B look quite
similar. It would be difficult for the untrained eye to determine the identities of these metals based on their
appearance alone. But, there are ways of identifying these two metals based on their physical properties
listed in Table 3.1.
If you were to refer to a reference book, such as the Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, you
would probably have a difficult time trying to determine the identity of metal A and metal B. There are
simply too many metals with the same or similar properties because the physical properties that you have
described are very general.
Would you categorize the first four observations called for in Table 3.1 as quantitative or qualitative?
{1}_____________________ Why?{2}_______________________________________
There are several physical properties of substances that are more quantitative in nature. Many
substances are more easily identified by quantitative means. For example, every pure substance (element
or compound) has a specific temperature and pressure at which it boils. If we were to melt metals A and B,
we could identify them by comparing their measured melting points with the melting points of metals
found in a reference book.
Another physical property that is a good quantitative measure is the density of a substance.
Density is the mass of a given volume of a substance. You would probably agree that a block of cement is
heavier than a block of styrofoam of the same volume. As a result, we would say that the cement is more
dense than styrofoam. We will try to identify metals A and B by calculating the density of each.

density =
mass (grams)
volume (mL)
Density can be measured in a very simple way. The
mathematical formula for density is given at right. The
measurements you will need to determine density are the
masses of your metals and the volumes occupied by the
metals. To determine the densities of metals A and B use the
following procedure.
.
Procedure:
1. At this time, make the first four observations of metals A and B listed in Table 3.1. Record your
observations in the table. Following the remaining steps to determine the densities of metals A and B.
3-3 © 1997, A.J. Girondi
2. Obtain a 50 mL graduated cylinder. Add 40.0 mL of water to the graduate. Measure the mass of the
graduate containing 40.0 mL of water. Record this mass on a piece of paper.
3. Add as many pieces of metal A as needed to the water in the graduate to make the total volume
between 47.0 and 50.0 mL. All of the pieces of metal must be totally submerged. Calculate the volume of
the metal in the graduate by subtracting the original volume of water (40.0 mL) from the final volume
reading. Record this result as the volume of metal A in Table 3.1.
4. Weigh the graduate and content (water + metal). From this final mass subtract the original mass of the
graduate + water. Record this difference as the mass of metal A in Table 3.1.
5. Dry the pieces of metal A with a towel and return them to the materials shelf.
6. Repeat steps 1 through 4 using metal B.
Tabl e 3. 1
Observed Properties of Metals A and B
Physical Property Metal A Metal B
1. Physical State ________________ ________________
(solid, liquid, gas)
2. Color ________________ ________________
3. Luster ________________ ________________
(shiny, dull, etc.)
4. Texture ________________ ________________
(rough, smooth)
Tabl e 3. 2
Densities of Some
Common Metals
Metal Density (g/mL)
lead 11.34
zinc 7.14
mercury 13.59
tin 5.75
nickel 8.90
platinum 21.45
aluminum 2.70
Table 3.2 lists various common metals and their densities
including metals A and B. Calculate the density of each metal in the
space provided below. Be sure to include units with your answers.
Enter the results into Table 3.1. Compare your calculated densities
of metals A and B to the densities of the metals in Table 3.2. Find the
metals in Table 3.2 whose densities most closely match those for
metals A and B. Enter the identities of metals A and B in Table 3.3.
Using the Handbook of Chemistry and Physics or whatever
other reference resource is available to you, look up metals A and B
and list any other properties that are given. A copy of the handbook
may be available in your lab area and/or in the school library. Enter
the additional properties of these metals into Table 3.3.
3-4 © 1997, A.J. Girondi
Metal A: Show density calculations in space below.
Metal B: Show density calculations in space below.
Tabl e 3. 3
Identities and Densities of Metals A and B
Metal A. Mass: _____________ g; Volume: _____________ mL
Density: ____________ g/mL; Identity: _____________________________
Metal B. Mass: _____________ g; Volume: _____________ mL
Density: ____________ g/mL; Identity: _____________________________
ACTIVITY 3.3 Comparing the Densities of Liquids
Liquids also have densities, but they are determined in a slightly different way. Use the procedure
below to determine the density of liquids.
1. Measure the mass of a clean, dry 10 mL graduated cylinder to the nearest 0.01 g. Record the mass in
Table 3.4.
2. Obtain a bottle of alcohol, oil, or vinegar from the materials shelf. Carefully measure exactly 10.0 mL of
one of the liquids into the graduate. It is extremely important for you to read the meniscus correctly in this
activity. Use a dropper to adjust the volume to exactly 10.0 mL, if needed.
3. Measure the mass of the liquid to the nearest 0.01 g, and record this mass in Table 3.4. Discard the
liquid into the sink after use.
4. Repeat steps 1 through 3 for the other liquids. When finished with the oil, wash the graduate using a
small test tube brush and some detergent. Rinse well with water.
5. Calculate the mass of each liquid using the data collected. Calculate the density of each liquid by
dividing its mass by its volume (10.0 mL). Be sure that each measurement or calculation in your table has
a unit with it.
6. Wash and return all glassware.
3-5 © 1997, A.J. Girondi
Tabl e 3. 4
Ca l c ul a t e d De ns i t i e s of Se l e c t e d Li qui ds
Alcohol Oil Vinegar
Mass of graduate + liquid ________ ________ ________
Mass of graduate ________ ________ ________
Mass of 10 mL of liquid ________ ________ ________
Density of liquid (g/mL) ________ ________ ________
Volume of liquid used _10 mL__ _10 mL__ _10 mL__
Use the data in Table 3.4 to answer the following questions.
1. Which liquid appears to be most dense? _____________________________________________
2. Which liquid appears to be least dense? _____________________________________________
3. If oil is added to water, 2 layers form. One layer is water, while the other is oil. Which substance would
you expect to find on the bottom and which on top? (The density of water is about 1.00 g/mL) Explain:
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
Put about 2 mL of oil into a test tube. Carefully add about 2 mL of water. Observe the behavior of the
water as you add it. Which liquid is on top?_________________ Was your prediction correct?_______
(Use detergent and water again to clean the oily glass.) Discard the liquids into the sink.
4. Specific gravity is the ratio of the density of a liquid compared to
the density of water (1.00 g/mL). Since it is a ratio, specific gravity
has no units. For example, suppose the density of a liquid is 1.80
g/mL. The specific gravity of that liquid is calculated as shown at
right.
S.G. =
1.80 g/mL
1.00 g/mL
= 1.8
Notice that the only difference between the density of a liquid and its specific gravity is that
density has units and specific gravity does not. What is the specific gravity of the oil that you
used?__________
SECTION 3.4 Phase Change Equations
Phase changes are examples of changes in physical properties. Phase changes can be
described in the form of equations. Most solids when heat sufficiently undergo a change in state from a
solid to a liquid phase. Most of us are familiar with the process called melting. This phase change can be
written as an equation:
water(s) ----------> water(l)

The ∆ symbol means “heat added” while the subscripts (s) and (l) refer to solid and liquid, respectively.
3-6 © 1997, A.J. Girondi
The reverse process can be written as: water(l) ----> water(s) and is called freezing. Using these two
examples, write a similar equation to show the phase change involved in boiling. Use the subscript (g) to
represent a gas or vapor. Use any appropriate symbols as well.
{3}_______________________________________________
Condensation is the opposite of boiling. Write an equation to show the phase change involved in
condensation.
{4}_______________________________________________
ACTIVITY 3.5 Energy Changes Which Accompany Phase Changes
In this activity you will be observing a phase change firsthand. You are going to obtain data and
draw what is known as a cooling curve. Remember to always wear safety glasses and an apron.
1. Fill a 250 mL beaker about
1
/3 full of tap water and bring the water to a boil. Obtain a stopwatch, if
possible, or have available a wrist watch or classroom clock with a second hand.
2. Obtain a test tube which already contains a small amount (about 2 cm) of paradichlorobenzene (PDB)
from the materials shelf. Keep the tube of PDB away from any flame! Your lab should have good
ventilation during this activity.
3. Turn off the heat under the beaker of water and place the tube of PDB into the hot water. Allow it to
remain there until the solid is completely melted. At that point, place a thermometer directly into the
melted PDB. Do not remove the tube of PDB from the hot water until the temperature of the melted PDB
is between 65
o
C and 80
o
C. (The higher the better within that range if you have time.)
Do not try to use a flame around or under the melted PDB. It is very flammable!
4. When the appropriate temperature has been reached, remove the tube of PDB from the hot water and
place it into a test tube rack on your lab table. Start timing immediately, and record the temperature of the
cooling PDB every 30 seconds.
5. Record the temperature as precisely as possible to the nearest 0.5
o
C, and use the thermometer to
carefully stir the PDB 10 seconds before each reading is taken. You will need a partner to help keep time,
read the thermometer, and record the temperatures. Enter all data into Table 3.5.
6. After you have obtained 3 or 4 consecutive readings which are within 1 degree of each other, you can
stop if your class is close to ending. However, if you have time you should continue taking readings to
complete as much of the data table as possible. If the PDB gets too solid to stir, discontinue that. Stop
the readings if the temperature reaches 40
o
C.
7. When you have collected all needed data, reheat the water in your beaker and put the tube of PDB in
it. Remelt the PDB so that you can remove the thermometer. Remove the tube from the hot water and
allow it to cool. DO NOT remove the PDB from the test tube. Return all equipment to the materials shelf.
3-7 © 1997, A.J. Girondi
Tabl e 3. 5
Cooling Temperatures
Time (sec) Temp(
o
C)
____0____ _________
_________ _________
_________ _________
_________ _________
_________ _________
_________ _________
_________ _________
_________ _________
_________ _________
_________ _________
_________ _________
_________ _________
_________ _________
_________ _________
_________ _________
Time (sec) Temp(
o
C)
_________ _________
_________ _________
_________ _________
_________ _________
_________ _________
_________ _________
_________ _________
_________ _________
_________ _________
_________ _________
_________ _________
_________ _________
_________ _________
_________ _________
_________ _________
Prepare a graph of your data on the grid below. Record temperatures on the Y axis and time on
the X axis. What was the dependent variable in this activity?{5}____________________ What was the
independent variable?{6}______________________. Compare your graph to the graph of a normal
cooling curve for a pure substance (element or compound) shown in Figure 3.1. Notice how the graph
has been divided into five sections. The data you collected reflects only a part of the overall cooling curve
for PDB. An interesting thing to notice on the cooling curve is that there are two plateaus where
temperature remains constant. Each plateau signifies a phase change (phase changes occur at constant
temperatures). In section B-C of the graph in Figure 3.1, condensation is occurring. Section D-E
represents freezing.
3-8 © 1997, A.J. Girondi
Temp
(
o
C)
A
B C
D E
F
Time (sec) ----->
vapor vapor + liquid liquid liquid + solid solid
Figure 3.1 Cooling Curve of a Pure Substance
If we were to pretend that the curve in Figure 3.1 is a cooling curve for PDB, what letter on the curve most
closely approximates the area in which you collected data in this activity?{7}__________
Before you go any further, draw a circle around that area of the graph in Figure 3.1 above which best
represents the range in which you collected your cooling curve data. Seek help if you need it.
SECTION 3.6 Kinetic and Potential Energy Changes During Phase
Changes
You may ask, “Why is the temperature constant while a phase change is occurring?” In order to
understand the answer, you must be aware that temperature is a measure of kinetic energy - the energy
due to the motion of the particles. When particles lose kinetic energy, their temperature decreases (since
temperature is a measure of kinetic energy). However, when particles move farther apart or closer
together, they gain or lose potential energy which is energy of position. Particles move closer together
when they lose potential energy, and farther apart when they gain potential energy. Potential energy
changes do not involve temperature changes.
When molecules have a lot of kinetic energy, their motion keeps them from being drawn closer
together by attractive forces that exist between them. However, if the particles lose kinetic energy, there
will come a point at which the attractive forces will pull them closer together. This involves a loss of
potential energy which occurs at a constant temperature. The result will be a phase change like
condensation or freezing.
When substances are heated, the molecules move faster and gain kinetic energy as temperature
increases. Eventually, they may gain enough kinetic energy to overcome some of the attractive forces
between them and move farther apart. When they move apart they are gaining potential energy, and they
do this at a constant temperature. This results in a phase change such as melting or vaporization. There
are plateaus on a warming curve just as there are on a cooling curve. On such a curve, particles are moving
faster when temperature is rising. They are moving farther apart when the temperature is constant during
the heating process. Pure liquids boil at constant temperatures (at constant pressure) because the
3-9 © 1997, A.J. Girondi
particles are moving farther apart and potential energy is being stored as the liquid becomes a vapor.
Refer back to Figure 3.1 as you answer the following questions. In which sections of the cooling
curve is the temperature changing?{8}____________________________ According to the curve, does
the temperature change or remain constant during a phase change?{9}__________________________
In which section(s) of the curve is the substance changing temperature and getting
cooler?{10}__________________ In which section(s) of the curve are the particles moving
slower?{11}_____________________ In which section(s) of the curve are the particles moving at a
constant rate?{12}______________________ In which section(s) are particles moving closer
together?{13}_______________________
The freezing point of a pure substance (element or compound) is the temperature at which it
changes from the liquid to the solid phase. On the graph, the freezing point (FP) of that substance is the
temperature at which the plateau occurs. Look at the graph you plotted in Activity 3.5. What is your
estimate of the freezing point of the PDB?{14}_______________
Steam at 100
o
C contains more heat and can, therefore, cause a more serious burn than boiling
water at the same temperature. Explain this in terms of the kinetic and potential energy content of the
steam and of the boiling water.
{15}_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
Figure 3.2 is a graph showing the warming curve of water. It is the opposite of a cooling curve.
Divide the graph into sections. Label with a pencil which phase or phases (solid, liquid, vapor) are present
in each section of the graph, and label those areas of the curve where phase changes (melting and
vaporization) are occurring.
According to Figure 3.2, what is the melting point of ice?{16}__________ In the same way, what is
your estimate of water’s boiling point based on Figure 3.2?{17}_____________ How do the melting and
freezing points compare?{18}_________________________________________________________
One rather interesting point about phase changes is that even though phase changes occur, you
always have the same chemical substance you began with. The solid, liquid, and gaseous phases of water
or PDB are easily converted back and forth by simply adding or removing heat energy. (See Figure 3.3)
3-10 © 1997, A.J. Girondi
-25
0
25
50
75
100
125
Time (sec) ------->
o
C
Figure 3.2 Warming Curve of Water
LIQUID WATER
LIQUID WATER
WATER
VAPOR
ICE
add energy
remove energy
remove energy
add energy
Figure 3.3 Energy and Phase Changes
Every pure substance melts and boils at a
specific temperature. Table 3.5 contains a list of
some selected pure substances. As can be seen,
each substance has its own characteristic melting
and boiling point. As a result, some substances
exist as gases at room temperature while others are
solids or liquids. Use the melting and boiling point
information provided to determine which of the
substances listed are solids, which are liquids, and
which are gases at room temperature (25
o
C) and
normal pressure.
Tabl e 3. 5
Melting and Boiling Points
Substance M.P. (
o
C) B.P. (
o
C)
Neon -248.7 -245.8
Water 0 100.0
Acetone -95.0 56.6
Sodium 97.5 899.0
Ethyl Alcohol -117.3 78.5
Copper 1083.0 2582.0
3-11 © 1997, A.J. Girondi
The solids are: {19}________________________________________________________________
The liquids are: {20}________________________________________________________________
The gases are :
{21}________________________________________________________________
ACTIVITY 3.7 Physical and Chemical Changes
Now that we have learned the fine points about phase changes, we are going to look at two other
kinds of changes - physical changes and chemical changes. A physical change refers to a change in the
appearance of a substance. Like a phase change, when a physical change occurs, you also end up with
the same substance you began with - it just looks different. If you tear a sheet of paper into small pieces,
you have brought about a physical change. You still have paper, which is chemically unchanged. Is
tearing a piece of paper also a phase change?{22}_________Why or why not?{ 23}__________________
______________________________________________________________________________
When ice is changed to liquid water and then to steam, is water undergoing a physical change?________
Why or why not? {24}_______________________________________________________________
A somewhat different type of change is called a chemical change. After a chemical change
occurs, you no longer have the same chemical substance. A new and different chemical substance is
formed. If you were to set fire to paper, would you still have paper? Obviously not! Chemical changes
result in the formation of substances with new chemical compositions. There are some key signs that you
can look for to determine whether or not a chemical change has occurred. For example, if a gas is given off
or if a precipitate (solid) is formed during a change, you can be fairly certain that a chemical change has
occurred. Often (but not always) a color change can indicate a chemical change. A temperature change
may or may not indicate that a chemical change has occurred. Color changes and temperature changes
sometimes occur during physical changes, so they are not clear evidence of chemical changes.
In this activity you will witness some physical and chemical changes. You will need 4 test tubes, a
test tube rack, and the chemicals labeled “ALICE 3.7” on the materials shelf. Follow the directions below,
and record all of your observations in Table 3.6. In Table 3.6, you must place check marks in the column
that best describes what happens during each change. You may check more than one column for each
change as needed. Pay close attention to whether or not a solid substance (precipitate) forms. It will
either lie on the bottom of the tube, or will remain suspended and make the liquid contents cloudy. Clear
solutions do not contain precipitates. (Do not confuse the terms clear and colorless. Clear liquids may or
may not be colorless.)
Chemical Change 1: Rinse a small test tube with distilled water. Add about 20 drops of AgNO3 (solution
A) to the tube. Add about 10 drops of K2CrO4 solution (solution B) to the same tube. Record any
observations in Table 3.6 by placing check marks in the proper boxes.
Chemical Change 2: Add about 10 drops of Pb(NO3)2 (solution C) to a small clean, rinsed test tube. Add
about 20 drops of NaI (solution D) to the same tube. Shake the contents gently. Record observations.
Chemical Reaction 3: Add about 2 mL of HCl (solution E) to a clean 150 mm (medium) test tube. Place a
small piece of zinc metal into the tube. Record observations.
3-12 © 1997, A.J. Girondi
Chemical Reaction 4: Add about 2 mL of H2SO4 (solution F) to a 150 mm test tube. Note the temperature
of the solution by feeling the outside of the tube with your hand. Next, add about 4 mL of NaOH solution
(solution G). Caution: keep these solutions off skin and out of eyes! Feel the tube again. Record.
Tabl e 3. 6
Evidence of Chemical Changes
Color Change Gas Given Off Precipitate Forms Temp. Change
(yes or no) (yes or no) (yes or no) (yes or no)
Change 1:
Change 2:
Change 3:
Change 4:
In chemical change 4, an energy change was the only easily noticeable evidence of a chemical
change. However, energy changes by themselves are not enough evidence to indicate for sure that a
chemical change has occurred, because many physical changes are also accompanied by energy
changes. To observe a physical change in which there is an energy change, place about 2 mL of water in
a clean test tube. Note the general temperature of the water by pressing the tube on the inside of your
wrist. Using forceps, place 2 or 3 pellets of solid sodium hydroxide (NaOH) into the tube of water. Shake
the tube gently for 30 seconds or so, and press the bottom of the tube on the inside of your wrist. Do not
let the solution or the NaOH pellets contact you! Note the relative temperature of the contents of the
tube. NaOH does not react with water, it merely dissolves. Dissolving is a physical change. What change
in temperature did you observe?{25}____________________________________________________
Discard the contents of the tube into the sink and run the water. Rinse the tube with water.
Your experience from this activity should tell you that if you note a color change, a gas being
produced, a temperature change, or the formation of a precipitate, you should at least suspect that a
chemical change has occurred. This is particularly true if more than one of these events has occurred,
because color and temperature changes themselves are not conclusive evidence.
Identify each of the following changes as either physical (P)or chemical (C).
a. getting a flat tire {26}___________
b. a campfire burning {27}___________
c. seeing your “breath” when you exhale on a cold day {28}___________
d. digesting food {29}___________
e. rain changing to ice {30}___________
f. drying the laundry {31}___________
g. a bomb explosion {32}___________
3-13 © 1997, A.J. Girondi
SECTION 3.8 Density Problems
Earlier in this chapter, you worked with the concept of density as a physical property of matter. Do
the problems below. The units used to express density are usually g/mL or g/cm
3
. The g/mL unit is used
more frequently for liquids, while g/cm
3
is used more often for solids. This is really just a matter of
preference, since 1 mL and 1 cm
3
represent exactly the same volume. That is, 1 mL = 1 cm
3
. Use
dimensional analysis wherever possible. Show all work neatly, even if only one or two steps are needed.
Problem 1. What is the density of gasoline if 350 mL has a mass of 245 grams?
Problem 2. A block of metal has the dimensions 5.0 cm X 7.0 cm X 20.0 cm, and its mass is 5.0 kg.
What is the density of the metal in g/mL?
Problem 3. What is the density of hydrogen gas (in g/mL) if 100. liters have a mass of 8.93 X 10
-3
kg?
Problem 4. What is the density of milk in g/mL if 1.0 quart has a mass of 1.0 kg? (1.06 qt. = 1.00 L)
ACTIVITY 3.9 Determining the Thickness of Aluminum Foil
In this activity you will use what you have learned about density to calculate the thickness of
aluminum foil. Now you can imagine how tough this would be to do using only a ruler. Aluminum foil isn’t
very thick! We will accomplish this task in an indirect way. The formulas you will use are already familiar to
you. The volume of a regular object can be found using the formula V = L x W x H, where L = length, W =
width, and H = height. If the object is a piece of aluminum foil, we can alter the formula to V = L x W x T,
where T = thickness. Since this activity involves finding the thickness, we can solve the formula for T
which gives T = V/(L x W). From this formula you can see that in order to determine the thickness, you
need to know the length and width of the piece of foil, and you also need to know the volume of it.
3-14 © 1997, A.J. Girondi
How do you calculate the volume of a piece of aluminum foil? That’s where density becomes
useful. The density (d) of aluminum is 2.70 g/1 cm
3
. If you measure the mass of the foil and if you know
the density of the metal, then you can use the formula at right below to find the volume:
density =
g
cm
3
V = g X
cm
3
g
= cm
3
V = g X
1
d
Since: and since: then:
Use this formula to get the volume of the foil
Do you see how these two formulas can be used to derive this one?
T =
V
L x W
Once you have the volume, you can substitute that value into the
formula shown at right. Measure the length and width (in cm)of the
rectangular piece of foil, and substitute those values along with the
volume into the formula. When you solve the formula for T, the units will
cancel and leave you with centimeters. You will have calculated the
thickness using the mass and density!
Procedure: Cut or obtain 2 square pieces (about 10.0 cm x 10.0 cm) of aluminum foil - one regular and
one heavy duty. Weigh each piece on the laboratory balance, and measure the length and width of each
piece in centimeters. Enter the data into Table 3.7 below. Return the foil squares to the appropriate
containers. Complete the calculations, showing all work neatly in the spaces provided.
Tabl e 3. 7
Aluminum Foil Data
Regular or Heavy Duty Length (cm) Width (cm) Mass (g)
_________________ _________ _________ _________
_________________ _________ _________ _________
SHOW your calculations in the spaces below. Express results to two decimal places.
Step 1. Calculation of the volume of the foil.
a. regular foil
b. heavy duty foil
Step 2. Calculation of the thickness of the foil.
a. regular foil
b. heavy duty foil
3-15 © 1997, A.J. Girondi
Step 3. According to your calculations, determine how many times thicker the heavy duty foil is compared
to the regular foil. (Divide the thickness of the heavy duty foil by the thickness of the regular foil.)
Result: the heavy duty foil is _____________ times thicker.
SECTION 3.10 Accuracy, Precision, Percentage Error and Percentage
Deviation
Let’s use your data from Activity 3.9 to determine your accuracy and your precision. Accuracy
refers to the closeness of your result to the actual or accepted value. Precision refers to the closeness of
your results to each other (if you did an experiment more than once) or to that of other lab groups who did
the same experiment. It is possible to be precise without being accurate. In other words, you can get a
result that is close to what others got, while still being inaccurate. This can happen if your class is using
poor measuring instruments or a bad technique. However, in order to be accurate you must also be
precise. In other words, if everyone in your class is getting a result which is close to the accepted value
(accurate), then those results will also be close to each other (precise). Accuracy is often expressed as
percentage error, while precision is often expressed as percentage deviation.
Step 1. Calculation of Error. Obtain the accepted value for the thickness of the two kinds of aluminum foil
from your instructor. Calculate your error and percent error as shown below. Quantities enclosed in
vertical bars such as: |O - A| refer to absolute value.
Error = |O - A| O = your observed value A = the accepted value

% error =
|O - A|
A
X 100
Be careful when you use the formula above to calculate % error. It involves subtraction, division, and
multiplication. When using a calculator to solve such equations, you must do all your addition and
subtraction and then get a subtotal before doing the multiplication and/or division. If you follow the rules
for significant digits, you will need to round twice. List your error results below.
% error for the regular foil: __________% % error for the heavy foil: __________%
In this experiment, you should be able to achieve less than 5% error. How did you do? ______________
______________________________________________________________________________
Step 2. Calculation of Deviation. Get thickness results from three other lab groups in your class. Enter
the data into Table 3.8. Calculate the average (mean) thickness for each foil. To calculate your deviation
(precision) use the formulas below.
Deviation = |O - M| O = your observed value M = average (mean) value

% deviation =
|O - M|
M
X 100
Note that the calculation of deviation also involves an absolute value. Use the same precautions when
using a calculator as you did when calculating % error. List your deviation results below Table 3.8.
3-16 © 1997, A.J. Girondi
Tabl e 3. 8
Lab Group Data
Thickness of Thickness of
Group Regular Foil (cm) Heavy Foil (cm)
Your Group ____________ ___________
Lab Group 1 ____________ ___________
Lab Group 2 ____________ ___________
Lab Group 3 ____________ ___________
Average (Mean) ____________ ___________
% deviation for the regular foil: __________% % deviation for the heavy foil: __________%
Did you manage to achieve a small deviation (5% or less)? ___________________________________
If your group had a small error but a high deviation, that means that your small error was probably
just due to luck, or maybe off-setting errors. If your group had a large error (over 5%) but a small deviation,
that means that your high error was due to the measuring instruments or the procedure – not to human
error. If your group had a small error and a small deviation, that means that the instruments and your lab
techniques and skills were good (you were both accurate and precise)! If you got a large error and also a
large deviation, plan to pursue a career in something other than science, because the error was all your
fault! Comment on the performance of your group: ________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
SECTION 3.11 Review Problems
Problem 5. A piece of nickel sheet metal has a width of 11.5 cm, a length of 4.66 cm, and a mass of
58.18 grams. What is the thickness of this sheet of nickel metal? (Use any needed data from Table 3.2.)
3-17 © 1997, A.J. Girondi
Problem 6. A student experimentally tried to determine the thickness of the metal mentioned in
problem 5. Her observed (O) result was 0.126 cm. The results from three other students were 0.130 cm,
0.114 cm, and 0.134 cm.
a. Calculate her % error. (Your answer to problem 5 can be used as the accepted (A) value.)
b. Calculate her % deviation. (You will need to calculate the mean, M, of her value and the three others.)
c. Based on her % error and % deviation, comment on these results assuming an acceptable value of 5%
for both error and deviation. _________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
Problem 7. The “Miracle Thaw” is a heavily advertised sheet of “space age” metal on which you can
placed frozen foods for rapid defrosting (according to the manufacturer). The Miracle Thaw is 45 cm long,
25 cm wide, and 0.50 cm thick. It has a mass of about 1519 grams. What is the “space age” metal which
composes this “miracle?” Use data from Table 3.2. (Let the consumer beware.)
Problem 8. A cork cube weighs 500.0 grams and has a density of 0.025 g/cm
3
. Calculate the length of
one side of the cube in cm. Hint: the volume formula is V = s
3
where s is the length of a side. You will
need to take a cube root in this problem. Use the appropriate key(s) on your calculator.
3-18 © 1997, A.J. Girondi
ACTIVITY 3.12 The Barge Problem
--> --> --> Teacher Demonstration <-- <-- < --
With the background you have gained thus far in this chapter, explain what would happen in the
situation described below. You must use the concept of density in your explanation. Once you have
formulated your explanation, you will carry out an experiment to illustrate what actually happens. Take the
density of water as 1.00 g/mL , and keep in mind that , in order to float, a boat must displace a volume of
water equal to its own mass.
A barge is hauling metal beams through the Panama canal. While the barge is in a closed lock in
the canal, all of the metal falls overboard into the water in the lock. Do you think the water level in the lock
will rise, fall, or remain unchanged when the metal falls in? ___________________________________
Your teacher will demonstrate an experiment to test your hypothesis. A 100 mL beaker will be
used as the barge, a 400 mL beaker about half-full of water for the lock, and pieces of lead metal for the
beams. Enough metal will be used to make a difference, but not to sink the barge! A piece of tape or a
grease pencil will be used to mark the water level before and after the metal spills. Describe the result of
the experiment:_________________________________________________________________
Do the results support your original hypothesis?____________ Whether your answer is yes or no,
explain this phenomenon: _________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
ACTIVITY 3.13 Sublimation
--> --> --> Teacher Demonstration <-- <-- < --
Because toxic fumes are involved, your teacher will conduct this demonstration under an exhaust
fume hood in your lab area. You are going to witness a rather unusual type of phase change. It involves
solid iodine crystals which change directly to a vapor without going through the liquid state. This is known
as sublimation. You may be familiar with dry ice (which is solid CO2) which also undergoes sublimation.
Care must be taken because iodine vapors are very dangerous and can cause serious stains and burns.
Look at Figure 3.4. Note that an ice cube is placed on top of a watch glass which is located on top
of a beaker or evaporating dish containing some iodine crystals. As heat is applied, the iodine crystals
slowly turn into a deep violet-colored vapor which is much heavier than air. When the vapor comes into
contact with the cool underside of the watch glass it turns directly from the vapor phase back to the solid
phase in a phase change known as deposition. Crystals may also form on the cool sides of the container.
Do not allow iodine to come into contact with you or your clothing! On the line below, write a phase
change equation for the sublimation of solid iodine. Remember to use the symbol for added heat.
{33}_______________________________________
3-19 © 1997, A.J. Girondi
ice cube
watch glass
deposited crystals
iodine vapor
iodine crystals
Figure 3.4 The Sublimation of Iodine Crystals
SECTION 3.14 Learning Outcomes
Read through the learning outcomes below. Place a check mark in front of each outcome that you
have mastered. When complete, arrange to take the test on Chapter 3, and move on to Chapter 4.
_____1. Identify general physical properties of matter (color, phase, texture, luster, etc.)
_____2. Solve problems involving the density of a solid or a liquid.
_____3. Given proper information, determine the specific gravity of a liquid.
_____4. Label, interpret, and explain the parts of heating and cooling curves for pure substances.
_____5. Distinguish between physical changes, chemical changes, and phase changes.
_____6. Distinguish between accuracy and precision, and calculate percentage error and percentage
deviation given the necessary information.
3-20 © 1997, A.J. Girondi
SECTION 3.15 Answers to Questions and Problems
Questions:

{1} qual; {2} no measurement involved; {3} water(l) ---

--> water(g); {4} water(g) ------> water(l) ;
{5} temperature; {6} time; {7} area around D and up to E; {8} A-B, C-D, E-F; {9} remains constant
{10} A-B, C-D, E-F; {11} A-B, C-D, E-F; {12} B-C, D-E; {13} B-C, D-E; {14} about 53
o
C;
{15} Steam at 100
o
C has the same amount of kinetic energy but has more potential energy than water at
100
o
C since it has gone through an additional phase change.
{16} 0
o
C; {17} 100
o
C; {18} the same; {19} sodium, copper; {20} water, ethyl alcohol, acetone; {21} neon;
{22} no; {23} no change in phase - still a solid; {24} yes, because it is still water in each phase
{25} increase; {26} physical; {27} chemical; {28} physical; {29} chemical; {30} physical; {31} physical;
{32} chemical; {33} I2(s) ----

----> I2(g)
Problems:
1. 0.70 g/mL
2. 7.1 g/mL
3. 8.93 X 10
-5
g/mL
4. 1.1 g/mL
5. 0.122 cm
6. a. 3.28 %
b. 0 %
c. Since both error and deviation were under 5% in this type of activity, she has done well. The fact
that there was 0% deviation indicates that the 3.28% error was probably due to the equipment or
procedure.
7. aluminum
8. 27 cm.
3-21 © 1997, A.J. Girondi
SECTION 3.16 Student Notes
3-22 © 1997, A.J. Girondi
NAME____________________________________ PER____________ DATE DUE____________
ACTIVE LEARNING I N CHEMISTRY EDUCATION
"ALICE"
CHAPTER 4
THE GAS
LAWS
Boyle's Law
Charles' Law
Gay-Lussac's Law
The Combined Gas Law
4-1 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
NOTICE OF RIGHTS
All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form by any means,
electronic, mechanical, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the author.
Copies of this document may be made free of charge for use in public or nonprofit private educational
institutions provided that permission is obtained from the author . Please indicate the name and address
of the institution where use is anticipated.
© 1997 A.J. Girondi, Ph.D.
505 Latshmere Drive
Harrisburg, PA 17109
alicechem@geocities.com
Website: www.geocities.com/Athens/Oracle/2041
4-2 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
SECTION 4.1 Kinetic Theory and the Properties of Gases
We know from chapter 3 that matter normally exists in three forms - solid, liquid, and gas. While a
fourth state, plasma, does exist, it is not in our realm to be able to study this form of matter firsthand. We
can study the other three, however. This chapter will deal with gases, exclusively. The other states of
matter will be covered more extensively in other chapters.
If we attempt to define gas, we can say that it is a state of matter made up of particles that distribute
themselves uniformly throughout the space in which the gas is confined. This differs from a liquid and a
solid. A liquid takes the shape of the container that it is in. In addition, a liquid does not distribute itself
uniformly in its container. Figure 4.1 will help you to visualize this fact. A solid, of course, retains its own
shape regardless of the shape or size of the container into which it is placed.
GAS
Figure 4.1 The Three Phases of Matter
LIQUID
SOLID
Gases have three basic characteristics. They are: (1) expansibility, (2) diffusion, and (3)
compressibility. Expansibility is the ability of a gas to expand to the shape and volume of its container
whether it is a small beaker, a room, or something larger. The opposite of expansibility is compressibility.
A gas can be compressed to fill a volume many times smaller than its original volume. Diffusion is the ability
of a gas to move from a region of high concentration to a region on low concentration. If you were to open
a bottle of perfume in a room, it would evaporate into a gas, and you would soon be able to smell the odor
at all points in the room. The perfume vapor molecules have diffused through the air molecules to all parts
of the room.
The properties of gases just described provide the basis for the kinetic-molecular theory. This
theory gets its name from its close tie with the concept of kinetic energy. Any object that is in motion has
kinetic energy. The faster something is moving, the more kinetic energy it has. The kinetic-molecular
theory helps to explain why gases behave the way they do.
The main assumptions of the kinetic theory are:
1. Gases consist of molecules in continuous, random motion. The molecules collide with each other and
with the walls of the container. The pressure exerted by the gas is caused by the collisions of the gas
particles with the walls of the container.
2. Molecular "collisions" are elastic. This means that although there is a lot of "bouncing off" going on as
the molecules approach each other, there is no energy lost to friction when the gas molecules
"collide" with each other.
4-3 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
3. Gas molecules in a container move at a variety of different speeds; but, overall, an increase in
temperature increases the average speed (kinetic energy) of the molecules. This increase in the speed
of the molecules results in more frequent and more forceful collisions between the molecules and the
walls of the container. Consequently, gases exert more pressure at higher temperatures.
How does the kinetic theory explain the gas property of diffusion? {1}___________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
How does the kinetic theory explain the fact that gases exert pressure? {2}________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
ACTIVITY 4.2 Measuring the Effect of Pressure on Gas Volume
The background you now have is sufficient to introduce you to the gas laws. There are several of
these. The first one we will look at was named after Robert Boyle, the scientist who first discovered that
there was a definite relationship between the pressure and the volume of a gas. Boyle's Law simply
states:
"At a constant temperature, if the pressure on a gas is increased, the
volume of the gas will decrease proportionately."
Figure 4.2 illustrates the laboratory setup for
investigating the relationship between the pressure and volume
of a gas. Your teacher has a similar setup for you. Once you have
gotten the equipment and materials, begin by setting the end of
the piston on the 30 cm
3
(or cc) mark. (To set the piston where
you want it, air must be allowed to escape from the syringe. The
wire that is attached to the syringe is there for that purpose.
Place the wire into the syringe before inserting the piston. This
will allow air to escape. Then, remove the wire while holding the
piston in place.) If you gently push down on the piston and then
let up, the piston should return to its starting point. Record your
starting point in Table 4.1. Once you have done this, add 1 "unit"
of mass to the platform top (a unit of mass can be a textbook. If
you decide to use textbooks, be sure they are all the same).
Record the new volume in Table 4.1. Continue adding "units" of
mass to the plunger by 500 g or 1 book increments until you
have 5 or 6 readings. Record each new volume in the
appropriate space in Table 4.1.
Fi gure 4. 2
What happens to the volume of the gas as you increase the mass (pressure)? {3}_____________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
Does your result above agree with the general statement given for Boyle's law in section 4.1? Explain.
{4}___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
4-4 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
It was mentioned that temperature must remain constant for Boyle's law to be valid. At what temperature
did you conduct your experiment? ___________
o
C. Do you think it remained constant? ____________

Tabl e 4. 1
Effect of Pressure on Volume
Pressure Applied (books) Volume (cm
3
)
1 ___________
2 ___________
3 ___________
4 ___________
5 ___________
On the grid below, prepare a graph of the information in data table 4.1. Your plot should actually
be a slightly curved line. Do not try to make it absolutely straight. Remember to follow the instructions
given in chapter 2 regarding the correct way to construct a graph.
4-5 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
Your plot is slightly curved. It would be even more curved if we had used a greater range of pressures.
You may wonder why your plot is not a straight line. When two variables are both changing at constant
rates, their resulting graph will be a straight line. However, in this activity, only one variable was changing at
a constant rate. Was it pressure or volume?{5}_________________. Was this the dependent or the
independent variable? {6}__________________________. You may wonder why both variables don't
change at constant rates. Well, as pressure continues to increase in equal amounts, the amount of
decrease in volume gets smaller and smaller. In other words, as pressure changes at a constant rate,
volume changes at a rate which is not constant. Why is this? Gas atoms or molecules – like all atoms and
molecules – have electrons. These electrons are negatively charged and repel each other when they get
too close. As gas particles get closer to each other, the repulsion between them gets stronger and it's
more difficult to force them closer together. In other words, each additional "book" of pressure, has less
effect on the volume of the gas.
SECTION 4.3 Solving Problems Involving Boyle's Law
Boyle's law can be expressed mathematically as: P1V1 = P2V2. This equation means that the
product of the pressure (P) and the volume (V) of a gas remains constant, provided the temperature does
not change. (If temperature were a variable, it would have to be included in the equation). So, even
though P and V can change, the product, PV, maintains a constant value. When the product of two
variables remains constant, the variables are said to be inversely proportional, meaning that as one
increases, the other decreases.
The sample problem below illustrates how Boyle's law works, mathematically. Study it carefully.
Sample problem: A quantity of air has a volume of 100. mL (V1) at 720. mm of pressure (P1). What will
the new volume (V2) be if the pressure is changed to 760. mm (P2)? Follow the steps below.
1. Write the formula P1V1 = P2V2.
2. Solve the equation for the unknown quantity (V2):

V
2
=
P
1
V
1
P
2
3. Substitute the values into the formula including units:

V
2
=
(720. mm)(100. mL)
760. mm
4. Do the math: V2 = 94.7 mL.
Solve the following problems. Show the set-up for the problem work, and be sure to include units on all
measurements used in the problem and given in the answer. (The period appearing after some numbers
indicates that the trailing zeros are significant figures.)
4-6 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
Problem 1. A gas has a measured volume of 100. mL under a pressure of 740. mm Hg. What would the
volume be under a pressure of 780. mm Hg at constant temperature?
Problem 2. A sample of gas is confined to a 100. mL flask under a pressure of 740. mm Hg. If this same
gas were transferred to a 50.0 mL flask, what would the resulting pressure be?
Problem 3. You are given a gas that you measure under a pressure of 720. mm Hg. When the pressure
is changed to 760. mm, the volume becomes 580. mL. What was the original volume of the gas?

Problem 4. At a certain original pressure, the volume of a given amount of air is 134 mL. If the pressure
is changed to 1200. mm Hg, the volume is reduced to 45.0 mL. What was the original pressure?
Problem 5. A balloon has a volume of 800. mL when it is held at sea level where the pressure is 760.
mm Hg. Calculate the volume of the same balloon after it has floated up to where the atmospheric
pressure is only 720. mm Hg.
According to your calculations, does the balloon get larger or smaller? {7}________________________
4-7 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
ACTIVITY 4.4 Measuring the Effect of Temperature on Gas Volume
Gas volumes are also affected by temperature changes. The gas law that explains this is called
Charles' law. Charles' law states that:
"As the absolute temperature of a gas increases, its volume also
increases proportionately, when the pressure remains constant."
As we discuss Charles' law, we will explain the meaning of the words absolute and proportionately as they
are used above.
One way that we can see Charles' Law demonstrated in the lab is to use the piece of equipment
pictured in Figure 4.3. It consists of a piece of glass capillary tubing which contains a small bead of mercury
metal. One end of the tube is sealed, while the other is open. A volume of air is trapped in the tube
between the sealed end and the mercury bead. As the volume of the trapped air changes, the mercury
bead will move up or down the tube. The volume of trapped air can be calculated if you assume that the
container is a cylinder. The formula for the volume of a cylinder is V = πr
2
h, where π = 3.1416. Notice that
you will need to know the internal radius of the capillary tube as well as the height (or length) of the air
column between the sealed end of the tube and the mercury bead. Measure the internal diameter of the
tube in mm. Half of that is the internal radius, r. All measurements should be made in millimeters, which
when substituted in the formula above will give volumes in units of cubic millimeters (mm
3
).
h
Figure 4.3 Charles' law apparatus
Obtain a thermometer, a metric ruler, and a capillary tube with mercury bead from the materials
shelf. Measure the height of the air column between the closed end of the tube and the mercury bead in
mm at room temperature. Record this height and temperature in Table 4.2. Next, place the tube and
thermometer in a large beaker or flask of hot water at constant temperature (between 80
o
C and 90
o
C) so
that most of the trapped air column is immersed. When the mercury bead stops moving, read the
temperature. Without removing the tube from the hot water, measure the height of the air column in mm
again. Record the data. Finally, place the capillary tube and thermometer in an ice water bath which will be
available in the lab. The mercury bead will move down the tube. When it has stopped moving, measure
the temperature and, without removing the tube from the ice water, measure the height of the air column
in mm using a ruler. Record all data in Table 4.2. Return all materials to the proper place. Using your data,
calculate the volume of the trapped air in mm
3
at each of the three temperatures.
Tabl e 4. 2
Temperature Versus Volume
Temp (
o
C) Air Column Height (mm) Air Volume (mm
3
)
________ _________________ _____________
________ _________________ _____________
________ _________________ _____________
internal radius of tube = ________ mm
4-8 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
Using your data in Table 4.2, plot a graph of temperature (X axis) versus volume (Y axis) on the grid
below. The scales on each axis do not necessarily have to start with zero. You may start each scale at any
convenient value. After you have plotted your three points, draw the best straight line that you can
through them. (We know from experiment, that this curve has to be a straight line, so use a ruler to draw
the best straight line you can through your points. Do not expect this line to actually intersect with each of
your points.)
Temperature is a measure of the amount of kinetic energy that particles have. The more kinetic energy
that particles have, the faster they move and the harder they "collide" with the walls of their containers.
What effect does increased temperature have on the pressure exerted by a gas? {8}_________________
______________________________________________________________________________
The graphic representation in Figure 4.4 on the next page depicts the relationship between the
volume of gas and its temperature. Note that volume decreases as temperature decreases. Study this
carefully.
Do your data seem to follow a similar trend?_________. What happens to the volume of a gas as the
temperature goes up and down?
As you examine the graph in Figure 4.4, note that eventually a temperature is reached where the
volume of the gas appears to go to zero. Actually, it is impossible for a real gas to have a volume of zero
because no matter how close the molecules get to each other, they have volume themselves. In addition,
repulsive forces between the molecules limit how close they can get to each other. These factors are not
accounted for in the formula for Charles' law. Scientists have invented the concept of an "ideal" gas which
is a gas that obeys the gas laws, including Charles' law, at all times and under all conditions.
4-9 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
300 mL
200 mL
100 mL
V
O
L
U
M
E
-273 Temperature in
o
C 0 +50
A gas with a volume of
273

mL at 0
o
C (273 K)
...should occupy zero
volume at -273
o
C (0 K)
coldest
possible
temperature
Figure 4.4 Volume-Temperature Relationship
While ideal gases do not really exist, the ideal does help us to understand the gas laws. It is
possible for an "ideal" gas to have a volume of zero. Note that this would be the case at -273
o
C. It is
impossible for any gas including an ideal gas to have a negative volume. Therefore, at -273oC a gas would
have the smallest volume possible, and, therefore, -273
o
C (or 0 K) must be the coldest possible
temperature which a gas - or anything else for that matter - can have. If colder temperatures were possible,
then gases would have to have negative volumes! This temperature, -273
o
C, has come to be known as
absolute zero. It is the starting point for the Kelvin temperature scale. (-273
o
C = 0 K) Zero on the Kelvin
scale (0 K) is absolute zero. (The degree symbol is not used when expressing Kelvin temperatures.) At
absolute zero, the molecules have no more kinetic energy. Although we have been able to get very close
to this temperature in laboratories, it has never been reached.
SECTION 4.5 STP - What It Is and Why We Need It
Let's say that you have two one–liter containers. One contains gas A and the other contains gas
B. Since a gas expands to fill its container, the volume of each gas is one liter. Which container holds the
greatest amount of gas – meaning the greatest number of gas molecules?
1.00 Liter
GAS A
1.00 Liter
GAS B
28.0
o
C & 700 mm Hg 26.0
o
C & 662 mm Hg
Which of these 1.00 Liter Containers Holds More Gas?
4-10 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
Just because the two containers have the same volume, they do not necessarily contain the same
quantities of gas. After all, most of the volume occupied by a gas is empty space. A one–liter container
can be filled by many gas molecules or only a few. In order to determine which container holds the most
molecules, you would need to know the temperature and pressure of each gas. These factors affect how
much space exists between the molecules and, therefore, how much gas you can get into the container.
Only if both of our gases (A and B) are at the same temperature and pressure would both one–liter
volumes contain the same number of gas molecules. (This is known as Avogadro's hypothesis, and you
will learn more about it in Chapter 8.) If the two gases are not at the same temperature and pressure, then
we will have to determine what the volumes of the gases would be if they were at the same temperature
and pressure. Only then could we determine which container holds the most molecules. When this is
necessary, the conditions of temperature and pressure which have been chosen for use are 0
o
C and 760
mm Hg (millimeters of mercury) pressure. These conditions are known as standard temperature and
pressure, or STP.
0.835 Liter
GAS A GAS B
0.795 Liter
Converting to STP RevealsThat There is More of Gas A
0
o
C & 760 mm Hg 0
o
C & 760 mm Hg
Why did we develop the concept of STP? {9}___________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
The units of mm Hg (millimeters of mercury) for measuring pressure may seem somewhat mystical
to you. If you fill a test tube with water and put your thumb over it, and invert it into a shallow dish of water,
you will notice that the water will not drain out. This is because atmospheric pressure is "pushing up" on
the water column. In fact, atmospheric pressure is great enough to support a column of water over 34 feet
high! As the atmospheric pressure changes from day to day, the height of the water column which it can
support varies. Thus, we could use the height of the water column as a measure of pressure in millimeters
of water. This device would be a barometer. But, who wants a barometer that is over 34 feet high?
Mercury metal is about 13.5 times more dense than water, and can be used in place of water in a
barometer.
760 mm
Fi gure 4. 5
Mercury Barometer
On an average day at sea level, the atmosphere supports a
column of mercury 760 mm high. This is more manageable,
and is why mercury barometers are found in labs and at
weather bureaus. We can, therefore, measure atmospheric
pressure by measuring the height of a column of mercury
which it can support (units of "mm Hg"). We will use mm from
now on, but "mm" really implies "mm Hg." 760 mm is also
known as 1 atmosphere Figure 4.5 (1 atm) of pressure. (760
mm Hg = 1 atm)
Hg
4-11 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
We can summarize standard conditions as follows:
STP (Standard Temperature and Pressure) Means: pressure = 1 atm or 760 mm Hg
temperature = 0
o
C or 273 K
When solving gas law problems that involve temperature changes, it is always necessary to use
the absolute, or Kelvin scale. Why? Well, you see the zero on the Kelvin scale really means zero. At zero
on the Kelvin scale, molecules have lost all their kinetic energy. The zeros on the Fahrenheit and Celsius
scales do not really mean zero. At those temperatures, the molecules still contain quite a bit of kinetic
energy, which is why 0
o
F and 0
o
C are not the lowest temperatures on those scales. For this reason, only
the Kelvin scale can be used in gas law calculations. We know from Charles' law, that as the temperature of
a gas goes up, its volume goes up in proportion. In other words, if the temperature of a gas doubles, then
its volume also doubles.
Let's say that you have 1 L of a gas at 20
o
C. What will the volume be if you heat the gas to 40
o
C?
You might think that the new volume would be 2 L. After all, doesn't the temperature double from 20
o
C to
40
o
C? And shouldn't the volume, therefore, double from 1 L to 2 L? The answer is no, because a change
from 20
o
C to 40
o
C is NOT a doubling of the temperature. Remember that 0
o
C does not really mean 0. It
would be a doubling if 0
o
C really meant 0. The real zero point on the Celsius scale is -273
o
C. Is 40
o
C twice
as far from -273
o
C as is 20
o
C? The answer, of course, is no! However, if we repeat the problem using
Kelvin temperatures, it will work. If you have 1 L of a gas at 20 K, and you heat it to 40 K, what will the new
volume be? It will be 2 L. 40 K is, indeed, twice as much as 20 K. Remember, you must ALWAYS use
Kelvin temperatures when solving gas law problems.
The conversion of temperatures in
o
C to the Kelvin scale is easy to do. Simply add 273
o
to the
Celsius number. Follow the examples below.
o
C + 273 = K
25
o
C + 273 = 298 K
What is the volume of an "ideal" gas at a temperature of 0 K? {10}____________________________________
Problem 6. For additional practice, convert the temperatures below to Kelvin.
a. 56
o
C _________ b. -34
o
C __________ c. 12.3
o
C __________
Problem 7. Convert the temperatures below to oC.
a. 123 K _________ b. 35.6 K __________ c. 358 K ___________
SECTION 4.6 Solving Problems Involving Charles' Law
Like Boyle's law, Charles' law can be represented in mathematical form. One form is the following:

V
1
T
1
=
V
2
T
2
(When the ratios of two variables are equal, the variables are directly proportional – as one increases, the
other increases.)
By substituting into the formula, you can calculate the final volume from the change in temperature and
the original volume. Now let's look at a sample problem:
4-12 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
Sample problem: A quantity of air has a volume of 80.0 mL (V1) at a temperature of 20.0
o
C (T1). What
will the new volume (V2) be if the temperature is changed to 100.
o
C (T2), assuming the pressure remains
constant?
Follow these steps to solve this problem:
1. You must ALWAYS use Kelvin temperatures when solving gas law problems!!! Make the changes!!
20.0
o
C + 273 = 293 K; 100.
o
C + 273 = 373 K
2. Write out the formula, and solve for the unknown variable. In this case, that would be V2.


V
2
=
V
1
T
2
T
1
3. Substitute correct values into the formula, and do the math.

V
2
=
(80.0 mL)(373 K)
293 K
= 102 mL
To gain practice with Charles' law, solve the problems below. Show set-up as well as the answers.
Assume that pressure remains constant in all problems.
Problem 8. At 60.0
o
C, a gas has a volume of 600. mL. What is the volume of this gas at 10.0
o
C?
Problem 9. If 105 mL of oxygen at 25.0
o
C were heated until its volume expanded to 120. mL, what
would its final temperature (in
o
C) be?

Problem 10. A quantity of hydrogen has a volume of 103 mL at a temperature of 20.0
o
C. To what
temperature (
o
C) would this gas need to be cooled in order to reduce the volume to 92.0 mL?
4-13 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
Probl em 11. If 136 mL of nitrogen at 25.0
o
C is cooled to 0.00
o
C, what will the new volume be?
Problem 12. A helium balloon has a volume of 2.50 L at a temperature of 25.0
o
C. What temperature
(
o
C) is needed to decrease the size of the balloon to 1,800. mL?
SECTION 4.7 The Effect of Pressure on the Temperature of a Gas
Gay-Lussac's law deals with temperature and pressure and has the following formula:


P
1
T
1
=
P
2
T
2
What this formula says is that the ratio of pressure divided by temperature for a gas is constant, even
though the temperatures and pressures may change. Gay Lussac's law assumes that the volume of the
gas remains constant. The reason that this ratio remains constant can be explained using the kinetic
theory. As the temperature increases, there are more collisions of the faster-moving gas molecules with
the walls of their container, and those collisions are more forceful since the molecules have more kinetic
energy. As a result, as temperature goes up, so does the pressure being exerted by the gas. In other
words, as T increases, P increases in proportion. Therefore, the ratio of P over T remains the same. You
should use the same procedure for solving problems involving Gay-Lussac's law as you used for solving
Charles' law. Note the similarity between the equation for Gay-Lussac's Law and the equation for Charles'
Law. How do you think a graph of the P vs. T relationship would compare to a graph of the V vs. T
relationship?
{11}__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Problem 13. A collapsible cylinder contains a gas at 765 mm Hg pressure. As external force causes the
cylinder to collapse, the pressure reaches 988 mm Hg. The final temperature in the cylinder is 86.2
o
C.
What was the original temperature of the gas in the cylinder before it collapsed? (Remember, always use
Kelvin temperatures!)
4-14 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
Problem 14. If an automobile tire contains air with a pressure of 26.0 psi (pounds per square inch) at a
temperature of 20.0
o
C. After driving for several miles, the temperature of the air in the tire increases to
48.0
o
C. Assuming volume remains constant, what is the new pressure of the air in the tire?
Problem 15. A steel cylinder contains a gas at 25.0
o
C and 2.50 atm pressure. The cylinder is designed
to sustain a maximum internal pressure of 3.00 atm. How high can the temperature go before the cylinder
will explode?
Explain why a basketball seems to lose some firmness when you take it outside to shoot baskets on a cold
day. {12}____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
SECTION 4.8 Solving Combined Gas Law Problems
The volume of a gas can change with changes in both pressure and temperature. By combining
Charles' law and Boyle's law, the following mathematical formula results:

P
1
V
1
T
1
=
P
2
V
2
T
2
This is called the combined gas law. The sample problem below illustrates the use of the combined gas
law. Carefully study the four steps used to solve the problem. Many students like to eliminate step two
and go directly to step three. Don't do that. Complete step two before going to step three as you solve
the problems.
Sample problem: A volume of gas measured 900. mL at a temperature of 51.0
o
C with a pressure of
700. mm. What volume will it occupy at a temperature of 27.0
o
C and a pressure of 760. mm? Follow these
steps:
Step 1. Write the equation.


P
1
V
1
T
1
=
P
2
V
2
T
2
Step 2. Solve for the unknown variable.

V
2
=
P
1
V
1
T
2
T
1
P
2
4-15 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
Step 3. Substitute numbers and units.

V
2
=
(700. mm)(900. mL)(300. K)
(324 K)(760. mm)
Step 4. Do the math. V2 = 768 mL
Try the problems below to gain practice with the combined gas law. Show all work as well as your answer.
Problem 16. In the laboratory, a volume of gas measures 600.mL at 22
o
C and 735 mm of pressure.
What new volume will be established if the gas is placed under standard conditions (STP)?
Problem 17. Bromine vapor occupied a volume of 2.5 L at 575
o
C and 780.mm. In order to reduce the
volume to 2.3 L, the temperature is changed to 17
o
C. What must the pressure be changed to under
these conditions?

Problem 18. A gas has a volume of 237 mL when the pressure is 2.20 atm and the temperature is
45.0
o
C. What volume will the gas occupy at 3.40 atm and 23.0
o
C?
Problem 19. A sample of gas if found to occupy a volume of 38.2 mL at 25.0
o
C and an unknown
pressure. If this same gas occupies 37.5 mL at STP, determine what its unknown original pressure was in
mm Hg.

4-16 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
Problem 20. A gas occupies a volume of 250. mL at STP. To what Celsius temperature must the
system be changed to increase the volume to 0.500 L, while the pressure is adjusted to 1.50 atm? (1.00
atm = 760. mm)
Note that the three simpler gas laws can be derived from the combined gas law as follows. The combined
law is:

P
1
V
1
T
1
=
P
2
V
2
T
2
If temperature is not changing (is constant), then T1 and T2 are equal. If that's true, then T1 and T2
can be eliminated from the equation. Right? This would leave us with P1V1 = P2V2 which is Boyle's Law,
the relationship between pressure and volume!
If pressure is not changing (is constant), then P1 and P2 are equal and can be eliminated from the
equation for the combined laws. This would leave us with V1 / T1 = V2 / T2 which is Charles' Law, the
relationship between temperature and volume!
If volume is not changing (is constant), then V1 and V2 are equal and can be eliminated from the
equation for the combined laws. This would leave us with P1 / T1 = P2 / T2. This is Gay-Lussac's Law, the
relationship between pressure and temperature!
(So, if you know the equation for the combined laws, you can always use it to derive the other laws.)
ACTIVITY 4.9 Measuring The Effect Of Temperature On Pressure
(This activity may be done by the class as a whole, rather than by lab groups. Ask your instructor.)
One way that we can measure gas pressures in
the lab is to use a piece of equipment known as a
manometer. Figure 4.6 illustrates a manometer. To
demonstrate that temperature does have an effect on
the pressure exerted by a gas, obtain a clean, dry 125
mL flask. Note the assembly drawn in Figure 4.6.
Before inserting the stopper into the flask, open or
remove the clamp attached to the tubing. Insert the
stopper assembly into the flask so that it is tight. Handle
the flask with only your finger tips so that you do not
warm it. One tube should lead to the manometer and
the other should be open to the atmosphere. Tighten
or replace the clamp to seal the flask. At this point the
difference in levels of liquid in the manometer should be
zero since the pressure in the flask is the same as
atmospheric pressure.
Tabl e 4. 3
Temperature vs. Pressure
Condition Pressure of Air
Room Temp. ____0___ mm Hg
Warm Hands ________ mm Hg
4-17 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
Glass
Tubing
liquid
Ruler
difference
in levels
Figure 4.6 A Manometer
rubber tubing
clamp
atmospheric
pressure
Before you actually start the investigation, predict whether the pressure in the flask will rise or fall when the
air in the flask is warmed by your hands.
Prediction: _____________________________________________________________________
You are now ready to begin. Pick up the flask and wrap your hands around it. Note any change in the
levels of liquid in the manometer. When the levels have stopped moving, determine the difference in the
levels in mm. Enter the data into Table 4.3.
The liquid in the manometer is colored water, so the difference in levels that you measured is
expressed as mm H2O. Normally, pressures are measured in mm of mercury. To convert the difference in
levels from mm H2O to mm Hg, you must now divide mm H2O by 13.5. (Mercury is 13.5 times more dense
than water.) Do this and enter the result into Table 4.3. Comment on how your prediction matches the
result. _________________________________________________________________________
Why does the air exert more pressure when it is warmed? {13} _________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
ACTIVITY 4.10 Comparing Equilibrium Vapor Pressures
(This activity may be done by the class as a whole, rather than by lab groups. Ask the instructor.)
Manometers are used to measure the vapor pressure of liquids. When a liquid in a closed
container evaporates it forms a vapor. This vapor exerts a pressure. As the liquid continues to evaporate,
the pressure increases. Some of the vapor molecules collide with the surface of the liquid in the container
and return to the liquid phase again. This is called condensation. At first, the evaporation process goes
4-18 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
faster than the condensation, so that the amount of vapor in the container increases (as does the
pressure). As the amount of vapor in the container increases, the rate of condensation will also increase.
Finally, a point is reached in which the rates of evaporation and condensation are equal. At this point, the
amount of vapor in the container will be constant, as will the pressure. (As indicated when the mercury
levels stop moving in Activity 4.9.) This condition is known as equilibrium. It is characterized by two
opposing forces going on at equal rates. When equilibrium has been reached, the pressure of the vapor
in the container is constant and is known as the equilibrium vapor pressure.
Figure 4.7 Equilibrium Vapor Pressure in a Closed System
The equilibrium vapor pressure will remain constant provided that the temperature remains
constant. If temperature changes, that will offset the equilibrium by changing evaporation and
condensation rates. Eventually, a new equilibrium will be established at the new temperature, and a new
equilibrium vapor pressure will exist. In other words, a substance has a specific equilibrium vapor pressure
at any given temperature. Different substances have different equilibrium vapor pressures.
A substance that has strong forces of attraction between its molecules is harder to vaporize and
will have a lower equilibrium vapor pressure (at a given temperature) than would a substance with weaker
forces of attraction between its molecules. We conclude that the weaker the attraction between the
molecules of a substance, the higher its equilibrium vapor pressure will be at any given temperature. We
can use the apparatus in Figure 4.6 (which you used in the previous activity) to compare the equilibrium
vapor pressures of various liquids. NOTE! All of the liquids used in this activity are flammable.
Procedure:
1. Obtain the manometer and remove the clamp from the hosing on the 125 mL Erlenmeyer flask; put
about 10 mL of acetone into the DRY flask and replace the stopper. (If the flask is not dry, rinse it with a
little acetone first. Discard the acetone used for the rinsing into the sink and run the water for a minute.)
Clamp the hose shut (as shown in Figure 4.6). Pick up the flask and swirl the liquid for about 10 seconds to
hasten the evaporation. Remove your hands from the flask. After two minutes, record the difference in
the levels of the liquid on the manometer (even if the levels are still moving). This difference is in mm of
water. To convert to mm of mercury, divide the difference by 13.5. (Mercury is 13.5 times more dense
than water.) Record this difference in levels in mm Hg in Table 4.4. Next, pick up the flask and wrap your
hands around it to warm the acetone. The bottom of the flask should press against one of your palms.
You should see the water levels moving in the manometer. After two minutes, read the difference in the
levels (in mm). Again, convert to mm Hg and record the data in Table 4.4. Part of the difference in levels
is due to the vapor pressure exerted by the acetone. Another part is due to the expansion of air which is
also present in the flask. Even though the air adds to the total pressure, this procedure will allow us to
compare the vapor pressure of acetone to that of anther substance. Discard the acetone into the sink and
run some water.
4-19 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
2. Rinse the flask with a little ethyl alcohol and discard it into the sink while running some water. Repeat
step 1 using about 10 mL of ethyl alcohol instead of acetone. Record the data in Table 4.4.
Tabl e 4. 4
Equilibrium Vapor Pressures
Pressure of Vapor Pressure of Vapor
Liquid (Room Temp) (Warm Hands Temp)
Acetone __________mm Hg __________mm Hg
Ethyl Alcohol __________mm Hg __________mm Hg
According to your results, which liquid seems to have the weakest attractive forces between its
molecules?{14}_________________ Liquids which evaporate most readily have high vapor pressures.
Which liquid do you think will evaporate most readily? {15}____________________________Why do you think that
some liquids evaporate more easily than others?{16}____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
SECTION 4.11 Review Problems To Solve
If you look back at the problems you have solved which make use of Boyle's law, Charles'
law, Gay-Lussac's law, and the combined gas law you will notice that all of these problems include what we
might call the "original" conditions and the "new" conditions. For example, you might have been given the
volume of a gas at a certain temperature and pressure, and you may have been asked to find the "new"
volume after the original temperature or pressure had changed.
There is yet another gas law, known as the ideal gas law which can be used to solve gas problems
which involve only one set of conditions. For example, what is the volume of 2.00 grams of hydrogen gas
at STP? Notice that only one set of conditions is given? You can not solve this problem using the laws
that you have learned up to this point. In order to understand the ideal gas law, you first need to learn
about the mole concept which is presented in chapters 7, 8 and 9 of ALICE. After you are familiar with the
mole concept, we will learn about this final gas law.
You will find some review problems below. Read each problem to determine which gas law you will
use to solve it. In the space to the left of each problem, indicate which law you have chosen by writing B
for Boyle's law, CH for Charles' law, G for Gay-Lussac's law, or COM for combined gas law. Then, solve
each problem showing all work.
Problem 21. _______ A basketball has a volume of 6.00 L when it is kept in a closet that is at 25.0
o
C.
What does the volume of the ball become when it is taken outdoors on a chilly 10.0
o
C day? (Assume
constant pressure.)
4-20 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
Problem 22. ________ A 10.0 L sample of water vapor at 200.
o
C and 1.00 atm pressure is cooled to
150.
o
C. The gas now occupies a volume of 7.00 L. Calculate the resulting pressure in the container.

Problem 23. ________ The volume of a gas at 1800. mm Hg pressure is 10.0 L. If the temperature is
kept constant, what will be the volume of gas at standard atmospheric pressure, 760. mm Hg?
Problem 24. ________ The pressure gauge on a cylinder of oxygen gas at a temperature of 15.0
o
C
reads 50.0 atm. What would the pressure gauge read if the temperature of the gas is raised to 38.0
o
C?

Problem 25. ________ A gas occupies a volume of 4.00 L at 470. mm and -70.0
o
C. What will its
volume be at 963 mm and 122
o
C?
Problem 26. ________ At 755 mm Hg pressure, 1.00 cm
3
of a gas has a mass of 0.0341 grams. What
will the density of this gas be (in grams per cm
3
) at a pressure of 905 mm Hg pressure? (Hint: the pressure
change will affect the volume, but not the mass.)
Density = __________ g/cm
3
4-21 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
ACTIVITY 4.12 A Teacher Demonstration of the Pressure–Temperature
Relationship
The relationship between pressure and temperature can also be demonstrated (with the aid of a
computer) using a syringe connected to a temperature probe. Your teacher will demonstrate. The
mechanical energy used to push the plunger of the syringe into the cylinder is transferred to the gas
molecules in the syringe where it is converted into kinetic energy. Watch the change in the temperature
of the gas in the syringe (shown on the screen of the computer display) as the gas in the syringe is
compressed.
What do you observe? {17}__________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
SECTION 4.13 Learning Outcomes
Understanding the gas laws is essential to your mastery of chemistry. Before you move on to
chapter 5, review the learning outcomes listed below. Check the ones that you are certain you can
handle. Arrange to take the chapter quiz and move on to chapter 5.
_____1. Describe the basic principles of the kinetic-molecular theory.
_____2. Define pressure and how it is measured and expressed.
_____3. Convert between the Celsius and Kelvin temperature scales.
_____4. Explain what is meant by the absolute temperature scale.
_____5. Mathematically adjust temperature and pressure to standard conditions.
_____6. Qualitatively explain the effects of pressure and temperature changes on the volume of a gas.
_____7. Solve mathematical problems using Charles', Boyle's, Gay-Lussac's, and the combined gas laws.
4-22 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
SECTION 4.14 Answers to Questions and Problems
Questions:
{1} Constantly moving gas particles collide with air molecules causing mixing and the spread of the gas
through air; {2} Constantly moving gas particles collide with the wall of their container; {3} decreases
{4} yes - as pressure increases volume decreases; {5} pressure; {6} independent; {7} larger; {8} it
increases the pressure exerted; {9} so that volumes of gases can be compared under the same
conditions of T and P, which allows us to relate volumes of gases to actual amounts of gas; {10} zero; {11}
they would look similar; {12} when temperature decreases so does pressure; {13} molecules collide with
the walls of the container more frequently and with greater force; {14} (the one that had the highest vapor
pressure); {15} (the one that had the lowest vapor pressure); {16} liquids which evaporate more easily
have weaker attractive forces between the molecules; {17} Temperature should increase as pressure
increases.
Problems:
1. 94.9 mL
2. 1480 mm Hg
3. 612 mL
4. 403 mm Hg
5. 844 mL
6. a. 329 K; b. 239 K; c. 285.3 K
7. a. -150
o
C; b. -237.4
o
C; c. 85
o
C
8. 510 mL
9. 68
o
C
10. -11
o
C
11. 125 mL
12. -58.0
o
C
13. 5.00
o
C (278 K)
14. 28.5 psi
15. 84.6
o
C (357.6 K) - rounds to 85
o
C (358 K)
16. 537 mL rounds to 540 mL
17. 290 mm
18. 143 mL
19. 814 mm Hg
20. 546
o
C
21. CH, 5.70 L
22. COM, 1.28 atm
23. B, 23.7 L
24. G, 54.0 atm
25. COM, 3.8 L
26. B, 0.0409 g/cm
3
4-23 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
SECTION 4.15 Student Notes
4-24 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
NAME____________________________________ PER____________ DATE DUE____________
ACTIVE LEARNING I N CHEMISTRY EDUCATION
"ALICE"
CHAPTER 5
ATOMS
AND
MOLECULES
Atomic Theory
Naming Compounds
Writing Formulas
5-1 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
NOTICE OF RIGHTS
All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form by any means,
electronic, mechanical, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the author.
Copies of this document may be made free of charge for use in public or nonprofit private educational
institutions provided that permission is obtained from the author . Please indicate the name and address
of the institution where use is anticipated.
© 1997 A.J. Girondi, Ph.D.
505 Latshmere Drive
Harrisburg, PA 17109
alicechem@geocities.com
Website: www.geocities.com/Athens/Oracle/2041
5-2 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
SECTION 5.1 The Classification Of Matter
In order to work effectively with chemical concepts, it is important for you to learn the "language of
chemistry" and how certain words and symbols are used by chemists. In this chapter you will learn about
the meaning of terms such as element, compound, mixture, atom, molecule, ion, and polyatomic ion (or
radical). You will also learn to identify chemical elements by chemical symbols. Finally, you will learn how
to write chemical formulas and how to name chemical compounds. An idea that can be attributed to the
ancient Greeks is the concept of the atom. They developed the idea that all of the material substance in
the world was composed of fundamental building blocks that could not be divided into smaller parts. The
property of being indivisible into smaller parts led them to coin the word atom, which means "indivisible."
Today, we realize that atoms can be broken up into smaller pieces, but the name atom is still used to
describe the fundamental unit of matter for chemists. Atoms have the special ability to combine together
to form larger groups of atoms called molecules. Two types of molecules are possible - elements and
compounds. When a molecule is composed of only one kind of atom, it is referred to as an element. For
example, the element gold is composed of millions of gold atoms connected together. A sample of the
metal copper is made of copper atoms linked together. Atoms of some elements tend to combine in pairs.
These paired elements are called diatomic molecules. Diatomic means "two atoms" in a molecule.
Elements that exist as diatomic molecules include hydrogen and oxygen. In the pure form they are written
as H2 and O2. You will learn about other diatomic gases in chapter 6.
The idea that substances in nature are composed of certain basic or fundamental elements that
cannot be further reduced to simpler substances is an ancient one dating back to early Greece. The
Greek elements were considered to be earth, air, fire, and water. Today, we realize that nature is much
more complex than that. Of the first 92 elements, 90 are naturally-occurring ones of which all other matter
is composed. Technitium (#43) amd promethium (#61) are the exceptions. We have also been able to
produce at least an additional 19 elements in the laboratory. These are called human-made elements.
They are more complicated than the basic ninety-two and are very unstable, which means they
decompose readily into simpler elements. A listing of all of the elements is undoubtedly present
somewhere in your chemistry classroom. This list is called the periodic table of elements. Each element
on the table is represented by a symbol.
In instances where molecules are composed of more than one kind of atom, this cluster of atoms
is referred to as a compound. Examples of compounds include water (H2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), and
table salt (NaCl). Although these substances consist of more than one kind of atom, they are considered
to be pure substances. Elements are also considered to be pure substances.
A mixture is yet another way to describe combinations of elements and compounds. A mixture is
composed of materials that have been placed together but which are not chemically combined. A mixture
may be composed of elements or compounds. The important thing to remember is that the substances
making up a mixture can always be separated by physical methods which means without using a chemical
reaction. Sand and salt can be made into a mixture by simply stirring these two substances together. The
sand and salt mixture can then be separated by adding water and filtering. The salt will dissolve in the
water and pass through the filter paper, while sand would not be able to pass through the filter paper.
Dissolving is a physical change and filtering is a physical method of separation. The next activity will help to
illustrate the difference between a mixture and a compound. Homogeneous materials are those which
have the same composition throughout. Heterogeneous materials do not have the same composition
throughout. Solutions such as salt water are homogeneous mixtures since they have the same
composition throughout and can be separated by physical methods (such as boiling the water away). The
mineral called marble is an example of a heterogeneous mixture since its composition can vary, even
within one small sample as well as from one location to another on earth.
5-3 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
Matter
Pure Substances Mixtures
Homogeneous Heterogeneous Elements Compounds
Solutions
Figure 5.1 The Classification of Matter
ACTIVITY 5.2 Properties Of Iron In A Compound And In A Mixture
Obtain the materials labeled 5.2 from the materials shelf. Container A contains iron filings and
powdered sulfur mixed together. Container B contains a chemical compound containing iron, sulfur, and
oxygen (FeSO4). In the compound, iron is chemically bonded to the other elements.
1. Hold a magnet up to each container and move it around. One of the properties of elemental iron is that
it is attracted to a magnet.
2. Is the iron in container A attracted to the magnet?__________ Is the iron in container B attracted to
the magnet?__________ Based on your observations, do elements retain their original properties when
they form compounds with other elements? {1}__________ How does this activity support your
conclusion? {2}________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
SECTION 5.3 Symbols Of The Elements
Each chemical element has a name assigned to it for the purpose of identifying it. The names for
the elements have been developed as each element has been discovered, and there are many
interesting and colorful names. In order to avoid having to write a long name in describing an element, it
has become customary in chemistry to use a chemical symbol in place of the name. Most of the symbols
are derived from the names of the elements themselves.
Quite often, the symbol consists of two letters that are the first two letters in the name of the
element. As an example, the element calcium is denoted by the symbol Ca. Another example is argon,
which is denoted by the symbol Ar. However, there are exceptions to this practice. The element arsenic
is denoted by the symbol As so that it is not confused with argon. Another exception in chemical symbols
is the fact that some elements are denoted by only one letter. Thus, hydrogen is represented by H,
oxygen by O, fluorine by F, and so on. In addition, the symbols for some of the elements are not related to
their more modern names but have come from older names for those elements that are no longer used.
5-4 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
An example is sodium which has the symbol Na. This symbol is derived from the older name "natrium" that
was originally given to sodium. Other examples of this are potassium, K; mercury, Hg; iron, Fe; tungsten,
W; etc.
Table 5.1 contains the names and symbols for 38 of the more common elements. You are
expected to MEMORIZE the names of these elements and their symbols. (Spelling counts!) Many
students misspell the name of the element which has the symbol F. Write its name - spelled properly - in
this space: _____________________ Remember, the symbol of this element is F - not Fl! And, it is not
spelled flourine!
You will notice that the first letter in the symbol of any element is a capital letter, while the second
letter (if there is one) is in lowercase. You need to use care in writing the symbols. As an example, the
element cobalt has the symbol Co. If you were to write CO as the symbol for cobalt, you would actually be
writing the formula for a compound, carbon monoxide, which is very different from cobalt.
Table 5.1 Selected Elements And Their Symbols
Aluminum Al Lithium Li
Antimony Sb Magnesium Mg
Arsenic As Manganese Mn
Barium Ba Mercury Hg
Bismuth Bi Nickel Ni
Bromine Br Nitrogen N
Calcium Ca Oxygen O
Carbon C Phosphorus P
Cesium Cs Platinum Pt
Chlorine Cl Potassium K
Chromium Cr Silicon Si
Cobalt Co Silver Ag
Copper Cu Sodium Na
Fluorine F Strontium Sr
Gold Au Sulfur S
Hydrogen H Tin Sn
Iodine I Titanium Ti
Iron Fe Tungsten W
Lead Pb Zinc Zn
SECTION 5.4 Atomic Theory
Although the Greeks invented the idea of the atom about 2,500 years ago, their concept was not
based on experimental evidence gathered in a laboratory. Our modern atomic theory is the result of the
work of several European scientists dating back to the 1600's. The most notable among these scientists
is John Dalton, an Englishman. Isaac Newton and Robert Boyle, two other Englishmen, had suggested
the possibility of atoms through their work, but Dalton put the idea of the existence of atoms on a firm
experimental basis.
Dalton was able to show that when elements combined to form compounds, the masses of each
element that went into making a compound always were present in definite ratios to each other. Thus,
when he combined hydrogen with oxygen to form water, he always found that the ratio of the mass of
5-5 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
hydrogen to that of oxygen was 1:8 (1 gram of H to 8 grams of O). This convinced him that the only way for
1 gram of
hydrogen
8 grams of
oxygen
9 grams of
water
+
this to make sense was if each element consisted of basic units, or atoms, that had definite masses.
According to his reasoning, if basic units of matter did not exist, then1 gram of hydrogen should be able to
combine with any number of grams of oxygen.
John Dalton assumed that water consisted of one hydrogen atom and one oxygen atom.
Furthermore, he reasoned that if the hydrogen atom had a mass of one mass unit, then the oxygen atom
must have a mass of eight mass units.
+ H O HO Really ? ? ?
(He was incorrect, of course, in his assumption, because we now know that two atoms of hydrogen
combine with one atom of oxygen to form a single molecule of water.) Water is H2O, not HO. Now if the
mass ratio is 1 to 8 ( H to O) in water, and if the atom ratio is 2 to 1 in water , what this means is that the
oxygen atom must have a mass which is 16 times greater than that of the hydrogen atom – not 8 times as
great (as Dalton had assumed).
Amedeo Avogadro (whom you will learn about later) recognized the problem in Dalton's
assumptions through his work with the gas laws and was able to show that certain elements, including
hydrogen and oxygen, actually existed in molecular (diatomic) form (H2 and O2). When water is formed,
two molecules of hydrogen (which is four atoms of hydrogen) react with one molecule of oxygen (which is
two atoms of oxygen) to form two molecules of water:
2 H
2
+ O
2
-----> 2 H
2
O
Nevertheless, Dalton's work represented the pioneering effort to experimentally establish the existence
of atoms. Dalton was also aware that two elements can produce two completely different compounds. For
example, carbon can combine with oxygen to form either CO (carbon monoxide) or CO2 (carbon dioxide).
He found that in CO, 16 parts by weight of oxygen always combined with 12 parts by weight of carbon. In
CO2, he found that 32 parts by weight of oxygen always combined with 12 parts by weight of carbon. So,
if he started with two equal weights of carbon and reacted them both with different quantities of oxygen
he always ended up with either a 12:16 ratio or a 12:32 ratio:
CO
12 grams carbon
16 grams oxygen
CO
2
12 grams carbon
32 grams oxygen
If you take enough of each
compound such that the mass of
one element in them is the same
then the mass of the other element present
in the two compounds will be in a ratio of
small whole numbers (1:2 in this case)
Notice in the example above that for oxygen, 16 to 32 is a 1 to 2 ratio. This seemed to indicate that
elements could not combine in just any quantities. 12 grams of carbon have to combine with 16 grams of
oxygen or with 32 grams of oxygen - nothing in between! For example, he never found 12 parts by weight
of carbon combining with 24 parts by weight of oxygen. Wonder why? Maybe, he reasoned, it's because
elements don't come in just any quantity. Maybe they come in definite discrete amounts or particles. This
would explain the simple whole number ratio for oxygen (1:2 in this case). He called this regularity in the
way two elements can combine his law of multiple proportions. This law together with the law of definite
composition served as strong evidence suggesting the existence of atoms.
5-6 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
This can all sounds somewhat confusing, so here is an analogy. Suppose you go into an ice
cream store and order a dish of chocolate and vanilla. When it comes you measure the mass of the ice
cream to make sure you are not being cheated (you just happen to have a balance with you). You find that
the dish contains 100 grams of vanilla and 100 grams of chocolate. Since you like chocolate so much, you
send the dish back to the kitchen for more chocolate. This time when you get it back it contains 100 grams
of vanilla and 200 grams of chocolate. Hmmm. That's interesting. Exactly a 2:1 ratio between the original
amount of chocolate and the new amount. You repeat the order once more, and when you get the dish
back it contains 100 grams of vanilla (starting to melt) and 300 grams of chocolate. Hey. Now the
chocolate has varied in a 1:2:3 ratio - a ratio of small whole numbers. Whole numbers, mind you! Why?
This leads you to believe that maybe the ice cream comes in discrete amounts - not just any amount. After
all, the chocolate did not increase by fractional amounts. You ask the waiter if this might be true, and sure
enough, the ice cream does come in discrete amounts! They are called scoops. Ah! The scoop theory of
ice cream. Brilliant! See the analogy to Dalton's reasoning? Ice cream comes in scoops, while elements
come in the form of atoms!
Law of Multiple Proportions: Sometimes the same two elements can combine in different
proportions to form different compounds. (Example: CO and CO2) When they do this, if
you hold the mass of one element in the compounds constant, the mass of the other
element present will vary in a ratio of small whole numbers.
Dalton's atomic theory, first conceived in 1803, can be summarized by the following four statements:
1. An element is composed of extremely small particles called atoms.
2. All atoms of a given element are identical to all other atoms of that element, but differ from atoms of
other elements.
3. Atoms are indivisible and cannot be created or destroyed or changed into atoms of another element.
4. Chemical changes take place when atoms of elements combine with each other in new ways.
Dalton's original theory was not entirely correct. For example, he thought that all atoms of a given element
had exactly the same mass. Today, we know that atoms of an element do not all have the same mass. We
have discovered the existence of isotopes, which are atoms of an element which have different masses.
As you have discovered, elements are represented by their chemical symbols. These symbols
are also used to describe chemical compounds that are formed when the elements react with each other.
The use of these symbols to describe chemical compounds results in a chemical formula for the
compound. This formula contains the appropriate symbols and, in addition, also has small numbers written
as subscripts (below the element) that indicate how many of each kind of atom are present in a molecule of
the compound. The chemical formula for water is H2O. This formula means that in the water molecule,
there are two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom. (When only one atom is involved, it is customary not
to write a subscript "1" below the element.) In other words, when there is no number, it is understood that
there is only one atom of that type present. Some compounds contain only two elements and these are
called binary compounds. Other compounds contain more than two elements. As an example, the
elements copper (Cu), sulfur (S), and oxygen (O) combine to form a compound with the chemical formula
CuSO4. In this compound for every one atom of copper, there is one atom of sulfur and four atoms of
oxygen.
Problem 1. Using the same idea, how many atoms of calcium are there in calcium chromate, CaCrO4?
Calcium?__________ Chromium?__________Oxygen?__________.
Problem 2. The formula for sodium acetate is NaC2H3O2. How many atoms of each element are present
in one sodium acetate molecule? Sodium?_________ Carbon?__________ Hydrogen?__________
Oxygen?__________.
5-7 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
SECTION 5.5 Oxidation Numbers Of Elements and Polyatomic Ions
We are now at the point where you are ready to learn how to write the formulas for chemical
compounds. In order to accomplish this task, we will be using what are known as oxidation numbers. You
will not understand where these oxidation numbers come from until you study atomic structure in a later
chapter, but you will be able to use them, nonetheless. A list of some common oxidation numbers for
selected elements can be found in Table 5.2 below. There are other oxidation numbers for these
elements besides those listed here, but this list will suit your purposes for now.

Table 5.2 Common Oxidation Numbers of Selected Elements
(Note: Sometimes these elements can assume oxidation numbers other than those listed.)
Aluminum Al +3 Lithium Li +1
Antimony Sb +3,+5 Magnesium Mg +2
Arsenic As +3,+5 Manganese Mn +2,+4,+7
Barium Ba +2 Mercury Hg +1,+2
Bismuth Bi +3 Nickel Ni +2
Boron B +3 Nitrogen N -3,+3,+5
Bromine Br -1,+5 Oxygen O -2
Calcium Ca +2 Phosphorus P +3,+5
Carbon C +2,+4 Platinum Pt +2,+4
Cesium Cs +1 Potassium K +1
Chlorine Cl -1,+5,+7 Silicon Si +4
Chromium Cr +2,+3,+6 Silver Ag +1
Cobalt Co +2,+3 Sodium Na +1
Copper Cu +1,+2 Strontium Sr +2
Fluorine F -1 Sulfur S -2,+4,+6
Gold Au +1,+3 Tin Sn +2,+4
Hydrogen H +1 Titanium Ti +3,+4
Iodine I -1,+5 Tungsten W +6
Iron Fe +2,+3 Zinc Zn +2
Lead Pb +2, +4
(A copy of Table 5.2 (oxidation numbers) which you will be permitted to use during tests and quizzes can
be found in the Reference Notebook which you were given as a part of ALICE.) You do NOT need to
memorize Table 5.2.
Common oxidation numbers for other elements can be found on some periodic tables and in
other reference sources. Remember, you do not need to memorize oxidation numbers. Table 5.2
contains the most commonly used oxidation numbers of the elements listed. It is possible that sometimes
an element will exhibit an oxidation number which is not listed in the table.
There is yet another kind of fundamental unit present in some substances called an ion. An ion is
a particle that carries an electric charge. In certain specific events that happen in chemistry, atoms or
molecules can end up with a positive (+) or negative (-) charge. These atoms or molecules then become
ions. Another name for ions which contain more than one atom is a polyatomic ion (they used to be called
radicals). Examples of ions include H
1+
, OH
1-
, NH4
1+
, and SO4
2-
. Ions like SO4
2-
can also be written as
SO4
-2
. It means the same thing. The ion has a charge of minus two.
There are oxidation numbers for polyatomic ions (see table 5.3). You ARE required to commit this
list (Table 5.3) to MEMORY including the names, the formulas, and the charges!
5-8 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
A table of polyatomic ions (like Table 5.3) can also be found in your ALICE Reference Notebook.
You will be given a quiz to insure that you have learned the names, formulas, and charges of the
polyatomic ions. After that quiz, you will be allowed to refer to the list of polyatomic ions in your reference
notebook during future tests and quizzes. The reason for having you memorize them is to help you to
recognize them as polyatomic ions when you see them. When you write polyatomic ions, you should write
the charge with the formula. For example, sulfate should be written as SO4
2-
, while permanganate should
be written as MnO4
1-
, etc. This list is not complete. There are many other polyatomic ions besides those
listed in Table 5.3.
Tabl e 5. 3
Common Oxidation Numbers of Selected Polyatomic Ions
Name Formula Charge
Ammonium NH4
1+
+1
Acetate C2H3O2
1-
-1
Chlorate ClO3
1-
-1
Perchlorate ClO4
1-
-1
Cyanide CN
1-
-1
Hydrogen carbonate HCO3
1-
-1
(or bicarbonate)

Hydrogen sulfate HSO4
1-
-1
Hydroxide OH
1-
-1
Nitrate NO3
1-
-1
Nitrite NO2
1-
-1
Permanganate MnO4
1-
-1
Thiocyanate SCN
1-
-1
Carbonate CO3
2-
-2
Chromate CrO4
2-
-2
Dichromate Cr2O7
2-
-2
Sulfate SO4
2-
-2
Sulfite SO3
2-
-2
Phosphate PO4
3-
-3
SECTION 5.6 Writing Formulas for Chemical Compounds
The process of writing a chemical formula using oxidation numbers is really rather simple. The one
rule that you must remember is that
"the sum of the oxidation numbers of the atoms in the formula of a compound must be zero."
For example, hydrogen's oxidation number is +1 and oxygen's is -2. Therefore, in order for the oxidation
numbers to add up to zero, we need two hydrogens. Two hydrogens = +2 and one oxygen = -2, so the
formula for water is H2O. The subscript "2" to the right of the H indicates the presence of two hydrogen
atoms. When a symbol is present without a subscript to its right, we assume that a subscript of "1" is there.
We don't actually write the subscript if it is a one. Notice, too, that the element with the positive oxidation
number is usually written first. Let's try more.
5-9 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
Example 1: What is the formula for a compound of calcium and chlorine? Ca = +2 and Cl = -1. Therefore,
in order for the oxidation numbers to add up to zero, these two elements must combine in a one to two
ratio: CaCl2
Example 2: What is the formula for a compound of aluminum and oxygen? Al = +3 and O = -2. Therefore,
in order for the oxidation numbers to add up to zero, these two elements must combine in a two to three
ratio: Al2O3
One method used to write formulas involves the use of a lowest common multiple (LCM). In
example 1 above, the lowest common multiple (disregard the signs) of the two oxidation numbers (+2 and
-1) is 2. Now divide each oxidation number into the lowest common multiple (LCM) to determine the
subscript for that element in the formula. For Ca:
2
/2 = 1; and for chlorine:
2
/1 = 2. Therefore, the formula is
CaCl2. In the case of example 2 above, the LCM of the oxidation numbers involved (+3 and -2) is 6. For
aluminum: 6/3 = 2; and for oxygen: 6/2 = 3. So, the formula for the compound is Al2O3. Notice how the
sum adds up to zero! [2 Al = +3 X 2 = +6; 3 O = -2 X 3 = -6]. Then, (+6) + (-6) = 0. Practice now by doing
problem 3.
Problem 3. Using oxidation numbers from Tables 5.2 and 5.3, write correct formulas for compounds of
the following substances. Keep in mind that if one element has only a positive oxidation number, you
must use a negative oxidation number for the other element. Some elements have more than one
oxidation number. So, when you see a symbol followed by a Roman numeral in parentheses in the
problems below, the Roman number equals the oxidation number which you should use for that element.
Iron has two oxidation numbers: +2 and +3. Fe(II) refers to Fe
2+
.
Example: Manganese can be +2, +4, or +7. Mn(IV) = Mn
4+
. See? The oxidation number is the same as
the Roman numeral. Note, however, that the Roman numeral is not used in the formula. For example,
when Mn(IV) and Cl combine, the compound's correct formula is MnCl4. It is incorrect to include the
Roman numeral in the name. Therefore, Mn(IV)Cl4 is WRONG!
a. Ba and Cl _______________ i. Cu(I) and S _______________
b. Hg(I) and Br _______________ j. As(V) and O _______________
c. Ca and O _______________ k. C(IV) and O _______________
d. Hg(II) and Cl _______________ l. Sn(IV) and Br _______________
e. Al and S _______________ m. P(III) and I _______________
f. Ag and S _______________ n. As(V) and Cl _______________
g. N(III) and O _______________ o. Sn(II) and F _______________
h. Na and O _______________ p. Sr and Br _______________
This same method is used when the formula you are trying to write contains a polyatomic ion. Just
keep in mind that polyatomic ions stay together as a group and act as though they were a single atom with
a single oxidation number. Whenever more than one polyatomic ion appears in a formula, it must be
enclosed by parentheses with a subscript outside.
5-10 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
Example 3: Write the formula for a compound of potassium and permanganate. K = +1 and MnO4
1-
= -1.
LCM = 1, so, the formula for potassium permanganate is KMnO4.
Example 4: Write the formula for a compound of calcium and chlorate. Ca = +2 and ClO3
1-
= -1. LCM = 2
So, the formula for calcium chlorate is Ca(ClO3)2
Example 5: Write the formula for a compound of ammonium and sulfate. NH4
1+
= +1 and SO4
2-
= -2.
LCM = 2, so, the formula for ammonium sulfate is (NH4)2SO4 .
Problem 4. Write correct formulas for compounds of the following:
a. Mg and SO4
2-
_______________ g. Al and SO3
2-
_______________
b. Sn(II) and CrO4
2-
_______________ h. Zn and CO3
2-
_______________
c. Na and HCO3
1-
_______________ i. Cu(II) and OH
1-
_______________
d. Fe(II) and OH
1-
_______________ j. Fe(III) and SO4
2-
_______________
e. Pb(II) and PO4
3-
_______________ k. Hg(I) and NO3
1-
_______________
f. NH4
1+
and Cl
1-
_______________ l. NH4
1+
and Cr2O7
2-
_______________
Check your answers for problem 4, and then try problem 5 below.
Problem 5. Write correct formulas for compounds of the following:
a. Mg and F _______________ f. Bi (III) and S ______________
b. Ba and ClO3
1-
_______________ g. K and Cl ______________
c. N(V) and O _______________ h. H and S ______________
d. Ca and PO4
3-
_______________ i. Cr(III) and C2H3O2
1-
______________
e. Al and OH
1-
_______________ j. S (IV) and O ______________
Earlier in this chapter you determined the number of atoms found in the formulas of compounds.
Problem 6 will help you to improve this skill and to better understand the meaning of chemical formulas. In
each of the following problems indicate the total number of atoms in each formula. For example, the total
number of atoms in the formula H2O is three. In a formula which includes parentheses, such as Ca(NO3)2,
the subscript to the right of the parentheses multiplies everything inside the parentheses. The total
number of atoms in Ca(NO3)2 is nine (1 Ca + 2 N + 6 O = 9). The formula Na2SO4 has seven atoms.
5-11 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
Problem 6. Determine the total number of atoms contained in each of the following formulas.
a. NaCl __________ f. Pb(C2H3O2)2 __________
b. AlPO4 __________ g. Sr(NO3)2 __________
c. Fe(ClO3)3 __________ h. Ba3(PO4)2 __________
d. Ag2SO3 __________ i. Al(HCO3)3 __________
e. Na2Cr2O7 __________ j. (NH4)2CO3 __________
The formulas in Problem 7 below belong to a group of compounds known as "hydrates." They are
compounds that have water molecules included in them. The water is tacked on to the end of the formula
following a raised dot. The raised dot does NOT mean multiplication, as it might in algebra; rather, it means
"plus." So, a formula such as BaCl2 •2H2O includes 2 water molecules. The total number of atoms in this
formula is nine (1 Ba, 2 Cl, 4 H, and 2 O). For each of the following hydrates, indicate the total number of
atoms in each formula.
Problem 7. For each of the following hydrates, indicate the total number of atoms in each formula.
a. CuSO4 •5H2O __________ b. Na2CO3 •10H2O __________ c. CoCl2 •6H2O ___________
SECTION 5.7 Rules For Naming Compounds
There are three methods for naming chemical compounds. They are the:
1. prefix method 2. Latin name method 3. Roman numeral method
Although there are some exceptions, generally speaking, these methods are used as follows.
The prefix method is most often used to name compounds which contain only nonmetals. Nonmetals are
found to the right of the "staircase" on the periodic table.
The Latin name method is used for compounds containing certain metals including iron (Fe), copper (Cu),
tin (Sn), or mercury (Hg).
The Roman numeral method is used to name all compounds which contain metals. Metals are found to
the left of the "staircase" on the periodic table (excluding hydrogen).
A. The Prefix Method
You should MEMORIZE the following prefixes:
1 = mon or mono 4 = tetr or tetra 7 = hept or hepta
2 = di 5 = pent or penta 8 = oct or octa
3 = tri 6 = hex or hexa
5-12 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
In this method prefixes are used to indicate the number of atoms of each element present in the
formula of a compound. For example, As2O5 is called diarsenic pentoxide. Note that pent is used instead
of penta in order to avoid the awkward sound of the double vowel. If only one atom of the first element in
the formula is present the use of "mono" is usually avoided; if there is only one atom of the second
element, then the prefix "mono" is always used. For example, SO2 is called sulfur dioxide (rather than
monosulfur dioxide); however, the molecule CO is called carbon monoxide. Note that if the compound is
binary (contains only two elements), the name of the second element is changed so that it always ends
with the suffix "ide". (Examples: sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide.) Finish spelling the name on this
binary compound: CO2 is carbon diox_______. {3}
Problem 8. Name the following nonmetallic compounds using the prefix method.
a. SO3 _________________________ e. N2O ________________________
b. As2O3 _________________________ f. SF6 ________________________
c. PBr5 _________________________ g. CCl4 ________________________
d. SeF2 _________________________ h. NO ________________________
Caution: Some students confuse the use of Roman numerals in names with the use of prefixes in names.
Here is the difference. Roman numerals indicate the oxidation number of an element. Prefixes indicate
the number of atoms of an element represented in the formula. For example, iron (III) oxide is Fe2O3.
The Roman numeral (III) in the name tells us that the oxidation number of iron in this compound is +3. It
does NOT mean that there are three iron atoms represented in the formula. As you can see, there are
only two iron atoms represented. The compound N2O4 is called dinitrogen tetroxide. The "di" before the
nitrogen means that there are two nitrogen atoms represented in the formula. The prefix does NOT
indicate the oxidation number of the nitrogen.
B. The Latin Name Method
You need to MEMORIZE the Latin names for the elements listed in Table 5.4.
Note that the Latin name of the lower oxidation state of each element ends in "ous", while the
name of the higher oxidation state ends in "ic". (You should refer to Table 5.2 for the possible oxidation
states of elements.) For example, the compound CuCl2 contains copper in the +2 oxidation state
[copper(II)]. So, the Latin name of this compound is cupric chloride. On the other hand, CuCl contains
copper in the +1 oxidation state. Its name is cuprous chloride. Therefore, in order to use this method of
naming, you must first determine the oxidation state of the metal and then choose the proper Latin name.
Note that if the compound contains only two elements, the name of the second element is changed so
that it always ends with the suffix "ide".
5-13 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
Table 5.4 Latin Names of Four Selected Elements
El ement Symbol Latin Name
copper (I) Cu
1+
cuprous
copper (II) Cu
2+
cupric
iron (II) Fe
2+
ferrous
iron (III) Fe
3+
ferric
mercury (I) Hg
1+
mercurous
mercury (II) Hg
2+
mercuric
tin (II) Sn
2+
stannous
tin (IV) Sn
4+
stannic
(These Latin names can also be found in your Reference Notebook.)
In problem 9 you will be asked to assign Latin names to compounds. You must first determine the
oxidation number of the metal in each compound. To do this, you should first determine the oxidation
number of the other element present. Note the examples below.
Example 1: Let's find the Latin name for SnS2. According to Table 5.2, tin (Sn) has oxidation numbers of
+2 and +4. But which of these is being used in the compound SnS2? Well, note from Table 5.2 that sulfur
(S) can have oxidation numbers of -2, +4, or +6. Since the tin has only positive oxidation numbers, we
must use the negative oxidation number of the sulfur which is -2. Now, if sulfur is -2 here, and since there
are two atoms of sulfur in the formula, the total oxidation number of the sulfur in SnS2 is -4. Since the total
of the oxidation numbers in the formula must equal zero, the oxidation number of the single tin atom in the
formula must be +4. When tin has an oxidation number of +4 its Latin name (see Table 5.4) is stannic.
Thus, SnS2 is called stannic sulfide.
Example 2: What is the Latin name for Cu2O? Since oxygen is -2, the total oxidation number for the
copper (Cu) must be +2. Hey, but wait. There are two atoms of copper represented in the formula.
Therefore, each individual copper atom must have an oxidation number of +1. Therefore, checking Table
5.4, Cu2O is called cuprous oxide.
Problem 9. Name the following using the Latin name method. Calculate the oxidation number of the
metal being used, then name the compound.
Ox. No. of Metal Name
a. SnS ____________ _________________________________________
b. HgCl ____________ _________________________________________
c. FeO ____________ _________________________________________
d. CuS ____________ _________________________________________
e. HgF2 ____________ _________________________________________
f. SnCl2 ____________ _________________________________________
5-14 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
g. Fe2S3 ____________ _________________________________________
h. CuI ____________ _________________________________________
C. The Roman Numeral Method
When naming metallic compounds using this method, first determine the possible oxidation
states of the metal. If the metal has more than one positive oxidation state, then you must use a Roman
numeral in the name. If the metal has only one positive oxidation state, then you should not use a Roman
numeral in the name.
For example, let's try to name FeCl3 according to this method. Checking a reference sheet
containing oxidation states we find that iron can have states of either +2 or +3. Therefore, we must use a
Roman numeral in the name. The oxidation state of iron in FeCl3 is +3. The name of this compound is iron
(III) chloride. Note that when a Roman numeral is used, it is the same number as the oxidation state of the
metal. That is, if the oxidation state of iron in a compound is +3, then the Roman numeral used is (III).
Let's try another one. Name FeO. In FeO, the oxidation state of iron is +2. Therefore, the name
of FeO is iron (II) oxide. Note that the Roman numeral is always enclosed in parentheses. Let's name the
compound: BaCl2. The metal barium has only one positive oxidation state which is +2. Therefore, no
Roman numeral is needed and the name is simply barium chloride. Note that if the compound contains
only two elements, the name of the second element is changed so that it always ends with the suffix "ide".
Problem 10. Name the following using the Roman numeral method. Use Roman numerals in the name
only if needed. Check your list of oxidation numbers to see if a metal has more than one positive oxidation
state. If it does, use a Roman numeral in the name.
a. MnO2 ___________________________________
b. KBr ___________________________________
c. CrCl3 ___________________________________
d. HgS ___________________________________
e. FeBr2 ___________________________________
f. CaF2 ___________________________________
g. CrO3 ___________________________________
h. CuO ___________________________________
i. Al2O3 ___________________________________
j. Co2O3 ___________________________________
5-15 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
D. Compounds Containing Polyatomic Ions
Polyatomic ions are charged particles which consist of more than one atom. Formulas which begin
with one of these ions are named by first naming the polyatomic ion, then naming the element which
follows it and changing the ending by using the suffix "ide.". Examples include NH4Cl (ammonium
chloride) and (NH4)2S (ammonium sulfide). Formulas which end with one of these polyatomic ions are
named by naming the first element and then naming the polyatomic ion. Example: CaSO4, calcium
sulfate. A Roman numeral is added to the name only if a metal is involved that has more than one positive
oxidation number. For example, since copper can be +1 or +2, CuSO4 is called copper (II) sulfate.
However, since aluminum can only be +3, Al(NO3)3 is simply called aluminum nitrate. Some formulas
consist of two polyatomic ions. They are named simply by naming the first polyatomic ion followed by the
name of the second one. NH4NO3 is ammonium nitrate; (NH4)2SO3 is ammonium sulfite.
Do not use the prefix method when naming compounds containing polyatomic ions.
Problem 11. Name the following compounds which contain polyatomic ions.
a. Ca(C2H3O2)2 _____________________________________
b. Ba(NO2)2 _____________________________________
c. Fe(OH)2 _____________________________________
(2 names)
_____________________________________
d. (NH4)2O _____________________________________
e. Ag2SO4 _____________________________________
f. KMnO4 _____________________________________
g. CuCO3 _____________________________________
(2 names)
_____________________________________
h. NaHSO4 _____________________________________
i. NH4C2H3O2 _____________________________________
j. (NH4)3PO4 _____________________________________
Note: Do not mix the methods for naming compounds. For example, if we name FeCl2 ferrous (II) chloride,
that is wrong because we mixed the Latin name method with the Roman numeral method. Wait! There is
one exception to never mixing the methods. In hydrates (described below) you will notice that the Roman
numeral and prefix methods are both used in a name.
5-16 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
The compounds known as hydrates, which you studied earlier in this chapter, are named as follows:
CuSO4 •5H2O is called copper (II) sulfate pentahydrate. The prefix "penta" means "five", so pentahydrate
means "five waters," which is added to the name of the compound.
BaCl2 •2H2O is called barium chloride dihydrate. The prefix "di" means "two," so dihydrate means "two
waters." (You should MEMORIZE the prefixes for 1 through 8 which were listed on a previous page.)
Probl em 12. Perform the following tasks dealing with hydrates.
a. Name this hydrate: CoCl2 •6H2O _____________________________________
b. Finish writing this formula for sodium sulfate heptahydrate: Na2SO4 • ______H2O
SECTION 5.8 Writing Correct Formulas From Names
Problem 13. Write correct formulas for the compounds named below. Use the table of oxidation
numbers in this chapter or in your reference notebook. Remember that the sum of the oxidation numbers
of all the atoms and/or polyatomic ions in a formula must add up to zero.
a. calcium nitrate __________________ n. ammonium fluoride _________________
b. strontium chloride __________________ o. iron (III) sulfide _________________
c. phosphorus triiodide __________________ p. sodium carbonate _________________
d. silver phosphate __________________ q. carbon tetrachloride _________________
e. dinitrogen pentoxide __________________ r. cobalt (II) chloride _________________
f. stannous chlorate __________________ s. ferrous phosphate _________________
g. chromium (III) oxide __________________ t. lead (IV) oxide _________________
h. ammonium chromate __________________ u. antimony (V) sulfide _________________
i. cesium sulfite __________________ v. sulfur hexabromide _________________
j. strontium fluoride __________________ w. silver oxide _________________
k. hydrogen iodide __________________ x. manganese (IV) chloride _____________
l. iron (III) chloride hexahydrate __________________________
m. calcium sulfate dihydrate __________________________
5-17 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
SECTION 5.9 More Practice With Naming Compounds
Problem 14. Name the compounds below. Before deciding upon a name, first check to see if the
compound contains a metal. Use the prefix method for compounds that do not contain a metal; use the
Roman numeral method for compounds that do contain a metal. (Metals are found to the left of the
"staircase" on the periodic table.) Remember you should not mix the three methods of naming.
Formula Name

a. CaCl2 _______________________________________________
b. Al2S3 _______________________________________________
c. Ba(OH)2 _______________________________________________
d. CaCO3 _______________________________________________
e. MgSO3 _______________________________________________
f. Pb3(PO4)2 _______________________________________________
g. As2O5 _______________________________________________
h. PBr3 _______________________________________________
i. KOH _______________________________________________
j. AsCl5 _______________________________________________
k. Ag2S _______________________________________________
l. SrCr2O7 _______________________________________________
m. CsHSO4 _______________________________________________
n. Co(NO2)2 _______________________________________________
o. SrSO4 _______________________________________________
p. NaHCO3 _______________________________________________
q. MgO _______________________________________________
r. CrF3 _______________________________________________
s. (NH4)2Cr2O7 _______________________________________________
t. Ni(ClO3)2 _______________________________________________
u. CBr4 _______________________________________________
v. Na3PO4 _______________________________________________
5-18 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
w. N2O3 _______________________________________________
x. Pb(C2H3O2)2_______________________________________________
y. P2O5 _______________________________________________
z. KCN _______________________________________________
aa. LiNO3 _______________________________________________
bb. Na2CrO4 _______________________________________________
Problem 15. Give two names for each of the following. Put the Latin name in the left column and the
Roman numeral name in the right column.
Latin Name Roman Numeral Name
a. HgBr _______________________________ ______________________________
b. Fe(OH)2 _______________________________ ______________________________
c. HgCl2 _______________________________ ______________________________
d. Fe2(SO4)3 _______________________________ ______________________________
e. Cu2S _______________________________ ______________________________
f. SnCrO4 _______________________________ ______________________________
g. Cu(OH)2 _______________________________ ______________________________
h. HgNO3 _______________________________ ______________________________
i. SnO2 _______________________________ ______________________________
SECTION 5.10 A Summary Of Things To Memorize
1. Symbols of selected elements (Table 5.1)
2. Names, symbols and charges of polyatomic ions (Table 5.3)
3. Selected Latin names of elements (Table 5.4)
4. Selected Greek prefixes for the numbers 1 through 8.
It will also be assumed that you can recognize and write Roman numerals for at least the first eight
numbers: I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII
5-19 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
SECTION 5.11 Learning Outcomes
You are now at the end of chapter 5. Check the learning outcomes below. When you feel that
you have mastered all of them, arrange to take any test or quizzes on chapter 5, and then go to Chapter 6.
_____1. Distinguish between elements, compounds, heterogeneous mixtures, homogeneous
mixtures, and pure substances.
_____2. Distinguish between atoms, molecules, and ions.
_____3. Write from memory the names (spelled correctly) and symbols of selected common elements.
_____4. Be able to identify the four important ideas which composed Dalton's Atomic Theory.
_____5. Write from memory the Latin names (spelled correctly) for the lower and higher oxidation states
of copper, iron, mercury, and tin.
_____6. Write from memory the names (spelled correctly), formulas, and charges of the common
polyatomic ions.
_____7. Name compounds using the Roman numeral method.
_____8. Name compounds using the Latin name method.
_____9. Name compounds using the prefix method.
_____10. Name compounds which are hydrates.
_____11. Calculate the number of atoms in the formulas of compounds (including hydrates).
_____12. Use oxidation numbers to write correct formulas for compounds given their names or the
elements they contain.
_____13. Write from memory the common Greek prefixes.
_____14. Write from memory the names and symbols of common elements.
5-20 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
SECTION 5.12 Answers to Questions and Problems
Questions:
{1} No; {2} Magnet is attracted to pure iron, but not attracted to iron when it is in a compound;
{3} ide
Problems:
1. 1,1,4
2. 1,2,3,2
3. a. BaCl2; b. HgBr; c. CaO; d. HgCl2; e. Al2S3; f. Ag2S; g. N2O3; h. Na2O; i. Cu2S;
j. As2O5; k. CO2; l. SnBr4; m. PI3 ; n. AsCl5; o. SnF2; p. SrBr2
4. a. MgSO4; b. SnCrO4; c. NaHCO3 d. Fe(OH)2; e. Pb3(PO4)2; f. NH4Cl; g. Al2(SO3)3;
h. ZnCO3; i. Cu(OH)2; j. Fe2(SO4)3; k. HgNO3; l. (NH4)2Cr2O7
5. a. MgF2; b. Ba(ClO3)2; c. N2O5; d. Ca3(PO4)2; e. Al(OH)3; f. Bi2S3 g. KCl; h. H2S; i. Cr(C2H3O2)3
j. SO2
6. a. 2; b. 6; c. 13; d. 6; e. 11; f. 15; g. 9; h. 13; i. 16; j. 14
7. a. 21; b. 36; c. 21
8. a. sulfur trioxide; b. diarsenic trioxide; c. phosphorus pentabromide; d. selenium difluoride;
e. dinitrogen monoxide; f. sulfur hexafluoride; g. carbon tetrachloride; h. nitrogen monoxide
9. a. +2, stannous sulfide; b. +1, mercurous chloride; c. +2, ferrous oxide; d. +2, cupric sulfide
e. +2, mercuric fluoride; f. +2, stannous chloride; g. +3, ferric sulfide; h. +1, cuprous iodide
10. a. manganese (IV) oxide; b. potassium bromide; c. chromium (III) chloride
d. mercury (II) sulfide; e. iron (II) bromide; f. calcium fluoride; g. chromium (VI) oxide;
h. copper (II) oxide; i. aluminum oxide; j. cobalt (III) oxide
11. a. calcium acetate; b. barium nitrite; c. iron (II) hydroxide, ferrous hydroxide;
d. ammonium oxide; e. silver sulfate; f. potassium permanganate;
g. copper (II) carbonate, cupric carbonate; h. sodium hydrogen sulfate; i. ammonium acetate;
j. ammonium phosphate
12. a. cobalt (II) chloride hexahydrate; b. Na2SO4 • 7 H2O
13. a. Ca(NO3)2; b. SrCl2; c. PI3; d. Ag3PO4; e. N2O5; f. Sn(ClO3)2; g. Cr2O3; h. (NH4)2CrO4;
i. Cs2SO3; j. SrF2; k. HI; l. FeCl3 • 6 H2O; m. CaSO4 • 2 H2O; n. NH4F; o. Fe2S3; p. Na2CO3;
q. CCl4; r. CoCl2; s. Fe3(PO4)2; t. PbO2; u. Sb2S5; v. SBr6; w. Ag2O; x. MnCl4
14. a. calcium chloride; b. aluminum sulfide; c. barium hydroxide; d. calcium carbonate;
e. magnesium sulfite; f. lead (II) phosphate; g. diarsenic pentoxide; h. phosphorus tribromide;
i. potassium hydroxide; j. arsenic pentachloride; k. silver sulfide; l. strontium dichromate;
m. cesium hydrogen sulfate; n. cobalt (II) nitrite; o.strontium sulfate; p. sodium hydrogen carbonate;
q. magnesium oxide; r. chromium (III) fluoride; s. ammonium dichromate; t. nickel chlorate;
u. carbon tetrabromide; v. sodium phosphate; w. dinitrogen trioxide; x. lead (II) acetate;
y. diphosphorus pentoxide; z. potassium cyanide; aa. lithium nitrate; bb. sodium chromate
15. a. mercurous bromide, mercury (I) bromide
b. ferrous hydroxide, iron (II) hydroxide
c. mercuric chloride, mercury (II) chloride
d. ferric sulfate, iron (III) sulfate
e. cuprous sulfide, copper (I) sulfide
f. stannous chromate, tin (II) chromate
g. cupric hydroxide, copper (II) hydroxide
h. mercurous nitrate, mercury (I) nitrate
i. stannic oxide, tin (IV) oxide
5-21 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
SECTION 5.13 Student Notes
5-22 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
NAME____________________________________ PER____________ DATE DUE____________
ACTIVE LEARNING I N CHEMISTRY EDUCATION
"ALICE"
CHAPTER 6
CHEMICAL
EQUATIONS
(Part 1)
Direct Combination
and
Decomposition
6-1 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
NOTICE OF RIGHTS
All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form by any means,
electronic, mechanical, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the author.
Copies of this document may be made free of charge for use in public or nonprofit private educational
institutions provided that permission is obtained from the author . Please indicate the name and address
of the institution where use is anticipated.
© 1997 A.J. Girondi, Ph.D.
505 Latshmere Drive
Harrisburg, PA 17109
alicechem@geocities.com
Website: www.geocities.com/Athens/Oracle/2041
6-2 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
SECTION 6.1 The Meaning Of Chemical Equations
So far, you have learned about chemical elements, symbols, and formulas. The next thing you
need to learn is how these are used in describing chemical reactions. Elements combine to form
compounds, compounds can be broken down into elements, and compounds can react to form new
compounds. These processes are referred to as chemical reactions.
Chemists have developed a definite way to describe chemical reactions through the use of what
are called chemical equations. These are shorthand statements of what is occurring in a chemical reaction.
These statements involve the use of appropriate chemical formulas to describe the elements and
compounds involved in the reaction.
In this chapter you will learn how chemical formulas are used to write chemical equations that
describe what happens when chemical reactions occur. There are certain basic types of chemical
reactions, such as direct combination, decomposition, single replacement, and double replacement
reactions.
You will find that when these reactions do occur, the number of each type of atom for the
elements and compounds involved does not change during the reaction; the atoms merely get
rearranged. In a later chapter, you will learn how to classify reactions in a different way (depending on
whether they are "oxidation-reduction reactions" or not). There is much to learn, so we better get started.
The reason for having a shorthand method is very simple. It literally eliminates having to write
chemical reactions in the longhand form. Referring back to the reaction in which water is formed from
hydrogen reacting with oxygen, this process could be described in words as follows:
Two molecules of hydrogen react with one molecule of oxygen to yield two molecules of water. It is much
simpler to write the following statement, which means the same thing:
2 H2 + O2 ----> 2 H2O
This is a "balanced" chemical equation because the number of atoms on the left-hand side of the arrow is
equal to the number of atoms on the right- hand side of the arrow. The arrow (which is read as "yields")
indicates that the substances on the left change to the substances on the right during the reaction.
In the equation, you will note that a number (coefficient) appears before the hydrogen molecule
symbol and the water molecule symbol (the number 2, in both cases). This simply tells how many of each
kind of molecule is (are) involved in the reaction. As was the case when using subscripts to write chemical
formulas, 1's are seldom written. The number 1 is not written before the symbol for the oxygen molecule,
but it is understood to be there. For example, Na1Cl1 is written as NaCl.
In general, the substances on the left-hand side of the equation are called the reactants, while the
substances on the right-hand side are called the products. In the reaction 2 H2 + O2 ----> 2 H2O, the
reactant(s) is/are {1}_________________. The product(s) is/are {2}___________________.
Chemical equations often include special subscripts and symbols which offer additional
information. The subscript, (aq), stands for "aqueous" which means the substance is dissolved in water;
the subscripts (s), (l), and (g) are used to identify solids, liquids, and gases; when the Greek symbol delta,
∆, is placed over the arrow in the equation, it indicates that heat is being added.
H2CO3(aq) -------> H2O(l) + CO2(g)
CaCO3(s) -------> CaO(s) + CO2(g)

6-3 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
In the two equations above, the liquid (l) is {3}___________, the substance which is dissolved in water (aq)
is {4}____________, the gaseous substance (g) is {5}______________, and the solids (s) are
{6}________________________. The substance which is being heated is {7}____________.
ACTIVITY 6.2 An Experiment Involving the Heating of Copper
How can we tell when a chemical compound has been formed? By making measurements, we can
"quantize" a chemical change in an experiment to show that a reaction actually has happened. Let's give it
a try.
You will need to set up some lab equipment that resembles Figure 6.1. You will also need a
balance sensitive to 0.01 or 0.001 g. You are going to heat some copper metal in a crucible. You will
measure the mass of the contents of the crucible before and after heating. Do you think there will be a
change in the mass of the contents as a result of heating?______________ If you answered yes, do you
think the mass will increase or decrease?__________________ Explain:_______________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
1. Obtain enough copper turnings so that when
you roll the turnings between your hands, you
get a round ball about the size of a large marble.
Put the copper into a crucible and determine the
mass of the crucible and contents to the nearest
0.01 or 0.001 g (depending on the balance
available). Record this mass in Table 6.1.
2. Place the crucible on a pipestem triangle which
in turn is supported by a ring on a ring stand.
Heat strongly for a about 10 minutes. The tip of
the flame should touch the bottom of the
crucible. Allow it to cool. Reweigh the crucible
and contents together. Record the data.
crucible
triangle
iron ring
Figure 6.1 Heating a Crucible
Tabl e 6. 1
Heating Copper Turnings
Mass of crucible + copper before heating __________ g
Mass of dish + contents after heating __________ g
Difference in mass of dish + contents __________ g
(before and after heating)
6-4 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
3. Complete Table 6.1, if you have not already done so, by determining the mass of the crucible contents
after heating.
Was there a change of mass for the substance in the crucible after heating?___________. If so, was
it a gain or a loss? ____________. Was your hypothesis correct?___________ How do you explain the
result?_________________________________________________________________________
SECTION 6.3 Equations For Direct Combination Reactions
Now that you know something about chemical equations, the next thing to learn is how chemical
reactions can be categorized as general types of reactions. The four general types that we will be
studying in this chapter include: direct combination, simple decomposition, single replacement, and
double replacement.
A direct combination reaction is one in which two elements directly combine to form a compound.
An example of this is the formation of sodium chloride (NaCl) from the reaction of sodium (Na) with chlorine
gas (Cl2). You read in Chapter 5 about diatomic elements like H2 and O2. Chlorine - when it is not
combined with other elements - occurs in the diatomic form, Cl2.
2 Na
( s)
+ Cl
2(g)
-----> 2 NaCl
( s)
reactants product
The arrow means "yields"
Notice that there are equal numbers of each kind of atom on both sides of the equation. This has to be
true in order for this reaction to be called an equation. Another way to describe this requirement is to say
that the equation must be balanced. The word balanced implies that the atoms on the reactant side (left-
hand) of the equation are in balance (that is, are equal in number) with the atoms on the product side
(right-hand). The arrow which separates the reactants from the products is read as "yields." You should
be able to balance simple chemical equations merely by looking at what is reacting and what is formed to
determine what numbers (coefficients) are needed to give a balanced equation. This is called balancing
equations by inspection.
Analyze the equation for the formation of NaCl, above. How many atoms of Na are shown on the reactant
side? {8}__________ How many atoms of Na are on the product side? {9}__________ Are they equal?
{10}__________ Are the numbers of Cl atoms equal on both sides? {11}_________________
The requirement that the equation be balanced illustrates a law of chemistry called the law of
conservation of matter. This law simply means that:
In a chemical reaction, matter is neither created nor destroyed.
In a balanced chemical equation, the amount of matter on the left side of the equation must equal
the amount of matter on the right side. This means that there must be equal numbers of atoms of each
element on both sides of the equation.
6-5 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
Now let's look at direct combination reaction which you saw earlier in this chapter, the formation of
water from hydrogen and oxygen. Suppose we write the equation as follows:
H2 + O2 -----> H2O
How many atoms (not molecules) of hydrogen are on the left side? {12}________ right side? {13}________
Are these figures equal? {14}__________ Is the hydrogen balanced? {15}_________
How many atoms of oxygen are on the left side? {16}_____ right side? {17}______ BUT, are these figures
equal? {18}_______ Is the oxygen balanced? {19}_________
Uh, oh. We cannot create or destroy any atoms in ordinary chemical reactions. The same number of
atoms of each element must appear on both sides of an equation. In order to "balance" the equation for
the formation of water, the coefficient "2" must be placed in front of the H2O. This balances the number of
oxygen atoms. Examine the equation below.
H2 + O2 -----> 2 H2O
(Note: a coefficient such as the 2 in front of the H2O in this equation, implies a multiplication operation. It
means two times everything in the formula to its right.
1. H2 represents one molecule of hydrogen consisting of two atoms of hydrogen. How many atoms (not
molecules) of H are on the left side of the equation?{20}______ Right side? {21}__________ Are these
figures equal? {22}______
2. How many atoms of oxygen are on the left side of the equation? {23}________ Right side?
{24}________ Are these figures equal? {25}_________
To finish balancing the equation for the formation of water, a coefficient "2" must be placed in front of the
H2 on the left side. Write the balanced equation below.
{26} _____________________ -----> _____________________
In the equation above notice that since hydrogen and oxygen are diatomic elements, they are always
written in diatomic form with the subscript "2" whenever they are not combined with other elements: H2
and O2. When they do combine with other elements, the subscript "2" is changed to whatever subscript is
required to obtain the correct formula for the compound using oxidation numbers. Remember the sum of
the oxidation numbers in the formula of a compound has to be zero, so: H= +1, O = -2, and H2O = 0.
Before going on you should MEMORIZE the complete list of seven diatomic elements. When
these elements occur uncombined with other elements, they occur as pairs of atoms and are written as
follows:
The Seven Diatomic Elements
Hydrogen H2, Nitrogen N2, Oxygen O2, Fluorine F2, Chlorine Cl2, Bromine Br2, and Iodine I2
To help you remember the seven diatomic elements, this phrase is offered: "Henry Needs Oxygen For
Climbing Brown Icebergs!" (Silly things like brown icebergs are easy to remember.) Note the first letter in
each word in the phrase. You might also note that the positions of the 7 diatomic elements on the periodic
6-6 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
table kind of form the number 7 (except for H). In addition, you should now MEMORIZE two other
polyatomic elements which exist in special forms when they are uncombined with other elements. They
are:

Two Polyatomic Elements: sulfur: S8 and phosphorus: P4
SECTION 6.4 Balancing Direct Combination Equations
When balancing an equation, only coefficients (the numbers in front of the formulas) may be
changed or added. You must never change or add any subscripts to the formulas - assuming the formulas
are correct when you start.) For example, the following equation needs to be balanced.
H2 + Cl2 ----> HCl
The formula of the product is written correctly as HCl. To balance the equation, we need 2 hydrogen
atoms and 2 chlorine atoms on the right side since there are two of each on the left side. It would be
incorrect to do this by changing the formula to H2Cl2, because HCl is the correct formula for the product.
H2 + Cl2 ----> H2Cl2 <--- WRONG!!
Instead, we will change the coefficient in front of the HCl formula from 1 to 2 as follows:
H2 + Cl2 ----> 2 HCl <--- RIGHT
Note that there are now two atoms of H and two atoms of Cl represented on both sides of the equation.
Let's try one more example.
Suppose we want to balance the equation representing the reaction between arsenic, As, and
O2. The product will obviously be a compound of arsenic and oxygen.
As + O
2
-----> As
?
O
?
Use oxidation numbers to find the
correct formula for the product.
Oxygen is diatomic when it is not
combined with other elements.
Before trying to balance this equation, we must first write the correct formula for the product. We will use
oxidation numbers of +5 for arsenic and -2 for oxygen. Therefore, the correct formula for the product must
be As2O5. The unbalanced equation will look like this:
As + O2 -----> As2O5
When balancing equations by "inspection", it is often helpful to start with those elements which have the
largest subscripts. Since oxygen has a subscript of 5, let's start with it. Note that there are 5 oxygen atoms
on the right side of the arrow and only 2 on the left. We can balance the number of oxygen atoms by
putting a 5 in front of the O2 and a 2 in front of the As2O5 as follows:
As + 5 O2 -----> 2 As2O5
The 2 in front of the As2O5 means 2 times everything in that formula. Therefore, we now have 10 oxygen
atoms represented on both sides. Great. However, note that we have not yet balanced the As atoms. To
6-7 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
do that, we need to put a 4 in front of the As on the left side of the equation. The balanced equation is
now complete:
4 As + 5 O2 -----> 2 As2O5
The coefficient ratio in this balanced equation is 4 to 5 to 2. Note that this is a simple whole number ratio
that cannot be further reduced. This equation would also be balanced if the coefficient ratio were 8 to 10
to 4. Be this would not be correct, since you should always use the lowest possible ratio of coefficients.
The equations below represent direct combination reactions. Notice that in direct combination reactions,
two simpler substances are combining to form a single more complex product. The correct formulas for
the products have already been written for you.
Problem 1. Balance the following equations simply by adding coefficients in the blanks provided. If no
coefficient is added, "1" is understood to exist. In this problem, the formulas for all reactants and products
have already been correctly written for you. This will not be the case in problem 2.
a. _____As + _____Cl2 ----> _____AsCl3
b. _____K + _____Cl2 ----> _____KCl
c. _____Cu + _____O2 ----> _____Cu2O
d. _____SO3 + _____H2O ----> _____H2SO4
e. _____P4 + _____Br2 ----> _____PBr5
f. _____Fe + _____Cl2 ----> _____FeCl3
g. _____Zn + _____O2 ----> _____ZnO
h. _____Si + _____S8 ----> _____SiS2
i. _____Al + _____N2 ----> _____AlN
j. _____Al + _____O2 ----> _____Al2O3
ACTIVITY 6.5 The Direct Combination Reaction of Copper and Sulfur
The purpose of this activity is to use the direct combination reaction of copper and sulfur to test
the validity of the Law of Conservation of Matter. You are going to witness a reaction between copper
metal and sulfur. When you do, the product will be copper (II) sulfide, CuS. However, some of the sulfur
may also react with air and form sulfur dioxide gas, SO2. We don't want any of this gas to escape from the
test tube in which the reaction will take place, so we will fit a balloon over the mouth of the tube to trap the
gas. If the Law of Conservation of Matter is true, then the reactants (Cu and S8) and the products (CuS
and SO2) should have the same mass: total mass of the reactants = total mass of the products.
You will need a 150 mm test tube (the regular size), 1.00 gram of powdered sulfur, 2.00 grams of
granular copper (do not use powdered copper!), a small balloon, a burner, and a balance. Some of these
things are available on the materials shelf.
6-8 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
Cu + S8
balloon
1. Examine the copper granules and sulfur powder.
Describe each substance: __________________
______________________________________
______________________________________
______________________________________
______________________________________
2. Mix 2.00 g of the copper and 1.00 g of the sulfur
on a piece of paper and then pour them into the test
tube.
Figure 6.2 Test Tube With Balloon
3. Fix a balloon over the mouth of the tube, using a rubber band - if necessary - to hold the balloon tightly.
Measure the mass of the test tube with its contents and the balloon. Enter all data in Table 6.2. Be sure to
wear safety glasses!
4. Use a utility clamp to mount the tube on a ring stand. The clamp should be positioned near the top of
the test tube. Tilt the tube so that the mouth is pointed away from everybody around you, and rests at
about a 45 degree angle. Heat the mixture gently until the contents begin to glow. Then stop heating
immediately by moving the burner away from the tube! Watch the contents glow!
5. Allow the tube to cool, and again find the mass of the tube with contents and balloon. Record the
result.
Tabl e 6. 2
The Copper – Sulfur Reaction
mass of tube and contents before heating __________g
mass of tube and contents after heating __________g
Examine the contents of the tube after it has cooled. Do you think that a new chemical substance has
formed?_________. Explain:_______________________________________________________
6. The test tube should be thrown away, since the material formed is very difficult to remove. The balloon
should be returned for others to use.
If you have not created or destroyed any matter during this reaction, then the masses before and after the
reaction should be the same. Experimental error is always a factor, so let's say that the masses before and
after should be close. Do you feel your results are close enough to support the law? _______________
Why?_________________________________________________________________________
6-9 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
SECTION 6.6 More Practice With Direct Combination Reactions
The direct combination equations which you have balanced thus far in this chapter only required
that you add coefficients. The products of the reactions were written for you. You did not have to predict
what the products would be. You will have to predict the products when you try to balance the next set of
equations. In an earlier activity, you carried out a direct combination reaction by heating a ball of copper
turnings in a crucible. If you recall, the copper seemed to gain mass after you heated it. Actually, the heat
caused the copper to react with oxygen in the air to form copper (II) oxide.
Cu + O2 -----> ???
To balance the equation above, we must first write the correct formula for the product using oxidation
numbers. We will use +2 for Cu, and -2 for O. Therefore, the correct formula for the product is CuO. The
equation then becomes:
Cu + O2 -----> CuO
However, we must now balance the equation. We do this by putting a coefficient of 2 in front of the Cu
and also in front of the CuO:
2 Cu + O2 -----> 2 CuO
Note that just because the oxygen is written in diatomic form as O2 on the left side, this does not mean it is
to be written in diatomic form on the right. It only has to be written as diatomic when it is not combined with
other elements.
The products of these reactions will usually be fairly obvious to you. Reminder: whenever any of
the seven diatomic elements occur uncombined with other elements in an equation, they are always
written in diatomic form. Remember, too, that "Henry Needs Oxygen For Climbing Brown Icebergs." In
addition, remember that two other elements exist in a special form when they are uncombined with other
elements. They are: phosphorus (P4) and sulfur (S8).
Problem 2. Use oxidation numbers to write the correct formulas for the products of the following
equations. Then, add the needed coefficients to balance the equation.
Here is a little help to guide you through the first one. Aluminum and fluorine will combine to form
a compound: Al?F?. Using the oxidation numbers (Al = +3, F = –1), determine the correct formula for this
compound and write it in the space provided below to the right of the arrow. Now put the needed
coefficients in front of each formula on the right and left of the arrow to balance the number of atoms of
each element on both sides.
a. _____Al + _____F2 ----> ________________________________________
b. _____Na + _____Br2 ----> ________________________________________
c. _____Ca + _____O2 ----> ________________________________________
d. _____H2 + _____Cl2 ----> ________________________________________
e. _____Mg + _____S8 ----> ________________________________________
f. _____P4 + _____S8 ----> ___________ <----(use +3 as the oxidation number for P)
g. _____P4 + _____O2 ----> ___________ <----(use +5 as the oxidation number for P)
6-10 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
In problem 3, you will see "word equations." These are equations which use words in place of chemical
symbols. You will have to write the correct reactant and product formulas before you balance the
equations.
Problem 3. Complete and balance the following equations. First, write the correct formulas for each
reactant and product. For your convenience, the reactant which assumes a positive oxidation number is
written first. The first one is done for you as an example. The oxidation numbers used are Al = +3 and O =
–2. Thus, the correct formula for the product is Al2O3. Since oxygen is uncombined on the left side it
takes the form of a diatomic gas and is written as O2. The coefficients 4, 3, and 2 are then used to balance
the equation. Before completing the remaining equations, you should recall the seven diatomic elements
and the two polyatomic ones.
a. aluminum + oxygen ---> ?? 4 Al + 3 O2________ -----> _______2 Al2O3________
b. silicon (IV) + fluorine ----> ?? _____________________ -----> _____________________
c. carbon (II) + oxygen ---> ?? _____________________ -----> _____________________
d. phosphorus (III) + chlorine ----> ?? _____________________ -----> _____________________
e. iron (III) + sulfur ----> ?? _____________________ -----> _____________________
f. sulfur (VI) + bromine ----> ?? _____________________ -----> _____________________
g. silver + iodine ----> ?? _____________________ -----> _____________________
h. hydrogen + fluorine ----> ?? _____________________ -----> _____________________
SECTION 6.7 Balancing Equations Of Decomposition Reactions
Decomposition reactions are the opposite of direct combination reactions. They involve the
breaking down of compounds into simpler parts. An example is the decomposition of sodium chloride:
2 NaCl ---> 2 Na + Cl2. You can recognize decomposition reactions by noting that there is usually only one
reactant on the left side of the equation.
Problem 4. Balance the decomposition equations below by adding the needed coefficients. All
formulas for reactants and products have been correctly written for you.
a. _____Hg2CO3 ----> _____Hg + _____HgO + _____CO2
b. _____H2O ----> _____H2 + _____O2
c. _____AuCl3 ----> _____Au + _____Cl2
d. _____NCl3 ----> _____N2 + _____Cl2
e. _____(NH4)2Cr2O7 ----> _____Cr2O3 + _____N2 + _____H2O
f. _____CaCO3 ----> _____CaO + _____CO2
g. _____HgO ----> _____Hg + _____O2
6-11 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
h. _____KClO3 ----> _____KCl + _____O2
i. _____H2SiO3 ----> _____SiO2 + _____H2O
j. _____MgCO3 ----> _____MgO + _____CO2
Decomposition equations are not as simple as direct combination equations. It is more difficult to
predict what the products will be. Some categories of decomposition reactions are listed in Table 6.3.
Tabl e 6. 3
Four Kinds of Decomposition Reactions
1. Metallic carbonates decompose into metallic oxides and carbon dioxide.
CaCO3 ----> CaO + CO2
K2CO3 ----> K2O + CO2
H2CO3 ----> H2O + CO2
2. Many metallic hydroxides decompose into metallic oxides and water.
2 KOH ----> K2O + H2O
Ca(OH)2 ----> CaO + H2O
2 Al(OH)3 ----> Al2O3 + 3 H2O
3. Metallic chlorates decompose into metallic chlorides and oxygen gas.
2 KClO3 ----> 2 KCl + 3 O2
Ba(ClO3)2 ----> BaCl2 + 3 O2
2 Al(ClO3)3 ----> 2 AlCl3 + 9 O2
4. Many binary (two-element) compounds decompose into pure elements.
2 HgO ----> 2 Hg + O2
2 H2O ----> 2 H2 + O2
2 NaCl ----> 2 Na + Cl2
Note: There are many other kinds of decomposition reactions in addition to those
shown above. A copy of this table can be found in your ALICE reference notebook.
Before trying the next problems, let's look at another example. Let's complete the equation which
represents the decomposition of aluminum chlorate: Al(ClO3)3. This compound looks similar to those of
category 3 in Table 6.3, which tells us that metallic chlorates decompose into metallic chlorides and
oxygen gas. Thus, Al(ClO3)3 will decompose into aluminum chloride and oxygen. We must now write the
correct formulas for these products. Al has an oxidation number of +3, while chlorine has an oxidation
number of -1. Thus, the correct formula is AlCl3. Oxygen is diatomic and must be written as O2. The
equation becomes:
6-12 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
Al(ClO3)3 ----> AlCl3 + O2
formula correctly written
using oxidation numbers
a diatomic gas
Al = +3; Cl = -1
substance being
decomposed
Next, to balance this equation we need to add some coefficients as shown below:
2 Al(ClO3)3 ----> 2 AlCl3 + 9 O2 (It's done!)
Problem 5. Complete and balance the decomposition equations below. Refer to Table 6.3 for
examples that may help you. Use oxidation numbers to check the formulas of products. Here is some
help with the first one. The first compound below is a chlorate (ClO3
1-
) compound. Table 6.3 includes
some chlorate (ClO3
1-
) compounds. Note that when chlorate compounds decompose, one of the
products is diatomic oxygen gas. The other product is a compound between chlorine and the metal
present in the compound. In part a below, it will be a compound of sodium (Na) and chlorine (Cl). Use
oxidation numbers to write the correct formula for this compound (Na = +1, Cl = –1). Write the correct
formulas for these two compounds on the right side of the arrow below, and then add coefficients to
balance the equation.
a. _____NaClO3 -----> _______________________________________
b. _____FeO -----> _____Fe + ______
c. _____BaCO3 -----> _______________________________________
d. _____KCl -----> _______________________________________
e. _____Na2CO3 -----> _______________________________________
f. _____K2O -----> _______________________________________
g. _____NaBr -----> _______________________________________
h. _____CaCO3 -----> _______________________________________
i. _____Mg(ClO3)2 -----> _______________________________________
j. _____H2CO3 -----> _______________________________________
On tests and quizzes, you will be permitted to use your reference notebook which includes a copy of
Table 6.3 – Four Kinds of Decomposition Reactions
Problem 6. Complete and balance equations which represent the decomposition of the compounds
given below. Again use Table 6.3 as a guide. Use oxidation numbers when writing formulas for
compounds. To begin the first one, write the correct formula for strontium hydroxide in the space to the
left of the arrow (Sr = +2, OH = –1). Write the correct formulas for the products in the spaces on the right.
Add coefficients to balance the equation.
a. strontium hydroxide _____________ ------> _____________+______________
6-13 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
b. barium carbonate _____________ ------> _____________+______________
c. calcium chlorate _____________ ------> _____________+______________
d. silver oxide _____________ ------> _____________+______________
e. sodium carbonate _____________ ------> _____________+______________
ACTIVITY 6.8 Observing The Decomposition Reaction of H
2
O
2
In this activity you will witness a simple decomposition reaction, and the role of a catalyst.
Procedure:
1. Obtain a 150 mm test tube a fill it about 1/4 full of 6% hydrogen peroxide solution, H2O2.
2. Obtain a small amount of manganese dioxide, MnO2. Don't do it yet, but when you put the MnO2 into
the H2O2 solution, the solution will begin to decompose into water and oxygen gas which you will see
bubbling out of the solution:
Unbalanced equation: ? H2O2(aq) ----> ? H2O(l) + ? O2(g)
The MnO2 does not actually take part in the reaction, it simply speeds up the otherwise very slow
decomposition of H2O2. It is called a catalyst.
3. Before you put the MnO2 catalyst into the tube, have a glowing wood splint ready. (A glowing splint is
prepared by burning a splint briefly, and then blowing it out.) Add the MnO2, tilt the tube to a 45 degree
angle and place your thumb loosely over the mouth of the tube. Allow the reaction to continue for about
15 seconds. Then, remove your thumb and put the glowing splint down into the tube - but do not touch
the liquid with it. If oxygen is being given off, the splint should glow brighter or burst into flame. If it does
not, try again.
Describe your results:_____________________________________________________________
Write the balanced equation for this decomposition reaction: {27}______________________________
SECTION 6.9 Learning Outcomes
This is the end of Chapter 6. Check the learning outcomes below. When you feel you have
mastered them, take the test on chapter 6 and move on to Chapter 7. Chapter 7 will introduce you to two
more kinds of chemical equations.
_____1. Write the formulas of seven diatomic and two polyatomic elements from memory.
_____2. Identify the reactants and products in chemical equations.
_____3. Identify chemical equations as either direct combination or decomposition.
_____4. Correctly complete and balance direct combination and decomposition equations.
6-14 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
SECTION 6.10 Answers to Questions and Problems
Questions:
{1} H2 and O2; {2} H2O; {3} H2O; {4} H2CO3; {5} CO2; {6} CaCO3 and CaO; {7} CaCO3; {8} 2; {9} 2;
{10} yes; {11} yes; {12} 2; {13} 2; {14} yes; {15} yes; {16} 2; {17} 1; {18} No; {19} No; {20} 2; {21} 4;
{22} No; {23} 2; {24} 2; {25} yes; {26} 2 H2 + O2 ---> 2 H2O; {27} 2 H2O2 ---> 2 H2O + O2
Problems:
1. a. 2,3,2; b. 2,1,2; c. 4,1,2; d. 1,1,1; e. 1,10,4; f. 2,3,2; g. 2,1,2; h. 4,1,4; i. 2,1,2; j. 4,3,2
2. a. 2 Al + 3 F2 ---> 2 AlF3
b. 2 Na + Br2 ---> 2 NaBr
c. 2 Ca + O2 ---> 2 CaO
d. H2 + Cl2 ---> 2 HCl
e. 8 Mg + S8 ---> 8 MgS
f. 4 P4 + 3 S8 ---> 8 P2S3
g. P4 + 5 O2 ---> 2 P2O5
3. a. 4 Al + 3 O2 ---> 2 Al2O3
b. Si + 2 F2 ---> SiF4
c. 2 C + O2 ---> 2 CO
d. P4 + 6 Cl2 ---> 4 PCl3
e. 16 Fe + 3 S8 ----> 8 Fe2S3
f. S8 + 24 Br2 ----> 8 SBr6
g. 2 Ag + I2 ---> 2 AgI
h. H2 + F2 ---> 2 HF
4. a. 1,1,1,1; b. 2,2,1; c. 2,2,3; d. 2,1,3; e. 1,1,1,4; f. 1,1,1; g. 2,2,1; h. 2,2,3; i. 1,1,1; j. 1,1,1
5. a. 2 NaClO3 ----> 2 NaCl + 3 O2
b. 2 FeO ----> 2 Fe + O2
c. BaCO3 ----> BaO + CO2
d. 2 KCl ----> 2 K + Cl2
e. Na2CO3 ----> Na2O + CO2
f. 2 K2O ----> 4 K + O2
g. 2 NaBr ---> 2 Na + Br2
h. CaCO3 ----> CaO + CO2
i. Mg(ClO3)2 ----> MgCl2 + 3 O2
j. H2CO3 ----> H2O + CO2
6. a. Sr(OH)2 ----> SrO + H2O
b. BaCO3 ----> BaO + CO2
c. Ca(ClO3)2 ----> CaCl2 + 3 O2
d. 2 Ag2O ----> 4 Ag + O2
e. Na2CO3 ----> Na2O + CO2
6-15 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
SECTION 6.11 Student Notes
6-16 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
NAME____________________________________ PER____________ DATE DUE____________
ACTIVE LEARNING I N CHEMISTRY EDUCATION
“ALICE”
CHAPTER 7
CHEMICAL
EQUATIONS
(Part 2)
Single Replacement
and
Double Replacement
7-1 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
NOTICE OF RIGHTS
All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form by any means,
electronic, mechanical, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the author.
Copies of this document may be made free of charge for use in public or nonprofit private educational
institutions provided that permission is obtained from the author . Please indicate the name and address
of the institution where use is anticipated.
© 1997 A.J. Girondi, Ph.D.
505 Latshmere Drive
Harrisburg, PA 17109
alicechem@geocities.com
Website: www.geocities.com/Athens/Oracle/2041
7-2 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
SECTION 7.1 Balancing Equations of Single Replacement Reactions
In a single replacement (or single displacement) reaction one element displaces (or replaces)
another element that is present in a compound. You can recognize a single replacement equation rather
easily since the most common examples involve an element reacting with a compound. You can see that
in the examples below, that the element zinc replaces the hydrogen in the hydrogen iodide compound.
In the first example, zinc has a positive oxidation number (+2), and it replaces the element with the positive
oxidation number in the compound (hydrogen, +1). In the second example, chlorine has a negative
oxidation number (-1) and replaces the bromine in the HBr, since bromine also has a negative oxidation
number. Metals tend to replace metals in these equations, and nonmetals tend to replace nonmetals. In
these equations hydrogen reacts like a metal. Therefore the zinc metal replaces the hydrogen "metal,"
and the nonmetallic chlorine replaces the nonmetallic bromine. Remember, metals replace metals and
nonmetals replace nonmetals.
Notice, that all of the formulas are written correctly (the sum of the oxidation numbers of the atoms
in each formula add up to zero).
Zn + 2 HI --------> ZnI
2
+ H
2
+1 –1
+2 –1
(Note that the zinc metal replaces the hydrogen "metal" in the compound.)

Cl
2
+ 2 HBr ----> 2 HCl + Br
2
+1 –1 –1 +1

(Note that the nonmetallic chlorine replaces the nonmetallic bromine in the compound.)
Notice how the diatomic elements in the examples above (H2 and Br2) are written in diatomic form when
they occur uncombined with other elements. Before going on, be sure you have memorized the seven
diatomic elements: H2, N2, O2, F2, Cl2, Br2, and I2.
Which element does chlorine replace in the equation above? {1}_________ Why that element?
{2}______________________________________. Which element does zinc replace in the equation
above? {3}____________. Why that element? {4}__________________________________________
Single replacement reactions do not always occur. Just because you can write and balance an
equation, doesn't mean that the reaction will happen. For example, the equation:
2 Ag + CuCl2 ----> 2 AgCl + Cu
is balanced and looks good. However, it is wrong! The reason it is wrong is that this reaction does not
occur. When you mix these reactants together, nothing happens. The equation should be:
2 Ag + CuCl2 ----> NR
where "NR" means "no reaction." You may ask, "How am I supposed to know whether a reaction happens
or not?" Glad you asked! The "activity series" is a listing of elements that you can use to determine
whether or not a single replacement reaction will occur.
Examine the activity series in Table 7.1. In order for silver to replace copper, it would have to be
more "active" than copper. Silver would have to be listed above copper on the activity series in order to
7-3 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
replace it. Silver is not listed above copper, so the reaction cannot occur. Note that there are two columns
(metals and nonmetals). The activity of metals can only be compared to other metals. Nonmetals can only
be compared to other nonmetals. Although hydrogen is a nonmetal, it reacts like the metals and is,
therefore, listed with the metals.
Tabl e 7. 1
The Activity Series
Metals Nonmetals
lithium fluorine
potassium chlorine
calcium bromine
sodium iodine
magnesium
aluminum
zinc
chromium
iron
nickel
tin
lead
hydrogen Although hydrogen is
copper not a metal, it is
mercury compared to metals in
silver the activity series.
platinum
gold
(A copy of the activity series can also be found in the reference section of your ALICE materials.)
Now let's look at two types of single replacement reactions.
Example 1. Replacement of a metal in a compound by another metal:
Mg + CuCl
2
----> MgCl
2
+ Cu
+2 +2 -1 -1
Notice that one metal replaces a second metal in a compound. Since metals generally have positive
oxidation numbers, you can think of this type of reaction as having the elements with the positive
oxidation numbers switch places. Magnesium can replace copper because Mg is listed above Cu in the
activity series.
In the reaction below Al has an oxidation number of +3 when it combines with chlorine, while Cu
has an oxidation number of +2 when it combines with chlorine. The aluminum is going to replace the
copper in the CuCl2. Aluminum can replace copper because Al is listed above Cu in the activity series.
When it does, the aluminum will then combine with the chlorine; however, the correct formula for
aluminum chloride is AlCl3, whereas the formula for cupric chloride is CuCl2.
Given: Al + CuCl2 ---->
Predict products and write formulas correctly using oxidation numbers:
Al + CuCl
2
----> AlCl
3
+ Cu
+2 +3 -1 -1
7-4 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
Finally, balance the equation by adding coefficients:
2 Al + 3 CuCl
2
----> 2 AlCl
3
+ 3 Cu
Note that the balanced equation above reveals the same number of atoms of each element on both sides.
Don't try to balance the equation by changing the subscripts in the formulas! Some students would try to
balance the equation above by changing the formulas of the products as follows:
Wrong!---> 2 Al + 3 CuCl2 ----> Al2Cl6 + 3 Cu <--- Wrong!
This is wrong! It is balanced, but the subscripts in the empirical formulas which you have learned to write
should reflect the simplest ratio possible. So Al2Cl6 should be AlCl3. Once the formulas of the
compounds in an equation are written correctly, don't change them! In other words, don't change any
subscripts.
Example 2. Replacement of a nonmetal in a compound by another nonmetal:
Cl
2
+ 2 NaBr ----> 2 NaCl + Br
2
+1 +1 -1 -1
(Notice that the chlorine and bromine are diatomic when they are not combined with other elements.)
Chlorine can replace bromine in the equation above because chlorine is listed above bromine in the
activity series. We say that chlorine is "more active."
Sometimes this second type of replacement reaction involving nonmetals may not occur. For
example:
I2 + KCl ----> NR
Iodine cannot replace the chlorine in the reaction above because iodine is not listed above chlorine in the
activity series. We say that iodine is "less active" than chlorine.
In order for one metal to replace another metal, it must be listed above the metal it is going to
replace. If this is not the case, no reaction (NR) will occur. The same test is applied when a nonmetal is
trying to replace another nonmetal, but notice that nonmetals are listed separately in the series. Check
the activity series to make sure that you understand the examples shown above.
Problem 1. Balance the equations below. (Note: in the first equation, water is written as HOH rather
than H2O. This often makes it easier to understand what replaces what.)
a. _____Na + _____HOH ----> _____NaOH + _____H2
b. _____Ca + _____HCl ----> _____CaCl 2 + _____H2
c. _____Fe + _____CuCl2 ----> _____FeCl3 + _____Cu
d. _____Zn + _____Fe2O3 ----> _____ZnO + _____Fe
e. _____Cl2 + _____AlBr3 ----> _____AlCl3 + _____Br2
f. _____Zn + _____FeCl3 ----> _____ZnCl2 + _____Fe
g. _____Cl2 + _____ NaI ----> _____NaCl + _____I2
h. _____K + _____NiCl 2 ----> _____KCl + _____Ni
i. _____Ca + _____HCl ----> _____CaCl 2 + _____H2
j. _____Li + _____BaSO4 ----> _____Li2SO4 + _____Ba
7-5 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
Problem 2. Complete and balance the single replacement reactions below. Be sure to answer with
"NR" instead of completing the equation if there is no reaction. Remember, that Roman numerals in
parentheses tell you which oxidation number to use (ex: Mn(II) = Mn
2+
). However, the Roman numerals
do not appear in the formulas of the compounds. For example, do not write a formula such as Mn(II)Cl2.
Simply write MnCl2. Before you attempt to balance the equation, make sure you have written the formulas
for the products correctly - using oxidation numbers.
a. _____Al + _____H2SO4 -----> _________________________________________

(Reminder: hydrogen reacts like a metal)
b. _____Cl 2 + _____KI -----> _________________________________________

(Reminder: iodine is diatomic)
c. _____Fe(III) + _____Cu(NO3)2 -----> _________________________________________
d. _____Ag + _____Pb(C2H3O2)2 -----> _________________________________________

(Caution: check the activity series)
e. _____Br2 + _____NaF -----> _________________________________________
f. _____K + _____ CaSO4 -----> _________________________________________
g. _____Hg(I) + _____LiCl -----> _________________________________________
h. _____Fe(II) + _____CuCl2 -----> _________________________________________
i. _____I2 + _____AlBr3 -----> _________________________________________
j. _____Cl 2 + _____AlBr3 -----> _________________________________________
ACTIVITY 7.2 Determination of the Activities of Selected Metals
In this activity you will gather data which will help you to see how the activity series was developed.
You will mix various combinations of chemicals. Some combinations will result in single replacement
reactions, while others will do nothing at all.
You need a 10 mL graduate; 6 test tubes (150 mm); a test tube rack; three small pieces of copper,
three small pieces of zinc; 0.2M solutions of KNO3, AgNO3, and Pb(NO3)2. Caution: Pb(NO3)2 is toxic,
and AgNO3 can cause temporary skin stains.
Note: You may occasionally see terms such as 0.1M or 0.2 M when referring to solutions. These terms refer to the concentrations of
the solutions. At this point this information is primarily for your instructor. You will learn more about this concept in an upcoming chapter.
Procedure:
1. Clean 6 test tubes and rinse with distilled water. There is no need to dry them. Label the tubes 1
through 6.
2. Place 5 mL of KNO3 into two of the tubes, 5 mL of AgNO3 solution into 2 of the tubes, and 5 mL of
Pb(NO3)2 into 2 of the tubes.
7-6 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
3. Put a piece of each of the two metals into the two tubes containing KNO3, then repeat this for the tubes
containing the other two solutions. Make note of which tubes contain which reactants. Observe the
contents of the tubes occasionally for at least 10 minutes. If time is short, you can allow the tubes to
remain in your lab drawer overnight.
A change in the appearance of the metal or of the color of the solution is evidence that a single
replacement reaction has occurred. In some tubes, nothing will happen. Fill each block in the table below
with either "R" (reaction) or "NR" (no reaction), depending on your observations. Decant the solutions -
but not the solids - into the waste bottle provided for that purpose. Add some water and decant again.
Dump the solids into a paper towel and throw it into the waste container.
Table 7.2 Single Replacement Reactions
Metal KNO3 AgNO3 Pb(NO3)2
Zn
Cu
Based on the number of reactions for each metal shown in Table 7.2, which is more active, copper or zinc?
{5}_______________. Based on your results which are summarized in Table 7.2, indicate by underlining
which metal in each of the following pairs is the more active:
K or Cu; K or Zn; Cu or Ag; Zn or Ag; Pb or Cu; Zn or Pb
Based on your conclusions above, arrange the following metals in order from most active to least active:
Cu, Zn, K, Ag, and Pb. {6} ______________________________________ Are your results supported
by the Activity Series found in Table 7.1? ____________ If iron metal had been included in this activity
between which two metals listed above would it have "fit" in terms of activity?{7}____________________
ACTIVITY 7.3 "Activities" Of The Halogens
The elements in Group 7A (as known as Group 17) are called the halogens. They include
fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, and {8}_______________. The word halogen means "salt-former."
Salts are compounds which are combinations of metals and nonmetals. Their chemical property of forming
salts (such as NaCl and KBr), along with other chemical and physical properties which they have in
common, is the reason that these elements are placed in the same chemical group or family. The
halogens have similar chemical reactions, but their chemical "activities" vary. A more "active" halogen will
replace a less active halogen in a compound. For example: F2(g) + 2 NaCl(aq) ---> 2 NaF(aq) + Cl2(g)
In this activity you will attempt to determine the relative activities of the halogens by observing some single
replacement reactions in which they are involved.
The materials you will need include some small (100 mm) test tubes, long- stemmed plastic pipets, small
corks, and dropper bottles containing the following: TCE (trichloroethylene); freshly-prepared chlorine
water; 0.1M NaCl; 0.1M NaBr; and 0.1M NaI; a waste container for used TCE. The "0.1M" simply indicates
how concentrated the solutions are. CAUTION: Wear safety glasses and aprons during this activity!
7-7 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
Procedure Part A.
1. Obtain and clean (if needed) two small (100 mm) test tubes. The tubes do not need to be dry. Place
about 20 drops of 0.1M solutions of NaBr and NaI in separate tubes. Label the tubes with a marker as
tubes 1 and 2, respectively. Note that neither of the solutions has any color.
2. Add enough TCE to each tube to roughly double the volume of liquid in each tube. Caution: TCE
should not come into contact with your skin. Do not breathe the vapors. TCE does not mix with water
solutions. You will see two layers in each tube. TCE is more dense, so it goes to the bottom of each tube.
3. Your teacher will prepare some fresh chlorine water for you by adding some concentrated hydrochloric
acid (HCl) to a 5% chlorine bleach solution until the evolution of gas ceases. Chlorine water is simply water
which has some chlorine gas, Cl2, dissolved in it. Do not allow chlorine water to contact your skin or eyes.
4. Add 3 to 5 drops of the fresh Cl2 water to the contents of both test tubes. Tightly cork each tube and
hold away from your face. Shake each tube for 5 to 10 seconds to mix the substances well. Allow the
contents of the tubes to rest for 10 or 20 seconds, and the observe the contents.
5. Observe tube 1 which contains NaBr solution and TCE. The reaction which occurred in this tube was:
2 NaBr(aq) + Cl2(aq) ----> 2 NaCl(aq) + Br2(aq). Chlorine replaced bromine, and when this tube was
shaken, the free bromine moved to the TCE layer. The TCE layer should now have an amber color. The
amber color is caused by the presence of bromine in TCE. Note that chlorine must be more active than
bromine since it was able to replace it.
Amber Color in TCE Indicates the Presence of Bromine
6. Next, observe tube 2 which contains NaI solution and TCE. The reaction which occurred in this tube
was: 2 NaI(aq) + Cl2(aq) ----> 2 NaCl(aq) + I 2(aq). Chlorine replaced iodine, and when this tube was
shaken, the free iodine moved to the TCE layer. The TCE layer should have a pinkish color. The pink
color is caused by the presence of iodine in TCE. Note that chlorine must be more active than iodine
since it was able to replace it.
Pink Color in TCE Indicates the Presence of Iodine
7. Finally, obtain another 100 mm test tube and place about 20 drops of 0.1M NaCl solution and 20 drops
of TCE into it. Add 3 to 5 drops of fresh Cl2 water and shake. When the tube was shaken, the chlorine
moved from the NaCl solution to the TCE layer. There should be little or no color in the TCE (bottom)
layer. This shows us that when TCE contains chlorine, Cl2, no color (or only a very pale color) is seen in
the TCE.
Chlorine has no significant color when present in TCE
8. Enter the colors you observed into Table 7.3 before going on to part B.
9. Since TCE should not be poured into your sink, empty the contents of the test tubes into the container
provided by your instructor. Rinse the tubes well before use in part B below.
Procedure Part B.
10. To a small (100mm) test tube (#1) add about 20 drops of NaBr solution, 5 drops of NaI solution, and
then add enough TCE to roughly double the volume of liquid in the tube. Next, add 1 or 2 drops of fresh
chlorine water. Tightly cork and shake the tube. Wait about 10 seconds and observe the TCE (bottom)
layer. Repeat this procedure of adding a drop or two of Cl2 water and shaking, until a color change is
observed in the TCE layer. What color is eventually observed in the TCE layer?
____________________ . This color indicates the presence of which halogen in the TCE layer?
________________
7-8 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
The Cl2 which you added to this tube reacted with one of the halogen compounds already present in the
tube (NaBr and NaI). The halogen which was replaced then entered the TCE layer. Based on the color in
the TCE, which halogen compound did the Cl2 react with? __________________ Which halogen (Br2 or
I2) is now found in the TCE layer? ______________ This change involved a single replacement reaction.
Complete the equation for that reaction in the space below:
{9} __________ + Cl2(aq) ----> ____________ + _____________
11. With a long-stemmed bureal plastic pipet, remove the remaining NaBr and NaI solutions in the top
layer of the test tube and place into another test tube (#2). Now add enough TCE to test tube #2 to
roughly double the volume of liquid in the tube. Then, add Cl2 water 1 or 2 drops at a time, shake and
observe until a color is observed in the TCE layer - following the same procedure as you did in step 10. Is
the color eventually observed in the TCE layer the same as that observed in step 10? ________ If so,
the same reaction is again occurring as did in step 10. If this is the case, repeat this step with yet another
test tube (#3). (Remove the top layer in tube #2 and put it in tube #3, add TCE, add Cl2 water, shake, etc.)
This step must be repeated until you finally see a different color in the TCE layer.
What color is eventually observed in the TCE? _______________ This indicates that the added Cl2 is
now reacting with what halogen compound (NaBr or NaI)? Complete the equation for that reaction in the
space below:
{10} __________ + Cl2(aq) ----> ____________ + _____________
In steps 10 and 11, Cl2 was added to a mixture of NaBr and NaI solutions. Since chlorine was able to
replace both bromine and iodine, we can conclude that chlorine is more "active" than bromine and iodine.
Chlorine first replaced the lesser active of these two halogens, however. Which halogen (bromine or
iodine) was replaced first by the Cl2? ______________ Which halogen (bromine or iodine) is least active?
__________________.
Note: Use the same caution with bromine water that you did with chlorine water!
12. Place about 20 drops of NaCl solution in one small test tube and about 20 drops of NaI solution in
another small tube. Add about 20 drops of TCE to each tube. Next, you will be adding bromine, Br2, to
each tube. If the added bromine is able to replace the chlorine in the NaCl tube, what color will appear in
the TCE layer of that tube? _________________ If the added bromine is able to replace the iodine in
the NaI tube, what color will appear in the TCE layer of that tube? __________________ Now add 3 to 5
drops of bromine water (Br2) to each of these tubes. Stopper, shake, and allow the contents of the
tubes to rest for 10 to 20 seconds. Observe the TCE layer. If the TCE in both tubes is colorless,
repeat the addition of bromine water. Continue this process until the TCE in one of the tubes has a color.
Based on your observations, was bromine able to replace the chlorine in the NaCl, or was it able to replace
the iodine in the NaI tube? _________________________________________________________
Complete and balance the equation below for the reaction which you observed.
{11} __________ + Br2(aq) ----> ____________ + _____________
Again, since TCE should not be poured into your sink, discard the contents of the tubes into the
container provided by your instructor.
7-9 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
The most active elements are capable of replacing elements of lesser activity. Based on your
results, list the order of activity of the three halogens tested - most active first, etc.________________
Do your results agree with the activity of the halogens listed in Table 7.1? ____________
Table 7.3 Activities of the Halogens
Color of Cl2 in TCE _____________________
Color of Br2 in TCE _____________________
Color of I2 in TCE _____________________
(Chlorine water itself has a pale yellow color.)

SECTION 7.4 Balancing Equations of Double Replacement Reactions
The fourth type of reaction known as double replacement (also known as double displacement).
In this type of reaction, the metals (which have positive oxidation numbers) switch places.
For example: NaCl + AgNO
3
----> AgCl + NaNO
3
Note that in the double replacement reactions which you will be studying, there are two reactants and two
products. Both reactants and both products are compounds. In the example above, do you see how the
sodium (+1) and the silver (+1) switch "partners"? That's how double replacement works. Polyatomic ions
do not come apart in these reactions, so just treat them as single elements.
Problem 3. Balance the double replacement reactions below by adding the needed coefficients. All
formulas are already written correctly. Compare the formulas of the products to those of the reatants to
see if you understand how double replacement reactions work.
a. _____PbCl2 + _____H2SO4 ----> _____PbSO4 + _____ HCl
b. _____BaCO3 + _____Ca(NO3)2 ----> _____Ba(NO3)2 + _____CaCO3
c. _____Pb(NO3)2 + _____HI ----> _____PbI2 + _____HNO3
d. _____FeBr3 + _____Ba(OH)2 ----> _____Fe(OH)3 + _____BaBr2
e. _____Ag2SO4 + _____Cu(ClO3)2 ----> _____AgClO3 + _____CuSO4
f. _____AgNO3 + _____AlCl3 ----> _____AgCl + _____Al(NO3)3
7-10 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
ACTIVITY 7.5 Observation of Some Double Replacement Reactions
When two dissolved substances react to form a solid, the solid is called a precipitate. Look at the equation
below.
AgNO3(aq) + NaCl(aq) ----> AgCl(s) + NaNO3(aq)
The precipitate formed is {12}_______________. The substances which are dissolved in water (aqueous)
are {13}________________________________________. In this activity, you will observe several
double replacement reactions in which precipitates are formed. Follow directions carefully.
Chemical Reaction 1:
Obtain dropper bottles of 0.1M BaCl2 and 0.1M K2SO4 solutions. Place a few drops of BaCl2 in a well on a
spot plate. To the BaCl2, add a few drops of K2SO4. The precipitate which is produced is due to the
formation of BaSO4. Rinse and dry the spot plate.
Balance the equation that represents this reaction:
{14} _____BaCl2 (aq) + _____K2SO4(aq) ----> _____BaSO4(s) + _____KCl(aq)
Chemical Reaction 2:
Obtain dropper bottles of 1% (NH4)2S and 0.1M CuCl2 . (Caution: keep these solutions off skin and
clothes.) Place a few drops of (NH4)2S in a well on a spot plate, and add a few drops of CuCl2. The sudden
dark appearance is due to the formation of copper (II) sulfide, CuS. Clean the spot plate as you did
above.
Balance the equation that represents this reaction:
{15} _____(NH4)2S(aq) + _____CuCl2(aq) ----> _____NH4Cl(aq) + _____CuS(s)
Chemical Reaction 3:
Next, we will look again at a reaction you saw in Chapter 3. Obtain dropper bottles of 0.25M NaI and 0.25M
Pb(NO3)2 solutions. Place a few drops of NaI in a well on a spot plate. Add a few drops of Pb(NO3)2
solution. Observe the result and rinse the spot plate. The colored product is PbI2. Balance the equation
below that represents this reaction:
{16} _____Pb(NO3)2(aq) + _____NaI(aq) ----> _____PbI2(s) + _____NaNO3(aq)
SECTION 7.6 More Work With Equations for Double Replacement
Reactions
Double replacement reactions are similar to single replacement in the sense that sometimes they
happen and sometimes they don't. However, you don't use the activity series to help you with double
replacement. Instead, you will need to remember that double replacement reactions will happen if at least
one of the products meets at least one of the following three requirements:
7-11 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
1. a precipitate is formed
2. a gas is formed
3. a slightly ionized product is formed
(example: H2O or NH4OH)
In order for a double
replacement reaction to
occur, at least one of these
conditions must be met.
Water can also be written as HOH
Remember: only one of the products of a double replacment reaction has to be a precipitate, gas, or
slightly ionized substance in order for the reaction to occur.
In other words, if at least one of the products is a precipitate, a gas, or a slightly ionized substance, then
the reaction will happen. Three examples are listed below:
1. NaCl(aq) + AgNO3(aq) ---> NaNO3(aq) + AgCl(s) Precipitate, AgCl, forms
2. Na2S(aq) + 2 HCl(aq) ----> 2 NaCl(aq) + H2S(g) A gas, H2S, forms
3. NaOH(aq) + HCl(aq) ----> NaCl(aq) + HOH(l) Water, HOH, forms
If none of these three conditions are met, then the result is no reaction:
NaNO3(aq) + Cu(ClO3)2(aq) ----> NR
At this point, you can recognize double replacement reactions as those in which two compounds are
reacting with each other. Actually, this rule is too general, but it will suit your purposes for now. You may
have noticed that single replacement reactions can be recognized as having an element reacting with a
compound.
You may be asking yourself, "How am I supposed to know whether or not the products of a double
replacement reaction are precipitates, slightly ionized substances, or gases?" Glad you asked! The
answers are as follows.
1. To identify a product as a precipitate, you must check a solubility table or solubility rules.
2. The only slightly ionized substances you need to worry about in your study of ALICE are water (H2O or
HOH) and ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH). There are others, but don't be concerned at this point.
3. Since it would be difficult for you to identify a product as a gas, sufficient information will have to be
given to you. For example, you should look for the subscript (g) written after one of the products.
The solubility rules are listed in Table 7.4, and a solubility table is found in Table 7.5. Copies of these
tables are also available in the reference section of your ALICE materials which you will be permitted to use
during tests and quizzes. The information in these tables is valid for the dilute solutions (0.1M) which are
normally found in the laboratory. It is recommended that you use the solubility table (Table 7.5) as your
primary source of information. If what you are looking for is not there, then you can resort to the solubility
rules (Table 7.4). The rules are rather general, while the table is quite specific.
7-12 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
SECTI ON 7. 7 More Practice on Balancing Double Replacement
Equations
Sample Problem: Complete and balance the equation below:
Ba(OH)2 + Al2(SO4)3 ----> ___???___
Solution: The metals (barium and aluminum) will change places, meaning barium will combine with
hydroxide and aluminum will combine with sulfate:
Ba(OH)
2
+ Al
2
(SO
4
)
3
----> BaSO
4
+ AlOH not done yet!
Finally, we have to use oxidation numbers to make sure that all of the formulas are written correctly. (Note
that the formula AlOH in the example above is not yet written correctly.) Oxidation numbers are shown
above the elements in the equation below. Note that the formulas for reactants and products are now all
correct. We are now ready to determine if the reaction happens and, if it does, balance it.
Ba(OH)
2
+ Al
2
(SO
4
)
3
----> BaSO
4
+ Al(OH)
3
+2 –1 +3 –2 +2 –2 +3 –1 Formulas are now correct,
but the equation is not
yet balanced.
The reaction does happen since precipitates are formed. (This example is unusual in that both products
are precipitates.) We add the needed coefficients to balance the equation:
3 Ba(OH)
2(aq)
+ Al
2
(SO
4
)
3(aq)
----> 3 BaSO
4(s)
+ 2 Al(OH)
3(s)
DONE!
Problem 4. Complete and balance the equations below. Check first to determine whether or not the
reaction happens. If not, answer with NR. If a precipitate forms, identify it with the subscript "(s)." In
formulas for products, write the symbol of the element with the positive oxidation number first in each
formula.
a. _____MgCl2 + _____KOH ----> ________________________________________
b. _____Mg(NO3)2 + _____NaCl ----> ________________________________________
c. _____Sr(OH)2 + _____HCl ----> ________________________________________
d. _____Pb(NO3)2 + _____K2SO4 ----> ________________________________________
e. _____H2SO4 + _____Ca(OH)2 ----> ________________________________________
f. _____HCl + _____K2S ----> H2S(g) + _________________________________
g. _____BaCl2 + _____K2CrO4 ----> ________________________________________
h. _____H3PO4 + _____ NaOH ----> ________________________________________
i. _____KCl + _____Ba(C2H3O2)2 ----> ________________________________________
7-13 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
TABLE 7. 4
SOLUBILITY RULES
Type of Compound Precipitate?
1. Most compounds of nitrates (NO3
1-
), acetates (C2H3O2
1-
),
and chlorates (ClO3
1-
) ARE soluble.- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - NO
(Some silver and mercury compounds in this category are not soluble.)
2. All common compounds of Na, K, and NH4
1+
ARE soluble. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - NO
3. Most chloride compounds ARE soluble - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - NO
(But those of Ag, Hg, and Pb* are NOT soluble) - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - YES
4. Most sulfate compounds ARE soluble - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - NO
(But those of Pb, Ba, Sr, and Ca** are NOT soluble) - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - YES
5. Most carbonate (CO3
2-
), phosphate (PO4
3-
),
and sulfide (S
2-
) compounds are NOT soluble - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - YES
(But those of Na, K, and NH4
1+
ARE soluble) - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - NO
6. Most hydroxides are INsoluble - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - YES
(But those of all Group1A metals, and Ca, Ba and Sr ARE soluble) - - - - - - - - - - - - - - NO
*Lead chloride, PbCl 2, is fairly soluble in hot water. Consider it a precipitate.
**Calcium sulfate, CaSO4, is slightly soluble. Consider it a precipitate.
SECTION 7.8 Classifying And Balancing Equations for Single and
Double Replacement Reactions
Problem 5. In Part 1 of this problem you will be working with word equations for single and double
replacement reactions. In word equations, you must write formulas for reactants and products. Be sure to
write the formulas correctly using subscripts, and then balance the equation using coefficients. If no
reaction occurs, answer with "NR." Identify the type as single replacement (SR) or double replacement
(DR) in the space at the left side.
Part 1. Word Equations
_____a. fluorine + sodium bromide; __________________ -----> ___________________
_____b. calcium + silver nitrate; __________________ -----> ___________________
_____c. sodium sulfide + lead (II) nitrate; __________________ -----> ___________________
_____d. barium chloride + silver acetate; __________________ -----> ___________________
_____e. potassium chloride + sodium nitrate; __________________ -----> ___________________
_____f. iodine + iron (II) chloride; __________________ -----> ___________________
_____g. copper (II) sulfate + hydrogen sulfide; __________________ -----> ___________________
7-14 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
_____h. zinc chloride + sodium sulfide; __________________ -----> ___________________
_____i. hydrogen gas + copper (II) oxide; __________________ -----> ___________________
_____j. lead (II) nitrate + barium chloride; __________________ -----> ___________________
_____k. silver + copper (II) nitrate; __________________ -----> ___________________
In Part 2 of this problem, complete and balance each equation. If no reaction occurs, answer with "NR."
Part 2. Formula Equations.
l. _____ FeSO4(aq) + _____ BaCl2(aq) -------> _____________________________________________
m. _____ Al(s) + _____ AuNO3(aq) -------> _____________________________________________
n. _____ K2S(aq) + _____ H2SO4(aq) -------> H2S(g) +_____________________
o. _____ HC2H3O2(aq) + _____ Ca(OH)2(aq) -------> _______________________________
p. _____ HNO3(aq) + _____ Ba(OH)2(aq) -------> _______________________________
q. _____ Pt(s) + _____ MgCl2(aq) -------> _______________________________
r. _____ Cl2(g) + _____ KI(aq) -------> _______________________________
s. _____ Br2(l) + _____ ZnF2(aq) -------> _______________________________
t. _____ NaNO3(aq) + _____ AlCl3(aq) -------> _______________________________
u. _____ Cr(III)(s) + _____ NiSO4(aq) -------> _______________________________
v. _____ HCl(aq) + _____ KOH(aq) -------> _______________________________
w. _____ Na(s) + _____ Ni(ClO3)2(aq) -------> _______________________________
ACTIVITY 7.9 Predicting the Formation of Precipitates
Suppose you have solutions of the following three compounds: KOH, Fe(NO3)3, and CuCl 2. If
you were to mix these solutions - two at a time - in all possible combinations (of two), how many reactions
will result in the formation of a precipitate? {17}__________ What are the correct chemical formulas of
these precipitates? {18}_________________________________________________
Obtain a dropping plate, 0.1M Fe(NO3)3, 0.1M CuCl2, and 0.5M KOH. These three solutions are in
dropper bottles. Using 5 to 10 drops of each solution, mix all possible pair combinations of these
solutions. Look for the formation of any precipitates. Was your prediction regarding the number of
precipitates correct? ___________ In the space below, write balanced chemical equation(s) that
represent the formation of each precipitate. Identify each precipitate with the subscript "(s)."
{19}____________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
7-15 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
Tabl e 7. 5
A Solubility Table
For our purposes, the combinations below designated with the letter P, are considered to be insoluble
enough to form precipitates. If a P is not listed for a substance, it is soluble in water (it dissolves). If you
cannot find the data you need in this table, check the solubility rules. P = PRECIPITATE
1 - acetate, C2H3O2
1-
6 - chromate, CrO4
2-
11 - phosphate, PO4
3-
2 - bromide, Br
1-
7 - hydroxide, OH
1-
12 - silicate, SiO4
2-
3 - carbonate, CO3
2-
8 - iodide, I
1-
13 - sulfate, SO4
2-
4 - chlorate, ClO3
1-
9 - nitrate, NO3
1-
14 - sulfide, S
2-
5 - chloride, Cl
1-
10 - oxide, O
2-
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
aluminum - - - - - - P - - P P P - P
ammonium - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
barium - - P - - P - - - P P P P P
bismuth - P P - - - P P - P P - P P
cadmium - - P - - - P - - P - - - P
calcium - - P - - - P - - P P P - P
copper(II) - - P - - - P - - P P P - P
hydrogen - - - - - - - - - - - P - -
iron(II) - - P - - - P - - P P P - P
iron(III) - - - - - P P - - P P P - P
lead(II) - P P - P P P P - P P P P P
magnesium - - P - - - P - - P P P - -
manganese(II) - - P - - - P - - P P P - P
mercury(I) P P P - P P - P - P P - P P
mercury(II) - P P - - P P P - P P - P P
nickel - - P - - - P - - P P - - P
potassium - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
silver P P P - P P - P - P P - P P
sodium - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
strontium - - P - - P - - - - P P P -
tin(II) - P - - - P P - - P P - - P
tin(IV) - - - - - - P - - P - - - P
zinc - - P - - P P - - P P P - P
(Note that sodium, potassium, and ammonium never form precipitates.)
ACTIVITY 7.10 (Optional) The Reaction Between NaOH and Ni(NO
3
)
2
(Optional activities such as this are those which can be skipped if you are short of time or behind most of
the other groups in your class.)
Chemicals react in the simple whole number ratios shown by the coefficients in balanced
equations. Stoichiometry is that branch of chemistry in which we relate quantities of reacting substances.
The exact quantities of reactants and products shown by a chemical equation are called stoichiometric
quantities. For example, barium nitrate reacts with sulfuric acid in the following way:
7-16 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
Ba(NO3)2(aq) + H2SO4(aq) ---> BaSO4(s) + 2 HNO3(aq)
Note that one unit of Ba(NO3)2 reacts with one unit of H2SO4 to form one unit of BaSO4 and two units of
HNO3. This ratio represents stoichiometric quantities. If you happen to mix together anything different
from a stoichiometric ratio of the two reactants, you will find that when the reaction is over, a certain amount
of one of the reactants will be left unreacted. We say that it was present "in excess." The “units” referred
to here are actually quantities known as “moles.” You will study much more about moles in Chapters 8, 9
and 10.
The purpose of this activity is to study the stoichiometry (reacting ratio) in the reaction between
sodium hydroxide and nickel nitrate.
? NaOH(aq) + ? Ni(NO3)2(aq) ---> ? NaNO3(aq) + ? Ni(OH)2(s)
In this reaction, one of the products, Ni(OH) 2, is a green precipitate which is easy to see. You are going to
mix the two reactants together in different ratios. Having done this, you will notice that different amounts
of the Ni(OH)2 precipitate will be formed. By determining the ratio of reactants which produces a maximum
amount of the product, you will be able to experimentally determine the stoichiometric ratio which is
reflected by the coefficients in the balanced equation. In other words, you are going to balance the
equation by experiment, rather than by simple inspection. You will need 9 test tubes (150 mm), a test
tube rack, 0.1M Ni(NO3)2 solution, 0.1M NaOH solution, 2 pipets (10 mL), phenolphthalein solution, 1 cork
to fit a 150 mm test tube. Handle NaOH solution with care. Be sure to wear safety glasses and an apron
during this activity.
Procedure:
1. Obtain nine 150 mm test tubes (Important: the tubes must all have the same internal diameter! Check
this carefully!) Label the test tubes with a grease pencil or marker with the numbers 1 through 9. Place
them in numerical order in a test tube rack. If possible, use a rack which allows you to see the contents of
the bottom third of each tube.
2. Ask the instructor or lab assistant to demonstrate the use of a volumetric pipet. Using a volumetric
pipet, put 2 mL of Ni(NO3)2 solution in tube 1; put 4 mL in tube 2; put 6 mL in tube 3, etc. Continue
increasing the volumes by 2 mL until you have put 18 mL of Ni(NO3)2 into tube 9.
3. You will now work with the test tubes in reverse order. Put 2 mL of NaOH solution into tube 9; 4 mL into
tube 8, etc. Continue this process until you have added 18 mL of NaOH solution to tube 1.
4. Add 3 to 5 drops of phenolphthalein solution to each of the 9 tubes.
5. Place a cork into tube 1 and mix the contents by inverting the tube several times. Rinse the cork and
repeat this process for tube 2. Continue until the contents of all tubes have been mixed.
6. Allow the tubes to rest undisturbed for one day before making any decisions concerning the amount of
precipitate in each tube.
(Next day)
You should note that the tubes contain varying amounts of Ni(OH)2 precipitate, and that the
solution in some of the tubes has turned pink. Phenolphthalein reacts with NaOH to form a pink color.
Therefore, those tubes in which the solution has a pink color contain an excess of (unused) NaOH
reactant. That means that those tubes did not contain enough Ni(NO3)2 reactant to use up all of the NaOH
reactant. Which tube numbers fall into this category? ______________ Therefore, do you think that
those tubes contained stoichiometric quantities of the reactants? _____________
7-17 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
Now look at those tubes which do not reveal the pink color. In these tubes, all of the NaOH
reactant was consumed. However, you will note that these tubes contain different amounts of precipitate
because they contained different amounts of Ni(NO3)2 reactant. The greater the amount of Ni(NO3)2
reactant in each successive tube, the greater the amount of precipitate product which formed. This is true
up to a point where the amount of precipitate formed reaches a maximum. Of ALL the tubes, which one
contains the maximum amount of precipitate?__________ This is the tube in which the two reactants
most closely approximate a stiochiometric ratio. What is the ratio of 0.1M NaOH to 0.1M Ni(NO3)2 in this
tube? ______________
For tube # ________:

volume 0.1 M NaOH
volume 0.1 M Ni(NO
3
)
2
= _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Round this ratio to the closest whole number. Result: _____________________________________
Now balance the equation below by inspection:
_____NaOH(aq) + ______Ni(NO3)2(aq) ---> ______NaNO3(aq) + ______Ni(OH)2(s)
What's the value of the NaOH / Ni(NO3) 2 ratio in the balanced equation:________________________
Does this ratio agree with the experimental NaOH / Ni(NO3) 2 ratio which you obtained? _____________
If so, then you should now understand how you can determine - by experiment - the stoichiometric ratio of
coefficients needed to balance an equation.
(None of the tubes in the activity contained the exact stoichiometric ratio for this reaction – not even the
tube with the maximum amount of precipitate.)
Empty and clean all tubes, and return all materials to the proper places.
SECTION 7.11 Learning Outcomes
This is the end of chapter 7. Before you continue on to the next chapter, review the concepts
introduced in chapter 7. Mark a check in front of each learning outcome below when you are certain that
you have mastered it. Arrange to take the quizzes or exam on chapter 7, and move on to chapter 8.
_____1. Distinguish between the reactants and products of a given chemical equation.
_____2. Recognize and name two major types of chemical reactions - single replacement and double
replacement.
_____3. Predict whether single and double replacement reactions will occur or not, given the reactants.
_____4. Correctly complete and balance two major types of chemical equations - single replacement and
double replacement.
7-18 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
SECTION 7.12 Answers to Questions and Problems
Questions:
{1} Br; {2} Because nonmetals replace nonmetals; {3} H; {4} Because metals replace metals; {5} Zn;
{6} K, Zn, Pb, Cu, Ag; {7} Between Zn and Pb; {8} astatine; {9} 2 NaI + Cl2 ---> 2 NaCl + I2; {10} 2 NaBr +
Cl2 ---> 2 NaCl + Br2;
{11} 2 NaI + Br2 ---> 2 NaBr + I2; {12} AgCl; {13} AgNO3, NaCl, NaNO3; {14} 1,1,1,2; {15} 1,1,2,1
{16} 1,2,1,2; {17} 2; {18} Fe(OH)3 and Cu(OH)2;
{19} Fe(NO3)3 + 3 KOH ---> Fe(OH)3(s) + 3 KNO3 and CuCl2 + 2 KOH ---> Cu(OH)2(s) + 2 KCl
Problems:
1. a. 2,2,2,1; b. 1,2,1,1; c. 2,3,2,3; d. 3,1,3,2; e. 3,2,2,3; f. 3,2,3,2; g. 1,2,2,1; h. 2,1,2,1; i. 1,2,1,1;
j. 2,1,1,1
2. a. 2 Al + 3 H2SO4 -----> Al2(SO4)3 + 3 H2
b. 2 KI + Cl2 -----> 2 KCl + I2
c. 2 Fe + 3 Cu(NO3)2 -----> 2 Fe(NO3)3 + 3 Cu
d. NR
e. NR
f. CaSO4 + 2 K -----> K2SO4 + Ca
g. NR
h. Fe + CuCl2 -----> FeCl2 + Cu
i. NR
j. 3 Cl2 + 2 AlBr3 -----> 2 AlCl3 + 3 Br2
3. a. 1,1,1,2; b. 1,1,1,1; c. 1,2,1,2; d. 2,3,2,3; e. 1,1,2,1; f. 3,1,3,1
4. a. MgCl2 + 2 KOH -----> Mg(OH)2(s) + 2 KCl
b. NR
c. Sr(OH)2 + 2 HCl -----> SrCl2 + 2 HOH
d. Pb(NO3)2 + K2SO4 -----> PbSO4(s) + 2 KNO3
e. H2SO4 + Ca(OH)2 -----> CaSO4 + 2 HOH
f. 2 HCl + K2S -----> H2S(g) + 2 KCl
g. BaCl2 + K2CrO4 -----> BaCrO4(s) + 2 KCl
h. H3PO4 + 3 NaOH -----> Na3PO4 + 3 HOH
i. NR
5. a. SR 2 NaBr + F2 -----> 2 NaF + Br2
b. SR 2 AgNO3 + Ca -----> Ca(NO3)2 + 2 Ag
c. DR Na2S + Pb(NO3)2 -----> PbS(s) + 2 NaNO3
d. DR BaCl2 + 2 AgC2H3O2 -----> 2 AgCl(s) + Ba(C2H3O2)2
e. DR NR
f. SR NR
g. DR CuSO4 + H2S -----> CuS(s) + H2 SO4
h. DR ZnCl2 + Na2S -----> ZnS(s) + 2 NaCl
i. SR H2 + CuO -----> Cu + H2O
j. DR Pb(NO3)2 + BaCl2 -----> Ba(NO3)2 + PbCl2(s)
k. SR NR
7-19 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
l. FeSO4 + BaCl2 -----> FeCl2 + BaSO4(s)
m. 3 AuNO3 + Al -----> Al(NO3)3 + 3 Au
n. K2S + H2SO4 -----> H2S(g) + K2SO4
o. 2 HC2H3O2 + Ca(OH)2 -----> Ca(C2H3O2)2 + 2 HOH(l)
p. 2 HNO3 + Ba(OH)2 -----> Ba(NO3)2 + 2 HOH(l)
q. NR
r. Cl2 + 2 KI -----> 2 KCl + I2
s. NR
t. NR
u. 2 Cr + 3 NiSO4 -----> Cr2(SO4)3 + 3 Ni
v. HCl + KOH -----> KCl + HOH(l)
w. 2 Na + Ni(ClO3)2 -----> 2 NaClO3 + Ni
7-20 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
NAME____________________________________ PER____________ DATE DUE____________
ACTIVE LEARNING I N CHEMISTRY EDUCATION
"ALICE"
CHAPTER 8
THE MOLE
CONCEPT
(Part 1)
Avogadro's Number
Atomic and Molecular Mass
Percentage Composition
8-1 ©1997, A.J. Girondi

NOTICE OF RIGHTS
All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form by any means,
electronic, mechanical, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the author.
Copies of this document may be made free of charge for use in public or nonprofit private educational
institutions provided that permission is obtained from the author . Please indicate the name and address
of the institution where use is anticipated.
© 1997 A.J. Girondi, Ph.D.
505 Latshmere Drive
Harrisburg, PA 17109
alicechem@geocities.com
Website: www.geocities.com/Athens/Oracle/2041
8-2 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
ACTIVITY 8.1 Determining The Mass of Extremely Small Objects
In chapter 5 you became familiar with some of the most common elements and their chemical
symbols. You will recall that an element is made up of extremely small particles called atoms. The question
arises as to precisely how small (or how large) atoms are. What is more important, you should know the
mass of the atoms so that you can compare, for example, the mass of boron and carbon atoms.
From an experimental standpoint, it would be impossible to isolate one atom in order to measure
its mass; but, there is a way to accurately estimate the mass of a very small object. This activity will help to
illustrate this.
1. Get the vials marked 8.1 from the materials shelf. Use a balance to get the information needed to
complete Table 8.1. Look at Table 8.1 now, so that you will know what data is needed. Use proper units
when recording your data. Most balances are not sensitive enough to measure the mass of something as
light as one grain of rice. To calculate the mass of 1 grain of rice, you will need to know exactly how many
there are in each vial. Fortunately, these have already been counted for you. The number of objects in
each vial is marked on the vial.
2. Weigh each vial carefully and record the collected data in Table 8.1. Knowing the total mass of vial and
contents, calculate the total mass of the contents only. Record this information, too.
Knowing the total mass of the pieces in each vial, calculate the mass of one grain of rice, one
staple, and one lead shot. Express this number in scientific notation in Table 8.1.
Tabl e 8. 1
Determining the Mass of Small Objects
Mass of an empty vial _________g
Mass of vial + rice _________g Mass of vial + lead shots_________g
Mass of rice grains _________g Mass of lead shots _________g
Mass of 1 rice grain _________g Mass of 1 lead shot _________g
Number of rice grains __________ Number of shots __________
Mass of vial + staples _________g
Mass of staples _________g
Mass of 1 staple _________g
Number of staples __________
It is impossible to determine the mass of one grain of rice, or one staple, or one lead shot using
the laboratory balance. However, by measuring the mass of a large number of these objects, it is possible
to accurately estimate their individual masses. The mass of a large number of atoms can be determined
just as easily as the mass of a vial of rice can be determined. No problems arise, however, until you try to
count the number of atoms in your sample! It takes much more than a magnifying glass and forceps to
8-3 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
count atoms. To give you an idea of the size of atoms, a hydrogen atom has a diameter of only 1.06 X 10
-8
cm and a mass of only 1.67 X 10
-24
grams.
The problem of counting atoms was solved in 1811 by an Italian physicist named Amedeo
Avogadro. He proposed that:
equal volumes of any two gases contain equal numbers of molecules
under the same conditions of temperature and pressure.
Shortly, you will see how Avogadro came to this conclusion and why it is important.
Figure 8.1 Equal Volumes of 4 Gases
H
2
1 Volume
N
2
1 Volume
O
2
1 Volume
Cl
2
1 Volume
Use Avogadro's proposal and the information in Table 8.2 below to answer the next several questions.
Which gas contains the same number of molecules as gas A? {1}__________
Which gas contains the same number of molecules as gas B? {2}__________
If gases A and C have equal numbers of molecules, how can you account for their different masses?
{3}____________________________________________________________________________
Tabl e 8. 2
Temperature, Pressure, Volume and Mass of Four Gases
Temp. Pressure Volume Mass
Gas A 0
o
C 760 mm 44.8 L 28 g
Gas B 0
o
C 760 mm 22.4 L 1 g
Gas C 0
o
C 760 mm 44.8 L 32 g
Gas D 0
o
C 760 mm 22.4 L 14 g
To understand why "Avogadro's hypothesis" (as it has come to be known) is reasonable, you
have to keep in mind that most of the volume of matter is empty space. This is especially true of gases.
The size of the molecules has nothing to do with the volume that gases occupy. It is the amount of space
between the molecules that determines the volume that the gas occupies. Thus, if gas A consists of "big"
molecules and if gas B consists of smaller ones, this does not affect their volumes in any way. On the
other hand, temperature and pressure do influence the distance between the molecules. Therefore,
temperature and pressure have important effects on the volumes of gases.
8-4 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
SECTION 8.2 The Law of Combining Volumes of Gases
In 1808, Gay-Lussac published his law of combining volumes of gases. He found that when
gases react with each other, their volumes are always in a ratio of small whole numbers. In other words, 2
liters of gas A combine with 1 liter of gas B to form 2 liters of gas C. He never saw evidence that 2 liters of
gas A combine with 1.6 liters of gas B to form 3.6 liters of gas C. The combining ratios always involved
small whole numbers. He did not know why this was true, nor how significant it might be. Gay-Lussac was
able to show that 2 liters of hydrogen combined with 1 liter of oxygen to form 2 liters of water vapor. Can
you believe it? In this case, two plus one equals two!
+ =
2 L hydrogen + 1 L oxygen = 2 L water vapor
Figure 8.2 Combining Volumes of Hydrogen and Oxygen
This discovery (of a 2:1:2 ratio) troubled John Dalton who could not make sense of it. (The diatomic nature
of some gases had not yet been discovered.) For that reason, Dalton tried to disprove Gay-Lussac's work,
but failed to do so. He thought that the formula for water was HO, and so, he would have liked to have
seen evidence that the ratio was 2:2:2, because then his equation for the formation of water would have
been balanced:
2 Liters H + 2 Liters O ----> 2 Liters HO
However, Gay-Lussac's 2:1:2 ratio was not to be denied. But, how could a balanced equation be written
to explain this?
2 H + 1 O ----> 2 HO <--- This doesn't balance!
SECTION 8.3 Avogadro's Discovery
The answer to this puzzle was proposed by Avogadro in 1811. He pointed out that Dalton was
confusing the concepts of atoms and molecules. Accepting the formula of water as HO, Avogadro
suggested that the oxygen involved in the reaction was composed of diatomic molecules, because then
Gay-Lussac's 2:1:2 ratio could be explained as follows:
+ +
hydrogen shown as monatomic oxygen shown
as diatomic
WATER VAPOR
2 L H
(g)
+ 1 L O
2(g)
----> 2 L HO
(g)
+
Figure 8.3 Avogadro Proposes that Oxygen is Composed of Diatomic Molecules
8-5 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
Thus, Avogadro is also given credit for first having suggested the idea of diatomic molecules.
Since hydrogen was still assumed to be monatomic (H instead of H2), the "HO" formula for water was
accepted in order to retain the necessary 2:1:2 ratio of liters found in the equation (Figure 8.3).
Since this idea seemed to work, what eventually led to the conclusion that the formula for water
was H2O and not HO? The answer came from the study of the reaction between hydrogen gas and
chlorine gas to form hydrogen chloride gas. The formula of hydrogen chloride was assumed to be HCl. In
the reaction between these two gases, it was found that 1 volume of hydrogen combined with 1 volume of
chlorine to form 2 volumes of hydrogen chloride:

+
1 volume hydrogen + 1 volume chlorine -------------> 2 volumes hydrogen chloride
1 L hydrogen gas + 1 L chlorine gas -------------> 2 L hydrogen chlorine gas
Figure 8.4 Combining Volumes of Hydrogen and Chlorine
If the two gases were monatomic, then a 1:1:1 ratio with only one volume of HCl product would have been
expected:
1 H + 1 Cl ----> 1 HCl
The 1:1:2 volume ratio which was found by experiment only makes sense if you assume that both
hydrogen and chlorine gases are composed of diatomic molecules (as shown in figure 8.4 and in the
equation below:
1 L H
2
+ 1 L Cl
2
-----> 2 L HCl
Both H2 and Cl2 molecules split up to form the two volumes of HCl molecules. At this point, at least three
gases were assumed to be diatomic: H2, O2, and Cl2.
Since hydrogen was now considered to be diatomic (H2), the equation representing the formation
of water had to be reexamined. Instead of this:
2 L H(g) + 1 L O2(g) ----> 2 L HO(g)
the reaction must be this:
2 L H
2(g)
+ 1 L O
2(g)
----> 2 L H
2
O
(g)
Bingo!
Note that if hydrogen were written as H2 instead of H, then water had to be written as H2O instead of HO.
8-6 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
+
diatomic hydrogen + diatomic oxygen ----------> water (H2O)
Figure 8.5 Formation of Water from H2 and O2
Now if H2 and O2 combine in a 2 to 1 molecul e ratio, and knowing from Gay-Lussac's work that
they also combine in a 2 to 1 volume ratio, it follows that the two volumes of H2 must contain twice as many
molecules as does the one volume of O2. So, one volume of H2 must contain the same number of
molecules as does one volume of O2. This is what lead Avogadro to conclude that apparently:
EQUAL VOLUMES OF GASES CONTAIN EQUAL NUMBERS OF MOLECULES
(IF THEY ARE AT THE SAME TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE)
This was his major contribution, and it remains one of the most important discoveries in all of science.
Avogadro's hypothesis (or Avogadro's law) went relatively unnoticed, however, for almost 50 years!
Oxygen molecules are much larger than hydrogen molecules. How is it possible then, that one liter of
oxygen can contain the same number of molecules as one liter of hydrogen? {4}____________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
SECTION 8.4 The Relative Scale Of Atomic Masses
Indeed, it was the study of gases that gave the emerging science of chemistry a real boost. If
equal volumes of gases (under the same conditions) contained equal numbers of molecules, then it
became obvious that H2 had the least mass of any known molecule. It was found that a volume of
hydrogen gas, H2, had only
1
/16 the mass of an equal volume of oxygen gas, O2. Helium gas, He, was
found to have a mass equal to
1
/8 that of an equal volume of O2. These discoveries allowed scientists to
begin the development of a scale of relative masses of atoms and molecules. We say relative masses
because in those early days it was impossible to determine the actual mass of a single atom or molecule.
However, by determining the masses of equal volumes of gases (at the same T and P), it was possible to
develop a relative scale which allowed the comparison of the masses of atoms of different elements.
(Thanks to Avogadro's hypothesis.)
Oxygen gas was used as the first standard to which other gases were to be compared. The units
that were used for this relative scale were called atomic mass units (amu). Oxygen molecules, O2, were
assigned a relative mass of 32 amu. Why 32? The reason is simple. Since it was now known that
hydrogen molecules, H2, had
1
/16 the mass of oxygen molecules, O2, then assigning a value of 32 amu to
O2 would give what value on the relative scale to H2 molecules? {5}__________ This, in turn, would give
the hydrogen atom, H, (the one with least mass) a relative mass of {6}______amu. It all seemed very nice
to assign a value of 1 to hydrogen. Since H2 had
1
/16 the mass of O2, it was safe to assume that hydrogen
atoms, H, had
1
/16 the mass of oxygen atoms, O. The helium atom, He, had 4 times the mass of hydrogen
atoms, H, and
1
/4 the mass of oxygen atoms and, so, was assigned a relative mass of {7}_______ amu.
8-7 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
Thus was born the scale of relative atomic and molecular masses. Although the original standard
of comparison was oxygen, O, with a relative mass of 16, (O2 was 32), it has since been changed to
carbon with a relative mass of 12. Roughly speaking, how does the mass of an average carbon atom
compare to that of an average hydrogen atom? {8}_________________________________________
If you check the periodic table, you will note that the atomic masses of the elements hydrogen,
helium, carbon, and oxygen are not exactly 1, 4, 12, or 16. This is because of the existence of isotopes
which are atoms of the same element which have different masses. Isotopes are discussed in more detail
in a later chapter. The atomic masses on the periodic table are average masses of the atoms of the
elements as they occur in nature – including their isotopes. The most common isotope (or form) of carbon
has a relative mass of 12 amu and it is referred to as carbon-12. Less common forms of carbon have
relative masses of 13 and 14. As mentioned above, carbon-12 is the form of carbon now used as the
modern standard for atomic masses.
The atomic mass of an atom is defined as the relative
mass of an atom (in amu) compared to that of carbon-12.
The atomic mass of an element refers to the average relative mass of the atoms of an element, as they
occur in nature, compared to carbon-12. Atomic masses of each element appear on the periodic table. It
is an average mass and does not represent the atomic mass of any particular atom of the element. For
example, check a periodic table for the atomic mass of sulfur and enter that value in the space below.
Atomic mass of the element sulfur: ___________ amu
A number of isotopes of sulfur are found in nature. The most common (in order of abundance) are: sulfur-
32, sulfur-34, sulfur-33 and sulfur-36. The atomic mass you wrote in the space above is the average
relative mass of sulfur atoms in the proportion in which you would find them in nature.
We now have much more accurate methods for determining relative atomic masses, as well as the
actual atomic masses of atoms, even though the real masses are very tiny. For example, we know that the
actual mass of a hydrogen-1 atom is 1.67 X 10
-24
g. That's small! You will recall that a hydrogen-1 atom
also has a relative mass of 1 amu. Therefore:
1 amu = 1.67 X 10
-24
g.
Thus, the actual mass – in grams – of an atom of carbon-12 can be calculated:

12 amu X
1.67 X 10
-24
g
1 amu
= 2.0 X 10
-23
g
Using this relationship between amu and grams, you can now calculate the actual masses of helium- 4 and
oxygen-16 atoms. Do that in the space provided for problems 1 and 2 below, and show your work:
1 helium-4 atom = 4 amu; 1 oxygen-16 atom = 16 amu; 1 amu = 1.67 X 10
-24
g
(If necessary, review how to enter numbers into your calculator using scientific notation (Chapter 2).
Problem 1. Calculate the actual mass in grams of an atom of helium-4.
8-8 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
Problem 2. Calculate the actual mass in grams of an atom of oxygen-16.
SECTION 8.5 Gram-Atomic and Gram-Molecular Masses
Working with individual atoms was not practical because of their size and tiny real masses. So,
scientists devised a way of talking about larger quantities of an element. They invented a unit which they
called the gram-atomic mass of an element.
One gram-atomic mass (1 gam) of an element is defined as the
atomic mass of an element expressed in grams instead of in amu.
To determine how much of an element is 1 gam, simply look up its atomic mass on the periodic table and
express it in grams. (When using atomic masses from the periodic table, we will generally round them to
two decimal places.)
What is the mass in grams of 1 gam of element number 24, chromium? {9}_____________ g
Grams are huge units compared to amu's and can be used as a practical unit of measure in the lab.
Thus, 16.00 g of O is 1 gram-atomic mass, abbreviated as 1 gam, of oxygen atoms. 32.00 g is 1 gram-
molecular mass, abbreviated as gmm, of oxygen molecules, O2. (Molecular mass is the sum of the masses
of the atoms in the formula of a molecule; so if O = 16.00 then O2 = 32.00.) 1.01 g of H atoms = 1 gam of H
atoms, while 2.02 g of H2 molecules = 1 gmm of H2 molecules. The atomic mass units (amu) used on the
relative scale of atomic masses is too small to be useful in the lab. A gram-atomic masses (gam) is a
measurable quantity of an element with which experiments can be performed.
One gram-atomic mass of an element (1 gam) is equal to the atomic mass of
the element (from the periodic table) expressed in grams instead of in amu.
The atomic mass of an element as found on the periodic table is
the relative mass of an atom expressed in atomic mass units (amu).

Examples: atomic mass hydrogen (H) = 1.01 amu
atomic mass nitrogen (N) = 14.01 amu
One gram-atomic mass (gam) of an element is the atomic mass expressed in grams rather than in amu.
Examples: 1 gam hydrogen (H) = 1.01 grams H
1 gam nitrogen (N) = 14.01 grams N
The formula mass (or molecular mass) of a compound is the sum of the atomic masses (in amu) of the
atoms in the formula of the compound.
Examples: molecular mass (or formula mass) of H2 = 2.02 amu
molecular mass (or formula mass) of N2 = 28.02 amu
8-9 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
One gram-molecular mass (gmm) of a compound is the molecular
mass of the compound expressed in grams, rather than in amu.
Examples: 1 gram-molecular mass (1 gmm) of H2 = 2.02 grams H2
1 gram-molecular mass (1 gmm) of N2 = 28.02 g N2
The early experimenters found that 1 gmm of all gaseous elements had a volume of 22.4 liters (at
STP). Hey! That was an incredibly important discovery! 32.00 g of O2, 2.02 g of H2, 4.00 g of He, all had
volumes of 22.4 L at STP. You will soon try to verify this volume, experimentally. According to
Avogadro's hypothesis, these equal volumes contain equal numbers of atoms or molecules,
Thus, 1 gmm H2 gas = 2.02 g H2 = 22.4 L H2
Thus, 1 gam Ar gas = 39.95 g Ar = 22.4 L Ar
Thus, 1 gmm N2 gas = 28.01 g N2 = 22.4 L N2
For elements that are gases: 1 gam of gas (at STP) = 22.4 L
For compounds that are gases: 1 gmm of gas (at STP) = 22.4 L
22.4 Liters
OXYGEN
O2
32.00 g
22.4 Liters
HYDROGEN
H2
2.02 g
22.4 Liters
HELIUM
He
4.003 g
22.4 Liters
ARGON
Ar
39.95 g
22.4 Liters
NITROGEN
N2
28.02 g
All of these containers represent 22.4 L of gas at STP
Figure 8.6 Mass Versus Volume of 5 Gases at STP
Experimentally, we have found that 1 gam of any element contains 6.02 X 10
23
atoms of that element. We
will not be discussing how this was discovered, but it has been done using a number of different
experimental techniques.
1 gam of an element = 6.02 X 10
23
atoms of the element
1 gmm of a compound = 6.02 X 10
23
molecules of the compound
Thus, the number of H2 molecules in 2.02 g of H2 is {10}_________________, a very large number to be
sure! Furthermore, since 2 grams of H2 have a volume of 22.4 L, then 6.02 X 10
23
is the number of
molecules of H2 found in {11}___________ L at STP. You could do similar calculations, and you would find
that 4.00 g of He and 32.00 g of O2 (both of which also have volumes of 22.4 L at STP) also contain 6.02 X
10
23
molecules. Remember, Avogadro told us that equal volumes of gases under similar conditions
contain equal numbers of molecules.
For all elements: 1 g-am = 6.02 X 10
23
atoms
For all compounds: 1 gmm = 6.02 X 10
23
molecules
For gas elements: 1 gam = 6.02 X 10
23
atoms = 22.4 L at STP
For gas compounds: 1 gmm = 6.02 X 10
23
molecules = 22.4 L at STP
8-10 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
SECTION 8.6 The Avogadro Number and the Mole
Since atoms are so small, chemists have to work with extremely large numbers of them. For this
reason, a very large unit was needed to express numbers of atoms. 1 dozen = 12 (too small); 1 gross =
144 (too small); 1 ream = 500 (too small). It was decided that the number of particles in 22.4 L of a gas at
STP would be a good number to use: 6.02 X 10
23
.
The new unit was called a mole, which was derived from the Latin meaning "heap" or "pile." The
number, 6.02 X 10
23
, of anything is 1 mole of that thing, regardless of whether it's pencils, or oranges, or
atoms. Avogadro was never aware of this number. He had already gone to that great chem lab in the sky
when the number was determined. This number has come to be known as Avogadro's number - named in
his honor.
Since at STP, 22.4 L of a gas contains the Avogadro number, or 1 mole, of gas particles, the
quantity 22.4 L of a gas has come to be known as the molar volume of a gas. The Avogadro number and
the molar volume are so important in chemistry, that you should immediately commit them to MEMORY.
The Avogadro Number = 6.02 X 10
23
= 1 mole of atoms or molecules
1 gam of an element = 6.02 X 10
23
atoms = 1 mole of the element
1 gmm of a compound = 6.02 X 10
23
molecules = 1 mole of the compound
22.4 L of any gas at STP = 1 mole of gas = 6.02 X 10
23
atoms or molecules
Let's use helium gas as an example:
4.00 g He = 6.02 X 10
23
helium atoms = 1 mole of helium = 22.4 L He gas @ STP
This value comes from the periodic table
Since helium is a gas, this is also true
Here was a convenient way for chemists to count atoms or molecules! By simply measuring a volume of a
gas under known conditions of temperature and pressure, they could indirectly count out any number of
particles they wanted! WOW! For example, how many atoms are found in 6.8 liters of helium at STP?

6.8 L He X
1 mole He
22.4 L He
X
6.02 X 10
23
atoms
1 mole He
= 1.8 X 10
23
He atoms
22.4 L = 1 mole ONLY if the substance is a GAS at STP
And, since 1 gam = 1 mole, we can also convert a mass of any element to the corresponding number of
atoms of that element. For example, how many atoms are there in 8.30 grams of helium?

8.30 grams He X
1 mole He
4.00 g He
X
6.02 X 10
23
atoms
1 mole He
= 1.25 X 10
24
atoms He
4.00 g is 1 gam of helium
What a breakthrough! It was now possible to count atoms! Chemistry was finally well on its way to
becoming a more quantitative field of science.
8-11 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
SECTION 8.7 The Molar Volume of a Gas
Problem 3. Keeping in mind what you now know about molar volume, determine the number of moles
present in each of the volumes of gases given below. Assume that all are at STP. Use dimensional
analysis as shown in the example below. Show your work in the spaces provided.

94.1 Liters Cl
2
gas X
1 mole Cl
2
22.4 L Cl
2
= 4.20 moles Cl
2

a. 22.4 L gas X

= ____________ mol es gas

b. 11.2 L gas X

= ____________ mol es gas

c. 44.8 L gas X

= ____________ mol es gas

d. 89.6 L gas X

= ____________ mol es gas
Problem 4. Use what you know about the mole to make the conversions below. Use dimensional
analysis as shown in the examples below. Assume all substances used are gases. Show your work in the
spaces provided.

4.20 moles Cl
2
X
22. 4 L Cl
2
1 mole Cl
2
= 94.1 L Cl
2
gas


0.871 moles F
2
X
6.02 X 10
23
molecules F
2
1 mole F
2
= 5.24 X 10
23
molecules F
2
gas
Note: We will use the abbreviation "mcls" to represent "molecules."

a. 4.32 moles O
2
X

= ___________ Li t ers O
2
@ STP

b. 4.32 moles O
2
X

= ________________ mol ecul es O
2


c. 2.00 moles CO
2
X

= ___________ Li t ers CO
2
@ STP

d. 2.00 moles CO
2
X

= ________________ mol ecul es CO
2


e. 8.30 Liters NO
2
(@ STP) X

= ___________ mol es NO
2

8-12 ©1997, A.J. Girondi

f. 0.433 mole NO
2
X

= ___________ mol ecul es NO
2


g. 6.82 X 10
21
mcls SO
2
X
mole SO
2
mcls SO
2
X
L SO
2
moles SO
2
= ________ L SO
2
@ STP

h. 35.8 Liters H
2
(@STP) X
mole H
2
X

mole H
2
= _________ molecules H
2
SECTION 8.8 Gram-Atomic Mass
You will recall that our original problem, when we began this chapter, was to determine the mass of
one atom. Earlier, you were told that one atom of hydrogen-1 has a mass of 1.67 X 10
-24
g.
Chemical reactions do not occur one atom at a time. Large groups of atoms react with one another
simultaneously. Because of this fact, it makes much more sense to talk about 1 mole of hydrogen atoms,
rather than about one individual hydrogen atom. One mole of hydrogen atoms has a mass of 1.01 grams.
One gram is certainly a much more manageable number than 1.67 X 10
-24
grams. To simplify matters,
instead of measuring and recording masses of individual atoms, masses of moles of atoms are used.
The mass of one mole of substance is called its molar mass. Remember that 1 g-at. mass = 1 mole.
The term molecular mass is used when molecules are considered. These used to be known as atomic
weight and molecular weight, and there are still many books which still use these older terms. Atomic mass
and molecular mass are more appropriate, but old habits are hard to break! Since these measures
represent the mass of 1 mole of atoms or molecules, the units of molar masses are always expressed as
grams per mole (grams/mole).
Problem 5. Refer to the periodic table to find the atomic masses (in amu) of the elements listed below.
Round the masses off to the hundredths column. Change these atomic masses to gram-atomic masses
by changing the units from amu to grams. Place this unit (grams) after each of the masses.
Element Gram-Atomic Mass (gam)

a. oxygen ______________ = 1 mole oxygen atoms
b. zinc ______________ = 1 mole zinc atoms
c. magnesium ______________ = 1 mole magnesium atoms
d. calcium ______________ = 1 mole calcium atoms
e. hydrogen ______________ = 1 mole hydrogen atoms
f. lead ______________ = 1 mole lead atoms
Since the atomic masses above are expressed in grams, they each represent 1 gam or 1 mole of each
element.
8-13 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
SECTION 8.9 The Gram–Molecular Mass of Compounds
In Chapter 5 you learned that atoms can combine to form compounds. If you add the atomic
masses of all the atoms in the formula of a compound, you obtain the formula mass or the molecular mass.
Some compounds consist of simple units called molecules and some do not. Each molecule consists of
two or more atoms. If a substance does consist of molecules, then the term molecular mass can be
substituted for the term formula mass. The term formula mass can be used with any compound. However,
in practice, the term molecular mass is used most frequently. The procedure below shows how to
determine the molecular mass of water (H2O). One mole of H2O has a molecular mass of 18.02 amu.
When expressed in grams instead of amu's, the molecular mass is called the gram-molecular mass or
gmm) and represents the mass of one mole of a compound. The gmm of H2O is 18.02 grams.
Elements atomic mass of elements
H 1.01 amu
H 1.01 amu
O 16.00 amu
H2O 18.02 amu <--- Molecular mass of H2O
18.02 g <--- gram–molecular mass (gmm) of H2O
When calculating molecular masses, it is often easier if you use the [SUM] key found on most
calculators that have a memory. On some calculators, the [SUM] key may be given the symbol [M+] or
another designation. To illustrate the use of the sum key, let's use a calculator to determine the formula
mass of the compound Ba(NO2)2. (Caution: calculators which have more than one memory may not
operate as described in the following discussion.) The "formula unit" contains 1 atom of Ba, 2 atoms of N,
and 4 atoms of O. Let's begin by making sure that the calculator's display and memory are clear. Do this by
pressing the "clear all" or [CA] key. Begin the problem by entering the atomic mass of Ba into the
calculator: 137.34. Press the [M+] or [SUM] key. This value is now stored in the calculator's memory. To
check this, clear the calculator and then press the recall memory key which may have the designation [RM]
or [RCL]. The atomic mass of Ba should now appear in the display. Be careful not to press the "clear all"
[CA] key, because that will not only clear the display, but it will also clear the memory! Next, enter the
atomic mass of N into the calculator: 14.01. Since there are 2 atoms of N in the formula, multiply by 2, and
press the [=] key. the display should now read 28.02. We need to add this product to the quantity in the
memory. Do this by pressing the [M+] key. The subtotal in the memory should now be 165.36. To check
this, press the [RM] or [RCL] key. Next, enter the atomic mass of oxygen: 16.00. (Actually, you only need
to enter 16. Zeros to the right of the decimal point do not need to be entered into the calculator.) Now
multiply by 4 since there are 4 atoms of O represented in the formula. Press the [=] key. The display
should reveal the product: 64. Again press the [M+] key to add this quantity to the sum in the memory. To
see the formula mass of Ba(NO2)2, press the [RCL] or [RM] key. The answer should be 229.34. That's all
there is to it! Before starting another problem, be sure to press the [CA] key to clear both the display and
the memory. Use this same procedure with a calculator to determine the formula masses of the
compounds listed on the next page. Use a periodic table and round off all atomic masses to the
hundredths column.
Note: a molecule such as (NH4)3PO4 contains a total of {12}____________ atoms.
Problem 6. For the following compounds, express gram-molecular masses (gmm) rounded to two
decimal places.
a. NaOH gmm = _____________ g = 1 mole NaOH
b. P2O5 gmm = _____________ g = 1 mole P2O5
8-14 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
c. (NH4)3PO4 gmm = _____________ g = 1 mole (NH4)3PO4
d. Fe(C2H3O2)3 gmm = _____________ g = 1 mole Fe(C2H3O2)3
e. Ca(NO3)2 gmm = _____________ g = 1 mole Ca(NO3)2

f. CuSO4 •5 H2O gmm = _____________ g = 1 mole CuSO4 •5 H2O
g. (NH4)2O gmm = _____________ g = 1 mole (NH4)2O
h. Na2SO4 •10 H2O gmm = _____________ g = 1 mole Na2SO4 •10 H2O
i. 1 gmm CCl4 = ____________ g CCl4 = 1 mole CCl4
j. 1.00 mole Barium (Ba) = 1 gam Ba = __________ g Ba
k. 1.00 mole SO2 = 1 gmm SO2 = ____________ g SO2
SECTION 8.10 Percentage Composition of Compounds
The formula of a compound reveals the relative number of atoms of each element that compose
the substance. It can also be used to determine the mass percents of each element in the compound.
When we describe the composition of a compound according to the percent by mass of each element in
it, that is known as the percentage composition of the compound.
The percentage composition of a compound can be determined by using its formula and the
atomic masses from the periodic table. It can also be determined in the laboratory using experimental data.
An example of each type of determination is shown below.
Example 1. Calculate the percentage composition by mass of each element in the compound, K2CrO4.
Atomic masses: K = 39.10; Cr = 52.00; O = 16.00. The molecular mass of K2CrO4 is calculated as follows:
K = 39.10 X 2 = 78.20
Cr = 52.00 X 1 = 52.00
0 = 16.00 X 4 = 64.00
Molecular mass = 194.20

%K in K
2
CrO
4
=
78.20 amu
194.20 amu
X 100% = 40.30% K
%Cr in K
2
CrO
4
=
52.00 amu
194.20 amu
X 100% = 26.80% Cr
%O in K
2
CrO
4
=
64.00 amu
194.20 amu
X 100% = 33.00% O
Total of Percents = 100.10%
(Due to rounding, the total percent may fall between 99 and 101.)
8-15 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
Example 2. A 5.00 gram sample of NaOH is decomposed and it is found that the sample contained 2.88
grams of Na. Calculate the percentage by mass of Na in NaOH.

2.88 g Na
5.00 g sample
X 100% = 57.6% Na
(Notice that you divide the mass of the element you are trying to find the percentage of by the mass of the
entire sample, then you multiply by 100%.)
Problem 7. Determine the percent by mass of each element in the following compounds. Show your
work. Round atomic masses to the hundredths column. Show work.
a. KClO3
K = ________%
Cl = ________%
O = ________%
Total = ________%
b. Mg(ClO3)2
Mg = _________%
Cl= _________%
O = _________%
Total = _________%
c. Decomposition of a 5.00 g sample of ethyl alcohol yields 2.61 g of carbon, 0.658 gram of hydrogen,
and 1.73 grams of oxygen. Calculate the mass percent of each element in ethyl alcohol.
C = ________%
H = ________%
O = ________%
Total = ________%
ACTIVITY 8.11 Percentage of Oxygen In Potassium Chlorate
In this activity you will experimentally determine the percent by mass of oxygen in the compound
called potassium chlorate, KClO3. Use the equipment set-up shown in Figure 8.7 . When KClO3 is
heated it decomposes, giving off the oxygen as oxygen gas, O2.

2 KClO3(s) ----------> 2 KCl(s) + 3 O2(g)

8-16 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
Fi gure 8. 7
Heating KClO3 in a Crucible
Procedure:
1. Clean a crucible and cover. Place the crucible in the clay triangle
as shown in Figure 8.7. Heat the empty crucible and cover for a few
minutes to burn off any impurities. Be sure to tilt the cover as
illustrated. Balance it carefully to avoid breakage. Put out the flame
and allow the crucible and cover to cool.
2. Measure out exactly 2.00 g of the dry KClO3. Add this
compound to the crucible. Measure out exactly 0.50 g of MnO2 and
add this to the KClO3 in the crucible. Mix the contents of the
crucible. (The MnO2 is a catalyst that helps the reaction along. It
does not participate or decompose.)
3. With the cover on the crucible, measure the mass of the crucible,
cover, and contents. Record this mass as (a).
4. To remove oxygen gas from the compound, place the cover on
the crucible so that it covers the opening completely. It is important
to begin by heating gently for several minutes (your teacher will
show you how to heat gently). Slowly increase the intensity of the
heating over a period of 10 minutes so that the last couple of
minutes involve high heat. Remove the cover and heat strongly for
an additional 2 minutes. (If the cover seems stuck, ask your teacher
for help.)
5. Allow the crucible to cool. Measure and record the total mass of the crucible, cover, and contents after
heating (b). The crucible and cover can be cleaned by placing them in a boiling water bath (which your
teacher may have available for you to use – ask).
Tabl e 8. 3
Percentage of Oxygen in KClO3
a. mass of crucible + cover + KClO3 + MnO2 __________ g
(this is the total mass before heating)
b. mass of crucible + cover + KCl + MnO2 __________ g
(this is the total mass after heating)
c. mass of KClO3 used 2.00 g
d. mass of oxygen given off __________ g
(a minus b)

8-17 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
6. Using only the experimental data from Table 8.3, calculate the percent by mass of oxygen in KClO3. If
you aren't sure how to do this, refer back to the first sample problem in Section 8.10. Show your work.
Oxygen = ____________%
7. In part "a" of problem 7, you used formula and atomic masses to calculate the accepted or theoretical
value for the percent of oxygen in KClO3. Use that accepted value and your observed experimental value
calculated in Activity 8.11 above to determine your percentage error.
Error = __________%
Typical amount of error on this activity range from 1 to 10 percent. Comment on your amount of error:
______________________________________________________________________________
If your error was greater than 5%, what part of the procedure do you think was responsible for most of it?
______________________________________________________________________________
SECTION 8.12 Chapter Review
Before leaving Chapter 8, some review will be helpful. Remember that 22.4 liters of any gas (at
STP) contains 6.02 X 10
23
atoms, and that many particles of any substance is one mole. We also
discovered in this chapter that 1 gram-atomic mass (gam) of any element contains 6.02 X 10
23
atoms.
Therefore:
1 gam = 1 mole = 6.02 X 10
23
atoms = 22.4 L @ STP
Keep in mind that 1 mole of any gas = 22.4 L only if the gas is at STP.
For substances which are not gases, the 22.4 liter volume does not apply.
So, for solid or liquid elements: 1 gam = 1 mole = 6.02 X 10
23
atoms
For example, 12.01 g carbon = 1 mole carbon = 6.02 X 10
23
C atoms
For solid or liquid compounds: 1 gram-molecular mass (gmm) = 1 mole = 6.02 X 10
23
molecules
For example, 18.02 grams H2O = 1 mole (or H2O = 18.02 g/mole).
8-18 ©1997, A.J. Girondi

So, we can make use of ratios like :
18.02 g H
2
O
1 mole H
2
O
OR
18.02 g H
2
O
6. 02 X 10
23
molecules
SECTION 8.13 Learning Outcomes
This is the end of Chapter 8 which covers Part I of your study of the mole. Chapter 9 will offer
more information on the use of the mole concept. Carefully review what you have learned in this chapter,
and go over the learning outcomes listed below. Check off each one after you are certain that you have
mastered the concepts and skills. Arrange to take any quizzes or exams on Chapter 8, and then go on to
Chapter 9.
_____1. List the sequence of experiments which led to the development
of Avogadro's hypothesis.
_____2. Define the mole as applied to atoms and molecules.
_____3. Find atomic masses on the periodic table and calculate formula
masses.
_____4. Determine the number of atoms in 1 gram-atomic mass of an element
or the number of atoms in a given number of moles of an element.
_____5. Perform mole calculations using the relationship 1 mole = 22.4 L @ STP.
_____6. Calculate the percentage composition of compounds given the formula or experimental data.
8-19 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
SECTION 8.14 Answers to Questions and Problems
Questions:
{1} C; {2} D; {3} Molecules of gas A have a different mass than molecules of gas C; {4} Most of a given
volume of a gas is empty space, so the size of the molecules can vary; {5} 2 amu; {6} 1; {7} 4;
{8} 12 times greater; {9} 52.00; {10} 6.02 X 10
23
; {11} 22.4; {12} 20
Problems:
1. 6.68 X 10
-24
g
2. 2.67 X 10
-23
g
3. a. 1 mole; b. 0.5 mole; c. 2 moles; d. 4 moles
4. a. 96.8; b. 2.60 X 10
24
; c. 44.8; d. 1.20 X 10
24
; e. 0.371; f. 2.61 X 10
23
; g. 0.254; h. 9.62 X 10
23
5. a.16.00; b. 65.38; c. 24.31; d. 40.08; e. 1.01; f. 207.20
6. a. 40.00; b. 141.94; c. 149.12; d. 233.00; e. 164.10; f. 249.71; g. 52.10; h. 322.24; i. 153.81;
j. 137.33; k. 64.06
7. a. 31.91% K, 28.93% Cl, 39.17% O, Total 100.01%
b. 12.71% Mg, 37.08% Cl, 50.21% O, Total 100.00%
c. 52.2% C, 13.16% H, 34.6% O, Total 99.96%
8-20 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
NAME____________________________________ PER____________ DATE DUE____________
ACTIVE LEARNING I N CHEMISTRY EDUCATION
"ALICE"
CHAPTER 9
THE MOLE
CONCEPT
(Part 2)
Unit Conversions
Stoichiometry
Mass-Mass & Mass-Volume
9-1 ©1997, A.J. Girondi

NOTICE OF RIGHTS
All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form by any means,
electronic, mechanical, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the author.
Copies of this document may be made free of charge for use in public or nonprofit private educational
institutions provided that permission is obtained from the author . Please indicate the name and address
of the institution where use is anticipated.
© 1997 A.J. Girondi, Ph.D.
505 Latshmere Drive
Harrisburg, PA 17109
alicechem@geocities.com
Website: www.geocities.com/Athens/Oracle/2041
9-2 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
SECTION 9.1 The Law of Conservation of Matter
In an earlier chapter you experimented with the law of conservation of matter (or mass). The Law
states that "matter is neither created nor destroyed in a chemical reaction." Therefore, the total mass of
the reactants must equal the total mass of the products in any chemical reaction. In addition to proving
this law experimentally using real masses, it can also be demonstrated using atomic masses from the
periodic table. Problem 1 will illustrate this.
Problem 1. Follow the directions below.
a. Finish balancing the equation shown below.
3 NO2 + _____H2O -----> _____HNO3 + _____NO
b. Now, add the atomic masses of all the atoms on the reactant (left) side of the equation:
Total mass of reactants:__________
c. Next, add the atomic masses of all the atoms on the product (right) side of the equation:
Total mass of products:__________
Do your answers support the law of conservation of mass?__________ If not, check to see if you
balanced the equation properly. For the reaction 2 H2 + O2 ----> 2 H2O, if 2.80 g of H2 combine with
22.2g of O2, how many grams of water should be produced if the law of conservation of mass is true?
{1}__________
SECTION 9.2 Converting Grams to Moles and Moles to Grams
Using your knowledge of unit analysis, determine which equation below is correct for changing
moles to grams. Circle the correct equation:
moles X
moles
grams
= grams OR moles X
grams
moles
= grams
Sample Problem: Change 7.65 moles of sulfur to grams of sulfur.
Solution:
7.65 moles S X
32.07 g S
1 mole S
= 245.34 g S (rounds to 245 g)
9-3 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
Sample Problem: Change 1.43 moles of NO2 to grams of NO2.
Solution:
1.43 moles NO
2
X
46.01 g NO
2

1 mole NO
2

= 65.8 g NO
2
Problem 2. Use the equation you just circled to calculate the mass in grams of each of the following.
Use the periodic table, and round atomic masses to the hundredths column. Show your work.
a. 3.00 moles Na X =
b. 3.50 moles CaCO
3
X =
c. 1.50 moles Ba(OH)
2
X =
d. 0.800 mole Fe
3
O
4
X =
e. 0.00200 mole Pb(C
2
H
3
O
2
)
2
X =
Once again use your knowledge of dimensional analysis to determine which equation below is
correct for calculating the number of moles. Circle the correct equation.

grams X
grams
mole
= moles OR grams X
mole
grams
= moles
Sample Problem: Convert 345 grams of Ca to moles of Ca.
Solution:
345 g Ca X
1 mole Ca
40.08 g Ca
= 8.61 moles Ca
Sample Problem: Convert 288 grams of NaNO3 to moles of NaNO3 .
Solution:
288 g NaNO
3
X
1 mole NaNO
3

85.01 g NaNO
3

= 3.39 moles NaNO
3
9-4 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
Problem 3. Use the equation you just circled to calculate the number of moles for each of the following.
Use the periodic table, and round atomic masses to the hundredths column. Show your work.
a. 200. g F
2
X =
b. 180. g Ca X =
c. 10.0 g Na
2
S X =
d. 68.6 g H
2
SO
4
X =
e. 216 g P
2
O
5
X =
Problem 4. This problem will give you additional practice working with mole problems. Use atomic
masses rounded to the hundredths column, use dimensional analysis, show your work, and assume all
situations involving gases are at STP. Show complete set-up for each problem.
a. What is the mass in grams
of 4. 2 moles of Na2CO3
b. Calculate the number of
moles in 14. 5 g of C4H10.
c. Calculate the mass in grams of 0. 00400
moles of KMnO4.
d. How many moles are present
in 24. 5 g of K2Cr2O7?
9-5 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
e. Calculate the number of moles
in 15. 5 g of Ca3(PO4)2.
ACTIVITY 9.3 Determination of the Gram–Atomic Mass (GAM) of Silver
There are several methods for determining the gram atomic mass (gam) of an element. You will
recall that the gram-atomic mass of an element is the mass in grams of one mole of that element. In this
activity, the gram-atomic mass of silver will be determined using a compound (silver oxide) of known
composition, Ag2O. Gather the following equipment: crucible and cover, ring stand, iron ring, clay
triangle, crucible tongs, spatula, burner, balance, goggles or safety glasses, apron.
1. Clean a crucible and cover. Place the crucible in the clay triangle as shown in Figure 9.1 below. Heat
the crucible and cover for about 2 minutes. Be sure to tilt the cover as illustrated. Balance it carefully to
avoid breakage. Put out the flame and use your crucible tongs to put the crucible and lid on the base of
the ring stand to cool.
2. Measure the mass of the crucible + cover.
Record this mass as (a) in Table 9.1.
3. Obtain about 1.75 g of silver oxide powder.
Add this compound to the crucible. With the
cover on the crucible, measure the mass of the
crucible and its contents. Record this mass as
(b).
4. To remove oxygen from the oxide compound,
tilt the cover as before and strongly heat the
crucible, cover and contents in the hottest part of
the flame for 10 minutes. Allow the crucible to
cool. The crucible should now contain only silver
metal. It may look white, but it is silver metal.
Measure and record the mass of the crucible,
cover, and silver metal (d).
Figure 9.1 Heating a Crucible
crucible
pipestem
triangle
lid
5. If time permits, reheat strongly for an additional 5 minutes. After cooling, again measure the mass of the
crucible, cover, and metal to check for constancy of mass.
9-6 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
Tabl e 9. 1
The Atomic Mass of Silver Metal
a. mass of crucible + cover __________ g
b. mass of crucible + cover + Ag2O __________ g
(this is the total mass before heating)
c. mass of oxide compound (Ag2O) used (b–a) __________ g
d. mass of crucible + cover + Ag metal __________ g
(this is the total mass after heating)
e. mass of silver metal. (d–a) __________ g
6. Do not discard the silver in the crucible. Your instructor will have a container available in which you can
put it. Try scratching the silver with a spatula or other metal object. This should reveal the shiny, silvery
luster of the metal. If there is a magnifying glass or binocular scope in your lab, use it to observe the metal
more closely. If you have trouble removing the silver from the crucible, give it to your instructor. The silver
can be recycled for use in other experiments.
1. Find the mass of oxygen in your sample of Ag2O. (b–d)

__________ g O
2. Convert the number of grams of oxygen in your sample (from calculation 1 above) to moles of oxygen.
(Oxygen was not in its diatomic form (O2) here, since it was combined with silver.) 16.00 g O = 1 mole O.
__________ mole O
3. Using the result of calculation 2 above, find the number of moles of silver metal in your sample of
compound (Ag2O). Since the formula is known to be Ag2O, this means that the compound contains 2
moles of Ag for every one mole of O. To find moles of Ag in your sample, just multiply the result of
calculation 2 above, by two.
__________ mole Ag
4. Find the molar mass (g/mol) of the silver metal. (Divide the mass in grams of silver metal in Table 9.1 (e)
above by the number of moles of Ag found in calculation 3 above.)
__________ g/mole
9-7 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
5. Obtain the accepted value for the atomic mass of silver from the periodic table. Compare it to your
experimentally determined value and determine your percentage of error. Check your reference materials
if you forget the formula for percent error. Show calculations below.
Accepted Value from Periodic Table = ____________ g/mole Ag = 1 gram-atomic mass (gam) of Ag
Observed (experimental) Value = ____________ g/mole Ag = 1 gram-atomic mass (gam) of Ag
Calculation of % Error. Show Work.
% Error = _____________
This experiment usually yields results with a higher percentage error than most of the activities you will
perform in this course. Nevertheless, this procedure should produce less than 15% error. Does your %
error fall within this range? __________ If not, how do you account for the excess error? ____________
______________________________________________________________________________
ACTIVITY 9.4 Balancing An Equation By Experiment
In this activity you will observe the reaction of iron nails with a solution of copper (II) chloride and
determine the number of moles involved in the reaction. By converting grams of iron metal consumed and
grams of copper metal produced to moles, you will see how experimental data can be used to balance an
equation.
Procedure:
1. Find the mass of a clean, empty, dry 250 mL beaker which you have marked with your initials. Record
the mass to the nearest 0.01 g in Table 9.2 below.
2. Add about 8.00 g of copper (II) chloride crystals to the beaker (note that when a word like about is used,
it means that you do not have to use exactly that amount. However, it is important to know precisely how
much you are using.) Record the mass of CuCl2 in Table 9.1. Add about 50 mL of distilled water to the
beaker, and swirl or stir the solution to dissolve all of the solid.
3. Obtain two nails. Clean the nails using a piece of fine sandpaper. Find and record the mass of the two
nails (together). If you have at least 25 minutes left in your class, place the nails into the solution and allow
the reaction continue for at least 20 minutes. Occasionally swirl the solution in the beaker. (If your class
time is short, you can allow the reaction to run longer, but do not allow it to continue for more than a few
hours.) During that time, you will see the formation of copper in the beaker. At the same time the iron nails
will be partially consumed. The solution will slowly change color from blue to green as some of the blue
CuCl2(aq) is consumed and replaced by pale yellow FeCl3(aq). This is a single replacement reaction, and
the balanced equation is:
Fe(s) + CuCl2(aq) ----> Cu(s) + FeCl2(aq)
9-8 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
4. After about 20 minutes, remove any remaining pieces of nail using your forceps or crucible tongs. If
any copper is sticking to the nails, use your wash bottle to rinse as much of the copper as you can back
into the beaker. Dry the nails on a paper towel. When the nails are dry, find their mass and record in Table
9.1. The nails can then be discarded.
5. Decant means to pour off only the liquid from a container that contains both solid and liquid. Carefully
decant the liquid from the solid. (No filtering is necessary.) Pour the liquid into another beaker so that in
case you lose any solid, you can recover it. (You will always lose a little - don't worry about that.) After
decanting, rinse the solid copper in your beaker with some distilled water from your wash bottle. Decant
the rinse water. Repeat this rinsing three more times.
Tabl e 9. 2
The Iron - Copper (II) Chloride Reaction
1. Mass of empty, dry, labeled beaker __________ g

(Before the Reaction)
2. Mass of beaker + CuCl2 __________ g
3. Mass of two iron nails(before reaction) __________ g
4. Mass of two iron nails(after reaction) __________ g
5. Mass of beaker + dry copper __________ g
6. Mass of copper produced (5 – 1) __________ g
6. Next, wash the solid copper with about 25 mL of 1.0 M hydrochloric acid (HCl). Decant again, and rinse
once more with distilled water. Place the beaker containing the copper in an oven to dry until the next day.
7. When the copper is completely dry, find and record the mass of the beaker plus the copper. Scrape
the copper out of the beaker and discard it in the waste can. Clean and return all equipment. Perform the
following calculations, rounding atomic masses to the hundredths column. Show your work.
Calculations:
1. Referring to items 3 and 4 in Table 9.2, calculate the mass in grams of iron used in the reaction.
2. Using your answer to calculation 1 above, calculate the number of moles of iron used in the reaction.
3. Using items 1 and 5 in Table 9.2, calculate the number of grams of copper metal produced and enter
the result in the data table.
9-9 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
4. Using your answer to calculation 3 above, determine the number of moles of copper metal produced.
5. Use your results from calculations 2 and 4 above to determine a simple whole–number ratio of moles of
iron reacted to moles of copper produced. (Hint: divide each quantity of moles by the smallest of the two
and round to the closest whole number.) If this confuses you , consider the following. Suppose you
have a ratio such as 0.64 to 0.16. To change this to an equivalent whole-number ratio we will divide each
number the the smallest of the two which is 0.16. Since 0.64 ÷ 0.16 = 4, and since 0.16 ÷ 0.16 = 1, the
equivalent whole-number ratio is 4 to 1.
Experimental whole–number ratio of Fe to Cu is: _______ to _______
6. The balanced equation for this reaction was shown previously in the activity. What Fe to Cu mole ratio is
predicted by the balanced equation for this reaction? ______ to ______
7. The equation for this reaction is Fe(s) + CuCl2(aq) ----> Cu(s) + FeCl2(aq) How does your experimental
ratio compare to the Fe – Cu mole ratio predicted by the equation?
______________________________________________________________________________
SECTION 9.5 Introduction To Mass-Mass Problems
You have seen that the coefficient numbers in a balanced chemical equation may represent the
relative number of moles or the relative number of molecules involved in a reaction. These reacting ratios
do not change. The reaction below is a balanced chemical equation. Two moles of Li2O decompose to
form four moles of Li and one mole of O2. Note the 2:4:1 mole ratio in the following equation:
2 Li
2
O ----> 4 Li + O
2
The ratio of moles of reactant (Li2O) to moles of Li produced is 2:4 in this balanced equation. Knowing
this relationship can help to solve a wide variety of problems such as the next sample problem.
Sample Problem: Referring to the equation above, determine the number of moles of Li produced
when 3.00 moles of Li 2O decompose.
Begin this problem by writing the information given and the information you are hoping to find as follows:
3.00 moles Li
2
O X
? ? ?
? ? ?
= ???? moles Li
Once you have the basic framework of your equation, you simply build the rest of the equation using data
offered in the problem or from the balanced equation. Enter the data in the correct positions, so that your
units cancel properly and leave you with only the units you want in the answer:
9-10 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
4:2 ratio from
balanced equation
3.00 moles Li
2
O X
4 moles Li
2 moles Li
2
O
= 6.00 moles Li
Because these problems begin with a mass (grams or moles) and end with a mass (grams or moles), they
are sometimes called "mass-mass" problems. Notice that complete units are very, very important. We
didn't just use moles, but we used moles Li and moles Li 2O. In chemistry, when you do calculations which
relate quantities of two substances used or produced in a chemical reaction, you are doing what is known
as stoichiometry. Stoichiometric problems give you information about one substance, and ask for
information about a different substance in a chemical reaction. For this reason, you need to refer to the
chemical equation for the reaction. Most of the problems in the rest of this chapter involve stoichiometry.
Your calculations should always include complete units. Your teacher will be looking for them! Try this
next problem, yourself. Show your work.
Problem 5. Using the equation from the last sample problem, determine the number of moles of O2
produced when 3.00 moles of Li2O decompose.
3.00 moles Li
2
O X


=
Other varieties of mass-mass problems are shown below. Examine the examples and then try the
problems which follow.
Sample Problem: In the reaction 2 H2 + O2 ----> 2 H2O, how many grams of H2O will be formed if we use
4.5 grams of O2?
Note that you are asked to change information about O2 into information about H2O. (Change 4.5
grams O2 into grams of H2O) Hmmmm. This is stoichiometry. In order to change information about one
substance into information about another substance, you must first know a relationship between those
two substances. Where do we find such a relationship? In the equation for the reaction! What
relationship do we already know between O2 and H2O? Well, thanks to the balanced equation, we know
that 1 mole of O2 is needed to produce 2 moles of H2O. The relationship that we already know is a mole
ratio. Therefore, in order to change information about O2 into information about H2O, we must do it in the
terms of the relationship that we already know. In other words, we must do it in terms of moles in this case.
Since we cannot change grams of O2 directly into grams of H2O, we will first change the 4.5 g of O2
into moles of O2. Then, we can change moles of O2 into moles of H2O. Finally, we will change moles of
H2O into grams of H2O. This will all be done using unit analysis. Note that the part of the solution where
we change from one substance to the other (O2 to H2O) occurs, is the mole-to- mole ratio:
Relating Two Different Substances
Relationship From Balanced Equation
unit conversion
unit conversion
4.5 g O
2
X
1 mole O
2
32.00 g O
2
X
2 moles H
2
O
1 mole O
2
X
18.02 g H
2
O
1 mole H
2
O
= 5.1 g H
2
O
9-11 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
Remember, in order to establish a relationship between two substances, you must first know a relationship
between them. Balanced chemical equations provide such relationships in the form of mole-to-mole
ratios. Thus, problems which change information about one substance to information about another
substance must make use of the mole-to-mole ratio in the balanced equation. If the information given in
the problem is not in the form of moles, it has to be changed to moles inorder to then use the mole to mole
ratio. Thus, the mole to mole ratio is the "heart of" a stoichiometry problem. When the problem is set up,
there may be any number of "unit conversions" before or after the mole-to-mole ratio, depending on the
information given and requested in a particular problem. Note the two unit conversions used in the
illustration above. The diagram in Figure 9.2 outlines the process. There are many other unit conversions
besides the ones listed in Figure 9.2.
The problem below is simpler than the last sample problem since the information is given in moles. Fill in
the missing parts of the set-up so that all units divide out except grams of Al2O3 and solve the problem.
Problem 6. In the reaction: 4 Al + 3 O2 ---> 2 Al2O3 how many grams of Al2O3 will be formed if we start
with 5.0 moles of Al?
5.0 moles Al X
moles Al
X
1 mole Al
2
O
3
= __________ g Al
2
O
3
Use as many unit conversions as
needed to change the starting
information to moles.
Use mole-to-mole ratio in
the balanced equation to
convert to moles of the
substance in the answer.
Is the information you
are going to start with
given in moles?
NO
YES
Do you want your
answer to be
expressed in moles?
YES
You are Done!
NO
Use as many unit conversions as
needed to change moles to the
units requested in the answer.
SOME UNIT CONVERSIONS
1 g-atomic mass = 1 mole
1 g-formula mass = 1 mole
22.4 L = 1 mole gas @ STP
6.02 X 10
23
atoms = 1 mole
6.02 X 10
23
molecules = 1 mole
START
Stoichiometry?
Figure 9.2 Flow Diagram for Solving Stoichiometry Problems
9-12 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
Solve the following problems using dimensional anaylsis. All measurements must include units!
Problem 7. In the reaction: C + 2 Cl2 ----> CCl4, how many grams of CCl4 can be prepared starting with
8.6 grams of Cl2?
Problem 8. In the reaction: FeCl3 + 3 NaOH ---> Fe(OH)3(s) + 3 NaCl, how many grams of Fe(OH)3 can
be produced if we start with 0.50 moles of NaOH?
Problem 9. In the reaction 2 Al + 3 Pb(NO3)2 ---> 2 Al(NO3)3 + 3 Pb, how many grams of Al are needed
to produce 68 grams of Pb?
Problem 10. In the reaction in problem 9 above, how many moles of Pb will be formed if 23.2 grams of
Al(NO3)3 are formed?
Problem 11. In the reaction: BaCO3 ----> BaO + CO2, how many grams of CO2 can be produced from
the decomposition of 45 grams of BaCO3?
9-13 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
ACTIVITY 9.6 The "Silver Tree" Reaction
The purpose of this activity is to use mass-mass calculations to predict the outcome of an
experiment. In order to accomplish this, you will be measuring the masses of both the reactants and the
products. A single replacement reaction is involved in which copper replaces the silver in silver nitrate:
Cu(s) + 2 AgNO3(aq) ----> Cu(NO3)2(aq) + 2 Ag(s)
Notice that one of the products will be pure silver metal. This activity requires that you perform a number of
laboratory procedures over a period of 3 days.
Procedure for Day 1: (About 15 minutes required)
1. Obtain a clean, dry 100 or 150 mL beaker and use a magic marker to label it as "Beaker A" and include
your name(s).
Figure 9.3 Copper Coil in Beaker
2. Weigh the beaker and record the mass in the Table
9.3. (Note: all masses in this activity should be
measured to the nearest 0.01 or 0.001 g depending
on the balances available. Use the most precise
balance available, and use balances of the same
precision throughout the activity.)
3. Measure about 25 to 30 centimeters of copper wire
and coil it around a test tube. Measure and record its
mass.
4. Leave some wire uncoiled to make a hook which will
fit over the edge of the beaker. (See Figure 9.3)
5. Measure between 2 and 3 grams of silver nitrate
crystals. Record the exact mass of the crystals.
Caution: silver nitrate crystals can create dark stains or
spots on your skin and clothing. The stained area will
not darken for several hours. Use care in handling
AgNO3. Clean up any spilled crystals with a damp
towel.

6. Fill beaker A about two-thirds full of distilled water. Add the AgNO3 crystals. Stir with a glass stirring rod
until most of the crystals have dissolved. The coils of your copper wire should not be too close together.
When the coil is immersed in the solution, most of the coils should be submerged. (See Figure 9.3)
7. Place the copper coil into the solution and observe the beginning of the reaction. Store the beaker in
your drawer until the next day.
Procedure for Day 2: (About 10 minutes required)
8. Lift the copper wire from beaker A and shake off any silver residue which has formed. Rinse the wire
using a wash bottle with distilled water, allowing the rinse water to fall into beaker A. Set the wire aside to
dry until the next day. DO NOT discard the wire until you have weighed it and recorded its mass!
9. Obtain a second clean, dry 100 or 150 mL beaker. Decant most of the solution in beaker A into the
second beaker. Try not to lose too many of the solid silver crystals as you decant the solution. You do not
9-14 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
need to decant all of it. Discard the solution in the second beaker rinse it with water.
10. Squirt a little distilled water over the silver metal in beaker A. Decant most of the rinse water into the
sink, retaining the silver metal.
11. Place beaker A containing the wet silver metal into a warm drying oven until the next day. Any water
left in this beaker will evaporate.
Procedure for Day 3: (About 10 minutes required)
12. Weigh the dry copper wire, which can then be discarded in the waste can. Record the mass in the data
table.
13. Weigh beaker A (with contents) and record. Empty the silver metal in beaker A into the container
provided by your instructor. It can be purified and used in other experiments. Remove any markings from
the beaker with alcohol and a towel.
Tabl e 9. 3
The “Silver Tree” Reaction
Item(s) Mass in Grams
1. Beaker A __________
2. Copper Wire (day 1) __________
3. Copper Wire (day 3) __________
4. Copper Metal Reacted (2-3) __________
5. Silver Nitrate (day 1) __________
6. Beaker A + Silver Metal (day 3) __________
7. Silver Metal Formed (6-1) __________
Calculations:
1. Here is where your expertise in mass-mass problems will come in handy! Based on the number of
grams of copper that were consumed (item 4 in Table 9.3), predict how many grams of silver should have
been produced. Show work.
__________ g Ag should be produced
2. The actual amount of silver produced is item 7 in Table 9.3. Is it close to your predicted value in
calculation 1 above? __________ Calculate your percentage error using the formula for %E. You can
find it in your reference notebook. The accepted value (A) is your prediction from calculation 1. The
observed value is item 7 in Table 9.3. Show work.
9-15 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
3. Calculate the number of moles of copper which reacted. Be sure to use as many significant figures as
you are entitled to. Show work.
4. Calculate the number of moles of silver produced. Be sure to use as many significant figures as you are
entitled to.
5. Using the answers to calculations 3 and 4 above, determine the whole number ratio of moles of Cu
used to moles of Ag produced. Do this by dividing moles of copper (calculation 3 above) and moles of
silver (calculation 4 above) by the smallest of the two values. Show work.
According to the balanced equation for this reaction, what should the mole to mole ratio be for Cu to Ag?
______ Cu(s) + 2 AgNO3(aq) ----> Cu(NO3)2(aq) + ______ Ag(s)
How does your experimentally–determined Cu:Ag ratio in calculation 5 compare to that in the balanced
equation?______________________________________________________________________
SECTION 9.7 Introduction to Mass–Volume Problems
The important unit conversion which you know that relates mass to volume (moles to liters) is:
1 mole of a gas = 22.4 L @ STP. In mass-volume problems, the same basic procedure is followed no
matter how complex a problem may become. The key to success is to always include all units when you
set up the problem. In that way, you can be sure to set it up so that all units cancel properly.
Problem 12. Determine the volume in liters (at STP) of nitrogen gas, N2, needed to produce 92.0
grams of product, NO2, in the reaction: N2(g) + 2 O2(g) ----> 2 NO2(g)
The two relationships which you need to use which are not given in the problem are:
22.4 L = 1 mole gas and NO2 = 46.0 g/mole.
Furthermore, the ratio of moles of N2 to moles of NO2 = 1:2. The basic framework has been drawn for you
below. (We can call this framework a "fencepost" because it begins to look a bit like one. In that event,
doing dimensional analysis is called "fenceposting.") The problem has been partially completed for you
9-16 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
below. You should now fill in the blanks and calculate the answer. Make sure to use complete units and to
be certain that all units divide out except those you want in the answer. (Problems which attempt to
establish a relationship between a mass and a volume are called mass-volume problems.)
92.0 g NO
2
X
g NO
2
X
moles N
2
X
moles N
2
= _______ L N
2
The next four problems refer to the following equation. Use the same approach as you did to solve the
previous problems. Show all of your work, including complete units. Assume STP for gases.
2 KClO3(s) ----> 2 KCl(s) + 3 O2(g)
Probl em 13. How many moles of KClO3 are required to form 2.5 liters of O2?
Probl em 14. How many grams of KClO3 are needed to produce 11.2 liters of O2?
Probl em 15. How many liters of O2 are formed when 367.8 g of KClO3 decompose?
Probl em 16. How many moles of KCl are produced when 2.3 L of O2 are produced?
SECTION 9.8 A Variety of Stoichiometry Problems To Solve
Use the equation below to solve problems 17 through 20. Assume STP conditions for any gases. Show
your work, and include units with all measurements.
3 H2(g) + N2(g) ----> 2 NH3(g)
9-17 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
Problem 17. How many moles of ammonia (NH3) would be produced by reacting 6.00 moles of
hydrogen (H2) with an adequate amount of nitrogen (N2)?
Problem 18. If 56.0 grams of N2 are reacted with a sufficient amount of H2, how many moles of product
(NH3) are formed?

Problem 19. How many grams of NH3 are formed when 5.60 liters of N2 react with a sufficient amount of
H2?

Problem 20. How many liters of NH3 will be formed when 3.01 X10
23
molecules of H2 react with a
sufficient amount of N2?

The following problems involve all of the information you have gathered thus far about moles. Use
unit analysis to set up these problems and to be sure your units cancel properly. Show all your work, and
assume STP conditions for any gases.
Problem 21. What is the volume in liters occupied by 10.0 grams of CO2 gas at STP? (Hint: you must
first find the molecular mass of CO2.)

9-18 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
Problem 22. If 1.00 mole of a gas has a mass of 18.0 grams, and you have 15.0 grams of the gas, what
would its volume be at STP?

Probl em 23. If the molecular mass of a gas is 34.0 g/ 1 mole, what would be the mass of 30.0 L at STP?

Probl em 24. What is the volume in liters of 6.40 g of O2 gas at STP?
Problem 25. A gas sample with a mass of 50.0 grams has a volume of 40.0 L. What is the gram-
molecular mass (GMM) of the gas? (GMM is epxressed in units of grams/mole.) Hint: This problem is a bit
different form the others. Notice that you are given grams and liters but asked for grams/mole. Why not
start your set-up with 50.0 grams/40.0 liters and then just convert liters to moles?
Problem 26. Calculate the gram-molecular mass, GMM, (in g/mole) of a gas if 11.5 g of the gas has a
volume of 5.60 L at STP? (You want to end the problem with units of grams/moles.)
Probl em 27. Is the gas mentioned in problem 26 above H2O, SO2, or NO2? Show how you know.
9-19 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
SECTION 9.9 Learning Outcomes
By now you must realize that the mole is a central concept in chemistry and is very useful when
working with chemical equations. When you are certain you understand each one, place a check mark in
the space preceding each learning outcome below. Then, move on to chapter 10.
_____1. Use dimensional (unit) analysis to make conversions between moles, grams, liters, and
molecules.
_____2. Calculate mole–mole relations from balanced chemical equations.
_____3. Calculate mass–mass relations from balanced chemical equations.
_____4. Calculate mass–volume relations from balanced chemical equations.
_____5. Use the molar volume concept in problems involving gases.
9-20 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
SECTION 9.10 Answers to Questions and Problems
Questions: {1} 25.0 g
Problems:
1. a. 3, 1, 2, 1; b. 156.05 amu; c. 156.05 amu
2. a. 68.97 g (69.0 rounded); b. 350.32 g (350. rounded); c. 257.03 g (257 rounded)
d. 185.24 g (185 rounded); e. 0.651 g
3. a. 5.26 moles; b. 4.5 moles; c. 0.128 mole; d. 0.699 mole; e. 1.52 moles
4. a. 445.16 g rounds to 450 g; b. 0.249 mole; c. 0.632 g; d. 0.0833 mole; e. 0.0500 mole
5. 1.50 moles O2
6. 254.9 g Al 2O3 (250 g rounded)
7. 9.3 g CCl4
8. 18 g Fe(OH)3
9. 5.9 g Al
10. 0.163 mole Pb
11. 10. g CO2
12. 22.4 L N2
13. 0.074 mole KClO3
14. 40.9 g KClO3
15. 100.8 L O2
16. 0.068 mole KCl
17. 4.00 moles NH3
18. 4.00 moles NH3
19. 8.52 g NH3
20. 7.47 L NH3
21. 5.09 L CO2
22. 18.7L
23. 45.5 g
24. 4.48 L O2
25. 28.0 g/mole
26. 46.0 g/mole
27. NO2
9-21 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
SECTION 9.11 Student Notes
9-22 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
NAME____________________________________ PER____________ DATE DUE____________
ACTIVE LEARNING I N CHEMISTRY EDUCATION
“ALICE”
CHAPTER 10
THE MOLE
CONCEPT
(Part 3)
Empirical Formulas
Molecular Formulas
The Ideal Gas Law
10-1 ©1997, A.J. Girondi

NOTICE OF RIGHTS
All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form by any means,
electronic, mechanical, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the author.
Copies of this document may be made free of charge for use in public or nonprofit private educational
institutions provided that permission is obtained from the author . Please indicate the name and address
of the institution where use is anticipated.
© 1997 A.J. Girondi, Ph.D.
505 Latshmere Drive
Harrisburg, PA 17109
alicechem@geocities.com
Website: www.geocities.com/Athens/Oracle/2041
10-2 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
SECTI ON 10. 1 Laboratory Determination of Empirical Formulas
An empirical formula is one which identifies which elements are present in a compound, and it
gives the simplest ratio of atoms of those elements in the compound. Examples of empirical formulas
include NaCl, CaCl2, and Al 2O3 in which the simplest ratios are 1:1, 1:2, and 2:3, respectively. You can
write empirical formulas using oxidation numbers, but they can also be determined using experimental
data from experiments. The following example will illustrate how this is done.
Sample Problem: A laboratory analysis found that a compound contained 36.5 g Na, 25.4 g S, and
38.1 g of O. What is the empirical formula of the compound?
Note: In these kinds of problems, you should attempt to calculate the mole quantities to at least 2 decimal places;
otherwise, some problems may be solved incorrectly.
Solution:
Step 1: Change the mass data to moles:

36.5 g Na X
1 mole Na
22.99 g Na
= 1.59 mole Na
25.4 g S X
1 mole S
32.06 g O
= 0.79 mole S
38.1 g O X
1 mole O
16.00 g O
= 2.38 mole O
Step 2: Change the numbers of moles to a simple whole number ratio. You do this by dividing each of the
mole quantities by the smallest of them. In our example, the smallest is 0.79. Thus, the calculations are:
1.59 mol Na
0.791
= 2.01 mol Na;
0.791 mol S
0.791
= 1.00 mol S;
2.38 mol O
0.791
= 3.01 mol O
These results are very close to 2:1:3, so the answer is Na2SO3.
In some problems of this kind, a third step is necessary. This is illustrated in the next sample problem.
Sample Problem: What is the empirical formula of a compound that contains 53.73% iron, Fe, and
46.27% sulfur, S?
(When the data are given in percentages, they can be changed to grams simply by assuming that you have 100
grams of the sample.)
Step 1: Change the mass data to moles:
53.75 g Fe X
1 mole Fe
55.83 g Fe
= 0.9620 mol Fe
46.27 g S X
1 mole S
32.07 g S
= 1.443 mol S
10-3 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
Step 2: Change the numbers of moles to a simple whole number ratio. You do this by dividing each of the
mole quantities by the smallest of them.
0.9620 mol Fe
0.9620
= 1.000 mol Fe and
1.443 mol S
0.9260
= 1.50 mol S
After completing step 2, the mole ratio is 1:1.5. The 1.5 is not close enough to a whole number to be
rounded. Therefore, we go to step three.
Step 3: Multiply the mole ratio by the smallest integer which will give a whole number ratio. In this case,
that integer is 2:2 X 1.000 = 2.000; and 2 X 1.50 = 3.00
Thus, the answer is: Fe2S3
Note: In order to be rounded to a whole number in step 2, a mole quantity should be within one-tenth of that number.
For example, 2.1 can be rounded to 2, or 3.9 can be rounded to 4 and step 3 is not needed. However, 2.2 and 3.8
should not be rounded to 2 and 4. In such a case, step three is necessary.
Problem 1. It is found that a sample of magnesium oxide consists of 4.04 g of magnesium (Mg) and
2.66 g of oxygen (O). Calculate the empirical formula of the magnesium oxide using this information.
Problem 2. Experimental evidence reveals that a compound between iron (Fe) and oxygen (O)
consists of 2.24 g Fe and 0.96 g O. Find the empirical formula.
Problem 3. An investigation reveals that the percentage composition of a compound is 75.0% carbon
(C) and 25.0% hydrogen (H) by mass. Find its empirical formula.
10-4 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
Problem 4. Calculate the empirical formula of a compound which contains 32.4% Na, 22.6% S, and
45.0% O.
Problem 5. A laboratory analysis of an unknown compound revealed that 100 g of it consisted of
26.60 g K, 35.40 g Cr, and 38.08 g O. What is the empirical formula of the compound?
ACTIVITY 10.2 Determination of the Formula of an Oxide of Tin
In an earlier chapter you learned how to write chemical formulas for compounds by using what are
known as oxidation numbers. Now that you know something about the mole concept, you are ready to try
to determine the chemical formula of a compound experimentally in the lab. In this activity you are going to
make a compound of tin and oxygen, and you are going to gather data which will allow you to, hopefully,
determine its formula.
1. Clean and dry an evaporating dish and a watch glass cover (see figure 10.1). Determine the mass of
the dish with watch glass cover to the nearest 0.01 g.
Figure 10.1 Heating an Evaporating Dish
iron ring
wire screen
watch glass
ring stand
evaporating dish
2. Place about 2 g of 30-mesh granulated tin in
the dish, cover with the watch glass, and
measure the mass. If the balance in your lab
displays masses to three decimal places, then
read the mass of the tin to the nearest 0.001 g or
to the nearest 0.01 g if your balance is accurate
to only two decimal places. Enter all this data in
Table 10.1.
3. While your instructor is watching, under a
fume hood, carefully add 5 mL of 8 M nitric acid
(HNO3), and replace the watch glass. (The 8 M
indicates the concentration of the acid.) Handle
the acid with great care, and be sure to wear
safety glasses! Do not allow the acid to drip on
anything.
10-5 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
4. A reaction should begin which will result in the production of a reddish toxic gas, NO2. When this
reaction has subsided, you can take the dish back to your lab station for the rest of this activity. Briefly,
here is what is happening in the dish. Some of the oxygen from the nitric acid, HNO3, combines with the
tin to form a compound of tin and oxygen. At the same time, the acid decomposes to form H2O and NO2.
The unfinished equation is:
? HNO3 + ? Sn ----> ? Sn?O? + ? H2O + ? NO2
So as the reaction goes on, you should see the formation of water, NO2 gas, and the white compound of
tin and oxygen. In order to complete and balance the equation, you need to determine the correct
formula for the tin–oxygen compound.
5. Position the dish, watch glass and the contents on a wire gauze supported by a ring stand as shown in
Figure 10.1. Begin heating the dish with a low flame. Hold the burner in your hand and rotate it slowly
under the gauze. Excessive heating at this point will result in spitting and popping in the dish. Continue to
heat slowly and carefully until the contents are dry.
6. When popping and spattering no longer occur, remove the watch glass with tongs and place it upside
down on your lab table. Break up the solid with a stirring rod, and heat with a hot flame until the solid
becomes a pale yellow. Be careful not to unnecessarily lose any material when you remove the watch
glass or use the stirring rod.
7. After the dish has cooled, replace the watch glass cover and determine the mass of the dish, cover,
and contents. Reheat the dish – without the cover – for a few minutes, allow to cool again, and determine
the mass again as before. If the two masses are not very close, reheat again until there is no further loss of
mass.
8. Discard the product in the waste container. Clean and return all equipment.
Tabl e 10. 1
1. Mass of dish and watch glass __________ g
2. Mass of dish, watch glass, and tin __________ g
3. Mass of tin (subtract 1 from 2 above) __________ g
4. Mass of dish, watch glass, and product __________ g
(after heating to a constant mass)
5. Mass of oxygen in product __________ g
(subtract 2 from 4 above)
Calculations:
1. Since all of the tin you used ends up in the product, you should be able to calculate the number of
moles of tin in the product. Express your answer to three decimal places.
10-6 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
2. From the mass of oxygen gained, calculate the number of moles of oxygen, O, in the product. (This
oxygen is not in the gaseous diatomic form.) Express your answer to three decimal places.

3. Enter your results from calculations 1 and 2 above in the blanks below.
Sn___________ O___________
This is the formula of the compound you made. However, we want to change these results to a whole
number ratio. Do this by dividing each of the subscripts by the smallest of the two. For example, if you got
a ratio such as 0.33 to 0.97, you would divide each value by 0.33. The result would be a ratio of 1 to 2.9.
This is close enough (within ±0.1) to be rounded to 1 to 3. What if this process does not result in values
which are close (within ±0.1) to whole numbers? For example, what if the division process described
above gives you a ratio such as 1 to 2.5? The 2.5 cannot be rounded to a whole number. You should
then multiply the values by the smallest integer which will give you a whole number ratio. In the case of 1
to 2.5, that integer would be 2. The resulting ratio would be 2 to 5. Enter the whole number ratio resulting
from your lab data into the blanks below.
The correct formula for the compound which you made is SnO2. The unbalanced equation representing
the reaction which you used to make the SnO2 is shown below. Balance it by adding the correct
coefficients.
_____ HNO
3
+ _____ Sn ----> _____ SnO
2
+ _____ H
2
O + _____ NO
2
In this compound the oxidation number of tin is +4 and of oxygen is -2. What are the two possible names
for the tin–oxygen product?
{1}_____________________________ and {2}_________________________________.
SECTION 10.3 Molecular Formulas
The empirical formula of a compound gives the simplest ratio of the atoms in the molecule. A
molecular formula reveals the exact number of atoms of each element in the molecule. For example, the
empirical formula of a certain gas is NO2, while its molecular formula is N2O4. Its empirical formula mass is
46, while its molecular formula mass is 92. Note that the molecular formula's mass is a multiple of the
empirical formula's mass. That's because the molecular formula is always a multiple of the empirical
formula. If you know the empirical formula mass and the molecular formula's mass, you can calculate the
molecular formula as shown below:
(empirical formula mass) X (M) = (molecular formula's mass)
The letter M represents the multiple that relates the two formulas. For our example above:
(46) X M = (92), so M = 2 Therefore, 2 X (NO2) = N2O4
With this information, you should now be able to do problem 6.
10-7 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
Problem 6. Your answer to problem 3 (earlier in this chapter) represents the empirical formula of the
compound. If the molecular mass of that compound is 48, find its molecular formula. (Begin by calculating
the formula mass of your answer to problem 3.)
Problem 7. Butane is a compound of 82.7% carbon (C) and 17.3% hydrogen (H). Its molecular mass is
58 amu. What are the empirical formula and molecular formulas of butane?
Problem 8. An organic (carbon) compound if found to contain 92.25 g of carbon and 7.75 g of
hydrogen. If the molecular mass is 78, what is the molecular formula?
SECTION 10.4 The Ideal Gas Law: PV = nRT
You may remember that when you were studying the gas laws, it was mentioned that there was
one other law that you would learn about later. Now's the time!
It's called the ideal gas law, because it describes the behavior of an ideal gas, which is defined as a
gas that always obeys the gas laws under all conditions. Of course, there is no such gas. Real gases, like
H2 or O2 do not strictly obey the gas laws under extreme conditions like very high pressures or very low
temperatures. Nonetheless, we don't have to be concerned about that, because our work is not usually
done under such conditions.
The ideal gas law is different from the others you have learned in that it deals with only one set of
conditions. The problems you solved using the other gas laws included an "old" and "new" temperature,
and "old" and "new" pressure, etc. Maybe you were given an "original" volume and asked to find a "new"
volume. However, you will use the ideal gas law to solve problems involving only one pressure,
temperature, volume, etc. The formula for the ideal gas law is:
PV = nRT
10-8 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
where P = pressure, V = volume, n = moles, T = temperature, and R is called the ideal gas constant. R has
a value of 0.0821 and its units are really crazy. They are shown below.
R = 0.0821
L. atm.
mole K
These units are "liter-atmospheres per mole-Kelvin." Scientific constants usually have strange units, but
don't worry. They cancel when you use R in problems. R, like all constants, was experimentally
determined, and is used to make the equation "work." We often use such constants. For example,
consider the equation: P = C x A. P = number of people, and A = number of arms. What's the value of
the constant C? Well, if you got O.5, that's right. In other words, if you have 16 arms and multiply by 0.5,
you get 8 people. C is used to make the equation work. Its units would be people/arms, right?
Anyway, PV=nRT is the only gas law that you have studied that uses such a constant. When a
constant is used in an equation, the units of the other variables in the equation must be the same as those
used in the constant. For that reason, when using the 0.0821 value in the ideal law you MUST express
volume in liters, pressure in atmospheres, temperature in K (as always), and mass (n) in moles. Learn the
relationships below which will allow you to make any needed conversions.
1 atmosphere = 760 mm Hg; 1 L = 1000 mL;
o
C + 273 = K
To solve a variety of problems, you will have to rearrange the ideal gas equation. How’s your algebra? For
example, of we solve the equation for n, V, and T, respectively, we get:
n =
PV
RT
V =
nRT
P
T =
PV
nR
Sample Problem: What volume would 34 g of CO2 gas have at 23
o
C and 800. mm pressure?
(Notice that only one set of conditions is given? This is a hint that the use of the ideal gas law is appropriate.)
Solution: We must change 34 g of CO2 to moles,
o
C to K, and mm to atm. These are the results of those
conversions: 34 g CO2 = 0.77 mole; 23
o
C = 296 K; 800 mm = 1.05 atm. When we do the substitutions
we get:
(1.05 atm)(V) = (0.77 mole)(0.0821 L.atm./mol.K.)(296 K)
Solving for V we get:
V =
(0.77 mole)(0.0821 L.atm./Mole K)(296 K)
1.05 atm.
And the answer is: 17.8, or 18 Liters
Solve the problems below. Show your work, and include units with all measurements.
Problem 9. What is the volume of 2.77 moles of H2 gas at a pressure of 700. mm and a temperature of
10.0
o
C?
10-9 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
Problem 10. What is the temperature in
o
C of 1.06 moles of O2 gas at a volume of 670. mL and a
pressure of 900. mm?
Problem 11. What is the pressure (in mm of Hg) exerted by 0.80 moles of methane (CH4) gas at 67
o
C
and if it has a volume of 2.3 liters?
In the ideal gas law, the letter "n" represents moles of gas. Moles of a substance can be calculated by
dividing the number of grams (g) of the substance that you have by its molecular mass (MM). For example,
4.04 g of H2 (molecular mass = 2.02) is 2.00 moles:
4.04 g H
2
X
1 mole H
2
2.02 g H
2
= 2.00 moles H
2

In other words, moles =
grams
molecular mass
or n =
g
MM
Now if n =
g
MM
, then the ideal gas law can also be written as PV =
g
MM
RT
An alternate form of the ideal gas law is: PV =
g
MM
RT
This form of the ideal gas equation can be rearranged to solve for any of the variable it contains.
For example: MM =
gRT
PV
or g =
(MM)PV
RT
Remember this form of the ideal gas law because it is particularly useful in problems which involve the
mass in grams of a gas or the molecular mass of a gas.
Problems which have you solved before using dimensional analysis can also be solved using the
ideal gas law. Problems 11 through 14 below are identical to problems 21, 22, and 23 in chapter 9. Solve
them again, but use the ideal gas law this time, and check Chapter 9 to see if you get the same answers
you got before.
Problem 12. A gas sample with a mass of 50.0 grams has a volume of 40.0 L at STP. What is the
molecular mass of the gas? (You want to end with units of g/moles.)
10-10 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
Problem 13. What is the volume in liters occupied by 10.0 grams of CO2 gas at STP? (Hint: you must
first find the molecular mass of CO2.)
Problem 14. If 1.00 mole of a gas has a mass of 18 grams, and you have 15.0 grams of the gas, what
would its volume be at STP?
At this point, go back and compare the three problems above to problems 21, 22, and 23 in Chapter 9.
Compare the methods of solving the problems as well as the answers.
Now let's try a problem in which the gas is not at STP:
Problem 15. At 600. mm Hg pressure and 35.0
o
C, 2.70 L of a gas has a mass of 3.80 grams. What is
its molecular mass? (Since you are using 0.0821 for the constant R, remember that you must express
pressure in atm and temperature in K.)
ACTIVITY 10.5 Determination of the Molar Volume of a Gas
In this activity you will learn one method for determining the molar volume of a gas, and you will
learn how to collect a gas in the lab by a procedure known as water displacement. You will be making
measurements at room temperature and pressure, but conversion to standard conditions (STP) will be
necessary to complete the calculations. Fill a large beaker (600 mL or larger) about
3
/4 full of tap water.
Next, ask your instructor or others in your class whether you should follow procedure A or B below (do not
follow both). You will use procedure B if you have a balance in your lab which can measure mass to three
decimal places.
10-11 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
Procedure A: Obtain a piece of magnesium ribbon about 3.5 cm long. On an
analytical balance which is accurate to three decimal places , determine the
mass of your piece of Mg. It must have a mass between 0.044 and 0.046.
Trim with scissors as needed. Record the mass in Table 10.3.
Procedure B: (Follow this only if you cannot use procedure A.) Cut a piece of
magnesium ribbon about 3.5 cm long. Carefully measure the length of the
piece of ribbon to the nearest millimeter, mm. Record the length in Table
10.3.
1. Obtain a piece of fine copper wire about 15 cm long and tie it to the Mg
ribbon which has been rolled into a coil that will fit inside the gas-measuring
tube (see Figure 10.2). Obtain a ring stand with a utility clamp to support the
gas-measuring tube.
2. Slowly pour about 10 to 15 mL of 6 M HCl (hydrochloric acid) into the gas
tube. Use caution. Incline the tube slightly so air may escape and slowly fill it
to the brim with tap water from a beaker. Try not to mix the acid and water any
more than necessary.
3. With the tube completely full of water, insert the magnesium ribbon about
3 or 4 cm into the tube. With the wire against the side of the tube, insert a 1-
hole or 2-hole stopper. The stopper should force a little water out of the tube
and should hold the wire in place.
4. With your finger over the hole in the stopper, invert the tube and place the
stoppered end into the beaker
3
/4 full of water. Clamp the gas-measuring
tube in place so that the bottom of the rubber stopper in slightly above the
bottom of the beaker. The reaction will not start immediately, since the acid
has to make its way down to the metal. The acid will react with the magnesium
to produce hydrogen gas:
Mg(s) + 2 HCl(aq) ----> MgCl2(aq) + H2(g)
5. When the Mg has reacted completely, tap the tube with your finger to
remove any bubbles you may see on the side of the tube. Adjust the height
of the gas- collecting tube so that the level of the water inside the tube is
equal to that in the beaker. This will make the pressure on the gas inside the
tube equal to the pressure in
the room. If you have trouble
doing this, ask your teacher
for advice. Now read the
level of the water inside the
tube as carefully as possible.
This will be the volume of
gas in the tube. Record the
volume in Table 10.3.
6. Record the temperature
of the water in the beaker
(
o
C) which we will assume to
be the temperature of the gas in the tube. In addition, measure the
barometric pressure (mm Hg). Your teacher will help you to read the barometer in the lab. The
temperature and pressure must be measured immediately after the gas has been collected. Record these
values in the table.
10-12 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
1 or 2 holed
stopper
Cu wire
acid +
water
Fi gure 10. 2
Mg
Tabl e 10. 2
Vapor Pressures of Water
T (
o
C) P (mm) T (
o
C) P (mm)
16 13.6 22 19.8
17 14.5 23 21.2
18 15.5 24 22.4
19 16.5 25 23.8
20 17.5 26 25.2
21 18.6 27 26.7
7. Empty the contents of the tube and beaker and rinse both. Return all equipment to the proper place.(If
you followed procedure B earlier in this experiment, ask your teacher for the precise mass of 1.000 meter
of magnesium ribbon. Record this value in Table10.3. If you followed procedure A, you can disregard
this value.)
Tabl e 10. 3
Molar Volume of a Gas
*(Skip entries 1, 2, and 3 below if you followed procedure A. Skip entry 4 if you
followed procedure B.)
*1. Length of Mg ribbon used ____________ mm
*2. Mass of 1.000 meter of Mg ribbon ____________ g/m
*3. Calculated mass of Mg ribbon used ____________ g
(should be between 0.040 and 0.045 g)
*4. Mass of Mg ribbon used ____________ g
(from analytical balance)
5. Volume of gas in tube ____________ mL
6. Temperature ____________
o
C
7. Atmospheric pressure ____________ mm Hg
(Do calculation 3 before completing entries 8 and 9 below.)
8. Water vapor pressure ____________ mm Hg
9. Pressure of dry H2 ____________ mm Hg
Calculations:
1. Calculate the mass of Mg ribbon used to the nearest 0.001 g by using the mass of 1.000 meter of the
ribbon, which you got from the teacher. Use unit analysis. (Skip this calculation if you followed procedure
A.)
2. Based on the mass of Mg used, calculate the number of moles of Mg used. Express your answer to
three decimal places. That amount of precision is needed!
3. The pressure of the gases in the tube is equal to the atmospheric pressure in the room. The H2 gas in
the tube was mixed with water vapor. This is a problem which results from collecting a gas in this way.
Therefore, the pressure in the tube is the sum of the pressures exerted by H2 gas and H2O vapor.
Dalton's law of partial pressures reveals that the total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases is equal to the
sum of the partial pressures exerted by each gas.
10-13 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
We need to know the pressure exerted by the H2 only. We call this the pressure of the "dry" H2. To get
this, we will subtract the partial pressure of water vapor from the total pressure. The formula is:
Ptotal = Pwater + Phydrogen.
Ptotal is the atmospheric pressure. The vapor pressure of water, Pwater, is dependent on temperature and
can be found in Table 10.2. (Your ALICE reference notebook also contains a table of water vapor
pressures which covers a broader temperature range.) Use the atmospheric pressure and the partial
pressure of water vapor to calculate the pressure of the "dry" hydrogen: Phydrogen = Ptotal - Pwater
Pressure of "dry" hydrogen = _____________ mm Hg
4. The pressure you just calculated above is the pressure to be used in your calculations. You now have
the pressure, the temperature, and the volume of the H2 under these conditions. Now, you must
calculate what the volume of the H2 which you collected in the tube would be (in liters) at STP. Use the
combined gas law (from Chapter 4 as given below).
P
1
V
1
T
1
=
P
2
V
2
T
2
__________ L H2 at STP
5. In calculation 2, you determined the number of moles of Mg used in this reaction. Enter this value in
the blank below. According to the equation for the reaction, the number of moles of Mg used is the same
as the number of moles of H2 produced. Fill in the blanks in the mole-to-mole ratio below, and solve for
moles of H2 produced.
Mg + 2 HCl ----> MgCl2 + H2
______ mole Mg X
mole H
2
mole Mg
= ________ mole H
2
How many moles of H2 were produced in your experiment? _____________ moles H2 produced
6. With your results from steps 4 and 5 above, you have established a relationship between moles of H2
and liters of H2 at STP. Now you must use this relationship to determine what volume the hydrogen gas
would have occupied if you had collected 1.00 mole of it (instead of the very small number of moles of H2
which you actually did collect). You can do this by unit analysis. The "fencepost" is set up for you below.
Copy the data from calculations 4 and 5 above into the ratio below and solve the problem.
1.00 mole H
2
X
L H
2
moles H
2
= __________ L H
2
Because of the very small volume of gas collected in this activity, there is usually a fair amount of error.
How does your answer for the volume of one mole of a gas at STP, compare to the generally accepted
value of 22.4 L? _________________________________________________________________
10-14 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
Problem 16. Assume that 0.0200 mole of a gas is collected in the lab by water displacement . If the
temperature of the gas is 26.0
o
C and the total pressure in the gas tube is 745 mm Hg (including water
vapor), what is the volume in liters of the dry gas? (Use the ideal gas law.)
Caution: you can’t use the total pressure in your calculations. You must first find the pressure of the “dry”
gas by subtracting the water vapor pressure at 26.0
o
C from the total pressure. It is the pressure of the
“dry” gas that is used in the calculations. Water vapor pressures can be found in Table 12 in your
reference notebook.
SECTION 10.6 Optional Review Problems
Probl em 17. Using the ideal gas law, determine the number of moles of gas which will have a volume of
2.5 liters at 1.3 atm and 303 K.
Problem 18. Using the ideal gas law, determine the temperature (in
o
C) of 1.8 moles of a gas if it has a
volume of 50.9 L at 705 mm Hg.
Problem 19. Using a form of the ideal gas law, calculate the number of grams of helium gas, He, which
are present in an 8.00 liter container at 345
o
C and 1.33 atm.
Problem 20. A 14 liter container holds 50.0 grams of a gas at 2.3 atm and 345 K. The gas is known to
be one of the following: O2, Cl2, Br2, or CO2. What is the molecular mass and the identity of the gas?
Problem 21. How many moles of KClO3 are required to form 37.3 g of KCl?
2 KClO3(s) ----> 2 KCl(s) + 3 O2(g)
Problem 22. Analysis of a sample of propane gas (also known as LP gas) from a backyard grill is shown
to contain 36.7 grams of C and 8.244 grams of H. Calculate the empirical formula of propane gas.
Problem 23. Calculate the empirical formula of vitamin C if it is composed of 40.9% Carbon, 4.58%
hydrogen, and 54.5% oxygen.
Problem 24. A sample of a hypothetical compound contains 2.44 g of element X and 1.02 g of
element Z. The atomic mass of hypothetical element X is 12.2 grams/mole, while that of hypothetical
element Z is 2.04 grams/mole. The molecular mass of this hypothetical compound is 69.2. Calculate both
the empirical formula and the molecular formula of this compound.
Problem 25. 245 mL of a “wet” gas is collected by water displacement at 27.0
o
C and a total pressure of
805 mm Hg. How many moles of the “dry” gas does this represent?. (Answer using 3 sig figs.)
10-15 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
SECTION 10.7 Learning Outcomes
This is the end of Chapter 10. Check the learning outcomes below to be sure that you have
mastered them. Take the Chapter 10 exam, and move on to Chapter 11.
_____1. Calculate the empirical formula of a compound from experimental data.
_____2. Calculate the molecular formula of a compound from experimental data.
_____3. Solve problems using both forms of the ideal gas law, PV = nRT and PV = gRT/MM
_____4. Solve problems related to the collection of a gas by water displacement.
SECTION 10.8 Answers to Questions and Problems
Questions:
{1} tin (IV) oxide; {2} stannic oxide
Problems:
1. MgO
2. Fe2O3
3. CH4
4. Na2SO4
5. K2Cr2O7
6. C3H12
7. C2H5 and C4H10
8. C6H6
9. 69.9 L
10. -264
o
C
11. 7379 mm Hg (rounds to 7400 mm Hg)
12. 28.0 g/mole
13. 5.09 L
14. 19 L
15. 45.1 g/mole
16. 0.518 L
17. 0.13 mole
18. 47
o
C
19. 0.84 g
20. 44 g/mole, CO2
21. 0.50 mole
22. C3H8
23. C3H4O3
24. X2Z5, X4Z10
25. 0.0102 mole
10-16 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
NAME____________________________________ PER____________ DATE DUE____________
ACTIVE LEARNING I N CHEMISTRY EDUCATION
"ALICE"
CHAPTER 11
PERIODIC
CLASSIFICATION
OF THE
ELEMENTS
The Periodic Table
Families of Elements
11-1 ©1997, A.J. Girondi

NOTICE OF RIGHTS
All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form by any means,
electronic, mechanical, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the author.
Copies of this document may be made free of charge for use in public or nonprofit private educational
institutions provided that permission is obtained from the author . Please indicate the name and address
of the institution where use is anticipated.
© 1997 A.J. Girondi, Ph.D.
505 Latshmere Drive
Harrisburg, PA 17109
alicechem@geocities.com
Website: www.geocities.com/Athens/Oracle/2041
11-2 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
SECTION 11.1 Introduction to the Periodic Table
So far in your study of chemistry, you have spent most of your time learning about the physical
principles which determine the behavior of atoms and molecules. These principles allow us to predict how
temperature, volume, and pressure changes affect gases. They also allow us to solve mass-mass and
mass-volume problems using balanced chemical equations. We have also been able to use physical
principles to determine atomic masses and chemical formulas using experimental data. However, they do
not tell us much about the actual physical and chemical properties of specific chemical substances.
A working knowledge of chemistry should include familiarity with the actual properties of chemical
substances, as well as an understanding of the laws that govern chemistry. Hopefully, you will begin to
develop this working knowledge as you study this chapter. Each element has its own characteristic set of
properties that help to distinguish it from other elements. As early as the 1800's, chemists began to look
for similarities among elements that would allow them to be classified into groups. Early chemists knew
that it would be much easier to study groups of elements rather than each of the elements individually.
The task at hand was to develop a way of arranging the elements so they could be grouped
according to common traits. The Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev was the first person to successfully
arrange the elements in an orderly fashion. He arranged the elements in order of increasing atomic
masses in 1869. He then developed a table in which elements with similar chemical properties were
placed in the same vertical columns. This table was later called the "Periodic Table of the Elements."
Mendeleev received a considerable amount of ridicule for his arrangement. His colleagues
jokingly suggested that he try arranging the elements alphabetically! Mendeleev ignored the ridicule and
remained committed to his method of arrangement. In the preparation of his table, if the element with the
next highest atomic mass did not fit a particular group, Mendeleev left a blank space on his table and
moved the element up to the next higher group. This resulted in several blank spaces in his table of
elements. He believed that these blank spaces would eventually contain elements that had not been
discovered yet. He predicted the properties of three of these unknown elements. All three were
discovered in Mendeleev's lifetime and were found to have properties very close to what he had
predicted! This proved that Mendeleev's arrangement of elements was, indeed, useful.
From his studies, Mendeleev concluded that both the chemical and physical properties of the
elements vary in a periodic (repeating) fashion with increasing atomic mass. The horizontal rows in the
table are called periods or rows, while the vertical columns are called families or groups. Look at a periodic
table now, and distinguish the periods (rows) from the families (groups). Table 11.1 is a copy of the
periodic table which Mendeleev developed in 1871. The periodic table that was developed by Mendeleev
enabled chemists to classify knowledge and concentrate their studies on physical and chemical properties
of groups of elements rather than on each element individually. This arrangement of elements enables
chemists to make predictions. These predictions are based on the repeating nature of chemical
properties.
In problem 1 you will be asked to organize a periodic table using some fictional elements. The
fictitious elements and properties are listed in Table 11.2. You are going to enter these elements into the
blocks of Table 11.3 Some of the elements have already been filled in for you. As you record each
symbol on the periodic table, also record its mass in the lower right corner and its formula with chlorine in
the upper left corner of each block. This will make it easier to see the periodic (repeating) properties of the
elements. You should use the two rules below when arranging the fictitious elements listed in Table 11.2.
RULE 1: Elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic mass from left to right in each row row.
RULE 2: Elements in each vertical column all form compounds with similar chemical formulas.
11-3 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
Tabl e 11. 1
Mendeleev' s Periodic Table (1871)
11-4 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
Problem 1. Fictitious elements, atomic masses, and chemical formulas (that show how each element
combines with chlorine) are given in Table 11.2. On the basis of rule 1 and rule 2 mentioned earlier, you
should now arrange the elements in Table 11.2 in their proper order in the rows and columns of the
"Periodic Table of Fictitious Elements" (Table 11.3). Note that some of the fictitious elements have
already been put into Table 11.3 to get you started.
Tabl e 11. 2
List of Hypothetical Elements
Element Formula of Compound Atomic Mass
with Chlorine (g/mole)
A A2Cl3 22
B (none) 36
D DCl3 44
F F2Cl3 5
G GCl4 31
H HCl4 11
J (none) 15
M MCl3 9
N NCl4 49
P P2Cl3 39
R RCl2 7
S SCl2 41
T (none) 52
U ????? ??
Z ZCl3 28
Table 11.3 A Table of Hypothetical Elements
F2Cl3
F
5
- - - -
J
15
ZCl3
Z
28
SCl2
S
41
??
?
??
Atomic Mass
Symbol
Formula with Cl
11-5 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
Look again at the completed blocks in Table 11.3. One space contains the symbol U. Study the
other elements in the same column and those in the same row as U. In the spaces below give your best
estimate for the atomic mass of this unknown element and give your prediction of the formula of the
compound it will form with chlorine:
Atomic Mass of U is in the range:{1}__________________; Formula of U with Cl is: {2}______________
SECTION 11.2 Development of the Periodic Table
In science we develop models or theories to explain our observations. These models are not
perfect, and most have exceptions. Mendeleev's arrangement of elements is no different. When
Mendeleev arranged elements according to similar properties, their atomic masses increased in number
from left to right. However, there were exceptions to this rule. Study the periodic table in your classroom
or in your notebook.
Problem 2. Find two pairs of elements that appear to have their atomic masses reversed from the
accepted increasing order:
________________ and ________________; ________________ and _________________
These exceptions cast some doubt on the reliability of using atomic mass as a means of organizing the
periodic table.
Henry Moseley found the reason for this apparent exception to Mendeleev's rule. Moseley
altered the periodic table to base it on atomic numbers rather than on atomic masses, and he restated the
periodic law so that it stated that "the properties of elements are a periodic function of their atomic
numbers." This law has no exceptions. You will learn the reason for this when you study atomic structure
in an upcoming chapter.
Once again look at a periodic table in your classroom or in your notebook. There are several
things concerning atomic numbers that are important for you to notice.
Problem 3. Answer the questions below .
a. How do atomic numbers change as you move through the periodic table? ____________________
b. Are atomic numbers whole numbers or decimal numbers? _________________
c. What element has the smallest atomic number? _________________________
d. As of June, 1995 there are 111 elements (officially). How many are listed on your table? __________
All matter, from concrete to human skin, is
composed of either pure elements or elements in
combination with each other. The proportions and
kinds of elements that are combined determine what
the particular substance is. Actually, only the first 92
elements are considered natural. Those elements with
atomic numbers larger than 92 are artificial elements,
produced by scientists working in laboratories. These
elements are referred to as the transuranium elements.
When a new element is "discovered," other scientists
must conduct experiments to confirm the discovery.
11-6 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
Element Name Symbol
104 Unnilquadium Unq
105 Unnilpentium Unp
106 Unnilhexium Unh
107 Unnilseptium Uns
108 Unniloctium Uno
109 Unnilennium Une
Tabl e 11. 4
Naming New Elements
The discoverer then receives the honor of naming the new element. Precisely who discovered elements
104 through 107 is questionable at this time. Russian scientists reported the production of element 104
in 1964, element 105 in 1970, element 106 in 1974, and element 107 in 1976. However, American
scientists have claimed that they produced element 104 in 1968, element 105 in 1970, and element 106
in 1974. The Soviet Union has proposed the name Kurchatovium (Ku) for element 107 and Bohrium (Bh)
for element 105. The United States has proposed the following names and symbols for elements 104
through 109: 104 = Rutherfordium (Rf); 105 = Hahnium (Ha); 106 = Seaborgium (Sg); 107 =
nielsbohrium (Ns); 108 = hassium (Hs); 109 = meitnerium (Mt).
Until the official names for elements have been agreed upon, it has been suggested that those
elements be named according to a system which makes names out of combined Greek prefixes. (nil = 0;
un = 1; quad = 4; pent = 5; hex = 6; sept = 7; oct = 8; enn = 9) The names are given a suffix of "ium."
The periodic table allows us to study groups of elements as well as individual elements. One
broad classification of elements is by metals and nonmetals. If we study this further, we find that all metals
have several properties in common that differ significantly from the properties of nonmetals.
Problem 4. During 1994 and 1995, scientists in Germany produced elements 110 and 111. Name
them using the system described above, and give their symbols.
a. 110 name: _________________________ symbol: ___________
b. 111 name: _________________________ symbol: ___________
ACTIVITY 11.3 Metals, Nonmetals, & Metalloids - Comparing Properties
Obtain the vials from the materials shelf labeled 11.3. Three of the elements are aluminum,
copper, and tin. The remaining 2 elements listed, sulfur and silicon, are classified as a nonmetals. (Silicon
is also a metalloid.) Examine each sample for the properties called for in Table 11.5. The melting points of
the substances may be found in the Handbook of Chemistry and Physics or in a similar reference book.
The battery-powered device found with the vials may be used to test the electrical conductivity of each
sample. Simply touch the two wires to one piece of each element. If the device indicates that current is
being conducted through the element, you should classify the element as having high conductivity. If it
does not light, classify the substance as having low conductivity. The wires of the device should not
touch each other. "Phase" in Table 11.5 refers to solid, liquid, or gas. "Luster" refers to dull or metallic.
Study the information you have collected from Table 11.5 and react to the four statements below.
1. Make a general statement about the properties of a metallic substance.
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
11-7 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
Tabl e 11. 5
Properties of Selected Metals and Nonmetals
Element Phase Luster Conductivity Melting Point (
o
C)
copper
(metal)
tin
(metal)
aluminum
(metal)
sulfur
(nonmetal)
silicon
(nonmetal-metalloid)
Propose a hypothesis about why frying pans are usually made of metals while their handles are usually
made of nonmetals like wood or plastic. ________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
The melting point of a substance is related directly to its hardness. Elements with high melting points are
generally hard substances. With this is mind, list the substances in Table 11.5 from hardest to softest.
hardest---> ____________________________________________________________<------softest
Do the hardest materials appear to be metals or nonmetals? {3}________________________________
Locate the "staircase" on the right side of the periodic table. The elements that are located to the
left of this staircase are classified as metals, while those to the right of it are nonmetals.
Are most elements metals or nonmetals?{4}______________________________________________
Name 3 metals:__________________________________________________________________
Name 3 nonmetals:_______________________________________________________________
The elements that border the staircase on the periodic table are known as metalloids. These
elements have some properties that make them resemble metals, but other properties that make them
resemble nonmetals. They include the elements just above and just below each step of the staircase
starting with aluminum (#15). A good example is silicon. Silicon is known as a "semiconductor" because it
conducts electricity better than nonmetals, but not as good as metals. It is the major component of
computer chips.
Obtain the sample of silicon from the box of materials for Activity 11.3. While silicon is a metalloid,
it falls on the nonmetal side of the staircase. Describe one property of silicon that makes it remind you of a
metal:
______________________________________________________________________________
11-8 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
SECTION 11.4 The Modern Periodic Table
Dividing the elements into metals and nonmetals is only one way in which they are categorized.
As mentioned earlier, another way to classify them is by families (or groups) and periods (or rows).
Elements such as boron, carbon, and neon are in the same horizontal row and are said to be in the same
period. Elements in the same vertical column, such as lithium and sodium, belong to the same family or
group. To distinguish the families of elements, the families (or groups) have names as well as numbers.
Note in Table 11.6 that the families are numbered 1A through 8A, while the periods (rows) are numbered
1,2 3, etc.
1A
2A 5A 6A 7A
8A
3A 4A
Tabl e 11. 6
The “A” Families on the Periodic Table
107 108 109 110 111
Unh Uns Uno Une Uun Uuu
*Some authors do not consider aluminum (#13) or Astatine (#85) to be metalloids.
The families used to be broken up into two subgroups which were labeled the "A" families and the
"B" families. The transition elements in the center of the table were included in this system. You probably
will see periodic tables in your classroom or elsewhere that still use this system. However, the most
modern labeling system now includes 18 families of elements including the transition elements. It is
shown in the following partial periodic table (Table 11.7).
Some families are often named according to the first element in the family. For example, family 16
above is the oxygen family, family 15 is the nitrogen family, family 14 is the carbon family, and family 13 is
the boron family. These families also have other names which are not in common use. Other families
have commonly-used special names. Family 18 is known as the noble gases, family 17 elements are
known as the halogens, family 1 elements are called the alkali metals, while family 2 elements are known as
the alkaline-earth metals. See Table 11.8. The metals in the center block of the table are collectively
known as the transition metals. The two rows at the bottom of the table (the lanthanide and actinide
series) are collectively known as the rare earth elements. In Table 11.8, write in the "names" of families 13
through 16.
11-9 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
Rows 6 and 7 of the periodic table are not shown here (to save space).
You have seen that metals have properties that help to distinguish them from nonmetals. In the
same way, each chemical family has a set of characteristic properties. We will be taking a closer look at
some of the properties associated with each chemical family.
Problem 5. Refer to Table 11.8 and a periodic table to help you with the following.
a. Write the symbols for the alkali metals: _______________________________________________
b. Write the symbols for the alkaline-earth metals: _________________________________________
c. Write the symbols for the halogens: _________________________________________________
d. Write the symbols for the noble gases: _______________________________________________
e. Name the elements in group IIIA (or group 13): _________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
f. Name the elements in group VA (or group 15):__________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
You have been told that the members of a family of elements have similar properties. The alkali
metals, for example, all react with water in the same proportions to form compounds that have similar
chemical formulas.
Problem 6. The chemical equations below illustrate reactions between a few alkali metals and water.
Complete and balance each equation. Note the similarity of the equations for the various family 1A
elements:
a. 2 Li + 2 HOH ----> 2 LiOH + 1 H2
b. _____Rb + _____HOH ------> _____RbOH + _____H2
c. _____Cs + _____HOH ------> _____CsOH + _____H2
11-10 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
Transition Metals
1A 2A 3A 4A 5A 6A 7A 8A
1 2 13 14 15 16 17 18
<----- 3 THROUGH 12 ------>
Lanthanide Series
Actinide Series
Rare-Earth Elements
Tabl e 11. 8
Names of Classes and Families of Elements
transition metals
Sc Zn
ACTIVITY 11.5 Properties of Alkaline-Earth Element Compounds
One chemical family that is more easily and safely studied is the alkaline-earth metals. Find the
materials labeled 11.5 on the materials shelf. Because elements in the same families have strong family
resemblances, you can predict the chemical behavior of other family members if you know how one or two
family members act in a chemical reaction. The experiment presented here will help to illustrate this point.
Be sure to wear glasses! Use standard 150 mm test tubes.
Procedure:
1. Place 5.0 mL of 0.1 M magnesium nitrate, Mg(NO3)2, solution into a test tube. Into a second test tube,
place 5.0 mL of 0.1 M calcium nitrate, Ca(NO3)2, solution.
2. Add 5.0 mL of 0.1 M sodium carbonate, Na2CO3, solution to each test tube. Stopper and shake both
tubes well. Describe what happens in each tube.
3. Strontium, barium, magnesium, and calcium are all members of the same family, the alkaline-earth
metals. Suppose you had solutions of strontium nitrate, Sr(NO3)2, and barium nitrate, Ba(NO3)2. Predict
what would happen if you mixed each of these solutions with sodium carbonate, Na2CO3, solution.
______________________________________________________________________________
11-11 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
4. What knowledge allows you to make the above prediction? ________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
5. Test your prediction by repeating the procedure in steps 1 and 2, but this time use 0.1 M strontium
nitrate, Sr(NO3)2, solution and 0.1 M barium nitrate, Ba(NO3)2, solution. Describe the changes in detail.
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
6. Suppose you were given a test tube containing a clear liquid. How could you test it to determine if an
alkaline-earth metal were in the liquid? _________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
7. Wash all tubes and put the materials and solutions back in their proper places.
ACTIVITY 11.6 The Properties of Halogen Compounds
Another group of elements that have family resemblances are the halogens. You will observe
some of those similarities in this activity. Find the materials labeled 11.6 on the materials shelf. Be sure to
wear glasses!
Since the halogens are a family, they all react in a similar fashion with silver nitrate, AgNO3, to form
a solid (precipitate). Each precipitate which forms, however, is slightly different from the others. We will be
taking advantage of these differences to try to identify which halogen is present in an "unknown"
solution. By comparing the reaction of the unknown halogen to the reactions of the known halogens, it is
possible to identify the unknown as being a compound of bromine, chlorine, or iodine.
1. Carry out the reactions outlined in Table 11.9. In each situation, add 1 mL of each halogen solution to 1
mL of AgNO3 solution, stopper, and shake each test tube.
2. Observe any reaction that occurs, and then add 2 to 3 mL of 6.0 M NH4OH solution, stopper, and shake
for a minute. Observe any change.
3. Complete and balance each equation. (The first one has been done for you.) Identify any precipitate.
Write your observations such as color of a precipitate, etc. Be certain that your test tubes and other
equipment are clean before you begin any of the combinations listed in Table 11.9.
4. Wash and rinse several times with a little distilled water if you have any doubt. Caution: handle AgNO3
with care. It can cause harmless, but dark, temporary stains on skin which do not appear until hours after
contact.
11-12 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
Tabl e 11. 9
Halogen Reactions
Reactants Products
NaCl(aq) + AgNO3(aq) ----> ____AgCl(s)____ + ___NaNO3(aq)__
Observations: ____________________________________________________________
NaBr(aq) + AgNO3(aq) ----> ______________ + ______________
Observations: ____________________________________________________________
NaI(aq) + AgNO3(aq) ----> ______________ + ______________
Observations: ____________________________________________________________
Unknown + AgNO3; Observations: ____________________________________________
Identity of unknown: _____________________________
(Note: the "unknown" is one of the following: NaCl, NaBr, or NaI)
The addition of NH4OH solution caused which of the precipitates to dissolve?_____________________
1. On what evidence did you base your conclusion about the identity of the unknown? _____________
_____________________________________________________________________________
2. Based on what you learned in this activity, how might you determine if your tap water at home has
chlorine in it?____________________________________________________________________
Give it a try! Using your answer above, test some tap water and test some distilled water. Did your
hypothesis work? ________________
The reactions in Table 11.9 fall into which of the 4 major reaction types?{5}________________________
(choose either direct combination, decomposition, single replacement or double replacement)
SECTION 11.7 Other Classes Of Elements On The Periodic Table
So far, we have looked closely at two chemical families, halogens and alkaline-earth metals. The
remaining chemical families also have distinguishing properties. The large middle portion of the periodic
table contains the transition metals. In general, these transition metals have higher melting points and are
physically stronger than the alkali or alkaline-earth metals. Because of this property, many of the transition
metals such as iron, titanium, and vanadium are used in construction of buildings, aircraft, and specialty
products.
11-13 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
The noble gas family is composed of elements that are all gases at room temperature and are also
nonmetals. The noble gases are so named because of their very nonreactive character. It was long
believed that the noble gases would not react with any other elements. For that reason, they used to be
called the "inert" gases. But in the 1960's scientists managed to force xenon and fluorine to form
compounds under extreme conditions. Nevertheless, the noble gases are the least reactive elements on
the periodic table. In the next chapter you will learn why they behave this way.
The elements in the lanthanide series and the actinide series are also metals. Together they are
known as the rare-earth elements. The lanthanides all have similar chemical and physical properties.
These elements are relatively common, but because of the difficulty in separating them from each other,
they are not commonly available. Among the actinides, all of which are radioactive, only uranium and
thorium exist in any significant amounts in nature. The other actinides were discovered and observed as
the products of controlled nuclear reactions and, in many cases, have been produced in only very small
amounts. Uranium and thorium are used as fuel in nuclear reactors and in the warheads of nuclear
weapons.
Both the lanthanide and the actinide series actually belong up in rows 6 and 7 of the periodic
table. If you follow the atomic numbers of the elements, you will see where these two series actually fit.
However, if we put them there, they would make the periodic table rather long. So, to make the whole
thing more compact, we take these two series out and put them at the bottom.
The lanthanides and actinides actually fit into the periodic table between what two families or
categories of elements? {6}_________________________________________________________
Within the major chemical families, chemists have had some difficulty in finding a proper place for
one element in particular. This element is hydrogen. In most periodic tables, hydrogen is placed in Family
1A (or group 1) above lithium. But, you have seen that the elements in that family are metals. Hydrogen is
certainly not a metal, so this placement seems a bit odd. Hydrogen shares some of its physical
characteristics with the halogen family. But, hydrogen has little in common with the halogens in terms of its
chemical properties. To help resolve this problem, hydrogen is often placed in both family 1A and 8A
(groups 1 and 17). Some periodic tables show hydrogen above family 1A, but it is detached as if to point
out its uniqueness.
ACTIVITY 11.8 Making, Collecting, and Studying Hydrogen Gas
This experiment will familiarize you with some of the properties of hydrogen. It is hazardous,
however, and you must be closely supervised and observed by the teacher as you do this. Be sure to
notify the teacher before you begin, and have your set-up checked before you actually generate any gas.
1. Get the materials labeled 11.9 from the materials shelf. Set up the apparatus as shown in Figure 11.1
below. Be sure to wear safety glasses and an apron.
2. Have the teacher check your set-up before going any further. All connections must be snug to prevent
hydrogen gas from escaping.
3. Fill three or four 150 mm (regular size) test tubes with water, put your thumb on top and carefully invert
them into the trough so that little or no water is lost. Keep all flames and sparks away from your set-up!!
Add 10 mL of 3 M hydrochloric acid (HCl) to the flask containing 4 to 5 grams of mossy zinc, and then insert
the rubber stopper assembly.
11-14 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
water level
150 mm test tube filled with water
HCl + Zn
bubbles of H2 gas
metal shelf
pneumatic trough
Figure 11.1 Collection of Hydrogen Gas by Water Displacement
Overall reaction: 2 HCl + Zn ---> ZnCl2 + H2
4. When the hydrogen gas starts to form in the flask, allow the gas to bubble for a minute or so to force air
out of the flask and rubber tubing before attempting to collect any gas in a test tube. Then, collect gas in
the test tubes by placing the end of the tubing under the mouth of each tube until all of the water has
been forced out. If the gas stops before you have collected enough, add more HCl to the flask.
5. Store the tubes upside down inverted in the water or on your desk after they are full of gas. When you
have collected enough gas to fill the test tubes, you can stop the generator by adding water to the flask.
6. Pour the diluted acid into a sink, and throw the zinc into the refuse can. To test the tubes for the
presence of hydrogen, get away from your hydrogen generator and light a wooden splint (don't light any
burners close to your equipment!). Quickly move the flaming splint next to the mouth of one of your
inverted test tubes. (Keep it away from the others.) Repeat the procedure with the remaining tubes of
gas.
1. Describe what happens._________________________________________________________
2. Why did you store the tubes of H2 gas upside down? {7}__________________________________
3. Hydrogen explodes by reacting with oxygen gas in the air to form water vapor. Write the balanced
equation for the reaction which occurred when the contents of the tube met the burning splint.
{8}__________________------>__________________
Return all of your equipment to the materials shelf. Rinse the tubes and flask.
SECTION 11.9 Using the Periodic Table to Predict Properties and
Formulas of Compounds
One of the factors that gave validity to the arrangement of elements on the periodic table was that
it enabled chemists to predict the properties of several undiscovered elements. In the table below you
can see how well Mendeleev was able to predict the properties of an undiscovered element which he
called "ekasilicon," which turned out to be what we now call germanium. The property which Mendeleev
11-15 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
described as combining power in the table above refers to the number of bonds an atom forms with other
atoms. This predictive power can be very useful in determining the chemical formulas of substances.
Look at the formulas of the Group 1 (Family 1A) elements combined with chlorine and bromine
below.
Chlorides: LiCl NaCl KCl RbCl CsCl FrCl
Bromides: LiBr NaBr KBr RbBr CsBr FrBr
Notice how all group 1 (family 1A) elements
combine with group 17 (family 7A) elements in a
1:1 ratio. It is possible to use the periodic table to
make predictions in the same way that
Mendeleev did. Once you know the formulas of
compounds of an element, you can predict the
formulas of similar compounds. Look at the
formulas of chlorides formed by elements in
families 1A - 7A (groups 1,2 & 13-17) as shown in
Table 11.11.
Tabl e 11. 10
Mendeleev' s Predictions About
"Ekasilicon"
Property Prediction Actual
Value
atomic mass 72 72.59
density (g/cm
3
) 5.5 5.32
combining power 4 4
specific heat (J/g.
o
C) 0.305 0.322
How many Cl's are attached to each of the column 1A elements shown above? {9}__________________
How many Cl's are attached to each of the column 4A elements? {10}____________________________
We can state this general principle:
Given the formula of a compound, the replacement of an element in the compound by
another element from the same family will often give the correct formula for another
compound.
For example, beryllium chloride has the formula BeCl2. What is the formula for magnesium chloride? Since
magnesium is in the same family as beryllium, the formula will be MgCl2.
Note also that when chlorine is combined with chlorine, it is shown as Cl2. You should recall that
there are seven diatomic elements. All of the halogens (F2, Cl2, Br2, I2) and elemental gases (H2, N2, O2)
do this. Two atoms are bonded together when these elements exist in a free form. You will soon learn
why this is.
Tabl e 11. 11
Chorine Compounds of the “A” Family Elements
(1) (2) (13) (14) (15) (16) (17) (18)
1A 2A 3A 4A 5A 6A 7A 8A
LiCl BeCl2 BCl3 CCl4 NCl3 OCl2 FCl - - - -
NaCl MgCl2 AlCl3 SiCl4 PCl3 SCl2 Cl-Cl - - - -
KCl CaCl2 (Cl-Cl can also be written as Cl2)
Note: Table 11.11 will make more sense to you when you learn more
about atomic structure in the next few chapters.
11-16 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
Problem 7. Bromine belongs to the same family as chlorine. Based on the principle given above,
complete Table 11.12 below by writing formulas for bromide compounds of the "A" family elements which
"belong" in the blank spaces. A few have already been written for you.
1A
2A 3A 4A 5A 6A 7A
8A
LiBr
CaBr2
CBr4
Tabl e 11. 12
Bromine Compounds of the "A" Family Elements
Zinc, cadmium, and mercury all belong to the same family in the periodic table. The formulas and names of
certain zinc compounds are:
Formula Name
ZnO zinc oxide
Zn(NO3)2 zinc nitrate
ZnS zinc sulfide
ZnCl2 zinc chloride
Problem 8. Since cadmium and mercury are in the same family as zinc, you should be able to predict the
formulas of similar compounds formed with mercury and cadmium. Do this below.
a. cadmium oxide __________ mercury (II) oxide __________
b. cadmium nitrate __________ mercury (II) nitrate __________
c. cadmium sulfide __________ mercury (II) sulfide __________
d. cadmium chloride __________ mercury (II) chloride __________
The periodic table gives us a useful method for predicting chemical formulas. You will have a
better understanding of why this all works after you study atomic structure in the upcoming chapter.
(Since atomic structure was unknown in his time, Mendeleev never did understand why this predicting
power of the periodic table works!)
The periodic table, however, is not flawless as a predictor. For example, if carbon monoxide, CO,
were used as a reference, you would predict that the compound carbon sulfide, CS, would also exist - it
does not. (Oxygen and sulfur are in the same family.) Even though your predictions may not be 100%
correct, this general principle is very useful. It allows you to make predictions based on a small amount of
information.
11-17 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
Problem 9. In this problem, you are given several chemical names and formulas. Predict the formula of
the compound asked for. In order for predictions to be possible, however, elements must be members of
the same family on the periodic table. In the first example, Na and Cl are in the families 1A and 7A. K and
Br are also in families 1A and 7A. This means they will form compounds with similar chemical formulas.
Given: Predict the formula for:
a. sodium chloride: NaCl potassium bromide: ____KBr____
b. magnesium chloride: MgCl2 calcium iodide: ___________
c. calcium sulfate: CaSO4 magnesium sulfate: ___________
d. barium hydroxide: Ba(OH)2 calcium hydroxide: ___________
e. chlorine: Cl2 iodine: ___________
f. silver nitrate: AgNO3 copper (I) nitrate: ___________
g. carbon dioxide: CO2 silicon dioxide: ___________
h. beryllium sulfide: BeS strontium oxide: ___________
Problem 10. For more practice, underline the substance in the right column that would be more likely
to exist after comparing the choices to a known substance in the left column.
Known Substance Possible Substances
a. SF6 ClF6 or TeF6
b. PCl5 AsCl5 or GeCl4
c. WCl6 WS6 or WBr6
d. Na2SiF6 K2SiCl6 or NaPF6
e. K2SO4 Mg2SO4 or Na2SO4
f. Na2CO3 K2CO3 or Ca2CO3
Problem 11. Given the chemical formulas below, predict the likely chemical formula for the following
substances.
Given Predict the formula for:
a. CaCO3 a carbonate of magnesium _____________
(calcium carbonate)
b. Na3PO4 a phosphate of potassium _____________
(sodium phosphate)
c. CO2 a silicon-oxygen compound _____________
(carbon dioxide)
d. Na2CrO4 a chromate of potassium _____________
(sodium chromate)
11-18 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
e. InPO4 a phosphate of aluminum _____________
(indium phosphate)
f. PbCl2 a bromide of silicon _____________
(lead (II) chloride)
g. MgCrO4 a calcium chromate compound _____________
(magnesium chromate)
h. K2SO4 a sulfate of sodium _____________
(potassium sulfate)
i. SiF4 a chloride of carbon _____________
(silicon tetrafluoride)
j. Na3PO4 a lithium phosphate compound _____________
(sodium phosphate)
ACTIVITY 11.10 Reactions of Sodium and Potassium With Water
-> -> -> -> TEACHER DEMONSTRATION <- <- <- <-
Hydrogen is very explosive and will ignite when heated sufficiently. The reactions between the
alkali metals and water (see problem 6) occur very rapidly and release a great deal of heat. In fact, the heat
given off by some of these reactions is enough to ignite the gas. These metals are often stored in oil or
kerosene to prevent them from reacting with air or water. Even the moisture in air may be sufficient to
cause an explosion under certain circumstances.
The point is that these metals all behave in a similar way. There is, however, a difference in the
"activity" of these metals in water. Some react more vigorously than others. To demonstrate this, your
teacher will demonstrate for you the reaction of sodium and potassium with water. He will put some
phenolphthalein in the water and then add the metal. The phenolphthalein will turn pink if a hydroxide
compound forms (such as NaOH or KOH). A fizzing action will illustrate the production of the hydrogen.
Stand back! The equations for the reactions are:
2 Na(s) + 2 HOH(l) ----> 2 NaOH(aq) + H2(g)
2 K(s) + 2 HOH(l) ----> 2 KOH(aq) + H2(g)
1. How were the reactions of sodium and potassium with water similar?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
2. How were the two reactions different? _______________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
11-19 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
SECTION 11.11 Learning Outcomes
Knowing how to use the periodic table is a must for students of chemistry. To check your
familiarity with the use of information contained in the periodic table, review the learning outcomes below.
When you are sure you have mastered an outcome, check the box in front of it. Arrange to take the exam
on Chapter 11, and go on to Chapter 12.
_____1. Describe the general organization of the modern periodic table based on Moseley's periodic
law.
_____2. Explain what is meant by periods (also called rows or series) and groups (also called families).
_____3. Describe the general properties of metals and nonmetals, and show their location on the
periodic table.
_____4. Indicate the position on the periodic table of the alkali metals, the alkaline-earth metals, the
halogens, the noble gases, the transition metals, the lanthanide series, and the actinide series.
_____5. Predict the physical properties of an element given those of its neighbors and "family members"
on the periodic table.
_____6. Predict the chemical formulas of compounds given those of similar compounds.
11-20 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
SECTION 11.12 Answers to Questions and Problems
Questions:
{1} between 22 and 28; {2} UCl2; {3} metals; {4} metals; {5} double replacement; {6} between the
alkaline-earth metals and the transition metals; {7} hydrogen is less dense than air;
{8} 2 H2(g) + O2(g) ----> 2 H2O(g); {9} one; {10} four
Problems:
Table 11.3 A Table of Hypothetical Elements
F2Cl3
F
5
- - - -
J
15
ZCl3
Z
28
SCl2
S
41
A2Cl3
22
A
P2Cl3
P
39
RCl2
R
7
M
MCl3
9
DCl3
D
44
- - - -
B
36
- - - -
T
52
HCl4
H
11
31
GCl4
G
NCl4
N
49
UCl2
U
between
22 and 28
1.
2. Cobalt (#27) and Nickel (#28); Tellurium (#52) and Iodine (#53); and there are more.
3. a. increase; b. whole; c. hydrogen; d. (varies)
4. a. ununnilium, Uun; b. unununium, Uuu
5. a. Na, Li, K, Rb, Cs, Fr; b. Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra; c. F, Cl, Br, I, At; d. He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn;
e. boron, aluminum, gallium, indium, thallium; f. nitrogen, phosphorus, arsenic, antimony, bismuth
6. a. (given)
b. 2 Rb + 2 HOH ----> 2 RbOH + H2
c. 2 Cs + 2 HOH ----> 2 CsOH + H2
7. LiBr, BeBr2, BBr3, CBr4, NBr3, OBr2, FBr, - - -;
NaBr, MgBr2, AlBr3, SiBr4, PBr3, SBr2, ClBr, - - -;
KBr, CaBr2;
8. a. CdO, HgO; b. Cd(NO3)2, Hg(NO3)2; c. CdS, HgS; d. CdCl2, HgCl2
9. a. KBr; b. CaI2; c. MgSO4; d. Ca(OH)2; e. I2; f. CuNO3; g. SiO2; h. SrO
10. a. TeF6; b. AsCl5; c. WBr6; d. K2SiCl6; e. Na2SO4; f. K2CO3
11. a. MgCO3; b. K3PO4; c. SiO2; d. K2CrO4; e. AlPO4; f. SiBr2; g. CaCrO4; h. Na2SO4; i. CCl4;
j. Li3PO4
11-21 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
SECTION 11.13 Student Notes
11-22 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
NAME____________________________________ PER____________ DATE DUE____________
ACTIVE LEARNING I N CHEMISTRY EDUCATION
"ALICE"
CHAPTER 12
MODERN VIEW
OF ATOMIC
STRUCTURE
(PART 1)
Atomic Structure & Spectra
Nuclear Notation
Orbital Notation
Configuration Notation
12-1 ©1997, A.J. Girondi

NOTICE OF RIGHTS
All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form by any means,
electronic, mechanical, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the author.
Copies of this document may be made free of charge for use in public or nonprofit private educational
institutions provided that permission is obtained from the author . Please indicate the name and address
of the institution where use is anticipated.
© 1997 A.J. Girondi, Ph.D.
505 Latshmere Drive
Harrisburg, PA 17109
alicechem@geocities.com
Website: www.geocities.com/Athens/Oracle/2041
12-2 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
SECTION 12.1 Early Discoveries About the Atom
You have already learned about the concept of atoms and how they can combine to form
compounds. You have also seen that each element has its own characteristic set of properties which help
to distinguish it from all other elements. In this chapter we will study the structure of atoms and the laws
governing the behavior of the particles that make up atoms. This knowledge will lead to an explanation of
the properties of the elements and of their tendencies to form compounds.
John Dalton regarded the atom as a particle with no internal parts. He believed an atom to be the
smallest possible particle. However, certain experiments were being performed which gave definite
indications that Dalton's view was not correct and that there was some sort of internal structure to the atom.
It became apparent that atoms consisted of particles that had electrical charges and that these particles
interacted according to the laws of electromagnetism. Charged particles carry either a positive (+) or
negative (-) charge. We call two negative charges or two positive charges "like" charges. The laws of
electromagnetism state that two like charges {1}_______________ each other, while unlike charges,
{2}_____________ each other.
Experiments performed during the late 1800's and early 1900's by chemists and physicists made
it clear that atoms could, indeed, be broken into smaller parts, contrary to the ideas of {3}_____________.
In 1897, J.J. Thomson discovered that atoms could be "taken apart" when he studied the effects of
electrical discharge on atoms of various gases. In his experiments he concluded that atoms were coming
apart by yielding a stream of negatively charged particles with very small masses (compared to the masses
of the atoms). These small negative particles became known as electrons. Thomson is credited with the
discovery of electrons which were present in the atoms of all of the different gases that he examined.
Another scientist, Ernest Rutherford, and his students performed experiments in England during
the first decade of the 20th century in an attempt to determine the size of atoms. In 1906, Rutherford had
his students direct a beam of positively-charged subatomic "alpha" particles at a very thin sheet of gold
metal. It was known as the alpha scattering experiment." Since they believed that matter was mostly
empty space, they expected the particles to pass through the thin sheet unhindered. To their surprise,
they found that a small fraction of the particles bounced right back! This led Rutherford to believe that in
the center of the atom was a small but very dense "nucleus" with which some of the alpha particles must
have collided. He concluded that most of the mass of the atom was contained in the {4}__________________.
He also concluded that the nucleus was {5}______________ charged since it repelled the positively-
charged alpha particles. He later said that "It was quite the most incredible event that has ever happened
to me in my life. It was almost as if you fired a 15- inch shell into a piece of tissue paper and it came back
and hit you."
Rutherford realized that electrons were located at a considerable distance from the nucleus. If this
were an accurate description of an atom and we could inflate the nucleus of a hydrogen atom to the size of
a basketball, the electron would orbit this "basketball" nucleus at a distance of more than 15 miles away!
Visualizing the atom like this enables you to realize that most of the atom is, indeed, nothing more than
empty space! So much for the athlete who thinks he is "solid muscle!"
With regard to the nucleus itself, it became obvious to scientists that the nucleus was composed
of small particles. One of the particles in the nucleus is the proton. In 1914, Rutherford was given credit
for discovering protons. A proton carries a charge equal to the charge of an electron, but opposite in
character. The electron carries a charge of -1 while the proton carries a charge of {6}_______. In the
nucleus of a neutral atom (that is, an atom with no overall electric charge), there must be an equal number
of protons to balance the charges carried by the electrons. Unlike the electron, the proton is a particle with
a relatively large mass, in atomic terms. The proton has a mass equal to 1,836 times that of the electron!
Using the common unit of the gram to measure masses, the electron has a mass equal to 9.1 X 10
-28
grams, and the proton has a mass equal to 1.673 X 10
-24
grams.
12-3 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
A second component of the nucleus was discovered in
1932 by another Englishman, James Chadwick. This particle
became known as the neutron. A neutron is an electrically neutral
particle, meaning that it carries no electric charge. The neutron was
very difficult to discover. Because it has no charge of its own, it is
neither attracted to nor repelled by an electrical charge. A neutron
has a mass slightly larger than that of the proton, equal to 1.675 X
10
-24
grams. The presence of this particle accounted for the
observed masses of atoms, which were found to be greater than
that predicted if only protons were present in the nucleus. Figure
12.1 and the accompanying table present an overall summary of the
locations and properties of the components of an atom.
Each element differs from all others in that atoms of each
element contain a specific number of electrons, protons, and
{7}_______________. Indeed, the number of protons in the
nucleus determines the actual identity of an element. Determining
the number of electrons, protons, and neutrons in any given
element is a relatively simple process. The atomic number of an
element is equal to the number of protons found in the nucleus.
The element with atomic number 19, potassium, has 19 protons.
For atoms to be neutral, they must have equal numbers of positive
(protons) and negative (electrons) charges. This means that
potassium must have 19 protons and {8}________ electrons.
Dalton’s Atomic Theory
(1803)
Thomson Discovers the Electron
(1897)
Rutherford Discovers the Nucleus
(1906)
Bohr Develops the Planetary
Model of the Atom
(1913)
Rutherford Discovers the Proton
(1914)
Chadwick Discovers the Neutron
(1932)
Tabl e 12. 1
Location and Properties of Subatomic Particles
Particle Charge Comparative Mass Location
electron -1
1
/1836 outside nucleus
proton +1 1 inside nucleus
neutron 0 1 inside nucleus
If an element has 10 protons in its nucleus, how many positive charges does it have?{9}________.
If an atom with 10 protons is neutral, how many electrons must it have?{10}__________
The atomic number of oxygen is 8. How many protons does it have?{11}__________
How many electrons does oxygen have?{12}___________
SECTION 12.2 Mass Number, Atomic Mass, and Isotopes
As you learned in an earlier chapter, the atomic masses of the elements that appear on the
periodic table are really average masses. We will use the element hydrogen as an example. Most
hydrogen atoms (99.85% of them) have no neutrons. A few hydrogen atoms (0.15% of them) have one
neutron. These two slightly different kinds of hydrogen are often referred to as light and heavy hydrogen.
12-4 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
This situation is fairly typical of most elements. Elements exist in nature as a mixture of isotopes.
Isotopes are atoms that have the same number of electrons and protons, but different numbers of
{13}______________. As a result, {14}________________ of an element are atoms that have different
masses. The atomic masses that appear on the periodic table are merely "weighted averages" of the
masses of all the naturally-occurring isotopes. Weighted averages are determined by including the
relative amounts of each isotope found in nature when calculating the average mass.
On the periodic table the atomic mass of carbon is 12.011. Actually, no carbon atoms have this
mass. Some have more mass than this, and some have less. The 12.011 is the {15}_____________ mass
of carbon atoms in nature. The number of protons in the nuclei of atoms of a specific element is constant,
but the number of neutrons can vary. Therefore, the mass numbers (the sum of the protons and
neutrons) of atoms of an element can vary. Atoms of a particular isotope of an element are identified by
writing the mass number of the isotope after the name of the atom. For example, the two naturally-
occurring isotopes of hydrogen are hydrogen-1 and hydrogen-2. The most common form of carbon is
carbon-12, while less common isotopes include carbon-13 and carbon-14. The difference in these mass
numbers is a result of differences in the number of {16}_______________ in these atoms. The sum of the
{17}________________ and {18}_________________ in the nucleus of a particular isotope of an atom is
known as its {19}_______________________.
While the atomic mass of an atom of a particular isotope of an element is not found on the periodic
table, it is very close to the sum of the masses of the neutrons and protons in the atom.
{20}______________ have such small masses that they are not even considered when atomic masses are
calculated. This is the case even if an atom contains 100 or more electrons! The mass of a proton is
expressed as 1 amu (atomic mass unit). Since the proton and the neutron have almost the same mass,
the approximate mass of a neutron must also be 1 amu. (Actually, it is a tiny bit more than 1.) So, what is
the mass of an isotope such as oxygen-16?
Oxygen-16 is an atom of a particular kind of oxygen containing a total of 16 protons and neutrons.
Remember, the sum of the protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom is called its mass number.
Thus, the mass number of this atom is 16. Since each proton and each neutron has a mass of about 1
amu, you would expect that an atom of oxygen-16 would have a mass of about {21}_________amu.
However, the actual mass of oxygen-16 atoms is 15.99491 amu. Why this tiny difference? This difference
is a result of the fact that when protons and neutrons combine to form a nucleus, some matter is converted
into energy. This is a kind of nuclear reaction. Therefore, whenever a nucleus forms, a bit of matter will be
lost. Thus, chlorine-37 has an atomic mass of 36.96590 amu.
You can determine the mass number of a specific isotope of an element if you round off its atomic
mass to the closest integer (whole number). So, to get the mass number of chlorine-37 just round
36.96590 to {22}_______. This gives you the sum of the protons and neutrons in the nucleus of this
specific form (isotope) of chlorine.
Since the atomic mass of an element given on the periodic table is an average, rounding it off will
usually give you the mass number of the most common isotope of the element. For example, on the
periodic table the average mass given for carbon is {23}____________. Rounding will yield 12, which is
the mass number of the most common isotope of carbon, which is carbon-12. Using this method, what if
the mass number of the most common isotope of element #12, magnesium? {24}___________. What is
the name of the most common isotope of element #15, phosphorus?{25}_______________________.
Since the mass number of an atom is equal to the total number of protons and neutrons it
contains, you can determine the number of neutrons in an atom by subtracting the atomic number
(number of protons) from the mass number (number of protons + neutrons).
atomic number = number of protons
mass number = atomic mass rounded to closest integer
neutrons = (mass number — atomic number)
12-5 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
The "nuclear notation" of an atom includes both the atomic number and the mass number of the
atom. The atom's symbol is written with its mass number expressed as a superscript at the upper-left
location and the atomic number written as a subscript at the lower-left location. For example:

Nuclear notation of sodium -23:
11
23
Na means mass number = 23 and atomic number = 11
Here are a couple of others:

hydrogen-1:
1
1
H means 1 proton and 0 neutrons in the nucleus
(atomic number = 1, and mass number = 1)

hydrogen-1:
1
2
H means 1 proton and 1 neutron in the nucleus
(atomic number =1, mass number = 2)
Problem 1. For practice, determine the number of electrons, protons, and neutrons in the atoms of
aluminum and cesium listed below.
a. aluminum–27;
b. cesium–133;

13
27
Al protons: electrons: neutrons :
55
133
Cs protons: electrons: neutrons :

Problem 2. The element uranium has three different isotopes. In the blanks below, write the number of
electrons, protons, and neutrons for each isotope of uranium.

a.
92
234
U protons: electrons: neutrons :
b.
92
235
U protons: electrons: neutrons :
c.
92
238
U protons: electrons: neutrons :

Problem 3. Supply the missing information in the table below.
Nuclear
Isotope Notation At.No. Mass No. No. e's No. p's No. n's
a. aluminum-27 _____ _______ _____ _____ _____
b. bismuth-209 _____ _______ _____ _____ _____
c. calcium-40 _____ _______ _____ _____ _____
d. copper-64 _____ _______ _____ _____ _____
e. ____________ __2__ ___4___ _____ _____ _____
f. ____________ _____ __207__ __82_ _____ _____
g. ____________ __8__ _______ _____ _____ __8__
h. ____________ _____ _______ _____ __50_ __69_
i. ____________ _____ _______ __30_ _____ __36_
12-6 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
Here is an example which shows how atomic masses on the periodic table are calculated:
Sample Problem: Oxygen exists in nature in three forms. Oxygen-16 (99.759%), oxygen-17
(0.037%), and oxygen-18 (0.204%). Oxygen-16 atoms have a mass of 15.99491 amu; oxygen-17 atoms
have a mass of 16.99914 amu, and the mass of oxygen-18 atoms is 17.99916 amu. What is the average
mass of oxygen atoms in nature?
To solve this problem, assume that you have a 100 atom sample of oxygen. In that case, since
percent means parts per hundred, 99.759 atoms in the sample would be oxygen-16 (even though atoms
cannot exist in fractional parts); 0.037 atoms would be oxygen-17, and 0.204 atoms would be oxygen-18.
The total mass of the oxygen-16 atoms in the sample is:

99.759 atoms X
15.99491 amu
1 atom
= 1595.64 amu
The total mass of the oxygen-17 atoms in the sample is:

0.037 atom X
16.99914 amu
1 atom
= 0.63 amu
The total mass of the oxygen-18 atoms in the sample is:

0.204 atom X
17.99916 amu
1 atom
= 3.67 amu
Atomic masses such as these
are determined by experiment.
The total mass of all 100 atoms in the sample would be:
1595.64 amu + 0.63 amu + 3.67 amu = 1599.94 amu.
To get the average mass, we divide by the number of atoms in the sample:

1599.94 amu
100
= 15.9994 amu
Does this answer agree with the atomic mass of oxygen on the periodic table?____________
In the sample problem above, the mass of an atom of oxygen-16 is listed as 15.99491 amu. Assuming
that protons and neutrons weigh 1 amu each, why doesn't oxygen-16 weigh 16 amu? {26}____________
______________________________________________________________________________
Problem 4. In nature, copper is found to exist in two forms: copper-63 and copper-65. Copper-63
atoms have a mass of 62.93 amu, while copper-65 atoms have a mass of 64.93 amu. Naturally-occurring
copper contains 69.40% copper-63. Calculate the atomic mass of naturally-occurring copper atoms.
Show all of your work.
12-7 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
Does your answer to Problem 4 compare favorably to the atomic mass of copper appearing on the periodic
table? _________
SECTION 12.3 The Spectrum of Visible Light
Now that you know something about the makeup of atoms in terms of electrons, protons, and
neutrons, we will take time to examine some of the experimental evidence that has contributed to our
present understanding of atomic structure. In particular, we will be studying the light emitted by atoms
when we add energy to them. Such light is called the "emission spectrum" of an atom. To understand the
significance of emission spectra from atoms, we need to learn more about light spectra in general.
In Figure 12.1, is a box that represents a continuous light spectrum. The numbers above the
names of the colors represent the wavelengths of light in units called angstroms. Angstroms are denoted
by the symbol Å which is a capital A with a small circle above it. An angstrom is a unit of length equal to 1 X
10
-10
m (which is very small). The wavelengths in Figure 12.1 range from 3900 Å to 7700 Å and comprise
the continuous spectrum of visible light. These are the wavelengths of light that our eyes can see. When
all of the colors (wavelengths) are present, they appear to us as white light. The numbers below the
spectrum in Table 12.1 represent nanometers (nm). A nanometer is 1 X 10
-9
meter ; therefore, a
nanometer is ten times larger than an Angstrom. Both units are commonly used to measure wavelengths
of light.
3900 Å 4400 Å 5100 Å 5600 Å 6300 Å 7700 Å
violet blues greens yellow reds
390 nm 440 nm 510 nm 560 nm 630 nm 770 nm
Figure 12.1 Components of a “Continuous” Spectrum of Visible White Light
<----- shorter wavelengths (higher energy) (lower energy) longer wavelengths ----->
A spectroscope is a laboratory instrument that separates the continuous spectrum of white light
into its component wavelengths (colors). The spectrum is said to be continuous because all of the
wavelengths from violet to red are present in white light.
Light is a form of energy. The violet end of the spectrum represents light of higher energy than
light in the red region, which represents visible light of the lowest energy. With this in mind, looking again
at Figure 12.1, you can conclude that as the wavelength of the light gets {27}_______________, the
energy content of the light gets smaller.
What does all this have to do with atomic structure? We shall soon see. When atoms absorb
energy we describe them as being "excited." Excited atoms are capable of emitting light. However, atoms
do not just give off light all by themselves. Something has to be done to them, first. Fluorescent lights do
not emit light until an electrical current is passed through them. The sun emits light through the process of
nuclear fusion which causes hydrogen atoms to combine to form helium. Electricity and nuclear fusion
both involve energy changes in a system. When energy is added to a system (that is, through fusion or
passing an electrical current through it), the atoms absorb that added energy. This "overload" of energy
causes the electrons in the atoms to become very unstable. By unstable we mean that at least some of
the electrons in the atoms have too much energy and they "want" to change their position or their motion
in some way in order to get rid of the excess energy and, thereby, become more stable. Because excited
electrons are so unstable, they will give off this added energy at the first opportunity. This energy that is
emitted by the excited electrons may at least partly be in the form of visible light.
12-8 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
In fluorescent bulbs, a stream of electrons flows between the metal ends of a glass tube which
contains a mixture of argon gas and mercury vapor. The electron stream excites the {28}______________
of the mercury atoms which then emit energy as invisible ultraviolet rays. These rays excite the atoms in
the coating of the glass tube which then emit visible light. The light emitted by specific atoms (or more
accurately, by excited electrons in specific atoms) does not compose a continuous spectrum (containing
all wavelengths). The light emitted by excited electrons of a particular atom is composed of certain specific
wavelengths and is called a bright-line spectrum, since only certain wavelengths of light appear as colored
lines. Each element emits a different characteristic set of colored bright lines (wavelengths). No two
elements will emit the same set of wavelengths of light. Atoms of different elements have
{29}____________________ bright-line spectra. Figures12.2 through 12.6, show the visible portion of
the emission spectra of 5 different elements. Each black line represents a wavelength of light which is
emitted by atoms of that element. If this document were printed in color, the lines would have a different
colors.
ACTIVITY 12.4 The Emission Spectra of Elements
(This activity may be done by all lab groups in your class at the same time . Ask your instructor.)
Procedure - Part A. Now you are going to actually look at the light emitted by excited electrons in atoms
of several metallic elements. A dark or dim room should be available for this activity.
1. Obtain a burner and a platinum or nichrome wire with a small loop at the end. Pour some of each of the
six solutions provided into separate wells of a dropping plate. Each solution contains a different metal ion
including Sr
2+
, Li
1+
, Ba
2+
, Ca
2+
, Cu,
2+
and Na
1+
. Pour some dilute hydrochloric acid (HCl) into a seventh
well on the plate. Make note of which solution is in each well.
2. Dip the loop of the wire into the lithium solution and then touch it to the edge of the flame of the burner.
This should impart some color to the flame. The burst of color may last only a fraction of a second. For
some solutions it may last longer. What color of light does the lithium produce?{30}________________
Clean the wire well by running tap water over it and then dipping it into the hydrochloric acid. Follow this by
rinsing the wire with tap water again. Touch the clean wire to the flame. If it is clean, the color will have
disappeared. If not, repeat the cleaning procedure.
3. Repeat the procedure above with the other solutions, noting the color emitted by each solution (test
the sodium solution last). The metal solutions which may include copper, strontium, calcium, barium, or
others. Note your observations below. Since sodium is not easy to remove from the wire, clean the loop
well several times before returning it to the materials shelf. The color which you saw emitted by each
metallic element in the flame was actually a blend of various wavelengths of light. These wavelengths of
light compose what is known as the bright-line spectrum or emission spectrum of each element.
Metal in Solution Color Emitted
_________________ _______________________
_________________ _______________________
_________________ _______________________
_________________ _______________________
_________________ _______________________
sodium _______________________
4. Discard the solutions and rinse the dropping plate. Return the loop and all materials to the proper
place.
Scientists have made quantitative observations of bright-line spectra by measuring the
wavelengths of the light waves emitted by elements. This is how we got the information revealed in
Figures 12.2 through 12.6. Other references are also available that can provide you with the spectra of
12-9 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
other elements. There may be a "spectrum chart" available in your classroom. Use the chart in your
classroom or Figures 12.2 through 12.6 to complete problem 5 below.
Problem 5. Study the emission spectrum of sodium vapor in Figure 12.6, and provide a rough estimate
of the seven wavelengths (in nm) emitted in the spaces provided below. Each line in Figure 12.6
represents a different wavelength of light being emitted.
a. __________ b. ___________ c. __________ d. __________
e. __________ f. ___________ g. __________
If you were to actually observe the emission spectrum of sodium vapor through a spectroscope, you
would probably see only one or two bright lines instead of seven. The reason for this is that the yellow
lines located near 570 nm are so bright, that they "wash out" the other lines. They are so bright, in fact,
that sodium vapor lamps are commonly used as street lights in areas where strong illumination is needed
such as high-crime neighborhoods.
Procedure - Part B.
Every element emits characteristic wavelengths, and no two
elements emit the same set of wavelengths. In this way, spectra are
like fingerprints. By studying atomic spectra, we can identify
elements. This is how scientists know which elements are present
in the sun. Wavelengths of the sun's light have been measured,
separated, and matched with spectra of known elements to identify
the contents of the sun. Your teacher may have equipment which is
designed to "excite" atoms of gases, so that their bright-line spectra
can be observed using small hand-held spectroscopes. Before
going on, ask your teacher if this equipment is available in your lab. If
so, your teacher will assist you in its use. Caution: high voltage
equipment will be used. (See Figure 12.7)
Most light is a blend of many wavelengths. The
spectroscope you will use is a device that contains a plastic "grating"
which separates the wavelengths emitted by a light source so that
you can observe them separately. List below the gases (or vapors)
that you observed using this high-voltage equipment.
Fi gure 12. 7
Spectra Observed:_______________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
Ask your teacher if any kinds of "vapor" lights are used to illuminate any of the rooms in your
school. If so, use a spectroscope to examine the light emitted by them, and see if you can identify the
element in the lights by comparing the spectra they emit to those in Figures 12.2 through 12.6 or those
found on a spectrum chart in your classroom. If you do have such lights in your school, go to the proper
location and observe the light using your hand-held spectroscope. Supply the information requested
below.
Location of lights in school:__________________________.
Symbol of element revealed by emission spectrum:________.
Check with your instructor to see if you identified the unknown element(s) correctly.
12-10 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
Figure 12.2 Emission Spectrum of Hydrogen
4000 Å 4500 Å 5000 Å 5500 Å 6000 Å 6500 Å
400 nm 450 nm 500 nm 550 nm 600 nm 650 nm
Figure 12.3 Emission Spectrum of Mercury
4000 Å 4500 Å 5000 Å 5500 Å 6000 Å 6500 Å
400 nm 450 nm 500 nm 550 nm 600 nm 650 nm
Figure 12.4 Emission Spectrum of Calcium
4000 Å 4500 Å 5000 Å 5500 Å 6000 Å 6500 Å
400 nm 450 nm 500 nm 550 nm 600 nm 650 nm
Figure 12.5 Emission Spectrum of Neon
4000 Å 4500 Å 5000 Å 5500 Å 6000 Å 6500 Å
400 nm 450 nm 500 nm 550 nm 600 nm 650 nm
Figure 12.6 Emission Spectrum of Sodium
4000 Å 4500 Å 5000 Å 5500 Å 6000 Å 6500 Å
400 nm 450 nm 500 nm 550 nm 600 nm 650 nm
SECTION 12.5 The Bohr Model of the Atom
12-11 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
Niels Bohr developed a theory to account for the location
of electrons around the nucleus of an atom. He believed his theory
would explain the bright-line spectra emitted by excited atoms. He
proposed that electrons followed specific paths or orbits around
the nucleus. These paths or energy levels, as they are also called,
are numbered starting with the lowest one (closest to the nucleus)
as 1, the next farther from the nucleus as 2, the next as 3, and so
forth. Figure 12.8 illustrates 4 of the energy levels of a n atom.
Bohr's model resembled a planetary system like our solar
system in which he suggested that the electrons revolve around
the nucleus. The first energy level, nearest the nucleus, is
represented as number 1. Each level thereafter is increased by
one. A total of 7 energy levels are needed to explain the structure
of all of the elements.
1 2 3 4
Figure 12.8 Energy Levels
The orbits around the nucleus are called energy levels because there are different and very
specific energies associated with each level. Bohr knew that energy was being added to an atom when it
was being heated or when an electrical current was passed through an element. This extra energy has to
go somewhere. The added energy is absorbed by the electrons that are in the outermost orbit (farthest
from the nucleus). Since there are specific amounts of energy associated with each energy level, the
electron that absorbs all of this extra energy can no longer stay in the orbit (energy level) in which it
normally belongs which is its "ground state." Instead, it will move to another energy level. It is now in an
"excited state" and is what we earlier referred to as an "excited" electron.
This electron is not doomed to spend the rest of its time in this higher energy level. Indeed, the
excited electron is now very unstable. Because this is an unstable state, the electron will soon return to its
ground state. This is where the atomic spectra enters into the picture. The energy that the electron emits
when it returns to its ground state is in the form of light and heat. Figure 12.9 gives a general picture of
this process. In "A" , the electron is excited and jumps to a new energy level that is further from the
nucleus. As the electron falls back to its ground state in "B", energy is given off in the form of light.
Figure 12.9 Emission of Light from an Excited Electron
LIGHT
EMITTED
A B
As electrons move to lower energy levels, the energy they emit is given off in a "burst" or quantity
of energy with a well-defined wavelength. The quantities of emitted energy are called quanta. Bohr's
theory of the atom gave birth to the quantum theory, a name that reflects the notion that atoms must
absorb and emit energy in specific amounts. Therefore, we say that the energy is "quantized." A
quantum of energy can be defined as the amount of energy needed to move an electron from one energy
level to the next higher one. Similarly, it can be defined as the amount of energy emitted when an
12-12 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
electron moves from its present energy level to a lower one.
In his theory, Bohr proposed that electrons were only "allowed" to exist at certain distances from
the nucleus. These distances became his energy levels. He believed that electrons were not "allowed"
to exist between these levels. Although the reasons for this behavior were unclear, the idea did explain
the existence of bright-line spectra. The spectrum of hydrogen contains a specific set of bright lines. Of
these, only 3 or 4 are clearly visible to the naked eye. (See Figure 12.2) So Bohr asked, why only this set
of lines? Why does the excited hydrogen electron emit only this specific set of wavelengths?
According to Bohr, the fact that there was always the same set of bright lines in the hydrogen
spectrum was evidence that only certain energy changes were possible for the hydrogen electron. The
electron could only make certain "jumps" and, therefore, could only emit certain wavelengths of light. The
number of lines was limited because there were only a few "excited" energy levels to which the electron
was "allowed" to move. He explained that the electron was - for whatever reason - not "permitted" to exist
between these levels.
Since every element has a specific number of electrons, different wavelengths of light will be
emitted by excited electrons of atoms of different elements. Even without a spectroscope you can see
that the glow of a neon sign is quite different from the fluorescent lights in your classroom. You probably
did not realize that what you were seeing was the result of excited electrons at work.
To better understand how an electron behaves as it returns to its stable ground state, consider
how you would jump down a staircase. Just as an electron can only stop at certain energy levels, you can
only stop at certain levels (steps). The electron cannot exist between energy levels, and you cannot stop
between the steps.
To get down to the bottom of the staircase,
you could jump all the way down at once; or one
step at a time; or one step followed by a two-step
jump; or perhaps a two-step jump followed by one
step, and then by a three-step jump. A variety of
different jumps is possible, each yielding a different
amount of energy.
Likewise, suppose an electron jumps out to
level 4 in Figure 12.10. There are ten different sizes
of jumps possible as it returns to its ground state.
So how many different wavelengths of light could be
emitted by this electron?{31}__________ A sample
containing many excited atoms of this element
would emit all possible wavelengths.
4
3
2
1
Ground State
Figure 12.10 Energy Level Diagram
SECTION 12.6 The Theory of Quantum Mechanics
Bohr's model worked well in explaining the emission spectra of hydrogen. But, it really did not
work well for atoms with more electrons in them. It even failed to explain some of the complexities of the
spectrum of hydrogen atoms. In addition, it could not explain why electrons are not pulled into the
nucleus of the atom (which would cause the atom to collapse).
We know, today, that electrons do not travel around the nucleus as planets do around the sun.
The failure of Bohr's model led to the development of the theory of quantum mechanics. Quantum
mechanics is a very complex theory. It involves describing the approximate location of any electron in any
atom. The theory provides an explanation for the behavior of electrons in atoms. The details of quantum
mechanics, while beyond the scope of this course, will be discussed briefly later in this chapter. This will
12-13 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
provide you with an appreciation and a general knowledge of the principles of the theory.
In these next sections, you will see how each of the energy levels is divided into sublevels. We
will concern ourselves with how the electrons distribute themselves among the energy levels and
sublevels of atoms.
Each energy level can hold a maximum number of electrons. The number of electrons in any
given energy level is limited to 2n
2
. This expression means 2(n
2
), not (2n)
2
! For example, the energy level
3 can be occupied by 2(3
)2
, or 18, electrons at the most.
Problem 6. Calculate the maximum number of electrons that could occupy the first four energy levels in
Energy Level Maximum No. Electrons (2n
2
)
1 __________
2 __________
3 __________
4 __________
Energy levels are sometimes called "shells" in which case each one is designated by a letter, K
through Q (see Figure 12.13). You may see this notation in your future studies in chemistry, so it is
important that you know something about it.
Each main energy level consists of one or more sublevels. The number of sublevels is equal to
the number of the energy level. Therefore, the third energy level has three sublevels, and the fifth
energy level has five sublevels. Which energy level has four sublevels?{32}_________. Which energy
level has two sublevels? {33}__________. The energy level diagram can now be redrawn. The main
energy levels and the sublevels within each energy level are labeled in Figure 12.11. Each sublevel is
designated by a small letter (s,p,d,f).
By overlapping we mean that a higher energy level begins before a lower one ends. Notice on
figure 12.11 how the 4th energy level begins before the third is full. Notice the overlapping of the main
energy levels that occurs as you go beyond the third energy level. This means that a higher energy level
begins before a lower one ends. Clearly, atoms are more complicated than a staircase. Certainly, the third
step on a staircase cannot begin before the second step ends! However, you must keep in mind that
energy levels are not "physical things," whereas staircases are real physical things. Energy levels are
conceptual things – regions of space. The complexity of overlapping energy levels becomes more
noticeable as you progress from the third energy level to the seventh.
The first sublevel of each energy is designated as an "s" sublevel. This is followed by a "p"
sublevel, the a "d", then an "f", depending upon how many electrons there are.
Note Figure 12.13, in which the energy sublevels s, p, d, f are each shown with one or more
circles. These circles represent orbitals. The number of circles represents the number of orbitals in a
particular sublevel. At this point, you can think of an orbital as a region of space where up to two electrons
can coexist. We think of energy levels as a staircase, and electrons can exist only in the steps, not
between them, right? We think of orbitals as "houses" where electrons live. Each of these orbital
"houses" can contain a maximum of two electrons, and – as you can see – there are different numbers of
orbital "houses" on different steps.
12-14 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
6d
6p
6s
7s
5f
5d
5p
5s
4f
4d
4p
4s
3d
3p
3s
2p
2s
1s
Nucleus
1st Energy Level
2nd Energy Level
3rd Energy Level
4th Energy Level
5th Energy Level
6th Energy Level
7th Energy Level
Figure 12.11 Overlapping of Energy Levels
We will learn more about orbitals later in this chapter, and we will
change the definition somewhat at that time. Looking at Figure 12.13,
notice that every s sublevel has only one orbital. Look at the p sublevels
in figure 12.13. How many orbitals does the p sublevel
have?{34}__________. How many orbitals does the d sublevel
have?{35}__________. How many orbitals does the f sublevel
have?{36}__________ Since each orbital can hold a maximum of two
electrons, what is the capacity of an "s" sublevel?{37}__________ Of a
"p" sublevel?{38}__________ Of a "d" sublevel?{39}__________ Of an
"f" sublevel?{40}__________. To help you remember the order in which
the energy levels and sublevels fill, you should become familiar with the
diagonal rule. It is shown in Figure 12.12. By simply following the arrows
along the diagonals, you have the correct order of filling. Use this
diagonal rule to see if the levels and sublevels are properly arranged in
Figure 12.13. The order of filling is:
1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d, 4p, 5s, 4d, 5p, 6s, 4f, 5d, 6p, 7s, 5f, 6d
In theory there are other orbitals such as 5g, 6f, etc., but they are never
used since there are no atoms that have enough electrons to fill them.
1s
2s 2p
3s 3p 3d
4s 4p 4d 4f
5s 5p 5d 5f
6s 6p 6d
7s
Fi gure 12. 12
The Diagonal Rule
12-15 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
5f
6d
7s
5d
5p
5s
3d
3p
3s
1s
2s
2p
4s
4p
4d
6s
4f
6p
Energy Level 7
(Q Shell)

Energy Level 6
(P Shell)
Energy Level 5
(O Shell)
Energy Level 4
(N Shell)
Energy Level 3
(M Shell)
Energy Level 2
(L Shell)
Energy Level 1
(K Shell)
ORBITALS
Figure 12.13 Atomic Energy Levels and Sublevels
SECTION 12.7 Orbital Notation of Electrons
Now that we have the sublevels and orbitals identified, we can use this information to describe
where the electrons are located in the various atoms represented on the periodic table. To do this, you
must keep several basic rules in mind:
1. Electrons fill up the energy sublevels.
12-16 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
2. The lowest energy sublevel must be completely filled before the next higher sublevel can begin to be
filled. For example, according to the diagonal rule, the 4s sublevel must be filled before the 3d sublevel
can be used. Caution: note that this rule refers to sublevels, not energy levels.
3. Each orbital (represented by a circle in figure 12.13) can hold a maximum number of two electrons. We
will represent electrons as slashed lines. The symbol (/) represents a single electron in an orbital. A full
orbital would contain two electrons and would be represented like this: (X). This method of representing
the electrons in an atom is called orbital notation.
4. Electrons repel each other and will not pair up in a single orbital in any given sublevel until all orbitals in
that sublevel are half full (have one electron in them). The incorrect and correct way to represent a 2p
orbital containing three electrons is shown below:
Incorrect 2p Orbital Notation Correct 2p Orbital Notation
2p 2p
( X) ( / ) ( ) ( / ) ( / ) ( / )
Problem 7. You should now fill in the correct orbital notation to the right of the incorrect notation shown
below for a 3d sublevel with 5 orbitals that contain 6 electrons:
Incorrect 3d Orbital Notation Correct 3d Orbital Notation
3d 3d
( X) ( X) ( X) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
Orbital notation can be easily written for each element on the periodic table. For example, to write
the orbital notation for an atom of iron, we must first look up the atomic number of iron on the periodic
table. The atomic number of iron is {41}_________. How many electrons does iron have?{42}__________.
The orbital diagram shown below illustrates the order in which the sublevels and orbitals are filled for iron
according to the diagonal rule.
I r on: 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d
( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( / ) ( / ) ( / ) ( / )

Each "X" represents two slashed lines. Is the number of slashed lines shown equal to the number of
electrons in iron?{43}__________ In Table 12.2, the orbital notations for the first ten elements are
illustrated using this set of rules. Notice that even empty orbitals are shown if a sublevel contains at least
one electron (see boron and carbon).
Tabl e 12. 2
Orbital Notation of the First Ten Elements
El ement 1s 2s 2p
Hydr ogen ( / )
Hel i um ( X)
Li t hi um ( X) ( / )
Ber yl l i um ( X) ( X)
Bor on ( X) ( X) ( / ) ( ) ( )
Car bon ( X) ( X) ( / ) ( / ) ( )
Ni t r ogen ( X) ( X) ( / ) ( / ) ( / )
Oxygen ( X) ( X) ( X) ( / ) ( / )
Fl uor i ne ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( / )
Neon ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X)
12-17 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
Table12.3 summarizes much of the important information about the location of electrons in the
first four energy levels.
Tabl e 12. 3
Data Summary for Energy Levels 1 Through 4
Energy Level 1st 2nd 3rd 4th
Shell K L M N
Shell Capacities 2 8 18 32
No. of Sublevels 1 2 3 4
Sublevel Types s s,p s,p,d s,p,d,f
Sublevel Capacities 2 2,6 2,6,10 2,6,10,14
No. of orbitals per sublevel: s = 1; p = 3; d = 5; f = 7
Problem 8. Now it is time for you to use what you have learned. Fill in the electrons for the elements
below. Follow the rules listed in section 12.7 as well as the diagonal rule. The finished product will be the
orbital notation for an atom of each element.
El ement 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d
a. ber yl l i um ( ) ( )
b. magnesi um ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
c. ni t r ogen ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
d. si l i con ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
e. cal ci um ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
f . pot assi um ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
g. ar gon ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
h. sodi um ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
i . chl or i ne ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
j . copper ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
k. phosphor us ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
l . ni ckel ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
Note: The 3d sublevel is a "higher energy" level than the 4s because electrons in the 3d have more
energy than those in the 4s. Electrons fill the "lower energy" levels first. However, the lower energy 4s
sublevel is farther from the nucleus than the higher energy 3d. A "higher" energy sublevel is not
necessarily farther from the nucleus than a "lower" energy sublevel. The distance of the energy sublevels
from the nucleus is:
Increasing Distance from Nucleus----->
1s 2s,2p 3s,3p,3d 4s,4p,4d,4f 5s,5p,5d,5f 6s,6p,6d,etc.
(closest) (farthest)
SECTION 12.8 Electron Configuration Notation
There is another form of notation which reveals which energy level and sublevel the electrons of
an atom are in, but it does not show the individual orbitals. This method is known as electron configuration
notation. A superscript is used to reveal the number of electrons in each sublevel. For example, the
configuration notation for lithium, element number 3, is: 1s
2
2s
1
. This means that there are 2 electrons in
12-18 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
sublevel "s" of energy level 1, and there is one electron in sublevel "s" of energy level 2. Configuration
notation does not reveal whether the electrons are alone or paired in their orbitals like orbital notation
does. Note that the sum of the superscripts should equal the number of electrons in the atoms. (A lithium
atom contains three electrons.)
If an atom has a configuration notation of 1s
2
2s
2
2p
3
, how many electrons does the atom contain?
{44}_________ How many of these electrons are found in the second energy level?{45}___________
How many are found in the first energy level?{46} __________ More examples of configuration notation
are shown below.
El ement Configuration Notation
hydrogen 1s
1
helium 1s
2
lithium 1s
2
2s
1
beryllium 1s
2
2s
2
boron 1s
2
2s
2
2p
1
manganese 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
3p
6
4s
2
3d
5
selenium 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
3p
6
4s
2
3d
10
4p
4
antimony 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
3p
6
4s
2
3d
10
4p
6
5s
2
4d
10
5p
3
Problem 9. Give the electron configuration notation for the elements listed below.
Element Atomic Number Configuration Notation
a. C 6 ________________________________________________
b. N 7 ________________________________________________
c. O 8 ________________________________________________
d. F 9 1s
2
2s
2
2p
5
e. Ne 10 ________________________________________________
f. P 15 ________________________________________________
g. Ar 18 ________________________________________________
h. Ca 20 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
3p
6
4s
2
i. Mn 25 ________________________________________________
j. Zn 30 ________________________________________________
k. Kr 36 ________________________________________________
12-19 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
SECTION 12.9 Review Problems
Problem 10. Naturally-occurring iridium (Ir) consists of two isotopes. Iridium–191 (atomic mass =
190.9992 composes 37.58% of it, while iridium–193 (atomic mass = 192.9913) composes the remaining
62.7%. Calculate the average atomic mass of iridium atoms.
Problem 11. Write the nuclear notation for the following isotopes:
a. iridium–191 b. chlorine–37 c. chromium–50
Probl em 12. Indicate the number of protons, electrons and neutrons in each of the following:
protons electrons neutrons
iridium-191 ______ _______ _______
chlorine-37 ______ _______ _______
chromium-50 ______ _______ _______
Probl em 13. Write the orbital notation for:
a. sul f ur : 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
b. vanadi um: 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
Probl em 14. Write the configuration notation for:
a. sulfur: __________________________________________________________
b. vanadium: _______________________________________________________
ACTIVITY 12.10 An Optional Enrichment Activity -
The Colors of Transition Metal Chemistry
The elements with atomic numbers 21 through 30 exhibit many properties different from those of
other elements in the same period (row). The elements directly below in the next two periods, however,
have similar properties. Together these elements are known as the transition metals. The purpose of this
activity is to compare the properties of some substances which contain transition metals with those which
12-20 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
do not contain non-transition metals. We will then try to relate any unique properties of the transition
metals to the electrons which they contain.
Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn
Figure 12.14 The Transition Metals of Row Four
Materials: 96-well microplate; plastic micropipets; toothpicks; 0.1M solutions of compounds containing
period 4 metals: KNO3, Ca(NO3)2, NH4VO3, Cr(NO3)2, Mn(NO3)2, Co(NO3)2, Fe(NO3)3, Ni(NO3)2, Cu(NO3)2,
Zn(NO3)2; 6.0M ammonia (NH3); 1M potassium thiocyanate, KSCN; 6M hydrochloric acid (HCl); one sheet
of white paper.
Procedure:
1. Place a 96-well microplate on a sheet of white paper. The numbered columns should be at the top with
the lettered rows to your left.
2. Place 5 drops of KNO3 in each of wells A1, B1, C1, and D1.
NH3(aq) -----> A
KSCN ------> B
HCl ------> C
Control ------> D
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
1 = KNO3 4 = Cr(NO3)3 7 = Fe(NO3)3 10 = Zn(NO3)2
2 = Ca(NO3)2 5 = Mn(NO3)2 8 = Ni(NO3)2
3 = NH4VO3 6 = Co(NO3)2 9 = Cu(NO3)2
Figure 12.15 Microplate
3. Place 5 drops of Ca(NO3)2 in each of wells A2, B2, C2, and D2.
4. Continue to repeat this process of placing 5 drops of solutions of metal compounds in subsequent
12-21 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
columns of the microplate. Use chemicals in the order in which they are given in the materials list above.
The last drops will be in column 10.
5. Add 5 drops of 6M NH3 to each well in row A. Mix well with a toothpick. Rinse the toothpick with water
before moving from well to well. CAUTION: ammonia solution is caustic and has strong vapors.
6. Add 5 drops of KSCN solution to each well in row B. Mix well with a toothpick, rinsing the toothpick
between uses as before.
7. Finally, add 5 drops of HCl to each well in row C. CAUTION: Do not mix HCl and KSCN. Clean up all
spills immediately. Mix well. Use row D as a control for comparing with the other rows.
Data and Observations:
1. Observe row D of your microplate. Record your observations - particularly colors, if any - in Table 12.4.
2. Compare the solutions in the wells in rows A, B, and C in each column to the solution in row D in that
column. Where there was a change, record what you observe.
A1_______________ A2_______________ A3_______________ A4_______________
A5_______________ A6_______________ A7_______________ A8_______________
A9_______________ A10_______________
B1_______________ B2_______________ B3_______________ B4_______________
B5_______________ B6_______________ B7_______________ B8_______________
B9_______________ B10_______________
C1_______________ C2_______________ C3_______________ C4_______________
C5_______________ C6_______________ C7_______________ C8_______________
C9_______________ C10_______________
D1_______________ D2_______________ D3_______________ D4_______________
D5_______________ D6_______________ D7_______________ D8_______________
D9_______________ D10_______________
TABLE 12.4 Transition Metal Chemistry
Analysis and Conclusions:
Comment on the order of the metal ions in the wells from left to right in the rows of your microplate when
compared to the positions of the metals in the periodic table:{47}_______________________________
Did you observe any colors in columns 1 and 2 of your microplate? {48}_________________________
The metals used in columns 1 and 2 of your microplate are not transition metals. With respect to sublevel
12-22 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
(s,p,d,f), what kind of electrons do the transition metals have that these metals do not have?{49}________
Review what you observed in columns 3 through 9 of your microplate. What do the results in these
columns have in common?{50}________________________________________________________
Did the metal in column 1 and 2 produce any colors?{51}__________ Did the metal in column 10 produce
any colors?{52}___________ Is the "d" sublevel of electrons completely filled in the metal atoms found in
columns 3 through 9 of your microplate?{53}___________
What is true about the distribution of electrons in the transition metals in columns 3 through 9 that is
responsible for the fact that they produce colored products? {54}_______________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
With respect to color, the results in column 10 should have been different from the results in columns 3
through 10. Why? {55}______________________________________________________________
What property would help to identify a compound as one which contains a transition metal ion? { 56}______
______________________________________________________________________________
SECTION 12.11 Learning Outcomes
This is the end of chapter 12. Check off each of the learning outcomes on the next page which
you have completed. When you have mastered them all, arrange to take the chapter 12 exam, and go to
chapter 13 which is part 2 of your study of atomic structure.
_____1. List the subatomic particles and describe their location and properties.
_____2. Determine the number of electrons, protons, and neutrons in an atom of any element given
information such as its atomic number, mass number, or atomic mass.
_____3. Define isotope, give an example of one, and calculate the atomic mass of an element given the
masses of its isotopes and their abundance in nature.
_____4. Describe the Bohr model of the atom.
_____5. Explain how atomic spectra help to explain the behavior of electrons.
_____6. Explain what is meant by energy levels, sublevels, orbitals, and electron configurations.
_____7. Give the capacities of energy levels and sublevels.
_____8. Write the electron configuration notation of atoms.
_____9. Write the orbital notation for atoms.
12-23 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
SECTION 12.12 Answers to Questions and Problems
Questions:
{1} repel; {2} attract; {3} Dalton; {4} nucleus; {5} positively; {6} +1; {7} neutrons; {8} 19; {9} 10
{10} 10; {11} 8; {12} 8; {13} neutrons; {14} isotopes; {15} average; {16} neutrons; {17} protons;
{18} neutrons; {19} mass number; {20} electrons; {21} 16; {22} 37; {23} 12.01; {24} 24;
{25} phosphorus-31; {26} Some matter is converted into energy when an atom of oxygen forms;
{27} longer; {28} electrons; {29} different (or unique); {30} reddish; {31} 10; {32} fourth; {33} second;
{34} 3; {35} 5; {36} 7; {37} 2; {38} 6; {39} 10; {40} 14; {41} 26; {42} 26; {43} yes; {44} 7; {45} 5;
{46} 2; {47} the same; {48} no; {49} d; {50} they have color; {51} no; {52} no; {53} no;
{54} They have an incomplete (unfilled) "d" sublevel; {55} Elements in column 10 on the microplate have
a filled "d" sublevel; {56} color
Problems:
1. a. 13,13,14 b. 55, 55, 78
2. a. 92, 92, 142 b. 92, 92, 143 c. 92, 92, 146
Nuclear
Isotope Notation At.No. Mass No. No. e's No. p's No. n's
a. aluminum-27 Al _13__ __27___ _13__ _13__ _14__
b. bismuth-209 Bi _83__ __209__ _83__ _83__ _126_
c. calcium-40 Ca _20__ __40___ _20__ _20__ _20__
d. copper-64 Cu _29__ __64___ _29____ _29__ _35__
e. _helium-4____ He __2__ ___4___ __2__ __2__ __2__
f. _lead-207____ Pb _82__ __207__ __82_ _82__ _125_
g. _oxygen-16__ O __8__ __16__ __8__ __8__ __8__
h. _tin-119_____ Sn _50__ __119__ __50_ __50_ __69_
i. _zinc-66_____ Zn _30__ __66___ __30_ __30_ __36_
27
13
209
83
40
20
29
64
4
2
82
207
16
8
50
119
30
66
3.
4. 63.54
5. These are estimates: 490 nm, 495 nm, 568 nm, 572 nm, 592 nm, 595 nm, 615 nm
6. 2, 8, 18, 32
7. 3d
( X) ( / ) ( / ) ( / ) ( / )
12-24 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
El ement 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d
a. ber yl l i um ( X) ( X)
b. magnesi um ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X)
c. ni t r ogen ( X) ( X) ( / ) ( / ) ( / )
d. si l i con ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( / ) ( / ) ( )
e. cal ci um ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X)
f . pot assi um ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( / )
g. ar gon ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X)
h. sodi um ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( / )
i . chl or i ne ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( / )
j . copper ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( / )
k. phosphor us ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( / ) ( / ) ( / )
l . ni ckel ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( / ) ( / )
8.
9. a. 1s
2
2s
2
2p
2
b. 1s
2
2s
2
2p
3
c. 1s
2
2s
2
2p
4
d. (given)
e. 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
f. 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
3p
3
g. 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
3p
6
h. (given)
i. 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
3p
6
4s
2
3d
5
j. 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
3p
6
4s
2
3d
10
k. 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
3p
6
4s
2
3d
10
4p
6
10. Check periodic table for atomic weight of Iridium (#77). Answer may be a little off due to rounding.

11. a.
77
191
Ir b.
17
37
Cl c.
24
50
Cr
12. iridium-191: 77 protons, 77 electrons, 114 neutrons
chlorine-37: 17 protons, 17 electrons, 20 neutrons
chromium-50: 24 protons, 24 electrons, 26 neutrons
a. sul f ur : 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d
( X) ( X) ( X( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( / ) ( / ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
b. vanadi um: 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d
( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( / ) ( / ) ( / ) ( ) ( )
13.
14. sulfur: 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
3p
4
vanadium: 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
3p
6
4s
2
3d
3
12-25 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
SECTION 12.13 Student Notes
12-26 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
NAME____________________________________ PER____________ DATE DUE____________
ACTIVE LEARNING I N CHEMISTRY EDUCATION
"ALICE"
CHAPTER 13
MODERN
VIEW
OF
ATOMIC
STRUCTURE
(PART 2)

NOTICE OF RIGHTS
All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form by any means,
electronic, mechanical, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the author.
Copies of this document may be made free of charge for use in public or nonprofit private educational
institutions provided that permission is obtained from the author . Please indicate the name and address
of the institution where use is anticipated.
© 1997 A.J. Girondi, Ph.D.
505 Latshmere Drive
Harrisburg, PA 17109
alicechem@geocities.com
Website: www.geocities.com/Athens/Oracle/2041
13-2 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
SECTION 13.1 The Valence Shell and Valence Electrons
Now that you know how to write electron configurations for atoms, we can examine chemical
families in terms of electron configurations. You will recall that chemical families are the vertical columns on
the periodic table. One such family consists of the elements Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, and Fr. These elements
comprise column 1A. They are called the alkali metals. Their electron configurations are listed in Table
13.1 below.
Tabl e 13. 1
Electron Configurations for Alkali Metals
At. No. Configuration Notation
3 Li 1s
2
2s
1
11 Na 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
1
19 K 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
3p
6
4s
1
37 Rb 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
3p
6
4s
2
3d
10
4p
6
5s
1
55 Cs 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
3p
6
4s
2
3d
10
4p
6
5s
2
4d
10
5p
6
6s
1
87 Fr 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
3p
6
4s
2
3d
10
4p
6
5s
2
4d
10
5p
6
6s
2
4f
14
5d
10
6p
6
7s
1
There is an important similarity in all of these electron configurations. Can you see what it is? Circle the
outermost energy level (1,2,3,4,etc.) of each of the elements in Table 13.1. How many electrons are
there in the outermost energy level of each of these elements? {1}__________. The shell or energy level
that contains the outermost electrons for an element is called the valence shell. The electrons in that
energy level are called valence electrons. Because these electrons are among the ones that are farthest
from the nucleus, they are relatively easy to remove. The chemical activity of an element is determined in
part by the number of valence electrons that it has.
The alkali metals all have one valence electron. This similarity in number of valence electrons
causes the chemical behavior of these elements to be very similar. Sometimes hydrogen, which has a 1s1
configuration, is also listed with this family since it also has one valence electron. However, it behaves
quite differently from the other elements in the family because of its small size and the fact that there are
no other electrons in levels beneath the valence shell, as there are in the rest of the family. On some
periodic tables, hydrogen is placed in a class by itself.
When you attempt to identify the valence electrons in an atom, be sure to count all the electrons
in the entire outermost energy level, not just the outermost sublevel. For example, for germanium (#32)
the configuration notation is 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
3p
6
4s
2
3d
10
4p
2
. How many valence electrons are there?
The answer is 4. That's right, 4. The outermost energy level is 4 (the N shell), and there are 4 electrons
there. They are the 4s
2
and the 4p
2
electrons. Many students would make the mistake of thinking that
only the 4p
2
electrons are in the valence shell. All of the electrons in the outermost energy level (energy
level 4 in this case) must be included. Reread this paragraph until you are sure you understand.
Let's see if you've mastered this idea. How many valence electrons are there in the atom whose
configuration notation is listed below?
1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
3p
6
4s
2
3d
10
4p
6
Number of valence electrons = {2}_____________
What is the configuration notation of only the valence electrons? {3}____________________________
13-3 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
Write the electron configuration notation for only the valence electrons in aluminum (#13):{4}__________
O.K., now write the valence shell electron configuration notation for Te (#52): {5}___________________
Problem 1. In Table 13.2, write the electron configuration notation for only the valence shell of the
indicated families. Be careful, only the valence shell configuration is being asked for, but be sure to
include all of the electrons in the valence shell!
Tabl e 13. 2
Valence Shell Configuration for Families 2A & 3A
Family 2A
Element At. No. Valence Shell Configuration
Be 4 _____________________
Mg 12 _____________________
Ca 20 _____________________
Sr 38 _____________________
Ba 56 _____________________
Ra 88 _____________________
Family 3A
Element At. No. Valence Shell Configuration
B 5 _____________________
Al 13 _____________________
Ga 31 _____________________
In 49 _____________________
Tl 81 _____________________
The chemical activity of the elements depends on their electronic structure.
Elements in the same group or family have the same valence shell structure. For example, in Group 3A
the element B has the valence shell: 2s
2
2p
1
, while in the same family Al has the valence shell: 3s
2
3p
1
.
Mendeleev was not correct in arranging the elements according to increasing atomic masses, while
Moseley was correct in arranging them according to increasing atomic number. Why? Well, the atomic
number indicates the number of protons in the nucleus as well as the number of electrons in a neutral
atom. When arranged according to increasing atomic number, elements with the same valence shell
structure can be lined up in a vertical group (family). Thus, it is the valence shell configurations that allow
us to arrange elements periodically in the table. Mendeleev did his work prior to the discovery of the
internal structure of atoms. It is a tribute to his insight that he developed his arrangement based on
chemical similarities. Arranging the atoms according to increasing atomic masses was a very logical move
given the state of knowledge at his time. The fact that he was incorrect does not detract from the
contribution he made to chemistry.
13-4 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
Problem 2. For further practice in working with valence shell electron configuration notation, complete
Table 13.3 (show valence electrons only).
Tabl e 13. 3
Electron Configuration and Valence Electrons of Selected Elements
Element At. No. Valence Shell Electron Configuration Notation
Si 14 __________________________________
Br 35 __________________________________
V 23 __________________________________
As 33 __________________________________
S 16 __________________________________
Y 39 __________________________________
At 85 __________________________________
Au 79 __________________________________
Cl 17 __________________________________
SECTION 13.2 The Use of "Core" Notation
The task of writing notations can get cumbersome for atoms that have a lot of electrons. A
shortcut method, core notation, has been developed that is quicker and more convenient. Suppose you
want to write the configuration and orbital notation for chlorine. To write core notation, find the noble gas
on the periodic table that has the atomic number closest to but less than that of chlorine. The atomic
number of chlorine is 17. The closest noble gas is Neon (#10). Then write the notations of chlorine as
follows:
3s 3p
Chlorine: 17Cl = [Ne] 3s
2
3p
5
or: [Ne] ( X) ( X) ( X) ( / )
This indicates that chlorine atoms have all the electrons that neon has (the neon core) plus those shown in
the orbitals that follow. Here's lead:

Lead = 82Pb = [Xe] 6s
2
4f
14
5d
10
6p
2
6s 4f 5d 6p
or: [Xe] ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( / ) ( / ) ( )
Lead has all the electrons that xenon has (the xenon core) plus those shown in the notation. The core
form of configuration notation for 100 elements is shown in Table 13.4. This table follows the diagonal
rule. There are a number of exceptions to the diagonal rule, but they are not shown in table 13.4. The
table of electron configurations in Appendix B of your ALICE materials shows the actual electron
configurations of the elements including exceptions to the diagonal rule.
Refer to Tables 13.4 and 13.5 as you study examples of the "core form" of orbital notation. Table
13.5 shows the configuration of the last electron to enter each atom as orbitals fill up according to the
diagonal rule. It really helps when writing core notation. Examine Table 13.5 for a moment now.
13-5 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
Element Orbital and Configuration Notation Using Core Notation
2s 2p
Lithium (#3) [He] ( / ) or [He] 2s
1
boron (#5) [He] ( X) ( / ) ( ) ( ) or [He] 2s
2
2p
1
oxygen (#8) [He] ( X) ( X) ( / ) ( / ) or [He] 2s
2
2p
4
3s 3p
magnesium (#12) [Ne] ( X) or [Ne] 3s
2
silicon (#14) [Ne] ( X) ( / ) ( / ) ( ) or [Ne] 3s
2
3p
2
4s 3d 4p
gallium (#31) [Ar] ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( / ) ( ) ( ) or [Ar] 4s
2
3d
10
4p
1
bromine (#35) [Ar] ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( / ) or [Ar] 4s
2
3d
10
4p
5
Problem 3. Try writing the core form of configuration notation for the elements below. Check your
answers using Table 13.4.
Element Orbital Notation Using Core Notation
Sulfur (#16) ___________________________________________________________
Scandium (#21) ___________________________________________________________
Niobium (#41) ___________________________________________________________
Tellurium (#52) ___________________________________________________________
SECTION 13.3 Ionization Energy
You will recall that when energy is absorbed by an electron, it is said to be "excited." It is the
valence electrons that are easiest to "excite." Look at the two electron configurations below. There is an
obvious difference between them. Both electron configurations represent eleven electrons. Both are
sodium atoms (assuming the elements represented have 11 protons).
1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
1
1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
5s
1

(sodium atom) (unstable sodium atom)
The 3s
1
electron has been "excited"
and jumped up to a higher energy level
Since sodium has an atomic number of 11, these configurations represent a sodium atom. What has
happened is that the electron in the 5s orbital is excited and is extremely unstable. It can emit that extra
energy as light to get back down to its ground state (the 3s level). But, when you excite the electron in the
first place, what if the 3s
1
electron absorbs more energy than it can handle? Indeed, this is a common
occurrence. In this case, the 3s
1
electron would simply leave the atom altogether. What is left is called a
sodium ion. An ion is an atom with an unequal number of electrons and protons. This means that all ions
have either a positive or negative charge. To see whether sodium would become a positive or negative
ion, we must look at its electron configuration with and without its 3s1 electron.
Neutral Na Atom = 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
1
Na
1+
Ion = 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
The sodium ion has a plus 1 (+1) charge. It is important for you to remember that ions can only be made by
either adding or removing electrons. The number of protons is never altered in a chemical change.
13-6 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
Tabl e 13. 4
"Core Notation" of 100 Elements According to the Diagonal Rule
1 H 1s
1
51 Sb [Kr]5s
2
4d
10
5p
3
2 He 1s
2
52 Te [Kr]5s
2
4d
10
5p
4
3 Li [He]2s
1
53 I [Kr]5s
2
4d
10
5p
5
4 Be [He]2s
2
54 Xe [Kr]5s
2
4d
10
5p
6
5 B [He]2s
2
2p
1
55 Cs [Xe]6s
1

6 C [He]2s
2
2p
2
56 Ba [Xe]6s
2

7 N [He]2s
2
2p
3
57 La [Xe]6s
2
4f
1

8 O [He]2s
2
2p
4
58 Ce [Xe]6s
2
4f
2

9 F [He]2s
2
2p
5
59 Pr [Xe]6s
2
4f
3

10 Ne [He]2s
2
2p
6
60 Nd [Xe]6s
2
4f
4

11 Na [Ne]3s
1
61 Pm [Xe]6s
2
4f
5

12 Mg [Ne]3s
2
62 Sm [Xe]6s
2
4f
6

13 Al [Ne]3s
2
3p
1
63 Eu [Xe]6s
2
4f
7

14 Si [Ne]3s
2
3p
2
64 Gd [Xe]6s
2
4f
8

15 P [Ne]3s
2
3p
3
65 Tb [Xe]6s
2
4f
9

16 S [Ne]3s
2
3p
4
66 Dy [Xe]6s
2
4f
10

17 Cl [Ne]3s
2
3p
5
67 Ho [Xe]6s
2
4f
11
18 Ar [Ne]3s
2
3p
6
68 Er [Xe]6s
2
4f
12

19 K [Ar]4s
1
69 Tm [Xe]6s
2
4f
13

20 Ca [Ar]4s
2
70 Yb [Xe]6s
2
4f
14

21 Sc [Ar]4s
2
3d
1
71 Lu [Xe]6s
2
4f
14
5d
1
22 Ti [Ar]4s
2
3d
2
72 Hf [Xe]6s
2
4f
14
5d
2
23 V [Ar]4s
2
3d
3
73 Ta [Xe]6s
2
4f
14
5d
3
24 Cr [Ar]4s
2
3d
4
74 W [Xe]6s
2
4f
14
5d
4
25 Mn [Ar]4s
2
3d
5
75 Re [Xe]6s
2
4f
14
5d
5
26 Fe [Ar]4s
2
3d
6
76 Os [Xe]6s
2
4f
14
5d
6
27 Co [Ar]4s
2
3d
7
77 Ir [Xe]6s
2
4f
14
5d
7
28 Ni [Ar]4s
2
3d
8
78 Pt [Xe]6s
2
4f
14
5d
8
29 Cu [Ar]4s
2
3d
9
79 Au [Xe]6s
2
4f
14
5d
9
30 Zn [Ar]4s
2
3d
10
80 Hg [Xe]6s
2
4f
14
5d
10
31 Ga [Ar]4s
2
3d
10
4p
1
81 Tl [Xe]6s
2
4f
14
5d
10
6p
1

32 Ge [Ar]4s
2
3d
10
4p
2
82 Pb [Xe]6s
2
4f
14
5d
10
6p
2
33 As [Ar]4s
2
3d
10
4p
3
83 Bi [Xe]6s
2
4f
14
5d
10
6p
3
34 Se [Ar]4s
2
3d
10
4p
4
84 Po [Xe]6s
2
4f
14
5d
10
6p
4
35 Br [Ar]4s
2
3d
10
4p
5
85 At [Xe]6s
2
4f
14
5d
10
6p
5
36 Kr [Ar]4s
2
3d
10
4p
6
86 Rn [Xe]6s
2
4f
14
5d
10
6p
6
37 Rb [Kr]5s
1
87 Fr [Rn]7s
1

38 Sr [Kr]5s
2
88 Ra [Rn]7s
2

39 Y [Kr]5s
2
4d
1
89 Ac [Rn]7s
2
5f
1

40 Zr [Kr]5s
2
4d
2
90 Th [Rn]7s
2
5f
2

41 Nb [Kr]5s
2
4d
3
91 Pa [Rn]7s
2
5f
3

42 Mo [Kr]5s
2
4d
4
92 U [Rn]7s
2
5f
4

43 Tc [Kr]5s
2
4d
5
93 Np [Rn]7s
2
5f
5

44 Ru [Kr]5s
2
4d
6
94 Pu [Rn]7s
2
5f
6

45 Rh [Kr]5s
2
4d
7
95 Am [Rn]7s
2
5f
7

46 Pd [Kr]5s
2
4d
8
96 Cm [Rn]7s
2
5f
8

47 Ag [Kr]5s
2
4d
9
97 Bk [Rn]7s
2
5f
9

48 Cd [Kr]5s
2
4d
10
98 Cf [Rn]7s
2
5f
10

49 In [Kr]5s
2
4d
10
5p
1
99 Es [Rn]7s
2
5f
11

50 Sn [Kr]5s
2
4d
10
5p
2
100 Fm [Rn]7s
2
5f
12
13-7 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
1s
1
1s
2
2s
1
3s
1
4s
1
5s
1
6s
1
7s
1
2s
2
2p
1
2p
2
2p
3
2p
4
2p
5
2p
6
3p
1
4p
1
5p
1
6p
1
3p
2
4p
2
5p
2
6p
2
3p
3
4p
3
5p
3
6p
3
3p
4
4p
4
5p
4
6p
4
3p
5
4p
5
5p
5
6p
5
3p
6
4p
6
5p
6
6p
6
3s
2
4s
2
5s
2
6s
2
7s
2
3d
1
3d
2
3d
3
3d
4
3d
5
3d
6
3d
7
3d
8
3d
9
3d
10
4d
1
5d
1
6d
1
4d
2
5d
2
6d
2
4d
3
5d
3
6d
3
4d
4
5d
4
6d
4
4d
5
5d
5
6d
5
4d
6
5d
6
6d
6
4d
7
5d
7
6d
7
4d
8
5d
8
6d
8
4d
9
5d
9
6d
9
4d
10
5d
10
4f
1
4f
2
4f
3
4f
4
4f
5
4f
6
4f
7
4f
8
4f
9
4f
10
4f
11
4f
12 4f
13
4f
14
5f
1
5f
2
5f
3
5f
4
5f
5
5f
6
5f
7
5f
8
5f
9
5f
10
5f
11
5f
12
5f
13
5f
14
Tabl e 13. 5
Last–Entering Electrons According to the Diagonal Rule*
*Since there are many exceptions to the diagonal rule, see Appendix B of your reference notebook for
the actual electron distributions in atoms.
The energy required to remove electrons is called the ionization energy. The amounts of
ionization energy required to remove the outermost electrons of sodium, magnesium, and aluminum are
listed in Table 13.6.
After the first electron is removed from an atom, the size of the atom decreases. The remaining
electrons are "pulled" closer to the nucleus and become even harder to remove. This is evident in Table
13.6. In the table, valence electrons and the energies required to remove valence electrons are enclosed
in boxes. Notice that after the valence electron(s) are removed from the atoms, the amount of energy
required to remove any more electrons goes up dramatically. The reason for this is that after the valence
electrons are removed, the atoms are left with the electron configuration of a noble gas and additional
electrons would have to come from another energy level which is much closer to the nucleus. Such
electrons are much more strongly attracted to the nucleus. Notice that to get a second electron out of
sodium (Na) we would have to move to another energy level which is closer to the nucleus.
Because the noble gas configurations are so stable, it is very difficult to remove more electrons
from an atom after it has achieved an "octet" of eight electrons in the outermost energy level. In Table
13.6, the biggest increase in ionization energy comes after which electron is removed from Al? (1st, 2nd,
3rd, etc.):{6}_________ What accounts for this big increase in ionization energy in aluminum?{7}________
______________________________________________________________________________
Notice in Table 13.6 that the big increase in ionization energy for Mg comes between the second and third
electrons. This means that it is much harder to remove the third electron from an atom of Mg than it was to
remove the first and second ones. This is evidence that the third electron in much closer to the nucleus.
We conclude that the third electron belongs to a different energy level.
13-8 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
Tabl e 13. 6
Energy Needed to Remove Electrons
Element Configuration Ionization Energy (Kilojoules/mole)
Notation 1st Elec. 2nd Elec. 3rd Elec. 4th Elec.
Na 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
1
498 4560
Mg 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
736 1445 7730
A l 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
3p
1
577 1815 2740 11600
◊◊◊
◊◊◊
◊◊◊
◊◊◊ indicates a change in energy levels
So, when the big increase in ionization energy occurs after the first electron, the atom probably belongs to
what family on the periodic table? {8}__________ When the big increase occurs after two electrons have
been removed, the atom probably belongs to family {9}__________.
The valence shell arrangement of electrons in noble gases makes them very stable. They have
what we call an octet of electrons in their outer (valence) shells. For neon the octet is in the 2nd energy
level: 2s
2
2p
6
. For argon it is in the 3rd energy level: 3s
2
3p
6
. Helium is the only noble gas that does not
have an octet. Instead, it has a full outer energy level (1s
2
) which is also very stable. (Remember, the first
energy level holds a maximum of 2 electrons.)
The large "gaps" in ionization energies serve as great evidence for the existence of
energy levels, sublevels, and the stability of certain electron arrangements.
Atoms gain or lose electrons in order to obtain a stable arrangement. The two most stable arrangements
are:
1. an octet (s
2
p
6
) in the outermost energy level (as seen in the noble gases except for helium)
2. the full outermost energy level of helium (1s
2
)
Other arrangements that are "slightly" stable include:
3. a full sublevel (such as s
2
, or p
6
, or d
10
, etc.)
4. a half-full sublevel (such as s
1
, p
3
, d
5
, etc.)
In order to become more stable, atoms often lose, gain, or share electrons when they react with
each other. They lose, gain, or share as many electrons as needed to establish a stable arrangement
(especially an octet). To accomplish this, atoms generally tend to lose or gain enough electrons to
achieve the electron configuration of the closest noble gas. (By closest we mean according to atomic
number.)
Sodium loses one electron and ends up with the arrangement of neon:
Na atom: 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
1
---> Na
1+
ion: 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
Magnesium, [Ne]3s
2
, loses two electrons and becomes like neon:
Mg atom: 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
---> Mg
2+
ion: 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
Aluminum, [Ne]3s
2
3p
1
, loses three electrons to become like neon:
Al atom: 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
3p
1
---> Al
3+
ion: 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
Let's go to row four and consider the elements potassium (19K) and calcium (20Ca). Have a periodic table in
front of you as you read this. Element 19, potassium, becomes an ion by losing one electron to achieve
the stable argon octet (3s
2
3p
6
):
13-9 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
K atom: 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
3p
6
4s
1
---> K
1+
ion: 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
3p
6
Calcium loses two electrons to achieve the argon octet:
Ca atom: 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
3p
6
4s
2
---> Ca
2+
ion: 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
3p
6
SECTION 13.4 The Order in Which Atoms Lose Their Electrons
Before going on, a very important point has to be made. When electrons enter atoms, they fill the
energy levels and sublevels according to the diagonal rule (with exceptions). However, after the electrons
are in an atom their distances from the nucleus do not follow the diagonal rule. For example, the order of
filling for titanium (#22)is:
1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
3p
6
4s
2
3d
2
however, the actual distances of the sublevels from the nucleus is:
1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
3p
6
3d
2
4s
2
Another example is rhenium (#75) for which the order of filling is:
1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
3p
6
4s
2
3d
10
4p
6
5s
2
4d
10
5p
6
6s
2
4f
14
5d
5
while the distance of the sublevels from the nucleus is:
1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
3p
6
3d
10
4s
2
4p
6
4d
10
4f
14
5s
2
5p
6
5d
5
6s
2
Remember, the order of the energy levels and sublevels according to distance from the nucleus is:
1s,2s,2p,3s,3p,3d,4s,4p,4d,4f,5s,5p,5d,5f,6s,6p,6d,6f*,7s
*The 6f sublevel is never used, because there are only 111 elements as of the year 1995.
When atoms lose their electrons, they do not lose them in the reverse
order of the diagonal rule. Rather, they lose the ones that are farthest
from the nucleus, first.
This is because the nuclear attraction is weaker at greater distances. The electrons in the highest energy
level of an atom may not be farthest from the nucleus. For example, electrons enter the 4s sublevel
before they enter the 3d. The 3d is described as a "higher" sublevel because electrons in 3d orbitals
contain more energy than those in the 4s. The electrons in the 4s orbital, however, are farther from the
nucleus.
Example: The configuration notation for 30Zn is 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
3p
6
4s
2
3d
10
The orbital notation for 30Zn is:
1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d
( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X)
The electrons in 30Zn are lost in the following order: 4s, 3d, 3p, 3s, 2p, 2s, and finally, 1s
In ordinary chemical reactions an atom normally loses electrons only from its valence shell. For
zinc those electrons would be in the 4s sublevel. Sometimes atoms can also lose some "d" electrons in
the sublevel immediately below the valence shell. For zinc those would be the electrons in the 3d
sublevel. Zinc does not lose any of its 3d electrons, however, because the full 3d sublevel is too stable.
13-10 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
As a result, the only oxidation number that zinc has is +2, indicating that it can lose two electrons (the 4s
2
).
Many of the transition metals (21Sc through 30Zn) in row 4 can lose electrons and form ions in at
least three ways:
1. They may lose their 4s and 3d electrons and be left with the stable argon octet. For example, titanium
(#21) can lose 4 electrons to achieve the stable argon octet:
Ti atom: 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
3p
6
4s
2
3d
2
---> Ti
4+
ion: 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
3p
6
2. They may lose only their 4s electrons and be left a highest energy level which is full: (3s
2
3p
6
3d
10
).
Remember the third energy level has a capacity of 18. Zinc (30Zn) loses two electrons to achieve a highest
(3rd) energy level which is full with 18 electrons (3s
2
3p
6
3d
10
):
Zn atom: 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
3p
6
4s
2
3d
10
---> Zn
2+
ion: 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
3p
6
3d
10
3. Or, they may lose their 4s electrons and be left with arrangements such as half-full sublevels:
Manganese (25Mn) loses 2 electrons and is left with a half-full outer sublevel:
Mn atom: 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
3p
6
4s
2
3d
5
---> Mn
2+
ion: 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
3p
6
3d
5
Manganese (25Mn) can also lose its 3d electrons in addition to its 4s electrons thus forming an Mn
7+
ion:
Mn atom: 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
3p
6
4s
2
3d
5
---> Mn
7+
ion: 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
3p
6
It can also lose electrons in other ways resulting in the Mn
6+
and the Mn
4+
ions.
Remember! It is always the electrons in the valence shell that are lost first.
Let's consider element #31, gallium. It is a family 3A element. You should recall that elements in
this family have an oxidation number of +3. The elements above gallium in this family, B and Al, form ions
by losing three electrons to achieve stable octets. However, gallium is in row four and contains 3d
electrons. It also loses three electrons, but that does not leave gallium with a stable octet, but it does
leave it with a full outermost energy level:
Ga atom: 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
3p
6
4s
2
3d
10
4p
1
---> Ga
3+
: 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
3p
6
3d
10
You see, the 4s
2
and 4p
1
electrons are the ones that are lost first. Remember, again, that the outermost
electrons are the ones that go. In this case, the electrons in the highest sublevel (3d) are not members of
the outermost (4th) energy level. Let's briefly get back to that third kind of stable arrangement that
involves half-full sublevels. For example, the electron configuration of copper is listed below according to
the diagonal rule. Also listed, is the actual electron arrangement in copper as determined by experiment.
Cu (from diagonal rule): 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
3p
6
4s
2
3d
9
Cu (actual configuration) : 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
3p
6
4s
1
3d
10
Why does the copper atom deviate from the trend represented by the diagonal rule? If one of copper's 4s
electrons moves to the 3d level, the next-to-the-highest sublevel will be half-full (4s
1
), while the highest
one will be full (3d
10
). The stability of these half-full and full sublevels makes this the preferred state for
copper. Similar reasoning explains the deviation of chromium from the diagonal rule as seen below.
Cr (from diagonal rule): 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
3p
6
4s
2
3d
4
Cr (actual configuration): 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
3p
6
4s
1
3d
5
13-11 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
Thus, you see that the information you get from the diagonal rule is not perfect. In fact, there are quite a
few other deviations from the diagonal rule involving other elements. Some of them are not well
understood. If you want the best information regarding the electron configuration of electrons in an atom,
you must check a reference source such as the tables found in Appendix B of your ALICE materials. Look
there now, and find at least two other elements that deviate from the diagonal rule. Name them:
{10}_____________________________________________________________________________
SECTION 13.5 Trends in Ionization Energies and Atomic Radii
The amounts of ionization energy required to drive out the first electron from atoms is summarized
in Table 13.7. You should notice that certain generalizations can be made regarding trends in the
ionization energies as you go down a family or across a row.
Generally speaking, how do the values change as you go down a family?
{11}____________________________________________________________________________
Generally speaking, how do the values change as you go across a row or series from left to right?
{12}____________________________________________________________________________
As you move down a family, the atoms are adding energy levels and are getting larger. The
outermost electrons are farther and farther from the nucleus, which makes them easier and easier to
remove. As you follow the trends in Table 13.7, some of the values seem too large and out of place.
These numbers reflect the extra stability that results from full and half-full outer sublevels such as the 1013
kJ/mole for phosphorous (15P) resulting from its half-full p
3
outer sublevel. Therefore, the ionization
energies get smaller as you move down a family.
As you move from left to right across a row, the atoms are not adding energy levels, but they are
adding sublevels and (you might think) gaining a little in size. However, protons are added to the nucleus
as you move across a row, and the increasingly positive nuclei pull the electrons in tighter. So generally
speaking, as you go across a row from left to right the atoms actually get a bit smaller. This puts electrons
closer to the nucleus, and ionization energies tend to increase.
Table 13.8 contains data about atomic radii which will give you an idea of how the sizes of the
atoms are changing. Look at that table now and answer the following:
Generally speaking, summarize how atomic sizes vary as you go down a family:
{13}____________________________________________________________________________
Why? {14}_______________________________________________________________________
Generally speaking, summarize how atomic sizes vary as you go across a row:
{15}____________________________________________________________________________
Why? {16}_______________________________________________________________________
13-12 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
H
1314
Li
519
Na
498
K
418
Rb
402
Cs
377
Fr
- - - -
Be
900
Ca
590
Sr
548
Ba
502
Ra
510
Sc
632
Y
615
La
540
Ac
665
Ti
657
Zr
661
Hf
674
Unq
V
649
Cr
653
Mn
715
Fe
757
Co
757
Ni
736
Cu
745
Zn
908
Ga
577
Ge
761
As
946
Se
941
Br
1138
Kr
1351
Nb
665
Mo
686
Tc
703
Ru
711
Rh
720
Pd
803
Ag
732
Cd
866
In
556
Sn
707
Sb
833
Te
870
I
1008
Xe
1172
Ta
761
W
770
Re
761
Os
841
Pd
803
Pt Au Hg
1008
Tl
Pb
715
Bi
703
Po
820
At
- - - -
Rn
1038
Unp Unh Uns Uno Une Uun Uuu
Al
577
Mg
736
Si
787
P
1013
S
1000
Cl
1251
Ar
1519
B
799
C
1088
N
1402
O
1314
F
1682
Ne
2079
He
2372
Ce
527
Pr
523
Nd
531
Pm
536
Sm
544
Eu
548
Gd
594
Tb
565
Dy
573
Ho
582
Er
590
Tm
598
Yb
602
Lu
523
Th
665
Pa U Np Pu
561
Am
577
Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr
Tabl e 13. 7
First Ionization Energies of Atoms (kJ/Mole)
1A
2A 3A 4A 5A 6A 7A
8A
First ionization energies generally increase from
left to right, and generally decrease from top to
bottom.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
H
0.32
Li
1.23
Na
1.54
K
2.03
Rb
2.16
Cs
2.35
Fr
- - - -
Be
0.89
Ca
1.74
Sr
1.91
Ba
1.98
Ra
2.20
Sc
1.44
Y
1.62
La
1.69
Ac
2.0
Ti
1.32
Zr
1.44
Hf
1.44
Unq
V
1.22
Cr
1.18
Mn
1.17
Fe
1.17
Co
1.16
Ni
1.15
Cu
1.17
Zn
1.25
Ga
1.26
Ge
1.22
As
1.20
Se
1.17
Br
1.14
Kr
1.12
Nb
1.34
Mo
1.30
Tc
1.27
Ru
1.25
Rh
1.25
Pd
1.28
Ag
1.34
Cd
1.48
In
1.44
Sn
1.40
Sb
1.40
Te
1.36
I
1.33
Xe
1.31
Ta
1.34
W
1.30
Re
1.28
Os
1.26
Pd
1.27
Pt
1.30
Au
1.34
Hg
1.48
Tl
1.48
Pb
1.47
Bi
1.46
Po
1.46
At
1.45
Rn
- - - -
Unp Unh Uns Uno Une Uun Uuu
Al
1.18
Mg
1.36
Si
1.11
P
1.06
S
1.02
Cl
0.99
Ar
0.98
B
0.82
C
0.77
N
0.74
O
0.74
F
0.68
Ne
0.67
He
0.31
Ce
1.65
Pr
1.64
Nd
1.64
Pm
1.63
Sm
1.62
Eu
1.85
Gd
1.62
Tb
1.61
Dy
1.60
Ho
1.58
Er
1.58
Tm
1.58
Yb
1.70
Lu
1.56
Th
1.65
Pa U
1.42
Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr
Tabl e 13. 8
Atomic Radii (Size) of Atoms (Å)
1A
2A 3A 4A 5A 6A 7A
8A
1 Å = 1 X 10
-8
cm
The size of atoms generally decreases across a row
from left to right, and increases down a family from
top to bottom.
13-13 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
SECTION 13.6 Configuration and Orbital Notation of Ions
Problem 4. In Table 13.9 determine the charge of the most common ions formed by each element.
The electron configuration of the ions should be the same as the nearest noble gas (according to atomic
number) to each element. Some atoms gain electrons to become ions, while others will be losing
electrons. Some atoms can do both. Complete Table 13.9.
Tabl e 13. 9
Electron Configurations of Selected Atoms and Ions
Element Electron Configuration Electron Configuration Charge
of the Atom of the Ion on Ion
N ______________________ ______________________ ______
Na ______________________ ______________________ ______
Mg ______________________ ______________________ ______
Li ______________________ ______________________ ______
Be ______________________ ______________________ ______
O ______________________ ______________________ ______
F ______________________ ______________________ ______
C ______________________ ______________________ +4
Problem 5. Complete Table 13.10 below. Do not use core notation here.
Tabl e 13. 10
Electron Configurations of Some Common Ions
Ion Electron Configuration No. of Protons No. of Electrons
of Ion in Ion in Ion
Si
4+
__________________________ ______ ______
C
4-
__________________________ ______ ______
N
3-
__________________________ ______ ______
Al
3+
__________________________ ______ ______
Cl
1-
__________________________ ______ ______
K
1+
__________________________ ______ ______
P
3-
__________________________ ______ ______
S
2-
__________________________ ______ ______
13-14 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
Problem 6. Table 13.11 below, asks you to write the orbital notation for the IONS for which you wrote
configuration notation in Table 13.10. Do not use core notation here.
Tabl e 13. 11
Orbital Notation of Some Common Atoms and Ions
Atom Ion Orbital Notation
1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s
Si ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
Si
4+
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
C ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
C
4-
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
N ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
N
3-
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
Al ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
Al
3+
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
Cl ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
Cl
1-
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
K ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
K
1+
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
P ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
P
3-
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
S ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
S
2
- ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
Problem 7. Knowing what you now do about how and why atoms become ions, can you see why
elements in the same family often form ions that have a common charge or charges? Look back over the
work you have done and determine the most common negative and positive charge on ions for each of
the families listed in Table 13.12.
Tabl e 13. 12
Ion Charges in Families of Elements
Number of Most Common Most Common
Family Valence Electrons Positive Charge Negative Charge
1A _______ ________ __XXXX__
2A _______ ________ ________
3A _______ ________ ________
4A _______ ________ ________
5A _______ ________ ________
6A _______ ________ ________
7A _______ ________ ________
8A _______ __XXXX__ __XXXX__
XXXX = these ions are either rare or nonexistant, so we will ignore them.
13-15 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
SECTION 13.7 Quantum Mechanics and Atomic Orbitals
Quantum mechanics is a set of laws which describe the behavior of very small particles such as
electrons. These laws provide a logical basis for the periodic arrangement of the elements on the periodic
table. The similarities in numbers of valence electrons accounts for the existence of chemical families.
The energy level diagrams and shorthand electron configurations we have examined are good
"bookkeeping" devices for keeping track of electrons in elements.
Quantum mechanics also allows us to "draw pictures" of the probable locations of electrons
around the nucleus. The theory is based partially on the fact that small particles, electrons in this case,
which are confined to a very small space exhibit very unusual behavior. The electrons in an atom do not
follow any predictable pathway. In fact, sometimes they behave like particles and sometimes they behave
like waves. When an electron has wave characteristics, it acts as though it is spread out over a large space.
Because of their dual nature, electrons cannot be accurately represented as being little particles that orbit
the nucleus like planets orbit the sun. Such a picture ignores the wave characteristics of the electron.
What quantum mechanics theory does allow us to do is to construct three-dimensional shapes
arranged about the nucleus of an atom to represent the space in which a particular electron spends
practically all of its time. The analogy below might be helpful in understanding what these three-
dimensional shapes mean.
Suppose that you were to take a map of your city and use it to mark points on it to represent your
location at particular times during the day and night. Further, suppose that each hour you mark a point on
your map for your given location and that you do this for one month. At the end of the month, your map
would show a large number of points clustered around the location of your school and your home. That is,
there would be a large "density" of points at these particular locations. There would be other locations at
which there might be a considerable density (number) of points such as a favorite shopping mall or eating
place. However, the density of these locations would not be as great as that around your school and
home. It is likely that there would be locations on your map at which no points would be placed (city dump,
police station, etc.).
Now suppose someone wanted to locate you for some reason. If they had a copy of your map,
they could see where the "probable" places were in which they might locate you. They would probably go
to the place with the highest density of points, and, if you were not there, they would travel to the next
most probable location. This map would not tell them exactly where you were, but it certainly would save
them time in trying to find you. Such a map could be called a "probability density plot" for your location
over a long time period.
Quantum mechanics can give us similar information about the location of electrons. It allows us to
construct probability density plots for the various electrons in an atom. The equations which have been
developed to do this are too complex to be presented here. Unlike your map, which is a two-dimensional
representation, the probability density plots for electrons must be constructed in three dimensions.
(Although we can only draw two- dimensional plots on these flat pages, we must hope that your mind will
allow you to think in three dimensions.) The plots that we draw for electrons represent the space in which
particular electrons spend almost all their time. These are orbitals. They do not represent the space in
which electrons spend 100% of their time, because this would require plots with infinite extent. You might
take a trip out of the city during the month and would not be able to place any points on your map to
represent your location, because your map only encloses the boundaries of your city. Your map has
become a probability density plot of your location for almost all of the time (but not 100%). Just as you
might spend some of your time out of town, electrons can and do spend some time outside of the three-
dimensional spaces that we plot for them.
What do these three-dimensional probability density plots look like? Drawings appear in Figures
13.1 through 13.3. The size and shape of these plots depend on the orbital that an electron occupies
about the nucleus. There is some regularity among them. For example, all "s" orbitals (like 1s, 2s, 3s, etc.)
13-16 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
have the same basic shape - a hollow sphere. (Actually their description is not this simple, but it's good
enough for our purposes.) The radius for the sphere representing the 1s orbital is smaller than that for the
2s orbital, which is smaller than that for the 3s orbital, and so on.
The three orbitals in the "p" sublevel for atoms all have the same shape. The "p" orbitals are
shaped like a long balloon squeezed together in the middle. Since there are three of these in every major
"p" sublevel, they are found to point along the directions of a set of x, y, z axes that intersect at the
nucleus. Just as is the case for "s" orbitals, the 3p orbitals extend farther out from the nucleus than the
2p, and so on. The shapes of the "s" and "p" orbitals are shown in Figures 13.1 & 13.2. The shapes that
appear in Figures 13.1 through 13.3 are actually depictions of three-dimensional waves. In a sense, the
surfaces of these figures correspond to the boundaries of your city on the map in the analogy that we
used. The electrons in a particular orbital are very likely to be within the boundary surfaces most of the
time, just as you were very likely to be located within the boundaries of your city most of the time. In your
probability density map there would be a concentration of points around those locations where you spend
most of your time. Within the boundaries of the probability density plots for electrons shown in figure
11.1, there are regions in which the "s" electrons spend most of their time. The same thing is shown the
"p" electrons in Figure 13.2.
The shape of "d" and "f" probability density plots become more complicated. The shape of just
one of the "d" orbitals is shown in Figure 13.3. There are five "d" orbitals, since there are five "d"
sublevels. Electrons are important in understanding chemical reactions and chemical bonding.
Knowledge about quantum mechanics is helpful in understanding the kinds of ions formed by atoms and
the shapes of molecules that atoms form.
1s 2s 3s
Fi gure 13. 1
Depictions of 1s, 2s, and 3s Orbitals
p
x
p
y
p
z
Fi gure 13. 2
Depictions of the Three 2p Orbitals
13-17 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
Fi gure 13. 3
One of the Five "d" Orbitals
The subject of atomic structures and electron behavior as
revealed by the use of quantum mechanics is a very difficult
subject. You have been given much information, but don't feel
that anything is wrong if this leaves you somewhat confused.
You have only scratched the surface of the subject, and a real
understanding would require much more study (perhaps in
college–level chemistry or physics). You have discovered that
electrons do not behave in a manner that makes it easy to draw
"pictures" of atoms. In this chapter, you have been "let in" on a
very clever way that scientists have developed to deal with
electrons. While this way is at times confusing and difficult, it is
also very fascinating and quite useful, as you will see in the next
chapter.
ACTIVITY 13.8 Creating a Probability Density Plot
The position of an electron in an atom at a given moment cannot be predicted. The region of
space in which the electron can most probably be found is, however, predictable. This region is often
called an "electron cloud" or "orbital" and is represented by a fuzzy shape with the nucleus at the center.
The shape is determined by mathematical calculations using what is known as the wave mechanical model
of the atom. The electron cloud is not absolute. Sometimes, the electron may be found outside the
cloud.
The purpose of this activity is to create a probability distribution of locations (a probability density
plot) around a central point. You will need a crayon and a paper "bull's eye" target. A copy of the target
can be found within the next few pages. The procedure follows:
1. Place the target in front of you on your lab table or on the floor.
2. Obtain the crayon provided and hold it about 2 feet above the target. Drop the crayon onto the target,
trying to hit the center. Repeat this at least 50 times. (See Figure 13.4 below.)
3. Count the number of marks in each numbered region of the target and record the numbers in data table
13.13 below.

Fi gure 13. 4
Creating a Probability Density Plot
Tabl e 13. 13
Distribution of Hits
Area Number of Hits
1
2
3
4
5
Out
13-18 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
Plot your results on the grid on the next page. Plot the number of hits on the Y axis and the
numbered areas on the X axis.
Based on your results, which numbered area of the target had the highest probability of a hit?_______
According to your data, the probability that a given drop of the crayon will hit region 1 is: 1 in _______. Of
the various shapes of plots shown in figures 13.1, 13.2, and 13.3 would you say that your plot most
resembles an s, p, or d orbital?_________
Have your lab partner make a copy of your plot by placing another copy of the target under yours,
and holding it up to a window. Using a pen or crayon, duplicate the hit marks. Be sure to include your
target when submitting this chapter to your instructor for approval.
SECTION 13.9 Learning Outcomes
The learning outcomes for Chapter 13 are listed below. Check each one when you are certain
that you have mastered it. Arrange to take any quizzes or exams, and then move on to chapter 14.
_____1. Write the electron configuration of atoms and of ions.
_____2. Write the orbital notation for atoms and of ions.
_____3. Write the core notation (configuration and orbital) for atoms and ions.
_____4. Define valence electrons and determine the number of them in an atom.
_____5. Describe trends in ionization energy across a row and down a column on the periodic table.
_____6. Describe trends in the size of atoms across a row and down a column on the periodic table.
_____7. Explain what is meant by ionization energy.
_____8. List the common charges of ions of elements in columns 1A - 8A of the periodic table.
_____9. Be able to identify probability density plots of s, p, and d orbitals.
_____10. Define a probability density plot and explain how it is useful in describing the location of an
electron in an atom.
13-19 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
SECTION 13.10 Answers to Questions and Problems
Questions:
{1} one; {2} eight; {3} 4s
2
4p
6
; {4} 3s
2
3p
1
; {5} 5s
2
5p
4
; {6} third; {7} Fourth electron must come from the
second energy level which is closer to the nucleus; {8} 1A; {9} 2A; {10} copper, niobium, molybdenum
and many more; {11} decrease; {12} increase; {13} get larger; {14} each successive one has one more
energy level; {15} get smaller; {16} increased attraction for electrons by nuclei with more protons;
Problems:
1. 2s
2
, 3s
2
, 4s
2
, 5s
2
, 6s
2
, 7s
2
; 2s
2
2p
1
, 3s
2
3p
1
, 4s
2
4p
1
, 5s
2
5p
1
, 6s
2
6p
1
2. 3s
2
3p
2
, 4s
2
4p
5
, 4s
2
, 4s
2
4p
3
, 3s
2
3p
4
, 5s
2
, 6s
2
6p
5
, 6s
2
, 3s
2
3p
5
3. See Table 13.4 for answers.
4. N 1s
2
2s
2
2p
3
1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
-3
Na 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
1
1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
+1
Mg 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
+2
Li 1s
2
2s
1
1s
2
+1
Be 1s
2
2s
2
1s
2
+2
O 1s
2
2s
2
2p
4
1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
-2
F 1s
2
2s
2
2p
5
1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
-1
C 1s
2
2s
2
2p
2
1s
2
+4
5. Si
4+
1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
14 10
C
4-
1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
6 10
N
3-
1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
7 10
Al
3+
1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
13 10
Cl
1-
1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
3p
6
17 18
K
1+
1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
3p
6
19 18
P
3-
1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
3p
6
15 18
S
2-
1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
3p
6
16 18
1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s
Si ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( / ) ( / ) ( ) ( )
Si
4+
( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
C ( X) ( X) ( / ) ( / ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
C
4-
( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
N ( X) ( X) ( / ) ( / ) ( / ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
N
3-
( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
Al ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( / ) ( ) ( ) ( )
Al
3+
( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
Cl ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( / ) ( )
Cl
1-
( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( )
K ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( / )
K
1+
( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( )
P ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( / ) ( / ) ( / ) ( )
P
3-
( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( )
S ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( / ) ( / ) ( )
S
2
- ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( )
6.
7. 1A 1 +1 XXXX
2A 2 +2 -6
3A 3 +3 -5
4A 4 +4 -4
5A 5 +5 -3
6A 6 +6 -2
7A 7 +7 -1
8A 8 XXX XXX
13-20 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
1
2
3
4
5
Fi gure 13. 5
Target for Probability Density Plot
13-21 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
SECTION 13.11 Student Notes
13-22 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
NAME____________________________________ PER____________ DATE DUE____________
ACTIVE LEARNING I N CHEMISTRY EDUCATION
"ALICE"
CHAPTER 14
CHEMICAL
BONDING
(PART 1)

14-1 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
NOTICE OF RIGHTS
All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form by any means,
electronic, mechanical, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the author.
Copies of this document may be made free of charge for use in public or nonprofit private educational
institutions provided that permission is obtained from the author . Please indicate the name and address
of the institution where use is anticipated.
© 1997 A.J. Girondi, Ph.D.
505 Latshmere Drive
Harrisburg, PA 17109
alicechem@geocities.com
Website: www.geocities.com/Athens/Oracle/2041
14-2 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
SECTION 14.1 Introduction to Chemical Bonding
The major topic in this chapter is chemical bonding. The study of bonding will help you to realize
how important the information is that you learned concerning the internal structure of atoms. The study of
chemical bonding will help to bring all that information together in a comprehensive way. All chemical
compounds contain atoms that are fastened together by what are called chemical bonds. When we write
chemical equations, they usually describe the overall effect of the "making" and "breaking" of chemical
bonds that take reactants and turn them into products. These equations contain chemical formulas, but
they do not give descriptions of the bonds that are broken and formed when reactions occur.
We can use what we have learned about the structure of atoms and the behavior of electrons to
determine why atoms of elements combine to form compounds as they do. We will also look at the
structure of these compounds in terms of the chemical bonds that are formed. We will be studying two
major categories of bonds: ionic bonds and covalent bonds. There are also molecules which contain
bonds which have properties somewhere in between those of covalent and ionic bonds, and those are
called polar covalent bonds. You cannot tell what kind of bonding a compound has simply by looking at its
formula; however, you will learn how to determine the nature of the bonding in compounds.
One of the key concepts in chemical bonding theory involves the behavior of electrons as they
organize themselves into some sort of "stable" arrangement in the orbitals of atoms. You studied this
previously, and you should recall that certain arrangements of electrons are more stable than others.
The most stable arrangement is an octet of electrons (8 of them) arranged in an s
2
p
6
fashion in the
outermost energy level of an atom or ion. This arrangement is characteristic of the noble gases.
Remember? A full outer energy level is another very stable arrangement. This is characteristic of helium
which has only one energy level and it is full with two electrons (1s
2
). Other arrangements exist which are
less stable than these, but still represent above average stability. They are full and half-full sublevels.
Examples include the s
2
p
3
arrangement characteristic of the elements in family 5A (note that s
2
is full and
p
3
is half-full), and the s
2
(a full outer sublevel) arrangement characteristic of the elements in family 2A.
Atoms lose or gain electrons in an attempt to achieve one of these stable arrangements. By far,
the most important of these is the "octet" arrangement of the noble gases. These atoms are so stable,
that it is very difficult, indeed, to get them to bond to other atoms. They "like" being the way they are.
Atoms attempt to obtain a noble gas configuration by either gaining electrons from other atoms or
by losing electrons to other atoms. (A noble gas configuration is either the 1s
2
arrangement of helium or
an octet, s
2
p
6
, such as the other noble gases have.) An atom that accepts electrons may require only a
few electrons to obtain a noble gas configuration. An atom that loses electrons may only need to lose a
few to achieve a noble gas configuration. In this situation, both atoms would attain stability by losing or
gaining a few electrons.
You studied ion formation previously, but let's review it here in Chapter 14 before we study the
formation of chemical bonds. The following orbital diagrams describe the electron configuration in the
sodium atom and ion.
1s 2s 2p 3s
Na at om: ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( / ) 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
1
Na
1+
i on: ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( ) 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
Notice that the sodium atom loses one electron to achieve the stable 2s
2
2p
6
arrangement. The result is
the formation of a Na
1+
ion which has the same electron configuration as a noble gas. The sodium ion,
Na
1+
, has the electron configuration of what noble gas?{1}________________________
14-3 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
The electron configurations of the fluorine atom and the fluoride ion are shown below.
1s 2s 2p
F at om: ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( / ) 1s
2
2s
2
2p
5
F
1-
i on: ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
Notice that the fluorine atom gains one electron to achieve a stable "octet" arrangement. The fluoride ion,
F
1-
, has the electron configuration of what noble gas?{2}_______________________ Because they
have stable noble gas configurations, F
1-
and Na
1+
are very stable ions. The formation of stable ions is
very important in the formation of certain types of chemical bonds. Before we begin to study the types of
bonding, let's review more information about ion formation.
Problem 1. Complete the exercise below. In the orbital diagrams, use slashes to place the correct
number of electrons in the orbitals for the neutral atoms. Then, determine the most probable charge on
the ions and place the correct number of electrons in the orbitals of the ions. You may want to refer to a
periodic table. Remember, the atoms "want" the arrangement of the nearest noble gas (going either
forward or backward on the periodic table). Remember that metal atoms tend to lose electrons in order to
gain stability, while nonmetal atoms tend to gain electrons. For example, magnesium metal tends to lose
electrons, while nitrogen (a nonmetal) tends to gain them.
1s 2s 2p 3s 3p
a. ni t r ogen at om: ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1s 2s 2p 3s 3p
b. negat i ve ni t r ogen i on: ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1s 2s 2p 3s 3p
c. magnes i um at om: ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

1s 2s 2p 3s 3p
d. pos i t i ve magnes i um i on: ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
As a very general rule (recognizing that there are exceptions), you can assume that if the outer
valence shell contains less than 4 electrons, an atom will more often lose electrons and become a
positively charged ion. If the atom has a valence shell that contains more than 4 electrons, it will more
often accept electrons and become a negatively charged ion. The atoms in family 4A have 4 electrons in
the valence shell (half of an octet). You might expect these atoms to be somewhat "confused" as to
whether they "should" gain or lose electrons. In theory they could either lose four electrons or gain four
electrons to achieve an octet and a noble gas configuration. In addition, they could do something else,
too. They could share electrons with other atoms. In fact, this actually is the way that elements such as
carbon and silicon (in family 4A) most frequently do achieve stability. This sharing results in the formation
of covalent or polar covalent bonds.
Problem 2. Sometimes, atoms which normally lose electrons can gain them (and vice versa) to achieve
stability under the right circumstances. For example, sulfur normally forms the S
2-
ion. It can also form S
4+
and S
6+
ions. Do you see how that results in stability? Explain in the spaces below, why each ion listed
may have more stability than normal.
S
2-
:______________________________________________________________________
S
4+
:______________________________________________________________________
S
6+
:______________________________________________________________________
14-4 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
You should remember that atoms in a family have the same arrangement of electrons in their
valence shells. Therefore, they often lose or gain the same number of electrons to achieve a noble gas
configuration. As a result, they often form ions that have the same charge. The most common ion charge
for each family is listed in Table 14.1 below. Keep in mind, though, that depending on what other element
they are reacting with, elements can sometimes assume charges other than those listed in the table.
Tabl e 14. 1
Common Ion Charges of Family 1A – 8A Elements
Family: 1A 2A 3A 4A 5A 6A 7A 8A
Charge: +1 +2 +3 ±4 –3 –2 –1 0
SECTION 14.2 Using Oxidation Numbers
The ion charges listed above are commonly referred to as oxidation numbers. The oxidation
number of an atom is usually the charge it would have if the atom assumed the electron configuration of
the nearest noble gas.
Another way to define oxdiation number is as:
the number of electrons lost, gained, or shared by an atom when it forms bonds
with other atom(s). Therefore, atoms that are not bonded to atoms of other
elements are assigned an oxidation number of zero.
Problem 3. Using only a periodic table, try to predict a common oxidation number of the elements
below:
a. 20Ca:________ 31Ga:________ 36Kr:________
b. Name two elements that have the same oxidation number as nitrogen:
__________________ and __________________
You were actually using oxidation numbers in an earlier chapter when you were learning to write
chemical formulas. There is a table of oxidation numbers in your ALICE reference notebook. However,
keep in mind that your reference tables only include the common oxidation numbers of the elements.
They have others which are less common, but nevertheless are possible.
Remember that ions of opposite charge bond in proportions that create neutral compounds. For
example, if barium, which has an oxidation number of +2 and can be represented as Ba
2+
, were to
combine with O
2-
, the compound BaO would be formed, and it would be neutral. However, if the Ba
2+
combines with Cl
1-
, it would form BaCl2 which is neutral in this 1 to 2 ratio. Aluminum ions with a charge of
+3 bond to oxygen ions with a -2 charge to form Al2O3 which is neutral. Hopefully, this is all familiar to you
from your previous work with chemical formulas.
14-5 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
Problem 4. Complete the table below as a review. One example is done for you.
Tabl e 14. 2
Formulas for Selected Compounds
Element 1 Ion Symbol Element 2 Ion Symbol Compound Formula
sodium Na
1+
chlorine Cl
1-
NaCl
barium ______ oxygen ______ __________
aluminum ______ bromine ______ __________
boron ______ chlorine ______ __________
hydrogen ______ oxygen ______ __________
silicon ______ oxygen ______ __________
hydrogen ______ nitrogen ______ __________
The element with the positive oxidation number is written first in the formula of a compound. An
exception to this rule (for whatever reason) is the compound between hydrogen and nitrogen. In that
case, the negative element is written first. Why? Good question! If necessary, go back and change your
answer for the hydrogen – nitrogen compound in Table 14.2.
If you know the oxidation numbers of some atoms in the formula of a compound, they can often
be used to determine the oxidation numbers of other atoms in the same formula. Let's use the compound
K2CrO4 to illustrate this point. Potassium has an oxidation number of +1 and oxygen has an oxidation
number of -2. So, what's the oxidation number of the chromium atom (Cr) in the formula K2CrO4?
2 K
1+
ions = +2
4 O
2-
ions = – 8
Total = – 6
Note that in the calculations shown in the box at right, the total of the
charges is –6. So, to make the compound neutral we need a charge
of +6. Thus, the one chromium atom must have a charge of +6.
Problem 5. Try the same procedure to determine the oxidation number of the single manganese (Mn)
atom in potassium permanganate, KMnO4. Show how you got your answer.
In Table 14.3, the oxidation numbers of some elements are given, and you are asked to calculate the
oxidation numbers of the other elements. Try to use only the information given. Do not refer to any
reference source. An example is given in the table.
14-6 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
Problem 6. Complete Table 14.3 below.
Tabl e 14. 3
Balancing Electron Charges
Compound Oxidation Numbers Unknown Element and Ox. No.
FeCl3 Cl = -1 Fe = +3
Fe2O3 O = -2 ________________
FeS S = -2 ________________
KClO3 K = +1; O = -2 ________________
Cu2O O = -2 ________________
NaNO3 Na = +1; O = -2 ________________
An ion, either positive or negative, that is composed of more than one atom is known as a
polyatomic ion or radical. You were first introduced to these ions when you learned to write formulas.
These ions are interesting from a chemical standpoint in that they tend to behave as a single atom. A list of
some of these polyatomic ions is found in your ALICE reference notebook.
The total charge of a polyatomic ion is equal to the sum
of the oxidation numbers of all of the atoms in the ion.
Note that the sum of the charges here is not zero! For example, what is the charge of a chromium atom in
the dichromate ion: Cr2O7
2-
? The charge on the ion is -2. The charge on an oxygen atom is also -2. Since
there are seven oxygen atoms in the formula of the ion, their total charge is: (-2) X 7 = -14. Since the ion
has a charge of -2, then the chromium atoms must have a total charge of +12: (+12) + (-14) = -2. Now,
since there are two chromium atoms in the formula of the ion, each one must have a charge of +6:
(+12) ÷ 2 = +6. Thus, the oxidation number or charge on each chromium atom in the dichromate ion is
+6.
Problem 7. Complete Table 14.4. Find the oxidation number of each atom whose oxidation number is
not given. Note that one has been done for you as an example.
Tabl e 14. 4
Oxidation Numbers of Atoms in Polyatomic Ions
Polyatomic Ion Oxidation Numbers Unknown Element and Ox. No.
MnO4
1-
O = –2 Mn = +7
NO2
1-
O = –2 __________________________
S2O3
2-
O = –2 __________________________
NH4
1+
H = +1 __________________________
HSO4
1-
H = +1; O = –2 __________________________
H2PO4
1-
H = +1; O = –2 __________________________
AsO4
3-
O = –2 __________________________
14-7 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
SECTION 14.3 Ionic and Covalent Bonding
Now that you know more about ions, you are capable of understanding ionic bonding. An ionic
bond exists between two ions which are held together by the attraction of a positive and a negative
charge. The series of drawings below illustrate the formation of an ionic bond between sodium and
fluorine.
According to our criteria for bonding, atoms with a noble gas configuration in their outer shells are
very stable. When Na atoms and F atoms encounter each other, both may attain the outer shell
configuration of neon (s
2
p
6
). The Na atom donates its 3s
1
electron to the F atom. In the process, the Na
atom becomes a Na
1+
ion and the F atom becomes an F
1-
ion. Since unlike charges attract, we expect
the two ions to attract each other. This type of bond is an example of an ionic bond (that is, a bond formed
between two ions).
Ionic bonds are always formed by two or more ions being held together by attraction of opposite
charges. One or more electrons are always moved from one atom to another in ionic bonding. In covalent
bonding, electrons are not moved but are, instead, shared between atoms.
Atoms that are held together by sharing electrons are said to have covalent bonds. This situation
may seem a bit more complex, but it is still based on the prediction that a noble gas configuration is stable.
In some instances, two atoms may have identical electron configurations that are short of the number of
electrons needed to achieve a noble gas arrangement. Since neither atom has a greater tendency to
accept or to give away electrons to the other atom, the only way that they can both attain the noble gas
configuration is by "equal sharing" of some electrons. In situations where this occurs, the two atoms
remain close to each other in order to share the available electrons.
loses electron to become a
gains electron to become a
Na
F
F
1-
sodium atom
sodium ion
fluorine atom
fluoride ion
to produce: Na
1+
F
1-
sodium fluoride
Figure 14.1 Formation of an Ionic Bond
Na
1+
In order to have a 100% "pure" covalent bond, the two atoms involved in the bond must share the
bonding electrons equally. Such equal sharing occurs only if the bonded atoms have an equal attraction
for the shared electrons. This situation exists in molecules such as the 7 diatomic gases (H2, etc.).
Ionic and covalent bonds represent extremes in types of chemical bonding. Most chemical
bonds fall into a category that can be described as being somewhere in between the two extremes.
14-8 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
These bonds are calledpolar covalent bonds and represent a situation in which two atoms have not
completely exchanged electrons as they would in ionic bonding. However, in polar covalent bonding, the
atoms are not sharing the valence electrons in an equal way as they would in 100% covalent bonding.
The result is a bond with characteristics somewhere in between ionic and covalent. Since the electrons
that are being shared are more strongly attracted to one of the atoms in the bond, this atom then assumes
a partial negative charge character (∂ –). The atom from which the atoms have shifted assumes a partial
positive charge character (∂ +). These slightly positive and negative charge "characters" do not amount to
a "full" positive or negative charge such as would characterize a positive or negative ion in an ionic bond.
Still, one end of the bond is more positive and the other is more negative. The bond has charged
H
2
+ Cl
2
H Cl
∂ + ∂ –
polar covalent bond
poles (like a magnet has north and south
poles), and we describe it as a polar bond.
The phrase polar covalent describes
bonding in which some of the valence shell
electrons between two atoms are being
shared unequally to form a polar bond.
2
SECTION 14.4 Introduction to Lewis Electron Dot Notation
An excellent way to help visualize covalent and polar covalent bonding is by the use of electron
dot representations of bonds in molecules. This method of notation was devised by a prominent
American chemist by the name of Gilbert N. Lewis, and, hence, it is called the Lewis electron dot method.
This will be the third form of electron notation that you have learned. You learned orbital notation and
configuration notation in previous chapters, and now you will learn about dot notation.
Since there are eight total electrons in the outer valence shell of the noble gases (s
2
p
6
), these can
be arranged in pairs around the nucleus of an atom. The nucleus of the atom and its inner electron shells
are represented in dot notation by the chemical symbol for the atom. The valence electrons are then
arranged around the symbol.
The reason that the electrons are paired is due to the fact that electrons occupy orbitals around a
nucleus in pairs. (Recall that each orbital was represented by parentheses or a circle in which we placed
one or two slashes to represent the electrons existing in them.) Before trying to illustrate bonds using dot
notation, let's first learn how to represent the valence electrons of single atoms. The steps outlined
below will guide you.
Z Z
2
1
4 3
5
6
7 8
Step 1. Write the symbol of the atom. There are eight positions for dots around
the symbol. These eight positions are often numbered starting with position 1 at
the "four o'clock" position and moving counterclockwise around the symbol. The
dots represent electrons that are found in the valence shell of the atom. The letters
represent the atom's nucleus and inner core of electrons.
Step 2. When you put dots around the symbol, you should generally start at position 1 and continue
adding dots counterclockwise until all valence electrons have been represented. In addition, you must
make note of whether or not the electrons are paired or unpaired. They are paired if they are in the same
orbital. They are unpaired if they are alone in an orbital. If they are paired, then they should be shown as a
pair around the symbol in the dot notation. If they are not paired, they should be shown alone at one side
of the symbol. The following examples will help. The orbital notation of the atoms is shown first and is
followed by the dot notation.
14-9 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
El ement Or bi t al Not at i on Dot Not at i on
1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s
1
H ( / ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) H
2
He ( X) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) He
3
Li ( X) ( / ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) Li
4
Be ( X) ( X) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) Be
5
B ( X) ( X) ( / ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) B
6
C ( X) ( X) ( / ) ( / ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) C
7
N ( X) ( X) ( / ) ( / ) ( / ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) N
8
O ( X) ( X) ( X) ( / ) ( / ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) O
9
F ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( / ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) F
10
Ne ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) Ne
You should note that the dot notation shows the correct number of valence electrons, and it shows which
ones are paired and which are unpaired. Remember that dot notation only shows the valence shell
electrons.
Problem 8. Since all atoms in a particular family (1A to 8A) have the same valence shell arrangement,
they should then all have the same dot notation. Fill in the blanks for the elements listed on the next page
to take your first "shot" at dot notation.
El ement Or bi t al Not at i on Dot Not at i on
1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s
11
Na ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) _____
12
Mg ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) _____
13
Al ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) _____
14
Si ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) _____
15
P ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) _____
16
S ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) _____
17
Cl ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) _____
18
Ar ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) _____
19
K ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) _____
20
Ca ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) _____
Problem 9. Follow the directions from problem 8 for the two elements below, but be careful. These
elements contain 3d electrons, but they are not part of the outermost (valence) energy level. We will use
orbital core notation this time to keep things more manageable.
El ement Or bi t al Not at i on Dot Not at i on
4s 3d 4p 5s
21
Sc [ Ar ] ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) _____
22
Ti [ Ar ] ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) _____
14-10 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
If you did these last two (Sc and Ti) correctly, the dot notation should show two dots on the right side of
each symbol. Many students ask, "What happens when you have more than eight electrons in the
valence shell?" You should see by now that it is never going to happen. Well, almost never. There is one
element for which the dot notation cannot be written because it has too many electrons in its valence
shell. If you are curious, you can check the electron distributions in Appendix B of ALICE to see if you
can find that mysterious element. Hint: check #46.
Problem 10. To give you a feel for the similarities in families, complete the table below with the dot
notation of the elements through #54. You should follow the diagonal rule (even though there are many
exceptions to it).
Sc
1A
2A 3A 4A 5A 6A 7A
8A
Li
Rb
Mg
Sr Zr
Mn
Rh
Zn
Al
Sn
N
Se
Cl
Xe
He
Tabl e 14. 5
Dot Notation of 54 Elements - According to the Diagonal Rule*
(There are numerous exceptions to the Diagonal Rule)
In practice, it doesn't really matter where you put the dots around the symbol. You don't always
have to start at "position 1" and move counterclockwise. But, it is very important to always use the correct
number of dots and to have the correct number of paired and unpaired dots.
For example, nitrogen can be illustrated as N N N or as or as
N
Nitrogen has one
n o n b o n d i n g
electron pair
Nitrogen has three
unpaired (bonding)
electrons
The electrons represented by the dot
structures are categorized into two types:
nonbonding electron pairs and single (or
bonding) electrons. Where single
electrons appear, an ordinary covalent
bond can be formed. Study the dot
structure of nitrogen below. The bonding
and nonbonding electrons are identified.
Next, let's consider the Lewis structure of the F2 (fluorine) molecule to illustrate how atoms form
covalent bonds. This molecule consists of two fluorine atoms bonded together. Each fluorine atom has
seven electrons in its valence shell (2s
2
2p
5
). This is one less than the Ne configuration: (2s
2
2p
6
).
Since both fluorine atoms are identical, we would not expect them to form an ionic bond in which
one atom donates an electron to the other. If this were to happen, one atom would have eight electrons,
while the other would have only {3}_______________________, which is not stable. If each atom were allowed to
share one pair of electrons, both atoms would essentially have eight electrons. This is illustrated in the
following Lewis dot structures.
14-11 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
By sharing a pair of electrons, each fluorine atom assumes a noble gas configuration. The one
pair that is shared represents a covalent bond. The other electron pairs surrounding each nucleus (there
are three of them around each nucleus) are not involved in the bonding of the molecule and are called
nonbonding electrons.
F F F F
+
1 bonding pair
nonbonding valence pairs
7 valence electrons each
fluorine atoms fluorine molecule
We also know that oxygen exists in the form of O2 molecules. Each oxygen atom has only six valence
electrons (2s
2
2p
4
). This means that there are a total of twelve valence electrons in the O2 molecule.
Below is the dot structure showing how two oxygen atoms can share electrons so that each atom has a
stable octet .
You will notice that in order for each of the oxygen atoms to have eight electrons (the neon
configuration), they must share two pairs of electrons. These two pairs represent two covalent bonds (a
double bond). Interestingly, we find that a certain amount of energy is required to split the F2 molecule
apart. To do the same with the oxygen molecule requires much more energy, which is consistent with the
idea that there are two bonds between the oxygen atoms while there is only one between the fluorine
atoms.
O O O O
+
2 bonding pairs
nonbonding valence pairs
6 valence electrons each
oxygen atoms oxygen molecule
each oxygen now has
8 valence electrons
The element nitrogen exists in the form of N2 molecules. Using the same approach as above, we
can include the ten valence electrons in this molecule (five each from the nitrogen atoms that have 2s
2
2p
3
configurations). (See below) This molecule must have three pairs of bonding electrons representing
three covalent bonds. This is called a triple bond. It requires much more energy to separate the N2
molecule into atoms than it does to separate O2 or F2 because of the number of covalent bonds.
N N N N
+
3 bonding pairs
nonbonding valence pair
5 valence electrons each
nitrogen atoms nitrogen molecule
each nitrogen now has 8
valence electrons
The H2 molecule is also the stable form of the element hydrogen. Since this element is in the first
period (with He being the noble gas in that row), it only requires two electrons to fill its outer (1s) level. The
electron dot formula for this molecule only has one pair of electrons in it, which are the bonding electrons
between the hydrogen nuclei. There are no nonbonding valence pairs as there have been in the
previous examples.
14-12 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
Probl em 11. Draw the dot notations for the H2 , Cl2, and Br2 molecules.
SECTION 14.5 Electron Dot Notation of Ions
Electron dot notation can also be used to represent ions. Positive ions are known as cations
(pronounced "cat ions"), while negative ions are referred to as anions (pronounced "an ions"). Earlier in
this chapter you saw the configuration notation and orbital notation of the fluorine atom and ion. For your
convenience, those notation are repeated below along with the appropriate dot notations. (Note that the
names of anions like the fluoride ion end with the suffix "ide.")
1s 2s 2p
F at om: ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( / ) 1s
2
2s
2
2p
5 F
F
1-
i on: ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6 F
1-
You can see that the fluorine atom gains one electron to gain the stable neon octet. Thus, the dot
notation of the fluoride ion contains one more dot than that of the fluorine atom. Oxygen atoms gain two
electrons to become oxide ions which have the stable neon octet. Examine the three forms of core
notation for the oxygen atom and the oxide anion below:
1s 2s 2p
O at om: ( X) ( X) ( X) ( / ) ( / ) 1s
2
2s
2
2p
4
O
O
2-
i on: ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
O
2-
Note that the charge is always shown with the ion's dot notation. The phosphorus atom and the
phosphide anion have the following core notations:
3s 3p
P at om: [ Ne] ( X) ( / ) ( / ) ( / ) [ Ne] 3s
2
3p
3
P
P
3-
i on: [ Ne] ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) [ Ne] 3s
2
3p
6
or si mpl y [ Ar ] P
3-
Probl em 12. Complete the notations below for the sulfur atom and the sulfide anion:
3s 3p
S at om [ Ne] ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) [ Ne] __________ S
S
2-
i on [ Ne] ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) [ Ne] __________ or ________ S
14-13 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
The electron dot symbols for cations (positive ions) do not show any dots! The forms of core and
dot notation for the sodium atom and cation are found below. Note that sodium loses one electron to gain
the stable neon configuration. You should also note again that the charge is always shown on the ion.

3s
Na at om: [ Ne] ( / ) [ Ne] 3s
1
Na
Na
1+
i on: [ Ne] ( ) [ Ne] Na
1+
Why is the empty 3s orbital shown for the sodium ion? Well, the complete electron configuration of the
sodium ion is 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
. Note that although it has no electrons in it, energy level 3 is still considered to be
the valence shell of the sodium ion, and so it is the energy level used to write the notations.
Let's study another example using a cation. The core and dot notations for the aluminum atom and cation
are illustrated below. Again, note that no dots are used to write the dot notation of the cation, and the
empty orbitals in the valence shell are shown. It works this way for all cations.

3s 3p
Al at om: [ Ne] ( X) ( / ) ( ) ( ) [ Ne] 3s
2
3p
1
Al
Al
3+
i on: [ Ne] ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) [ Ne] Al
3+
Problem 13. Now it's your turn! Complete 3 the forms of notation below for the calcium atom and
calcium cation.
4s
Ca at om: [ Ar ] ( ) [ Ar ] _________________ Ca
Ca
2+
i on: [ Ar ] ( ) _____________________ Ca
Probl em 14. Complete the three forms of notation for the silicon atom and the silicon cation below.

3s 3p
Si at om: [ Ne] ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) [ Ne] _________________ Si
Si
4+
i on: [ Ne] ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) _____________________ Si
Probl em 15. Complete the three forms of notation for the chlorine atom and the chlorine anion below.
3s 3p
Cl at om: [ Ne] ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) [ Ne] _________________ Cl
Cl
1-
i on: [ Ne] ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) _____________________ Cl
14-14 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
You can write electron dot notations for compounds as well as for individual atoms and ions. To do this,
you simply combine the electron dot notations of the atoms or ions involved. Let's look at examples of the
dot notations of a few compounds which are ionic (composed of ions). In the first example below, note
that to write the dot notation of NaCl, all we need to do is write the dot notation for the sodium cation right
next to the dot notation for the chloride anion:
Na
1+
Cl
1-
dot notation of sodium cation:
dot notation of chlorine anion:
dot notation of NaCl: Na Cl
1+ 1-
To write the dot notation for an ionic compound such as CaCl2, we combine the dot notation for one
calcium cation with two dot notations for two chloride ions. The negatively-charged chloride ions are
attracted to the positively-charged calcium ion. However, since they have the same charge, the chloride
ions repel each other. Therefore, they stay as far apart as possible, and we write them on opposite sides
of the calcium ion:
Ca
Cl
1-
dot notation of calcium cation:
dot notation of chlorine anion:
dot notation of CaCl2:
2+
Ca Cl
1-
Cl
1-
2+
Examine the dot notations of the aluminum cation and the fluoride anion below. Note that in the dot
notation for the AlF3 compound, the negative fluoride ions are attracted to the positive aluminum ion. The
three fluoride ions are spaced as far apart as possible. Why?{4}________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
F
1-
dot notation of aluminum cation:
dot notation of chlorine anion:
dot notation of AlCl3:
Al
3+
Al
3+
F
1-
F
1-
F
1-
Probl em 16. Write the dot notation for the ionic compound KF:
Probl em 17. Write the dot notation for the ionic compound BaF2:
Probl em 18. Write the dot notation for the ionic compound GaCl3:
14-15 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
SECTION 14.6 Polar Covalent Bonds
All of the examples we have used so far to illustrate covalent bonding have involved bonds
between two identical atoms. These are cases in which the bonds are 100% covalent because neither
atom has a stronger tendency to gain or lose electrons. Next, we will look at the large category of chemical
bonds that we have previously referred to as polar covalent bonds. These are bonds can be described in
two ways (which really mean the same thing). These descriptions are:
1. The bonds involve incomplete electron transfer between atoms; that is, they are only partially ionic
bonds.
2. The bonds involve unequal sharing of electron pairs; that is, they are only partially covalent bonds.
Both descriptions are useful and, as mentioned, amount to the same thing. These bonds are somewhere
between the two extremes of 100% ionic bonds and 100% covalent bonds. It is helpful to use Lewis dot
structures to describe molecules that contain these bonds. Check the dot notation for the NH3 molecule
in the second equation below. Sometimes, equations make use of electron dot structures. In those
equations which involve diatomic gases, the diatomic gas molecules must break apart into individual atoms
before they can react with other elements. In this chapter, diatomic gases will often be shown as individual
atoms with valence electrons shown as dots.

H
2
2 H H H 2 H or
Because nitrogen has three bonding electrons, it can form three bonds. Nitrogen combines with three
hydrogen atoms by sharing three electrons.

N 3 H + N H
H
H
The NH3 molecules has 3 polar
covalent bonds.
By sharing electrons with hydrogen, nitrogen now has what is called a stable octet configuration or a stable
noble gas configuration. This means it has the electron configuration of a noble gas, and that makes it
very stable. The nitrogen atom is surrounded by eight electrons (an octet).
H O +
H
If hydrogen atoms combine with oxygen
atoms, they combine in a ratio of 2:1.
2 H O
Note that oxygen ends up with a stable octet, and each hydrogen ends up with a stable helium
configuration. This is why water is a stable molecule. When not using electron dot structures, this
equation can be written as: 2 H2 + O2 -----> 2 H2O. Oxygen combines with two hydrogens to form
water; thus, we can be fairly certain that oxygen has two bonding electrons.
14-16 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
SECTION 14.7 Learning Outcomes
This is the end of Chapter 14 and the first half of our discussion of chemical bonding. The
remainder of the discussion on chemical bonding follows in chapter 15. Check the learning outcomes.
When you feel that you have mastered them, take the exam or quizzes and move on to Chapter 15.
_____1. Determine the ion charge (common oxidation number) of an element based on its electron
configuration.
_____2. Give a common ion charge (oxidation number) for each family of elements (1A through 8A).
_____3. Predict the common oxidation numbers of elements and use them to write the correct formulas
for compounds containing those elements.
_____4. Write Lewis electron dot symbols for atoms and ions, and electron dot structures for simple
molecules.
_____5. Distinguish between nonbonding and bonding electrons in dot structures.
14-17 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
SECTION 14.8 Answers to Questions and Problems
Questions:
{1} neon; {2} neon; {3} six; {4} The negative fluoride ions repel each other.
Problems:
1.
1s 2s 2p 3s 3p
a. Ni t r ogen at om: ( X) ( X) ( / ) ( / ) ( / ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
b. Ni t r ogen i on ( N
3-
) : ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
c. Magnesi um at om: ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( ) ( ) ( )
d. Magnesi um i on ( Mg
2+
) : ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2. S
2-:
stable because it has the argon configuration)
S
4+
: stable because it has a full outer sublevel (3s
2
)
S
6+
: stable because it has the neon configuration
3. a. 20Ca:___+2_____ 31Ga:___+3_____ 36Kr:__0______
b. Name two elements that have the same oxidation number as nitrogen: ____phosphorus__
and ___arsenic___. (Elements like Sb and Bi in family 5A are considered metals rather than
nonmetals, and since metals tend to lose rather than gain electrons, they assume
different oxidtion numbers.)
4.
sodium Na
1+
chlorine Cl
1-
NaCl
barium Ba
2+
oxygen O
2-
BaO
aluminum Al
3+
bromine Br
1-
AlBr3
boron B
3+
chlorine Cl
1-
BCl3
hydrogen H
1+
oxygen O
2-
H2O
silicon Si
4+
oxygen O
2-
SiO2
hydrogen H
1+
nitrogen N
3-
NH3
5. Mn = +7
6.
FeCl3 Cl = -1 Fe = +3
Fe2O3 O = -2 Fe = +3
FeS S = -2 Fe = +2
KClO3 K = +1; O = -2 Cl = +5
Cu2O O = -2 Cu = +1
NaNO3 Na = +1; O = -2 N = +5
7.
MnO4
1-
O = -2 Mn = +7
NO2
1-
O = -2 N = +3
S2O3
2-
O = -2 S = +2
NH4
1+
H = +1 N = -3
HSO4
1-
H = +1; O = -2 S = +6
H2PO4
1-
H = +1; O = -2 P = +5
AsO4
3-
O = -2 As = +5
14-18 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
8.
11
Na ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( / ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) _____
12
Mg ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) _____
13
Al ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( / ) ( ) ( ) ( ) _____
14
Si ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( / ) ( / ) ( ) ( ) _____
15
P ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( / ) ( / ) ( / ) ( ) _____
16
S ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( / ) ( / ) ( ) _____
17
Cl ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( / ) ( ) _____
18
Ar ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( ) _____
19
K ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( / ) _____
20
Ca ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) _____
Na
Al
Mg
Si
P
S
Cl
Ar
K
Ca
9.
21
Sc [ Ar ] ( X) ( / ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) _____
22
Ti [ Ar ] ( X) ( / ) ( / ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) _____
Sc
Ti
10. All elements within a family has the same dot notation. Exception is helium in family 8A. All transition
elemtns have the same notation. (Remember this does not account for exceptions to the diagonal rule.)
H H Cl Cl Br Br 11.
12.
S at om [ Ne] ( X) ( X) ( / ) ( / ) [ Ne] 3s
23p
4
S
2-
i on [ Ne] ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) [ Ne] 3s
2
3p
6
or j ust [ Ar ]
S
S
2-
13.
Ca at om: [ Ar ] ( X) [ Ar ] 4s
2
Ca
Ca
2+
i on: [ Ar ] ( ) [ Ne] 3s
2
3p
6
or j ust [ Ar ] Ca
2+
14.
Si at om: [ Ne] ( X) ( / ) ( / ) ( ) [ Ne] 3s
2
3p
2
Si
Si
4+
i on: [ Ne] ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) [ He] 2s
2
2p
6
or j ust [ Ne] Si
4+
Cl
1-
15. 3s 3p
Cl at om: [ Ne] ( X) ( X) ( X) ( / ) [ Ne] 3s
2
3p
5
Cl
1-
i on: [ Ne] ( X) ( X) ( X) ( X) [ Ne] 3s
2
3p
6
or j ust [ Ar ]
Cl
Ba F F 17.
2+
16. K F
1+ 1- 1- 1-
Ga
3+
Cl
1-
Cl
1-
Cl
1-
18.
14-19 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
SECTION 14.9 Student Notes
14-20 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
NAME____________________________________ PER____________ DATE DUE____________
ACTIVE LEARNING I N CHEMISTRY EDUCATION
"ALICE"
CHAPTER 15
CHEMICAL
BONDING
(PART 2)

15-1 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
NOTICE OF RIGHTS
All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form by any means,
electronic, mechanical, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the author.
Copies of this document may be made free of charge for use in public or nonprofit private educational
institutions provided that permission is obtained from the author . Please indicate the name and address
of the institution where use is anticipated.
© 1997 A.J. Girondi, Ph.D.
505 Latshmere Drive
Harrisburg, PA 17109
alicechem@geocities.com
Website: www.geocities.com/Athens/Oracle/2041
15-2 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
SECTION 15.1 sp
3
Hybridization of Atoms
In this chapter we will continue the discussion from Chapter 14 concerning Lewis dot structures.
The electron dot structures for NH3 and H2O were discussed at the end of the last chapter. The formulas
of these compounds are in agreement with the numbers of bonding electrons in nitrogen and oxygen.
Nitrogen has three bonding electrons, while oxygen has two. The dot structures are presented again
(below) for your review.
H N H O
N H
H
H H O
H
and and The atoms
The molecules
The next example presents us with a problem. It involves the compound CH4, which is methane
or natural gas. In this molecule there are four identical C–H covalent bonds. Each involves a shared pair of
electrons between a H atom and the C atom. Since all four bonds in this molecule are exactly alike, the
bonding electrons must be located in four identical orbitals. However, the dot notation of the carbon atom
indicates that it has only two bonding electrons. How can carbon bond to four hydrogen atoms?

C + 4 H -----> CH4 ?????
bonding nonbonding
Solving this problem was a challenge for scientists. They knew that carbon almost always forms four
bonds, yet the orbital notation of the carbon atom showed that it had only two bonding electrons. In an
effort to explain this discrepancy, scientists devised the concept of hybrid orbitals. Figure 15.1 below
illustrates an ordinary carbon with the valence electron configuration: 2s
2
2p
2
.

2 electrons in
the 2s orbital
2 of the 2p orbitals contain 1
electron, while the third 2p
orbital is empty
The unhybridized carbon atom has 2
electrons in the 2s orbital and 1 unpaired
electron in 2 of its 2p orbitals
+ =
+ =
px
py
pz
py
pz
px
Figure 15.1 The Unhybridized Carbon Atom
The word hybrid is usually used in connection with things such as hybrid plants and animals like a
mule. In biology, the term hybrid refers to the offspring of two animals or plants of different species. The
hybrid animal or plant exhibits some characteristics of both "parents," yet it is different from both.
15-3 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
In this same sense, we can mix the 2s and 2p orbitals in the carbon atom in order to end up with
hybrid orbitals. The hybrids are unique and different from the s and p orbitals from which they came. They
have a different shape, a different distance from the nucleus, etc. When two or more hybrid orbitals form,
however, they are identical to each other in every way.
The orbital notation below illustrates what happens when hybridization occurs in carbon.
Unhybr i di zed Car bon El ect r on Moves Hybr i di zed Car bon
2s 2p 2s 2p sp
3
hybr i ds
( X) ( / ) ( / ) ( ) ( / ) ( / ) ( / ) ( / ) ( / ) ( / ) ( / ) ( / )
Note that unhybridized carbon has two "paired" electrons in its 2s
orbital and two of its three 2p orbitals contain a single "unpaired"
bonding electron. Its other 2p orbital is empty. When
hybridization occurs, the one 2s and three 2p orbitals change
their shapes and become four identical "hybrid" orbitals. These
hybrid orbitals are located at a distance from the nucleus
somewhere between where the 2s and 2p orbitals used to be.
You already know that when there is more than one
orbital in a sublevel, the electrons won't pair up in the orbitals until
each orbital has one electron. Well, since these new hybrids are
all in the same new sublevel, one of the two 2s electrons leaves
its orbital to enter one of the new empty hybrid orbitals.
C
Fi gure 15. 2
The Hybridized Carbon Atom
CH
4
Since these four hybrid orbitals were "born" out of one s and three p orbitals, they are
known as sp
3
hybrid orbitals. The hybridized carbon atom now has four bonding
electrons, which explains the existence of molecules like CH4.
C C
C
H
H
H
H
First and 2 H2 4 H
then finally, C + 4 H
15-4 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
C
Fi gure 15. 3
The Methane Molecule, CH4
H
H
H
H
The electron density plot of the CH4 molecule is shown at right.
Notice that the hybrid orbitals are directed toward the corners
(vertices) of a geometric figure called a tetrahedron which
means four-sided. The angles between the bonds are 109.5
o
.
Name an element in row 3 of the periodic table that you would
expect to form a tetrahedral shape when bonded to four other
atoms: {1}_______________________.
C C
unhybridized
carbon atom
hybridized
carbon atom
SECTION 15.2 sp and sp
2
Hybridization of Atoms
Below is a diagram of the orbitals of the beryllium atom. Beryllium is a family 2A element on the
periodic table, indicating that it has two valence electrons. In the unhybridized Be atom, these electrons
are found paired in the 2s orbital. Based on this information, how many bonds can the unhybridized Be
atom form using unpaired electron(s)?{2}________.
2 electrons in
the 2s orbital
All three of the 2p
orbitals are empty
The unhybridized beryllium atom has 2
electrons in the 2s orbital and no
electrons in any of its three 2p orbitals
+ =
+ =
px
py
pz
py
pz
px
Figure 15.4 The Unhybridized Beryllium Atom
This baffled scientists because compounds such as BeCl2 and BeF2 were known to exist, and
these compounds should be forming two identical bonds. The hybridization theory can be expanded in
an effort to explain this.
In order to form two identical bonds, the Be atom needs two unpaired (lone) electrons each
present in a separate but identical orbital. So, while carbon needed four hybrid orbitals, Be needs only
two. Thus, the theory of hybridization dictates that the 2s orbital and only one of the three 2p orbitals in
15-5 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
the Be atom, hybridize and become identical, assuming a new shape and distance from the nucleus. The
two 2s electrons become unpaired with each one entering one of the new hybrid orbitals. The two
remaining 2p orbitals remain unchanged. Since these two new hybrid orbitals were "born" out of one s
and one p orbital, they are called sp hybrid orbitals.
Unhybr i di zed Be At om El ect r on Moves Hybr i di zed Be At om
2s 2p 2s 2p sp

hybr i ds 2p
( X) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( / ) ( / ) ( ) ( ) ( / ) ( / ) ( ) ( )
How many unpaired bonding electrons does this give the hybridized Be atom? {3}_________ Beryllium
and other elements in family 2A of the periodic table can form two bonds that are 180
o
apart. The
molecules formed with family 2A elements at their center are thus linear in shape. Name an element from
row 3 of the periodic table that you would expect to form a linear molecule when bonded to two other
atoms: {4}____________________.
Figure 15.5 The Hybridized Beryllium Atom
py
pz
a hybrid orbital
a hybrid orbital
Cl Cl Be The Linear BeCl2 molecule:
Family 3A elements can form hybrid orbitals, too. It is known that molecules such as BH3 exist in
which the B atom (from Family 3A) forms three identical bonds with hydrogen. Yet, if you consider the
notation of the unhybridized B atom (1s
2
2s
2
2p
1
), it reveals one pair of non-bonding electrons (2s
2
) in its
valence shell and only one unpaired bonding electron (2p
1
). (See Figure 15.6.) So, how could the boron
atom form three bonds with hydrogen? After all, each hydrogen atom with one valence electron is
"looking" for a single unpaired (lone) electron from another atom that it can share and, thereby attain the
stable helium configuration: 1s
2
.
Again, the theory of hybridization can be expanded to provide an explanation. Since the boron
atom already has one bonding electron, it needs only two more to explain the three bonds. The theory
holds that the 2s orbital and two of the three 2p orbitals undergo hybridization and become identical. The
third 2p orbital is left unchanged.
Unhybr i di zed B At om El ect r on Moves Hybr i di zed B At om
2s 2p 2s 2p sp
2
hybr i ds 2p
( X) ( / ) ( ) ( ) ( / ) ( / ) ( / ) ( ) ( / ) ( / ) ( / ) ( )
15-6 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
2 electrons in
the 2s orbital
1 of the 2p orbitals contains 1
electron, while the other two
2p orbitals are empty
The unhybridized boron atom has 2
electrons in the 2s orbital and 1 unpaired
electron in one of its 2p orbitals
+ =
+ =
px
py
pz
py
pz
px
Figure 15.6 The Unhybridized Boron Atom
How many unpaired electrons are available for forming bonds in the unhybridized B atom?{5}_________.
How many unpaired electrons are available to form bonds in the hybridized B atom?{6}__________. The
new hybrid orbitals were "born" out of one s and two p orbitals, so they are called sp
2
hybrid orbitals.
Boron and the other elements in family 3A of the periodic table all form three bonds which are
120
o
C apart. The molecules formed with family 3A elements as their central atom are referred to as being
planar or trigonal planar in shape. Trigonal means three-sided, and planar means flat.
Figure 15.7 The Hybridized Boron Atom and the BH3 Molecule
py
hybrid orbital
hybrid orbitals
B
H
H
H
Name an element from row 3 of the periodic table that you would expect to form a trigonal planar molecule
when bonded to three other atoms.{7}_______________________
15-7 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
SECTION 15.3 Summary Of sp, sp
2
, and sp
3
Hybridization
Study Table 15.1. It summarizes much of the information about hybridization theory that you
have learned up to this point.
Tabl e 15. 1
Bonding Electrons in Elements of Families 1A – 8A
Family 1A 2A 3A 4A 5A 6A 7A 8A
Dot Notation Li Be B C N O F Ne
(Unhybridized)
Dot Notation Li Be B C N O F --
(Hybridized)
No. of
Valence 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Electrons
No. of
Bonds 1 2 3 4 3 2 1 0
Our discussion of hybridization has not included elements in families 5A to 8A. Actually, they can
be considered to undergo hybridization, but that is a subject that will be left for a more advanced course.
The theory of hybridization does not consider family 1A elements. You will note in Table 15.1 that in
families 5A - 8A, the number of bonds which atoms will usually form is equal to their number of unpaired
valence electrons.
SECTION 15.4 The Concept of Electronegativity
As you can see, electron dot formulas are quite useful for illustrating the polar covalent bonds in
molecules. There is another way of describing just how polar a bond is. To do this, we can use a concept
called electronegativity. The idea of electronegativity was first developed by Nobel prize winner Linus
Pauling, perhaps the foremost American chemist of the 20th century. The electronegativity of an atom
reflects its tendency to "attract" electrons to itself.
A numerical value for electronegativity is assigned to atoms of every element. The value assigned
to atoms of each element was determined by scientists who observed the behavior of the atoms in various
chemical reactions. Don't be concerned about the details of how the numbers were determined. You will
use these numbers to estimate the degree of ionic and covalent character in certain bonds.
15-8 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
Problem 1. Use the information in Table15.1 to complete and balance the equations below, written in
electron dot form. The products should also be written in electron dot form. To save you some work, two
steps have already been done. They are: (a) any diatomic or polyatomic elements involved have already
been broken into individual atoms which are ready to bond to other atoms; and, (b) the dot notation shows
atoms in the hybridized form, where necessary, so that they are ready to bond to other atoms. The
first equation is done for you as an example.
a. __2__ H + __1__ O ---------->

b. _____ H + _____ C ---------->
c. _____ Br + _____ Be ---------->
d. _____ F + _____ Al ---------->
e. _____ H + _____ Cl ---------->
f. _____ H + _____ S ---------->
g. _____ F + _____ P ---------->
H O
H
Since electronegativity reflects an atom's "attracting power" for electrons, the higher the
electronegativity value, the stronger the attraction. Consider a reaction between two elements. Their
relative attraction for electrons determines how they react. We can use the electronegativity scale to
determine this attraction. See the scale in Table 15.2 (or Table R-8 in your ALICE reference notebook).
Refer to those electronegativity values when answering the questions that follow.
1. In general, which group (metals or nonmetals) has the lowest electronegativity values? {8}____________
2. Arrange these elements in order of increasing electronegativity: bismuth (#83), chlorine (#17),
tellurium (#52), gallium (#31), thallium (#81): {9}____________________________________________
3. Which element on the periodic table has the highest electronegativity? {10}_____________________
4. Which two elements has (have) the lowest electronegativity?{ 11}_____________________________
5. Which family of elements has the highest electronegativities? {12}____________________________
6. Which family of elements has the lowest electronegativity values? {13}_________________________
When the difference in electronegativity between atoms is high, electrons are considered to be
transferred from one atom to another. In questions 3 and 4 above, you located the elements with the
highest and lowest electronegativities. Now let's see what happens when two of these atoms, cesium and
fluorine, combine:
Cs + F -----> Cs
1+
F
1-
electronegativity values: 0.7 4.0
15-9 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
Because fluorine's electronegativity is so great, it "steals" an electron from cesium. The result is that
cesium becomes a positive ion and fluorine becomes a negative ion. The attraction of opposite charges
holds the two ions together. This force forms what we have called a 100% ionic bond. Ionic bonds involve
the actual transfer of electrons between atoms.
When two atoms with identical electronegativities combine to form a bond, we describe such a
bond as being 100% covalent. Our previous examples of H2, F2, N2, and so forth are cases where this
occurs. These molecules have atoms in them with equal electron–attracting power, and we expect the
atoms to share valence electron pairs equally in the bonds that are formed.
We can use the scale of electronegativity values to estimate the degree (percent) of ionic and
covalent character in polar covalent bonds which are formed between atoms not having identical
electronegativities. Below Table 15.2 is a scale showing electronegativity differences. Below each
electronegativity difference is a listing of percent ionic character.
The higher the percent ionic character, the more ionic the bond. The
lower the percent ionic character, the more covalent the bond.
Study the procedure below for determining the percent ionic and percent covalent character for NaCl.
Electronegativity of Na = 0.9
Electronegativity of Cl = 3.0
Difference = 3.0 – 0.9 = 2.1
Referring to Table 15.2 (or Table R-8 ), a difference of 2.1 corresponds to a 67% ionic bond. The percent
ionic and covalent characters must add up to 100%, so the percent covalent character is 100% – 67% =
33% covalent. The bond between Na and Cl is 67% ionic and 33% covalent.
Problem 2. Using this same procedure, calculate the percent ionic and percent covalent characters of
the compounds listed below. In the compounds with multiple atoms, AlCl3, for example, it is only
nececssary to find the electronegativity difference between one Al atom and one Cl atom. Remember,
you are determining the character of each bond separately.

Percentages of Ionic and Covalent Characters in Selected Compounds
1 = Value of most electronegative element 4 = Percent Ionic character
2 = Value of least electronegative element 5 = Percent covalent character
3 = Electronegativity Difference
Compound 1 2 3 4 5
MgBr2 Br = 2.8 Mg = 1.2 1.6 47 53
NaF
CO
NH3
FrCl
PBr3
15-10 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
15-11 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
Sodium chloride (NaCl) is an ionically bonded substance. You have seen sodium chloride many
times - it is table salt. Each grain of salt that you pour out of the shaker is certainly more than one ion of
sodium and one ion of chlorine. From our studies of atomic size, you found that it takes a great number of
atoms or ions for us to be able to see them. The salt crystals are actually huge numbers of Na
1+
and Cl
1-
ions bonded together to form an ionic bond. The diagram below helps to show that ionic solids form
crystals that are held together by attraction of opposite charges. There are no NaCl molecules as such.
The ionic crystal is just an array of ions. The arrangement of ions is called a crystal lattice. The nature of a
lattice varies from one ionic solid to another, depending on the ratio and size of positive and negative
ions in the compound.
Fi gure 15. 8
NaCl Crystal Lattice
Ionic and polar covalent compounds have properties that are
characteristic of their bond types. In Activity 15.5 you will be examining the
properties of an ionic compound and of a compound with polar covalent
bonds. You may assume that the properties of the ionic and covalent
substances which you will examine are typical of ionic and covalent
compounds.
ACTIVITY 15.5 Comparing Properties Of Ionic & Covalent Compounds
We will use rock salt, NaCl, as a typical ionic compound for all of the tests. For the first test,
naphthalene will be used as a typical covalently–bonded substance. For the second test, paraffin will
serve as the covalent substance. Table sugar (sucrose), C12H22O11, will be used as the covalent
substance in tests three and four. Get small samples of each of these from the materials shelf. Subject
each substance to the test outlined below and record your observations in Table 15.3. Be sure to wear
safety glasses!
Use NaCl (ionic) and naphthalene (covalent) for test 1:
Test 1. Smell each compound. If you detect an odor, you may assume the substance is volatile (which
means it evaporates easily at room temperature).
Use NaCl (ionic) and paraffin (covalent) for test 2:
Test 2. Test the hardness of each compound by grinding a small piece of each with a metal file. Keep
each substance dry as you do this. Try to distinguish between the two. There is a difference.
Use table sugar (sucrose) for the covalently–bonded substance in tests 3 and 4:
Test 3. Place a very small sample of NaCl and sugar (sucrose) in separate piles on a piece of metal such as
a can lid (from the materials shelf). DO NOT use naphthalene! It is highly flammable! Place the metal on an
iron ring on a ring stand and heat the materials by applying heating with your burner under the metal. Note
which material melts first. Stop heating as soon as one material begins to melt; otherwise, you will cause
burning to occur.
Test 4. Dissolve a little NaCl (about enough to cover a quarter) in a 100 mL beaker about 1/2 full of tap
water. Stir well and test the solution for electrical conductivity using the apparatus designed for that
purpose. (Your teacher will guide you.) Dip the electrodes of the apparatus into a beaker of water to rinse
them and repeat this procedure using a little sugar instead of NaCl. Indicate whether the substance, when
dissolved, conducts a current.
Results and Conclusions:
15-12 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
From your results, state the properties that are characteristic of ionic substances: _________________
______________________________________________________________________________
State the general properties of a covalent substance: ______________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
Using your observations from this activity and the table of electronegativity values, determine which of
these compounds, BaCl2 or CO2, would conduct more electric current when dissolved in water. Explain.
{14}____________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
Drawing on your observations in this activity and Table 15.2, which substance would you expect to have
the lowest melting point: AlBr3, CS2, or CaCl2? Explain your reasoning.
{15}____________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
Tabl e 15. 3
Properties of Ionic and Covalent Compounds
Property Ionic Substance Covalent Substance
Volatility
(high or low)
Hardness
Melting Point
(high or low)
Electrical
Conductivity
SECTION 15.6 More About Molecular Geometries
You already know something about the shapes of certain molecules. Knowing the shapes can
help you to determine many of the chemical properties of molecules. Lewis electron dot structures are
very useful in helping us to predict geometries of molecules. Ordinary chemical formulas don't help much
in this respect. Let's now expand your knowledge of molecular shapes.
In a previous chapter, we described electron probability density plots as a means of indicating the
15-13 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
three-dimensional spaces in which electrons spend most of their time. The shapes and arrangement of
these orbitals determine the overall shapes of molecules. We can use the compound called ammonia,
NH3, as an example to illustrate how the probability plots can be used to explain the geometry (shape) of a
molecule. Observe the electron dot structures in the equation below. (Assume N2 and H2 have been
broken apart into N and H.)
3 H N N H
H
H +
According to the equation above, how many valence electrons does H have?{16}_________
How many valence electrons does N have?{17}____________
How many bonding electrons does N have?{18}____________
How many nonbonding electron pairs does N have?{19}__________
H
N
N H
H
H
Valence Orbitals: 2s 2p 1s
( X) ( / ) ( / ) ( / ) ( / )
Lewis Dot Symbols:
Lewis Dot Structure:
Molecular Geometry:
(pyramidal)
N atom H atom
The shape of the NH3 molecule can be illustrated by using lines to represent bonds. The shape of a
molecule depends on the bond angle between the bonds which join the H atoms to the central N atom.
The shapes of molecules can often be determined by looking at the valence electrons of the central atom.
Remember, because electrons are all negatively charged, they repel each other. To achieve a condition
of maximum stability, electrons locate themselves as far away from each other as possible. This serves to
minimize the electrostatic repulsion between the pairs of electrons. The position of the electrons
depends of the number of electrons present. The bond angle for the ammonia, NH3, molecule has been
determined to be 107
o
, forming what is referred to as a pyramidal–shaped molecule. The elements in
family 5A of the periodic table (such as nitrogen) all tend to form pyramidal-shaped molecules when they
are bonded to three other atoms. The unshared (nonbonding) electron pair on nitrogen tends to repel
the three shared pairs, causing the pyramidal arrangement.
Bond angles are determined by studying molecules with x-rays. Name another element (from row
3) on the periodic table that you would expect to be the center of pyramidal–shaped
molecules:{20}_______________________.
Now we will follow a similar procedure as we study the shape of molecules which have elements
15-14 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
from family 6A at their centers. Oxygen will be used as an example of a typical family 6A element. Water's
formula is H2O. The formula equation and the dot structure equation for the formation of water are shown
below.
2 H2 + O2 -----> 2 H2O OR 2 H + O -----> O H
H
O
H H
104.5
o
bond angle
The two unshared (nonbonding) pairs of electrons and the two shared pairs in the molecule all tend to
repel each other. The result is a bent–shaped molecule with a bond angle of 104.5
o
. Bent molecules are
typically formed when family 6A elements become bonded to two other atoms. Name an element from row
3 on the periodic table that you would expect to form the center of a bent molecule:{21}______________.
If you take a more advanced course in chemistry, you will learn that it is possible for unshared
electron pairs of electrons to become involved in bonding, and thereby, become shared pairs. Consider
the formation of the ammonium, NH4
1+
, ion. A hydrogen ion (H
1+
) forms when a hydrogen atom loses its
electron. The hydrogen atom's electron configuration is 1s
1
. The hydrogen ion (H
1+
) configuration is 1s
0
.
It has no electrons, but it "wants" the helium configuration (1s
2
) to gain stability. So, the hydrogen ion is
looking for two electrons to share. When this H
1+
ion meets a molecule of NH3, it bonds to the unshared
pair on the N atom as follows:

H
1+
+ N
H
H
H
N
H
H
H
H
1+
Since the hydrogen ion carries a positive charge, the entire particle assumes a positive charge when the
ammonium ion is formed. (Don't confuse ammonia, NH3, with ammonium, NH4
1+
.) We can show this by
enclosing the whole structure inside brackets with the plus sign outside. This also happens when the H
1+
ion reacts with a water molecule. The product (below) is an ion (the hydronium ion) that is very important in
the study of acids.
H
1+
+
1+
There are many other examples. Whenever an atom or ion that needs a pair of electrons in order to
become stable meets another particle which has one or more unshared pairs of electrons, this kind of
reaction is possible. Table 15.4 summarizes the shapes of the molecules you have studied in this chapter.
Notice in the molecular drawings that a dash is often used to represent a pair of shared electrons (a bond).
Also notice that while all unshared pairs are shown in the dot structure, in the drawings of the molecules
only the unshared pairs around the central atoms are shown. Any other unshared pairs are "assumed" to
be there - as needed.
Problem 3 requires that you complete the blanks in Table 15.5. The drawings of the molecules
use dashes for bonds, and unshared pairs are only shown if they exist around the central atom.
15-15 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
Tabl e 15. 4
Geometries of Molecules Containing Family 1A – 8A Elements
Family 1A 2A 3A 4A 5A 6A 7A

Shape linear linear planar tetrahedral pyramidal bent linear
H Cl I – Be – I
B
Cl Cl
Cl
C
Cl Cl
Cl
Cl
N
H H H
O
H H
Cl Cl
Drawing
of
Molecule
Cl H
B
Cl Cl
Cl
C
Cl
Cl Cl
Cl
N
H
H H Cl Cl
Dot
Structure
I I Be
Formula HCl BeI2 BCl3 CCl4 NH3 H2O Cl2
Problem 3. Complete Table 15.5.
Tabl e 15. 5
Dot Structures and "Stick" Drawings of Molecules
Compound Dot Structure Stick Drawing Geometry
CHCl3 tetrahedral
LiI
PCl3
GaF3
CH2Cl2
H2S
C
Cl
Cl
Cl
H
C
H Cl
Cl
Cl
15-16 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
ACTIVITY 15.7 Determining the Formula of a Hydrate
In this activity you will be determining the formula of a hydrated compound. Remember that you
have seen the formulas of hydrates before. An example is CuSO4•5H2O. This formula states that for
every 1 mole of CuSO4 in the crystals of the compound, 5 moles of water are bonded to it. (The 1 in front
of the CuSO4 is assumed to be there.) The raised period means "plus". The water is bonded to the metal
in hydrates by a special kind of covalent bond which is called a coordinate covalent bond. We will save the
discussion of these bonds for a more advanced course.
When you heat a hydrate, you break the covalent bonds which bond the water to the compound,
and the water leaves in the form of a vapor. The product that is left is the anhydrous (without water) form of
the compound. The formula of the anhydrous form is obtained simply by leaving the water out of the
formula of the hydrate.
You are going to heat a sample of the hydrated form of barium chloride. We will represent the
formula temporarily as BaCl2 •?H2O. Your task is to determine the coefficient that should go in front of the
H2O in the formula. Remember, there is already an assumed "1" in front of the BaCl 2. You will be looking
for the mole ratio between the BaCl2 and the H2O in the compound.
Procedure:
1. Obtain a clean porcelain crucible and cover. Measure the mass of the empty crucible and cover to the
nearest 0.01 g. Add approximately 3 g of BaCl2 •?H2O crystals to the crucible, replace the cover, and
measure the mass to the nearest 0.01g. Calculate the mass of BaCl2 •?H2O crystals in the crucible, and
record this data in Table 15.7.
2. Begin heating slowly. Increase the heat until you have heated the crucible strongly for about 10
minutes. Remove the crucible from the triangle, let it cool, and measure the mass of the crucible, cover,
and contents. Record data in Table 15.7.
3. Reheat with a hot flame for a few minutes, allow to cool, and remeasure the mass. If the mass is more
than 0.01 g different from what it was after the first heating, reheat and measure again.
4. Dispose of the material in the crucible in the container provided by your teacher. Clean and dry the
crucible and cover.
5. After you have completed Table 15.7, show your results to your instructor who will provide you with the
actual answer. Comment on how your result compares to the actual formula for the hydrate: __________
______________________________________________________________________________
15-17 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
Tabl e 15. 7
Determination of the Formula of a Hydrate
a. Mass of crucible and cover: __________ g
b. Mass of crucible, cover, & contents before heating: __________ g
c. Mass of BaCl2 •? H2O: __________ g
d. Mass of crucible, cover, & contents after heating: __________ g
e. Mass of H2O driven off (b–d): __________ g
f. Mass of BaCl2 left in crucible (d–a): __________ g
g. Moles of H2O driven off: __________ moles
h. Moles of BaCl2 left in crucible: __________ moles
Whole number mole ratio of moles of BaCl2 to moles of H2O: 1 to ____
(To get this whole number ratio, divide the moles of water and the moles of
BaCl2 by the smallest of the two. Round the results to whole numbers)
Experimentally determined formula for the hydrated compound: BaCl2 • ____ H2O
SECTION 15.8 Learning Outcomes
This is the end of Chapter 15. Review the learning outcomes below. Check each one when you
think you have mastered it. Arrange to take any quizzes or exams on Chapter 15 and move on to Chapter
16.
_____1. Explain what is meant by the electronegativity of an element.
_____2. Describe the general properties of ionic and covalent compounds.
_____3. Determine the percent ionic and covalent characters of a bond.
_____4. Use hybridization theory to explain why atoms in families 2A, 3A, and 4A form the number of
bonds that they do.
_____5. Given the formula of a compound which has an atom from family 2A, 3A, or 4A in the center,
identify the type of hybridization that it exhibits.
_____6. Predict the geometry (shape) of simple molecules given the molecular formula.
_____7. Be able to calculate the formula of a hydrate, given the needed experimental data.
15-18 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
SECTION 15.9 Answers to Questions and Problems
Questions:
{1} silicon; {2} none; {3} two; {4} magnesium; {5} one; {6} three; {7} aluminum; {8} metals;
{9} gallium, thallium, bismuth, tellurium, chlorine; {10} fluorine; {11} cesium and francium;
{12} family VII - the halogens; {13} family IA - the alkali metals; {14} BaCl2 - it is more ionic, and ionic
compounds form solutions which conduct electricity; {15} CS2 - because it is covalently bonded.
Covalent compounds tend to have lower melting points than ionic ones; {16} one; {17} five; {18} three;
{19} one; {20} phosphorus; {21} sulfur
Problems:
1.
a. __2__ H + __1__ O ---------->

b. __4__ H + __1__ C ---------->
c. __2__ Br + __1__ Be ---------->
d. __3__ F + __1__ Al ---------->
e. __1__ H + __1__ Cl ---------->
f. __2__ H + __1__ S ---------->
g. __3__ F + __1__ P ---------->
H O
H
C H
H
H
H
Be Br Br
Al
F
F
F
Cl H
S H
H
P
F
F
F
2. MgBr2; Mg = 1.2; 1.6; 47; 53
NaF; F = 4.0; Na =0.9; 3.1; 91; 9
CO; O = 3.5; C = 2.5; 1.0; 22; 78
NH3; N = 3.0; H = 2.1; 0.9; 19; 81
FrCl ; Cl = 3.0; Fr = 0.7; 2.3; 74; 26
PBr3; Br = 2.8; P = 2.1; 0.7; 12; 88
3. LiI (same as HCl as shown in Table 15.4, page 15-16)
PCl3 (same as NH3 as shown in Table 15.4, page 15-16)
GaF3 (same as BCl3 as shown in Table 15.4, page 15-16)
CH2Cl2 (same as CCl4 as shown in Table 15.4, page 15-16)
H2S (same as H2O as shown in Table 15.4, page 15-16)
15-19 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
SECTION 15.10 Student Notes
15-20 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
NAME____________________________________ PER____________ DATE DUE____________
ACTIVE LEARNING I N CHEMISTRY EDUCATION
"ALICE"
CHAPTER 16
SOLUTIONS
(PART 1)

16-1 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
NOTICE OF RIGHTS
All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form by any means,
electronic, mechanical, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the author.
Copies of this document may be made free of charge for use in public or nonprofit private educational
institutions provided that permission is obtained from the author . Please indicate the name and address
of the institution where use is anticipated.
© 1997 A.J. Girondi, Ph.D.
505 Latshmere Drive
Harrisburg, PA 17109
alicechem@geocities.com
Website: www.geocities.com/Athens/Oracle/2041
16-2 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
SECTION 16.1 Introduction To Solutions
Up to this point, the subjects covered have dealt mainly with the structures and properties of pure
substances (elements and compounds) such as sodium chloride (NaCl) and water (H2O). Each has a
specific melting and boiling point, as well as other characteristic properties. When salt and water are
mixed, however, their physical properties change. The solid disappears and becomes part of the liquid.
The resulting mixture of salt and water is called a solution which is the topic we will study in this chapter and
in Chapter 17. You first saw the "classification of matter" in Chapter 5. It is given again below in Figure
16.1 so that you can see how solutions fit into the scheme of things.

Matter
Pure Substances Mixtures
Homogeneous Heterogeneous Elements Compounds
Solutions
Figure 16.1 The Classification of Matter
A solution is defined as a {1}__________________ of two or more substances that are
homogeneously (uniformly) mixed. The formation of a solution does not involve a chemical change;
therefore, the chemical properties and identities of the components of the solution do not change. If you
add heat, you can easily separate the mixture and recover the water and salt.
Solutions may exist in any combination of the three phases of matter - solid, liquid, or gas. When
most people think of solutions, they usually picture them as liquids. However, not all solutions are liquids.
Solid solutions are much more common than you may realize. The nickel coin is a solution containing 25%
nickel by mass dissolved in copper. Brass is a solution consisting of a mixture of copper and zinc. This
type of solid solution consisting of two or more metals is called an alloy. Dentists frequently fill decayed
teeth with an alloy of silver and mercury. Alloys containing mercury are called amalgams. The advantage of
alloys is that they can be harder and stronger than the pure metals from which they were prepared. For
example, tensile strength is defined as a measure of the force required to pull apart a given piece of
material. The tensile strength of pure iron can be increased by 10 times by the addition of 1% of carbon
and smaller amounts of nickel and magnesium. This fortified iron is called steel , and there are numerous
kinds of steel which contain differing amounts and kinds of additives. Steel is, therefore, a solution!
In addition to liquid solutions and solid solutions, there are also gaseous solutions. Air is an
example of a gaseous solution consisting primarily of nitrogen and oxygen. There are many combinations
that exist between pure substances of different phases that combine to form solutions. Table 16.1
provides examples of solutions made by combining various phases of substances. In order to understand
solution chemistry, you need to learn some new terms. In solutions, the substance that is dissolved or
being dissolved is called the solute. The substance which does the dissolving is called the solvent. In
seawater, the solid salt is the solute and the water is the solvent. If there is doubt as to which substance is
dissolving (such as when a liquid is dissolved in another liquid), it is customary to consider the solvent to
be the substance that is present in the greatest quantity. When 2 mL of alcohol and 1 mL of water are
mixed, which one is the solvent?{2}________________________________.
16-3 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
Tabl e 16. 1
Solutions Containing Various Phases of Matter
Phase o f Major Phase of Added Example
Component Component
solid solid metal alloys like steel
solid liquid mercury in silver (amalgam)
solid gas hydrogen in palladium
liquid solid seawater (salt water)
liquid liquid gasoline
liquid gas carbonated (CO2) soda water
gas solid iodine vapor in air
gas liquid water vapor in air
gas gas air (mostly N2 + O2)
SECTION 16.2 Solutions and the Polarity of Molecules
You are probably aware that if you try to make a solution by pouring two liquids together, you may
have a problem in that they may not mix. If two liquids don't mix we say that they are immiscible. If they do
mix, we say that they are miscible. Some liquids mix with each other in any amounts, while others are only
partially miscible in each other. Ethyl alcohol (C2H5OH) and water, for example, are miscible in any
amounts. It doesn't matter if you use a lot of alcohol with a little water or vice versa. However, the reason
that you have to shake your salad dressing is because oil are immiscible. They do not form a solution. You
will experiment with this concept in Activity 16.4.
The reason for the miscibility or immiscibility of liquids involves the phenomenon of polarity of
molecules. You already know that some chemical bonds are polar and some are not; and, you know that
some polar bonds are more polar than others. Notice that we mentioned above that the reason involves
the polarity of molecules, not just the polarity of bonds. You see, some molecules are polar and some are
not. So what makes a molecule polar? It depends on the nature of the bonds in the molecule, the shape
of the molecule, and the formula of the molecule. The bottom line is this: the molecule must have two
different ends. In addition, at least part of the molecule must have polar bonds. If a molecule has polar
bonds and two different ends, then it will have one end which is more "positive" in charge and a different
end which is more "negative." This is because the electrons in the molecule will spend more time around
the more electronegative atoms, making that end of the molecule more negative than the other end.
As we discuss the examples in Table 16.3, you will
want to refer to the table of electronegativity values in your
ALICE reference notebook. Remember, the greater the
electronegativity difference between two atoms, the more
polar the bond. As a very general rule, bonds are
considered to be nonpolar (for practical purposes) if the two
atoms in the bond have an electronegativity difference of
less than 0.5. If the electronegativity difference between
two bonded atoms is greater than 1.7, then the bond is
considered to be ionic, rather than polar (again for practical
purposes). Table 16.2 summarizes this information. None of
the examples in Table 16.3 are ionic. They are either polar
or nonpolar.
Tabl e 16. 2
Relationship Between
Electronegativity and Bond Type
Electronegativity
Difference Bond Type
0 to 0.5 nonpolar
0.6 to 1. 7 polar covalent
1.7 or more ionic
16-4 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
In problem 2 on page 7, you will be asked to complete Table 16.3. The discussion below will help
you to complete it. As you read the next couple of pages, you will learn what you need to know to
complete Table 16.3.
Let's consider the examples found in Table 16.3 one at a time. Does the Cl2 molecule have a
polar bond? {3}__________. Does the molecule have two different ends? {4}_________. Therefore, this
molecule does not meet the conditions needed for polarity.
Does the H–Cl molecule contain a polar bond? (Use the guidelines in Table 16.2)
{5}_____________. Does this molecule have two different ends? {6}__________. Therefore, this is a
polar molecule since it meets both criteria. A polar molecule has one end which is more positively charged
and another end which is more negatively charged. This results from an unequal sharing of the electrons
in the bond(s). In HCl the chlorine is more electronegative (attracts electrons more) than H, so the Cl end
of the HCl molecule is more negative and the H end is more positive. Polar molecules are frequently called
dipoles, which means "two poles."
What is the electronegativity difference of the bonds in the BBr3 molecule (all three are
identical)?{7}__________. So, the bonds are mildly polar. Now, does the molecule have two different
ends?{8}__________. Therefore, even though it has mildly polar bonds, it is best to classify BBr3 as
nonpolar.Calculate the electronegativity difference for the bonds in the next example, AlF3. The
difference is {9}_________. So technically, this is an ionic compound which means that it is best to
consider it to be composed of independent ions in a lattice (like NaCl), rather than as being composed of
molecules. (In polar molecules, the two ends of the molecule have opposite partial charges. In ionic
compounds, the ions carry full charges since electrons are actually transferred.) Furthermore, even if AlF3
were a molecule, would it have two different ends? {10}___________. So this compound will have
properties more characteristic of ionic compounds than those of polar covalent molecules.What's the
electronegativity difference between Be and I in BeI2? {11}_________. That's good enough to make the
bonds polar. Now, does this linear molecule have two different ends?{12}_________ You see, both ends
are identical. Since I is more electronegative than Be, both ends of the BeI2 molecule are partially
negative. The partially positive Be is trapped in the middle. Thus, even though the bonds are polar, the
molecule is not.
The next example is H2O. What is the electronegativity difference of an O–H bond?
{13}_________. O.K., so are the bonds polar? {14}________ Note that H2O is a bent molecule. The bent
shape results from the mutual repulsion between the shared pairs of electrons and the unshared pairs. Is
the molecule polar? Check Figure 16.2 below. Note that if you look at the figure on the left you might
assume that water has two identical ends. But, if you look to the right, note that the bent shape of the
molecule allows us the "see" two other ends which are different. As a result, water is a polar molecule!
Since oxygen is more electronegative than hydrogen, the O end is partially negative, while the H end is
partially positive.
H
O
H H
O
H
Figure 16.2 The Polarity of Water
∂ –
∂ +
16-5 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
CF4 bonds have an electronegativity difference of 1.5 which would make them polar. However,
this molecule is tetrahedral in shape, and therefore has no clearly defined different ends. It is nonpolar.
However, If the molecule were changed to CF3Cl, that would give it two different ends, and this molecule
would be polar. The carbon–fluorine bond has a greater electronegativity difference than the carbon-
chlorine bond does. Fluorine is more electronegative than chlorine, so the fluorine end of the molecule is
more negative than the chlorine end. See Figure 16.3 below. So, you must consider the formula as well
as the shape and the bonds.
Note: to help you to appreciate the three-dimensional structure of molecules such as those shown below, the solid
black line represents a bond within the plane of the paper; the light line represents a bond located behind the plane of
the paper; and, the lines which get thicker at one end represent bonds which are in front of the plane of the paper
(coming out towards the reader).
C
F
F
F
Cl
C
F F
F
F
nonpolar CF
4
polar CClF
3
∂ +
∂ –
Figure 16.3 Polarity of Two Carbon Compounds
The NH3 molecule has three N–H bonds with an electronegativity difference of 0.9 which allows
us to classify them as polar. The molecule itself has a pyramidal shape resulting from the repulsion
between the three shared pairs and the single unshared pair. If this molecule were planar, it would not
have two different ends. This was the case with BBr3, if you recall. However, the fact that this is a
pyramidal molecule allows it to have two different ends if you look at it in the right way. Figure 16.4 below,
gives you a top view and a side view for comparison. The side view shows the ends which make the
molecule a dipole.
Figure 16.4 Top and Side Views of NH3
N
H
H
H
∂ +
∂ –
N
H H
H
16-6 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
Problem 1. Now look at the next two examples in Table 16.3, BHBr2 and CCl 2Br2. See if you can
determine why they are polar. Check Table 16.3, and then redraw these two molecules in the boxes
below and label the partially positive (∂ +) and partially negative (∂ –) ends of each one. This generalization
may help you: The more centrally located an atom is on the periodic table, the more centrally located an
atom of that element will be in a molecule. This applies to the elements in the "A" families (1A through 8A),
and there are, of course, exceptions.
BHBr2 CCl2Br2
Problem 2. Complete Table 16.3 below.
Tabl e 16. 3
Polarity of Molecules
Molecular Geometric Molecule Has 2 Molecule has Molecule
Formula Structure Different ends? Polar Bonds? is Polar?
(yes / no) (yes / no) (yes / no)
Cl2 _________________ ___________ _______ _______

HCl _________________ ___________ _______ _______
BBr3 _________________ ___________ _______ _______
AlF3 _________________ ___________ _______ _______
BeI2 _________________ ___________ _______ _______
H2O _________________ ___________ _______ _______
CF4 _________________ ___________ _______ _______
NH3 _________________ ___________ _______ _______
BHBr2 _________________ ___________ _______ _______
CF2Br2 _________________ ___________ _______ _______
16-7 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
C C O
H
H
H H
H H
nonpolar portion polar portion
∂ –
∂ +
Figure 16.5 Ethyl Alcohol
Let's consider one other molecule, ethyl alcohol
(C2H5OH). The C–H bonds are not considered polar,
nor are the C–C bonds. The O–H bond, however, is
polar. Note that the molecule has two different ends,
too. Since this polar end molecule has a polar O–H
bond, and since it has two different ends, it is polar. The
nonpolar bonds are concentrated at one end, while the
polar bond is at the other end. The highly
electronegative oxygen atom makes that end of the
polar bond partially negative. This fact is important, and
we will experiment with this molecule shortly.
ACTIVITY 16.3 A Study Of Molecular Models
Since molecules are three–dimensional objects, it is helpful to see them represented in three
dimensions. We will do this by looking at models of the molecules. From the materials shelf, obtain a
model of each of the ten molecules listed in Table 16.3. Look at the models and see if you can determine
why some molecules have two different ends, while others do not. Put a check mark in after each
observation below after you have verified it but examining the models.
1. CF4 is not flat.___
2. CF4 does not have two different ends, but CF2Br2 does.___
3. Note the difference between planar (otherwise known as trigonal planar) and pyramidal molecules.___
4. Note the difference between the linear BeI2 and the bent H2O.___
ACTIVITY 16.4 Testing the Miscibility of Liquids
An interesting characteristic of liquids with covalent bonds has to do with how well they mix with
each other. We have already established that because of its bonds and its shape, water is a polar
molecule. On the other hand, gasoline has bonds that have very little electronegativity difference and
very little polarity. Therefore, regardless of its shape, it cannot be a polar molecule since it has no polar
bonds. Polar liquids do not mix with nonpolar liquids. In chemistry, there is an old saying: "like dissolves
like." It means that polar liquids dissolve in other polar liquids. Nonpolar liquids dissolve in other nonpolar
liquids. Gasoline will mix with oil, because both are nonpolar. They will form a solution. Water will mix with
glycerol, which is another polar molecule found in hand lotions and some lubricants. This rule also
explains the dissolving of solids in liquids. For example, water (polar) cannot remove grease (nonpolar)
from your clothes, but gasoline (nonpolar) can. But, never use it for that purpose! So-called "dry"
cleaners use nonpolar solvents in place of water to clean greasy nonpolar dirt from clothes. (Some say
that chewing gum can be removed from hair or clothing by using peanut butter! The oils in peanut butter
are nonpolar. What can you assume about chewing gum? {15}_________________________________
Water and glycerol are miscible, but water and salad oil are immiscible. Ethyl alcohol, C2H5OH,
which you saw in Figure 16.5, is miscible in both water and in salad oil! Why? If you recall, we saw that ethyl
alcohol has both a polar and a nonpolar end. Well, the nonpolar end tends to make the molecule dissolve
in nonpolar liquids, while the polar end makes the molecule soluble in polar liquids. It goes both ways! If
you add alcohol to a mixture of oil and water, it will cause all three liquids to form a solution. That is, to
become miscible. Soap molecules are similar. They have a polar and a nonpolar end, and therefore soap
can help nonpolar dirt and polar water to mix, and your shower is much more successful!
miscible: describes two substances which are mutually soluble in each other.
immiscible: describes two substances which are NOT mutually soluble in each other.
16-8 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
Procedure:
1. Obtain about 5 mL of 2-butanol (nonpolar) and 5 mL of colored water (polar) and mix them in a large
(200 mm x 25 mm) test tube. Do not sniff the vapors from the 2-butanol. (The coloring in the water is there
to make it easier to distinguish the 2-butanol from the water.) Stopper the tube and shake. Allow the
liquids to settle for five or ten minutes. Are they miscible, or do you see two layers forming (meaning they
are immiscible)? ______________.
2. Next, add about 5 to 10 mL of ethyl alcohol to the mixture which is already in the test tube. Stopper and
shake again. Wait a few minutes. Do you see two layers or are the contents miscible? _______________
Explain: _______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
3. Pour the contents of the tube into the waste container provided by your teacher. Rinse the test tube
several times with water.
SECTION 16.5 Predicting Geometries and Polarities of Molecules
Problem 3. Complete Table 16.4, indicating which molecules are polar and which are not. For the polar
molecules, label the partially positive and partially negative ends. (Check the electronegativities of atoms
using Table R–8 in your reference notebook. To help you draw the molecules, keep in mind that:
among the "A" families of elements, the closer an element is to the center of the
eight "A" families, the more centrally located it will usually be in the molecule.
For example, elements in family 4A are usually located in the center of simple molecules and usually form
four bonds. Family 5A elements are more likely to be in the center of a molecule than are family 7A
elements, etc.
Tabl e 16. 4
Polarity of Selected Molecules
Compound Drawing of Molecule Shape Polar/Nonpolar
CFH3 ____________________________ _________________
LiI ____________________________ _________________
PCl3 ____________________________ _________________
GaH3 ____________________________ _________________
CH2Cl2 ____________________________ _________________
H2S ____________________________ _________________
16-9 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
Did you label the partially positive ( ∂ + ) and negative ( ∂ –) ends of those molecules in Table 16.4 which
are polar? If not, do so now.
ACTIVITY 16.6 Testing the Polarities of Solutes and Solvents
In this activity you will be examining how well selected solvents can dissolve certain solutes, and
you will be relating the results to the polarity of the solutes and solvents. Be careful with the materials you
will be using. Several give off toxic fumes, and iodine can stain your skin and clothes. Do not handle
chemicals with your fingers. Wear safety glasses and an apron. Be especially careful with iodine. Wear
gloves if available.
PART A.
1. Obtain four regular–sized (150 mm) test tubes, and label them 1 through 4.
2. Place 3 to 5 mL of water (solvent) into each test tube.
3. Add a "pinch" of sugar to test tube 1, a small piece of styrofoam to test tube 2, 1 small crystal of iodine to
test tube 3, and a "pinch" of sodium chloride to test tube 4.
4. Put a stopper in each tube and shake well for about one minute or until the result is obvious.
5. Observe the contents. If it appears that most or all of the solid dissolved in a tube, enter "soluble" in the
appropriate blank in Table 16.5. If it does not, enter "insoluble." Dispose of any iodine in the container
provided by your instructor. The styrofoam can be put into the waste can, while other chemicals can be
disposed of in your sink. Clean the tubes and dry them using towels.
PART B.
1. Add about 2 mL of toluene to each of the four tubes. Keep toluene away from flames! Do not sniff the
toluene vapors. You should have good ventilation in your lab area.
2. To test tubes 1 through 4 add the same materials as you did in part A. Stopper the tubes as in part A,
and shake well for one minute each or until the result is obvious. Observe the results and enter "soluble"
or "insoluble" in Table 16.5.
3. Dispose of the materials as you did in part A, except be sure to put the toluene in the special container
provided by your instructor.
Questions:
What conclusion can you make about the solubility of polar solutes in polar solvents?
______________________________________________________________________________
Give specific examples to justify your response. __________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
What conclusion can you make about the solubility of nonpolar solutes in polar solvents? ____________
______________________________________________________________________________
Give specific examples to justify your response. __________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
16-10 ©1997, A.J. Girondi

Tabl e 16. 4
Polarity of Selected Molecules
Compound Drawing of Molecule Shape Polar/Nonpolar
CFH3 ____________________________ _________________
LiI ____________________________ _________________
PCl3 ____________________________ _________________
GaH3 ____________________________ _________________
CH2Cl2 ____________________________ _________________
H2S ____________________________ _________________
Tabl e 16. 5
Solubility and Polarity
PART A. POLAR (WATER) SOLVENT
Solute Solute Solvent Solvent Soluble or Insoluble
Polarity Polarity
sugar polar water polar ___________________
styrofoam nonpolar water polar ___________________
iodine nonpolar water polar ___________________
NaCl ionic water polar ___________________
PART B. NONPOLAR (TOLUENE) SOLVENT
Solute Solute Solvent Solvent Soluble or Insoluble
Polarity Polarity
sugar polar toluene nonpolar ___________________
styrofoam nonpolar toluene nonpolar ___________________
iodine nonpolar toluene nonpolar ___________________
NaCl ionic toluene nonpolar ___________________
What conclusion can you make about the solubility of an ionic solute like NaCl in polar and nonpolar
solvents? ______________________________________________________________________
Give specific examples to justify your response. __________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
(Some other ionic solutes which have very strong ionic bonds are only slightly soluble or insoluble in water.)
SECTION 16.7 Solubility and Saturation
If you were to add only a small amount of salt (NaCl) to some tap water, you would find that all of it
will dissolve as you stir the solution. If you continue to add the salt, a point will be reached at which the salt
will no longer dissolve no matter how much you stir it. The solvent (H2O) at that point contains all of the
NaCl it can "hold," and the solution is said to be saturated. The maximum amount of solute that will
dissolve in a given amount of solvent is called the solubility of the solute.
You may wonder why a solvent becomes saturated. When a substance like salt dissolves in water,
the polar water molecules are attracted to the positive and negative ions of the salt. The water molecules
then surround those ions, thereby keeping them apart and "in solution." Eventually you will run out of
water molecules, and any additional salt will remain in the solid state.
16-11 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
solvent molecule
solute particle
dissolved solute particle
Figure 16.6 Depiction of an Unsaturated Solution
Notice that there are still some "free" solvent molecules available in an unsaturated solution (Figure 16.6).
solvent molecule
solute particle
dissolved solute particle
Figure 16.7 Depiction of a Saturated Solution
undissolved solute
particles
Notice that there are no "free" solvent molecules in the saturated solution (Figure 16.7).
There is a limited amount of any solute that will dissolve in a given amount of solvent. Some
solutes are very soluble in the most common solvent (water), while others are almost completely insoluble
in water. About 200 grams of ordinary table sugar will dissolve in 100 grams of water at 25
o
C, because
sugar is very soluble in water. By contrast, only 2 X10
-4
grams of silver chloride (AgCl) will dissolve under
these same conditions. Silver chloride can be considered to be insoluble in water since so little will
dissolve.
Solubility is generally expressed as grams of solute per 100 grams of solvent. You will recall that 1
mL of water has a mass of 1 gram, because the density of water is 1 gram / mL.
Sample Problem: Suppose that you do an experiment at 20
o
C and find that 17.26 g of AlCl3 will
dissolve in 25 mL of water to form a saturated solution. Since solubility is expressed in grams of solute per
100 g of solvent, the solubility can be calculated in the following manner:

17.26 g AlCl
3
25 mL H
2
O
X
1 mL H
2
O
1 g H
2
O
=
0.69 g AlCl
3
1 g H
2
O
16-12 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
So, we have found that 0.69 g of AlCl3 will dissolve in 1 g of H2O at 20
o
C. However, the definition of
solubility requires that we calculate the amount of solute that will dissolve in 100 g of solvent (H2O), not 1
gram. So, we convert our answer to g AlCl3 per 100 g H2O by multiplying by 100 g H2O:

0.69 g AlCl
3
1 g H
2
O
X 100. g H
2
O = 69 g AlCl
3
Thus, the solubility of AlCl3 in H2O at 20
o
C is expressed as 69 g AlCl3 / 100 g H2O. (Whenever solubility
values are reported, the temperature is always listed since solubility depends on temperature.)
Calculate the solubilities (in g solute /100 g solvent) of the compounds described in the problems
below.
Problem 4. It is found that 18.4 g of Ba(NO3)2 are needed to saturate 200. mL of water at 20
o
C.
Solubility = __________g Ba(NO3)2 / 100 g H2O
Problem 5. It is found that 11.31 g of NaBr are needed to saturate 16.5 mL of water at 20
o
C.
Solubility = __________g NaBr / 100 g H2O
Problem 6. Assume that 2.6 X 10
-16
g of Ag2S are needed to saturate 200. mL of water at 20
o
C.
Solubility = __________g Ag2S / 100 g H2O
Which of the substances in the previous three problems is most soluble? {16}______________________
Which is least soluble?{17}______________________ The next problem is a bit different.
16-13 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
Problem 7. The solubility of MnCl2 at 20
o
C is 73.9 g MnCl2 per 100. g H2O. How many liters of water are
required to dissolve 110. grams of MnCl2 at 20
o
C? (Remember that 1 mL H2O = 1 g H2O)
__________ L H2O
ACTIVITY 16.8 Determining the Solubility of Sodium Chloride
In the following activity, you will be experimentally determining the solubility of common table salt,
NaCl. The procedure involves 4 steps:
(1) obtain a sample of saturated salt solution (2) evaporate the water from the solution and find the mass of
the salt (3) compute the mass of water in the original sample of solution (4) compute the solubility of the
salt (g NaCl / 100 g H2O)
Procedure:
1. Pour approximately 20 mL of saturated salt solution into a 25 mL graduated cylinder. Measure the
temperature of the solution and record it in Table 16.6. Obtain a clean, dry evaporating dish and a watch
glass large enough to cover the dish. Find the mass of the dish and watch glass to the nearest 0.01 g.
Record. Pour the salt solution into the dish. Measure the mass of the dish, watch glass, and solution to
the nearest 0.01 g. Record.
Tabl e 16. 6
Solubility of NaCl
1. Temperature of Solution _________
o
C
2. Mass of dish and watch glass _________ g
3. Mass of dish + watch glass + _________ g
solution (before heating)
4. Mass of dish + watch glass + residue _________ g
(after heating)
5. Mass of NaCl residue [4 – 2] _________ g
6. Mass of H2O in solution [3 – 4] _________ g
(Use the data from 5 and 6 above for calculations below.)
7. Solubility of NaCl = ____________ g NaCl / 100 g H2O
2. Mount an iron ring on a ring stand and
place a wire gauze with ceramic center on
the ring. Adjust the height of the ring so
that your burner flame will nearly touch the
bottom of the wire gauze. Place the dish
on the wire gauze with the watch glass
serving as a lid. Wear safety glasses!
3. Heat the solution being careful not to
allow it to boil too vigorously. Heating for
about 10 to 15 minutes should evaporate
all the water including any water on the
underside of the watch glass. When the
contents of the dish are completely dry,
allow it to cool and then determine the
mass of the dish, contents, and watch
glass. Record the data in Table 16.6, and
calculate the solubility of the salt (in g NaCl /
100 g H2O) from your collected data.
16-14 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
Complete the partial "fencepost" provided below to calculate the solubility of NaCl:

g NaCl / 100 g H2O

g NaCl
g H
2
O
X 100. g H
2
O =
The accepted value for the solubility of NaCl at 20
o
C is 35.9 g NaCl / 100 g H2O. Calculate your
percentage error. The formula for percentage error can be found in your reference notebook. Show work:
% Error = _____________
You should be able to achieve 5% error or less on this activity. How does your calculated (observed)
solubility compare to the accepted (A) value? ____________________________________________
How do you account for any excess error? ______________________________________________
Supersaturation
The solution you used in activity 16.8 was saturated. That is, the solvent was "holding" all of the
solute that it could, meaning that all of the solvent molecules were used to surround the solute particles
and keep them apart so that they could not come together to form crystals. It is possible for a solution to
be supersaturated. But what does this mean? How can a solvent hold more solute than it does when the
solution is saturated? Well, the theory goes like this. When the solution is saturated, all of the solvent
molecules are bonded to solute particles. Notice the solute–solvent clusters. Although all of the solvent
molecules are already used, it is possible for some solute particles to get trapped between the
solute–solvent clusters. Thus, the clusters rather than solvent molecules can serve to keep these
trapped solute particles apart and, therefore, in solution.
solvent molecule
solute particle
dissolved solute particle
Figure 16.8 Depiction of a Supersaturated Solution
undissolved solute
particles
Supersaturated solutions must be very carefully prepared. You should first prepare a saturated
solution which contains excess solute on the bottom of the container. If the solute is a solid and the
solvent is a liquid, then heating the saturated solution will cause more of the solute to dissolve, because
solubility increases as temperature increases (for most solids). Then allow the solution to cool slowly. Any
unnecessary agitation may cause the excess solute particles to crystallize. After the solution cools, it will
be supersaturated if some excess solute stays in solution.
16-15 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
ACTIVITY 16.9 Making a Supersaturated Solution
---> ---> ---> A Teacher Demonstration <--- <--- <---
Your teacher will follow the procedure below. The supersaturated solution you will see contains
sodium acetate (NaC2H3O2) as the solute and water as the solvent.
Procedure:
1. Obtain from the materials shelf a large stoppered test tube containing a saturated solution of sodium
acetate. You will see some excess solid solute lying on the bottom of the tube below the solution. Set up
a hot water bath using a 250 mL beaker about half full of water. Remove the stopper from the tube and
place it in the bath. Allow the water to boil and add water to the beaker if needed to keep it about half full.
Stir the solution occasionally, and continue heating until all of the solid solute has dissolved. Carefully
remove the tube from the bath, replace the stopper, and place it upright in your lab drawer until the next
day (or whenever your class meets again). The process of making the supersaturated solution was
endothermic, which means that heat was put into the system.
2. Carefully remove the cool supersaturated solution from your lab drawer. If you see solid solute in the
tube, then the solution failed to become supersaturated and you should repeat the activity from the
beginning. If it is supersaturated, obtain a small crystal of solid sodium acetate from the materials shelf.
Carefully remove the stopper from the tube and drop the crystal into the solution. Watch what happens!
As the excess solute crystallizes out of the solution, note the temperature change of the contents of the
tube by touching it with your hand.
How is the temperature of the solution changing? _________________________________________
The heat being evolved is a result of bonds forming between the excess solute particles as they form
crystals. Heat is added to break bonds, so heat is given off when bonds form. The heat in this case is
known as the heat of crystallization. When heat is released by a system, the change is said to be
exothermic.
3. Return the stoppered tube of solution to the materials shelf. It can be reused many times.
Endothermic processes absorb heat from the surroundings.
Exothermic processes release heat to the surroundings.
ACTIVITY 16.10 Developing a Solubility Curve for NH
4
Cl
It was briefly mentioned that the solubility of a substance is dependent on temperature. Earlier in
this chapter, you determined the solubility of NaCl at room temperature. Now you are going to determine
the solubility of a solid (ammonium chloride, NH4Cl) at several different temperatures. (You will need to
obtain data form other lab groups which are also doing this activity.) In order to do this, you must
determine the mass of the salt, add a known volume of water, and then find the temperature at which this
solution becomes saturated. If a solution is heated until the solid dissolves completely and is then allowed
to cool, the solid will begin to crystallize out at the temperature where the solution is saturated. Follow the
procedure below, and record your measurements in Table 16.7.
1. Prepare a hot water bath by heating a 400 or 600 mL beaker about one-half full of tap water. See
Figure 16.9. To shorten the time required, use a large burner if you have one.
16-16 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
2. Different lab groups in your class will be using different amounts of ammonium chloride. Ask your
instructor whether your group should use 4.00 g, 4.50 g, 5.00 g, or 5.50 g. Put the NH4Cl into a large (25
X 200 mm) test tube.
Fi gure 16. 9
Making a Supersaturated Solution
3. Add 10.0 mL of water to the test tube and put it into the
hot water bath. Bring the water in the beaker to a boil.
4. Using the thermometer, carefully stir the contents of the
test tube while it is being heated. Continue the heating until
all of the solid has dissolved. (Due to the high concentration,
it may look somewhat translucent.)
5. When all of the solid has dissolved, first place a
thermometer in the solution, wait about 15 seconds, and
then remove the tube from the hot water.
6. While stirring, observe the tube as the solution cools.
Record the temperature when crystals start to form, giving
the impression of "snowing" in the tube. You can speed up
the cooling process by allowing tap water to run over the
outside of the tube, or by dipping the tube into a beaker of
cool tap water.) You will know when it is snowing, because
the solute will be rapidly piling up on the bottom of the tube.
7. Repeat steps 4 through 6 two more times and record the
data. Average the three temperatures. (If one value is not
close to the other two, discard it, and average the two close
ones.) If another lab group in your class worked with the
same amount of NH4Cl, obtain their temperatures and
average them with your own.
8. Obtain average temperature values from the other lab groups in your class which worked with each of
the three other amounts of ammonium chloride. Use the data to complete Table 16.7.
9. Calculate the solubility (in grams NH4Cl per 100 g H2O) of NH4Cl at each of the four temperatures which
you recorded. Let's suppose for example, that the 4.00 g sample formed crystals at 21
o
C. Then the
solubility of NH4Cl at 21
o
C is 4.00 g NH4Cl / 10.0 mL H2O. Finally, convert this to 40.0 g NH4Cl / 100 g H2O
at 21
o
C.
10. On the grid which follows Table 16.7, prepare a "solubility curve" of NH4Cl versus temperature in
o
C.
Plot solubility along the "Y" axis and temperature along the "X" axis. Plot four points and draw the best
smooth curve that you can. Remember, the best curve may not actually pass through each plotted point.
Include a title below the graph. Select suitable scales so that you use all or most of the grid.
Conclusion:
What does your graph indicate about the relationship between the solubility of NH4Cl and temperature?__
______________________________________________________________________________
Is this a direct or inverse relationship? ______________________
16-17 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
Tabl e 16. 7
Solubility versus Temperature
1st Temp 2nd Temp 3rd Temp Average
Mass NH4Cl used: __________g ________ ________ ________ ________
Mass of Sample Crystallization Temperature Solubility (g /100 g H2O)
4.00 g __________
o
C _________________
4.50 g __________
o
C _________________
5.00 g __________
o
C _________________
5.50 g __________
o
C _________________
SECTION 16.11 Learning Outcomes
This is the end of chapter 16 and the first part of your study of solutions. Read the learning
outcomes below, and be sure you have mastered them before moving on. Take any test or quizzes on
chapter 16, and then resume your study of solutions with chapter 17.
_____1. Predict whether a molecule is polar or nonpolar based on its geometry (shape) and its formula.
_____2. Define the relationship between polarity and solubility of solute / solvent combinations.
_____3. Define solute, solvent, solution, saturated solution, supersaturated solution and solubility.
_____4. Calculate the solubility of a solute, given the needed data.
_____5. Explain the phenomena of saturated and supersaturated solutions.
_____6. Describe and explain the effect of temperature on the solubility of most solids in liquid solvents.
16-18 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
SECTION 16.12 Answers to Questions and Problems
Questions:
{1} mixture; {2} alcohol; {3} no; {4} no; {5} yes; {6} yes; {7} 0.8; {8} no; {9} 2.5; {10} no; {11} 1.0; {12} no;
{13} 1.4; {14} yes; {15} It must be nonpolar; {16} NaBr; {17} Ag2S
Problems:
B
H
Br
Br
∂ +
∂–
C
Br
Cl Cl
∂ +
∂–
Br
1.
Cl2 linear no no no
HCl linear yes yes yes
BBr3 trigonal planar no yes no
AlF3 trigonal planar no no (ionic) no
BeI2 linear no yes no
H2O bent yes yes yes
CF4 tetrahedral no yes no
NH3 pyramidal yes yes yes
BHBr2 trigonal planar yes yes yes
CF2Br2 tetrahedral yes yes yes
2.
(answers are continued on the next page)
16-19 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
∂ +
∂–
C
H
H
H
∂ +
∂–
F
CFH3 tetrahedral polar
LiI Li I ∂ + ∂– linear polar
PCl3
P
Cl
Cl
Cl
pyramidal polar
GaH3
∂+
∂ –
Ga
H
H
H
trigonal planar nonpolar
CH2Cl2
C
H
H Cl
∂ +
∂–
Cl
tetrahedral polar
H2S
S
H H
bent polar
3.
4. 9.20 g Ba(NO3)2 / 100 g H2O
5. 68.5 g NaBr / 100 g H2O
6. 1.3 X 10
-16
g Ag2S / 100 g H2O
7. 0.149 L H2O
16-20 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
NAME____________________________________ PER____________ DATE DUE____________
ACTIVE LEARNING I N CHEMISTRY EDUCATION
"ALICE"
CHAPTER 17
SOLUTIONS
(PART 2)

17-1 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
NOTICE OF RIGHTS
All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form by any means,
electronic, mechanical, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the author.
Copies of this document may be made free of charge for use in public or nonprofit private educational
institutions provided that permission is obtained from the author . Please indicate the name and address
of the institution where use is anticipated.
© 1997 A.J. Girondi, Ph.D.
505 Latshmere Drive
Harrisburg, PA 17109
alicechem@geocities.com
Website: www.geocities.com/Athens/Oracle/2041
17-2 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
SECTION 17.1 Molarity
Solutions are classified on the basis of the relative amounts of the solute and solvent present. In
Chapter 16 solutions were classified as unsaturated, saturated, or supersaturated. In a saturated solution,
a maximum amount of solute is dissolved in a solvent. If a comparatively large amount of solute is present
for a given amount of solvent, the solution is described as being concentrated. If only a small amount of
solute is present, the solution is described as {1}______________.
There is a definite need to be more precise in specifying the amounts of solutes in solutions,
rather than using terms like concentrated or dilute. This is needed because there are an infinite number of
in-between combinations of amounts of solute and solvent. In quantitative work involving solutions, a
number of different units are commonly used to express concentration. In this chapter, we will discuss
only the most commonly used method of expressing concentration: molarity. (In Appendix C, molality,
which is another method of expressing concentration is defined and used.) The concentration of a
solution tells us how much solute it contains relative to the amount of solvent.
The molarity of a solution indicates the number
of moles of solute present in one liter of solution.
Note that this definition refers to one liter of solution, not one liter of
water. Molarity has units of moles of solute over liters of solution.

Molarity =
moles of solute
liters of solution
A capital letter M is the abbreviation for molarity. A 1M solution (one
molar solution) of NaCl contains 1 mole of NaCl dissolved in 1 liter of solution
(NaCl and water combined). One mole of NaCl has a mass of 58.4 grams (using
atomic masses from the periodic table). A 1M solution of NaCl is prepared by
dissolving 58.4 grams of NaCl in enough water to make 1 liter of solution. How
do you know how much water is needed to make 1 liter of solution? Chemists
frequently use volumetric flasks for this purpose. These are flasks that have a
special mark on their necks indicating the 1 liter point (flasks which measure
volumes other than 1 liter are also available). You simply put the solute in the
flask, and add enough water to make one liter of solution.
Fi gure 17. 1
Volumetric Flask
You will now be learning how to do two kinds of problems involving
molarity. The first type requires that you calculate the molarity of a solution,
given the needed information. The second type requires that you use the
molarity of a solution to calculate some other unknown. Study the examples
on the next page.
Sample Problem: A solution contains 40.2 grams of NaCl dissolved in 350 mL of solution. Calculate
the molarity.

? ? ? ? =
moles of NaCl
liters of solution
The units for molarity are moles solute per liter of solution. Molarity itself is
"derived" unit; this means it is actually derived from other simpler units.
Molarity is the name of a unit ratio. The term "molarity" itself cannot,
therefore, be used in dimensional analysis. So before you set up the
problem to do dimensional analysis, look at the ratio you want to end up
with:
Since we want an answer with information about solute in the numerator and information about
solution in the denominator, let's start the problem by putting the information given about solute in the
numerator and the information given about solution in the denominator of a ratio:
17-3 ©1997, A.J. Girondi

40.2 g NaCl
350 mL sol'n
X ? ? ? ? X ? ? ? ? =
? moles NaCl
liters sol'n
So, you can see that "g NaCl" has to be changed to "moles NaCl," and "mL solution" has to be changed to
"liters of solution." (Solution may be abbreviated as "sol'n.") Finish this problem in the space below.
Show the whole fencepost. See if you get the answer given below.
Answer = 2.0 M
As you solve the next two problems, remember that molarity (M) means moles of solute divided by
liters of solution. Thus, when all units have canceled, you should be left with "moles solute / liters
solution."
Problem 1. Calculate the molarity of a solution made from dissolving 328 grams of calcium nitrate,
Ca(NO3)2, in 500. mL of solution.
__________ M
Problem 2. What is the molarity of a solution made by dissolving 2.00 g of Fe2(SO4)3 in 50.0 mL of
solution?
__________ M
In the second type of problem, you actually use molarity which is part of the information given.
Here's an example:
Sample Problem: How many grams of NaCl are needed to prepare 0.46 liters of a 0.25 M solution?
The 0.25 M given in the problem really means 0.25 moles NaCl / 1 L sol'n. Remember that since
molarity is a derived unit, you can never use "molarity" or "M" in your problem-solving set-up. You must,
instead, express molarity as moles solute / liters of solution. We will need to use this ratio in the fencepost
somewhere. We want to end up with "g NaCl," so let's begin with 0.46 L of solution.
0.46 L sol'n X ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? = ? g NaCl
17-4 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
We can use the molarity ratio to change L sol'n to moles NaCl:

0.46 L sol'n X
0.25 moles NaCl
1 L sol'n
X ? ? ? ? ? = 6.7 g NaCl
We still need one more ratio to complete the fencepost. We need the formula mass of NaCl to change
"moles NaCl" to "g NaCl." Complete the set-up below and calculate the answer. See if your answer
agrees with that given.

0.46 L sol'n X
0.25 moles NaCl
1 L sol'n
X = 6.7 g NaCl
Do your answers to the two sample problems above agree with the answers given? ______________.
Let's try one more variation:
Sample Problem: How many mL of 0.500 M solution can be made using 65.0 g of KMnO4?
Let's first rewrite 0.500 M as "0.500 mole KMnO4 / 1 L sol'n." We are looking for mL of solution so
let's begin the fencepost with 65.0 g KMnO4.
Note that three conversion ratios need to be used in the following set-up. Complete the set-up
for the following problem and see if you get the same answer as that given.

65.0 g KMnO
4
X X
1 L sol'n
0.500 moles KMnO
4
X = 823 mL sol 'n
Now, try the problems below. Show all work and use complete units on all numbers.
Problem 3. Calculate the number of grams of citric acid, C6H8O7, needed to make 2500. mL of 0.400 M
solution.
_________ g C6H8O7
Problem 4. If you wish to prepare a 0.500 M solution using 133.75 g of CaCl2, how many liters of
solution can be made?
________ L Solution
17-5 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
Problem 5. How many grams of NaOH would you have to dissolve in 250. mL of solution to make a
0.500 M solution?
__________ g NaOH

Remember that molarity (M) means:
moles solute
liters solution
Problem 6. Now, perform the necessary calculations to complete Table 17.1 below. See if you can find
a way to use the information given to find that which is not given. Show your calculations in the space
below the table.
Tabl e 17. 1
Review Problems Involving Molarity

Solute Grams NaNO3 Moles NaNO3 Liters Sol'n Molarity
NaNO3 25 __________ __________ ___1.2____
NaNO3 __________ __________ 16 0.023
Calculations:
17-6 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
Problems 7 through 10 below are optional. If you feel you need more practice you can do them on scratch
paper.
Problem 7. Calculate the number of grams of NaCl needed to make 100. mL of a 3.00 M solution.
Problem 8. What would be the molar concentration (M) of a solution containing 3.31 g of Pb(NO3)2 in a
total volume of 500. mL of solution?
Problem 9. How many liters of 3.00 M solution can be made using 210. grams of NH4OH (ammonium
hydroxide)?
Problem 10. If a solution is made by adding 125 grams of BaSO4 to enough water to make 750. mL of
solution, what is the molarity (M) of this solution?

ACTIVITY 17.2 Making and Using A 0.10 Molar Solution
In this activity, you will be preparing and using a 0.10 M solution of lead nitrate. You will be
attempting to experimentally obtain the data needed to determine the mole ratio in the reaction between
potassium chromate and lead nitrate:
?? K2CrO4(aq) + ?? Pb(NO3)2(aq) --------> ?? PbCrO4(s) + ?? KNO3(aq)
In the space below, write the balanced equation for this reaction:
_________________________------->___________________________
You will begin this activity by making the 0.10 M solution of Pb(NO3)2. Then you will react it with an excess
amount of solid K2CrO4. An excess will be used to insure that all of the Pb(NO3)2 solution is consumed. If
you make the 0.10 M Pb(NO3)2 solution accurately, and follow the procedure using good lab techniques,
you should obtain the correct result.
Procedure:
1. Obtain a 100 mL volumetric flask and rinse it with distilled water.
2. Determine the precise amount of Pb(NO3)2 in grams needed to make 100.0 mL of 0.10 M Pb(NO3)2
solution. Show your calculations in the space below, and have them verified by your instructor.
3. Obtain the amount of Pb(NO3)2 determined in step 2 above. Caution: Pb(NO3)2 is a toxic substance.
4. Add the Pb(NO3)2 crystals to the flask and fill the flask with distilled water to the mark on its neck.
5. Stopper the flask and invert it again and again until all of the crystals have dissolved.
6. Obtain a clean dry 150 mL beaker and label it with your name. Determine the mass of the labeled
beaker. Record the beaker's mass in Table 17.2.
Caution: do not allow K2CrO4 to come into contact with your skin or clothing.
7. With the beaker still on the electronic balance, tare out the mass of the beaker. Add potassium
17-7 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
chromate, K2CrO4, crystals to the beaker until you have between 0.7 and 0.8 gram. You do not need to
record the mass of K2CrO4 since we are using an excessive amount.
8. Add about 40 mL of distilled water to the K2CrO4 crystals in the beaker and stir until they have
dissolved.
9. Rinse a 50 mL graduated cylinder with distilled water. Use it to measure out exactly 50.0 mL of your
0.10 M Pb(NO3)2 solution. The remaining Pb(NO3)2 solution should not be poured into the sink. Pour
it into the container provided by your instructor.
10. Obtain a ring stand and set up the equipment needed to heat the beaker of K2CrO4 solution. When
the K2CrO4 solution in the beaker is hot (do not allow it to boil yet), slowly add the Pb(NO3)2 solution as
you continuously stir the mixture. Note the formation of the yellow precipitate, PbCrO4.
11. Again heat the mixture in the beaker – almost to the boiling point of the liquid – while stirring, then stop
heating.
12. Accurately weigh a piece of filter paper. Record its mass in Table 17.2. Fold it into a cone, place it into
a funnel, wet the paper with distilled water, and press it snugly against the wall of the funnel using your
thumbs. Mount the funnel properly on a ring stand.
13. Using beaker tongs to handle the hot beaker, separate as much of the the liquid in the beaker as
possible from the precipitate by carefully decanting the liquid along a stirring rod into the funnel, while
keeping as much of the precipitate as possible in the beaker.
14. Wash the lead chromate precipitate by squirting it with some distilled water (roughly 25 mL) from your
wash bottle. Allow any suspended precipitate to settle, and decant the wash water into the funnel.
Repeat the washing one more time.
15. Remove the filter paper cone and place it into the labeled beaker which contains the precipitate.
16. Place the beaker and its contents into a warm (not hot) oven to dry until the next day.
17. Determine the mass of the beaker and its dried contents. Record this mass in Table 17.2.
18. Give your precipitate to your instructor for proper disposal. Clean and return all equipment to the
proper places.
19. Calculate the mass of PbCrO4 precipitate formed by subtracting the mass of the filter paper and beaker
from the total mass. Enter the result into Table 17.2.
Tabl e 17. 2
The Potassium Chromate – Lead Nitrate Reaction

mass of filter paper __________ g
mass of labeled beaker __________ g
mass of beaker + filter paper + precipitate __________ g
mass of solid PbCrO4 (by subtraction) __________ g
17-8 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
20. Convert the mass of PbCrO4 obtained to moles. Show work below.
___________moles PbCrO4
21. In this activity, you used 50.0 mL of a 0.10 M Pb(NO3)2 solution which you prepared. Using this data,
calculate the number of moles of Pb(NO3)2 which were actually used.
___________moles Pb(NO3)2
22. Obtain a simple whole number ratio of moles of PbCrO4 to moles of Pb(NO3)2. Do this by dividing the
number of moles of each substance (steps 20 and 21 above) by the smallest of the two values. Round
the ratio obtained to whole numbers.
Whole number ratio of Pb(NO3)2 to PbCrO4: ________ to ________
23. Use the whole number ratio obtained, to balance the equation below:
?? K2CrO4(aq) + _____ Pb(NO3)2(aq) --------> _____PbCrO4(s) + ?? KNO3(aq)
Now, add the other coefficients needed to complete the balancing:
_____K2CrO4(aq) + _____Pb(NO3)2(aq) --------> _____PbCrO4(s) + _____KNO3(aq)
Do your results yield a correctly balanced equation? _______________________________________
If not, what do you think was your primary source of error?____________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
Based on your results, is it your opinion that you correctly prepared the 0.1 M Pb(NO3)2 solution which
was used?__________ Why?_______________________________________________________
17-9 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
SECTION 17.3 How a Solute Affects the Freezing Point of a Solvent
Pure water freezes at 0
o
C. Ever wonder why it freezes at this temperature? There are attractive
forces which exist between water molecules. These attractive forces are strong enough to make water a
liquid rather than a gas at room temperature. Remember that temperature is a measure of the average
kinetic energy (energy of motion) of the molecules. As temperature falls and molecules have less and less
kinetic energy, eventually there comes a point when the attractive forces cause the water molecules to
assume a fixed position and the water becomes a solid. This happens at 0
o
C. However, dissolving
something in the water will lower the temperature at which the water freezes. To understand why this
happens, examine Figure 17.2 below. When solute molecules are present in the water, they help to
separate the water molecules and to weaken the forces of attraction which exist between the water
molecules. In addition, there are forces of attraction between the solute molecules and the water
molecules. In order for the water molecules to freeze, they must now lose more kinetic energy (the
temperature must get lower) so that their forces of attraction are strengthened. In this way, the water
molecules can "push" the solvent molecules out of the way and then freeze as pure water. If the number
of solute molecules in the solution is increased, then the temperature of the water must be lowered even
more in order to make it freeze. Thus, as the concentration of a solution increases, the freezing point of
the solvent in it decreases.
= solvent molecule
= solute molecule
a pure liquid
solvent
a water solution
with solute
molecules found
between the
solvent molecules
Fi gure 17. 2
Pure Solvent vs. Solution
The water in a salt-water solution will not freeze at 0
o
C. If, however, you were to lower the temperature of a
salt water solution sufficiently, eventually the water would freeze. Technically, the solution does not
freeze; only the solvent does.
SECTION 17.4 How a Solute Affects the Boiling Point of a Solvent
You have just learned that a solute lowers the freezing point of a solvent. The effect of the solute
on the boiling point of the solvent is just the opposite. A solute raises the boiling point of a solvent. To
understand this phenomenon, we must examine the concept of vapor pressure. Suppose that you have
two half-full but closed containers. One contains a pure solvent like water, while the other contains a
solution such as sugar water. Assume that both containers are at the same temperature. (See Figure
17.3.) In both containers some of the water evaporates and, therefore, some water vapor is present in the
space above the liquids. However, as shown in Figure 17.3, the container with the solution contains less
vapor than the one with the pure solvent. Hmmmm. Wonder why.
The molecules in the container of pure solvent are attracted to each other. However, the
molecules of water in the solution are not only attracted to each other, but they are also attracted to the
molecules of solute. Therefore, the molecules of solvent in the solution require more energy to escape
17-10 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
from the solution and enter the vapor phase. Not all of the solvent molecules in these containers have the
same amount of kinetic energy. Remember, temperature is an average. Since only a small fraction of the
molecules in the solution have enough kinetic energy to break these forces of attraction, fewer of them
can enter the vapor phase.
more vapor
pure liquid
less vapor
solution
= solvent molecule
= solute molecule
Fi gure 17. 3
Effect of Solute on Vaporization of Solvent
(lower pressure)
(higher pressure)
Some of the vaporized water molecules will collide with the surface of the liquid and will be recaptured
(condensed) into the liquid phase. At a given temperature, an equilibrium will be established in which the
molecules are vaporizing and condensing at equal rates. At this point the number of molecules in the
vapor phase will be constant. Remember that vapors exert pressure on the walls of their containers. Since
the space above the solution contains less vapor than that above the pure water, the pressure exerted by
the vapor above the solution will be less than the pressure of the vapor above the pure water. Thus, we
can say that dissolving something in a solvent tends to {2}________________ the vapor pressure of the
solvent in closed systems like those shown in Figure 17.3. Now, how does all this relate to the boiling
point of the solvent? What is the effect of a solute on the boiling point of a solvent like water? To answer
these questions, let's pursue the concept of vapor pressure a little more.
Suppose we have two half-full containers of pure water. One is at 20
o
C and the other is at 30
o
C.
The water molecules at 30
o
C have more kinetic energy than those at 20
o
C. Therefore, more of the water
molecules at 30
o
C have enough energy to enter the vapor phase, and there will be more vapor in the
container at 30
o
C. More vapor means more pressure. So, the vapor pressure of water is greater at 30
o
C
than at 20
o
C. As temperature increases, so does vapor pressure. This is illustrated in Figure 17.4. We
can also illustrate this relationship between temperature and vapor pressure by means of a graph. The
graph is found in Figure 17.5.
O.K., let's review a couple of important things that we just learned. (1) Dissolving a solute in a
solvent lowers the vapor pressure of the {3}_______________; (2) Temperature and vapor pressure are
directly proportional - as one increases, the other {4}_________________. Now, let's put both of these
observations together. Note that there are two curves plotted on the graph in Figure 17.6. Note that for
both pure water and salt water, vapor pressure increases as temperature goes up; however, also notice
that at any given temperature the vapor pressure of salt water is lower than that of pure water. A liquid in an
open container normally boils when its vapor pressure equals atmospheric pressure. If we assume that we
have an average day and that we are at sea level, then atmospheric pressure is 760 mm Hg. Thus, when
the vapor pressure of water reaches 760 mm Hg, it will boil. Notice on Figure 17.6 that the vapor pressure
of water reaches atmospheric pressure at 100
o
C. However, since solutes like salt or sugar lower the vapor
pressure of a solvent like water, notice that for the salt water solution the vapor pressure of water does not
reach atmospheric pressure until the temperature is above 100
o
C. Thus, dissolving a solute like salt in
water has the effect of {5}_________________ the boiling temperature. Salt water boils at a
{6}__________________ temperature than pure water.
17-11 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
= solvent molecule
Fi gure 17. 4
Effect of Temperature on Vapor Pressure
less vapor
(lower pressure)
more vapor
(higher pressure)
20
o
C 30
o
C
760
mm Hg
P
Temp (
o
C)
100
o
C
Fi gure 17. 5
Vapor Pressure of Water vs. Temperature
20
o
C 30
o
C
760
0
pure water
salt water
100 102 Temperature (
o
C)
Vapor
Pressure
(mm Hg)
Fi gure 17. 6
Vapor Pressure of Pure Water vs. Salt Water
17-12 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
We have learned that dissolving a solute in a solvent lowers the freezing point of the solvent and
raises its boiling point. This is why we dissolve antifreeze in the water in the radiators of our cars. The
antifreeze not only helps to prevent winter freeze-up, but it also helps to prevent the water from boiling
over in the summer!
ACTIVITY 17.5 The Freezing and Boiling Points of Salt Water
Procedure:
1. Get a bottle of saturated salt (NaCl) solution and a thermometer from the materials shelf. Now, measure
the boiling temperature by heating about 50 to 100 mL of the salt solution in a small beaker. Do not
discard the saltwater after it boils. It can be used again, so let it cool and then return it to its container. At
what temperature did the solution boil vigorously?________
o
C. This phenomenon is known as boiling
point elevation.
2. To measure the freezing point of saturated saltwater, get another sample of the solution - about 150
mL. Add 3 or 4 crushed ice cubes to the solution. Continuously stir the solution. Record the lowest
temperature attained by the solution. It should level off; if it doesn't, add more crushed ice. This lowest
temperature represents the freezing point of water when it is saturated with NaCl. What is the freezing
point of the salt solution? __________ Were the predictions you made above correct?________
Di scard this salt solution (since you diluted it with ice, it will not be reused).
ACTIVITY 17.6 The Relationship Between Boiling Point and Pressure
-> -> -> Teacher Demonstration <- <- <-
In the last section you learned that a liquid boils when its vapor pressure equals the pressure
above the liquid (usually atmospheric pressure). What would happen to the boiling point if we would lower
the pressure above a liquid? Well, lets take a look at Figure 17.7.
760 mm Hg
0
100oC Temperature
Vapor
Pressure
(mm Hg)
Fi gure 17. 7
Effect of Pressure on the Boiling Point of Water
25oC
24 mm Hg
boiling point is 25
o
C at
24 mm Hg pressure
normal boiling point is 100
o
C
at atmospheric pressure
17-13 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
Room temperature is usually about 25
o
C. As shown in Figure 17.7, if we could lower the pressure above
water to 24 mm Hg, then the vapor pressure of the water would equal the pressure above the water (24
mm Hg) at only 25
o
C or room temperature. This means that water should boil at room temperature if we
can lower the pressure above it to 24mm Hg!
Let's give it a try. Your teacher will place a small beaker of water under a bell jar on a vacuum pump.
When the pump is turned on, the pressure above the water will be reduced until the water boils. You
should note the temperature of the water before and after the pressure has been reduced.
Thermometer
Pressure Gauge
Vacuum Pump
Glass Bell Jar
Beaker of Water
Fi gure 17. 8
Measuring Temperature vs. Pressure
Remember that the water molecules in the beaker contain kinetic energy. Some have more than others. If
the pressure exerted by the air molecules is high, then very few molecules of water in the beaker at 25
o
C
have enough kinetic energy to escape into the vapor phase. This is why water does evaporate at room
temperature, but only very slowly. However, if the pressure of the air above the water is decreased, then a
much higher percentage of the water molecules in the beaker will have enough energy to escape. The
evaporation will be very rapid. We call it boiling. Thus, water can be made to boil by heating it (giving the
water molecules more kinetic energy) or by reducing the pressure above it (see Figure 17.9).
high air pressure
water
bubble
containing
vapor
cannot
overcome
air
pressure
low air pressure
water
bubble
containing
vapor bursts
and vapor
escapes
25
o
C 25
o
C
Fi gure 17. 9
Behavior of Water at High and Low Pressure
17-14 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
SECTION 17.7 Phase Changes in Pure and Impure Substances
Now, let's take a closer look at the effect of a solute on the properties of a solvent. Recall from
Chapter 3 that the warming and cooling curves of pure substances have plateaus where the phase
changes are occurring. In a pure substance, phase changes occur at constant (unchanging)
temperatures. This is not the case for impure substances. Look at Figures 17.10 and 17.11.

melting
boiling
Temp
o
C
100
0
Time
Fi gure 17. 10
Warming Curve of a Pure Substance
Temp
o
C
100
0
Time
Fi gure 17. 11
Warming Curve of an Impure Substance
boiling
melting
How are the two warming curves similar to each other?
How are the two warming curves different?
You may wonder why the phase changes (melting and boiling) of a pure substance occur at
constant temperatures. Remember that temperature is a measure of the kinetic energy (energy of motion)
17-15 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
of molecules. As you heat or cool a substance, the molecules are changing their rate of motion. However,
during a phase change it is the position of the molecules that is changing, not the rate of motion. During
boiling, the molecules are moving farther apart. Their {7}_________________ energy (energy of
position) is changing. During freezing, the molecules are changing position and losing potential energy.
Temperature is not affected by changes in {8}___________________ energy; thus, a plateau is seen
during phase changes.
In the winter, rock salt is often placed on icy streets and sidewalks. Propose a reason for this practice,
including some of the principles you have just learned. {9}
SECTION 17.8 Suspensions
Up to this point, all of the solutions that have been described have consisted of soluble
substances dissolved in a solvent. The individual solute molecules in these solutions move apart and
become uniformly (homogeneously) distributed throughout the solvent molecules. The existence of
individual solute molecules in the solvent makes this a true solution. If finely divided clay is mixed with
water and allowed to stand, the particles will slowly settle to the bottom. Because the clay particles are
insoluble in the solvent and are much larger than individual molecules, they can reflect light and make the
mixture appear cloudy. This type of mixture is called a suspension.
Some mixtures of insoluble substances have particles so small that they will not settle out on
standing. Such suspensions are known as colloids or colloidal suspensions. Colloidal suspensions may
be classified using terms which are similar to those which describe true solutions. Instead of solute and
solvent, the suspended particles are called the dispersed phase, and the liquid in which they are
dispersed is called the dispersion medium. Collisions between these tiny particles and those of the
dispersion medium keep the tiny particles suspended. Nevertheless, the suspended particles in colloids
consist of small "bundles" of molecules, not individual molecules (as in a true solution).
Fi gure 17. 12
Components of a Suspension
particle
clusters
dispersion
medium
Some mixtures of insoluble substances have particles so small that they will not settle out on
standing. Such suspensions are known as colloids or colloidal suspensions. Colloidal suspensions may
be classified using terms which are similar to those which describe true solutions. Instead of solute and
17-16 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
solvent, the suspended particles are called the dispersed phase, and the liquid in which they are
dispersed is called the dispersion medium. Collisions between these tiny particles and those of the
dispersion medium keep the tiny particles suspended. Nevertheless, the suspended particles in colloids
consist of small "bundles" of molecules, not individual molecules (as in a true solution).
Some mixtures of insoluble substances have particles so small that they will not settle out on
standing. Such suspensions are known as colloids or colloidal suspensions. Colloidal suspensions may
be classified using terms which are similar to those which describe true solutions. Instead of solute and
solvent, the suspended particles are called the dispersed phase, and the liquid in which they are
dispersed is called the dispersion medium. Collisions between these tiny particles and those of the
dispersion medium keep the tiny particles suspended. Nevertheless, the suspended particles in colloids
consist of small "bundles" of molecules, not individual molecules (as in a true solution).
The term colloid comes from a Greek word meaning "glue." The word was first used to
characterize the glue-like solutions formed when large organic (carbon-containing) molecules - such as
starch or gelatin - were dispersed in water. The colloidal phenomenon plays an important role in numerous
industrial processes. Colloids are used in the production of rubber products, inks, leather, and
photographic materials. The detergent action of soaps and the action of lubricants all involve the
application of colloidal principles.
It is relatively easy to distinguish between a colloidal dispersion and an ordinary suspension. If an
ordinary suspension is shaken, it will become turbid and opaque. The suspension particles settle rapidly
and can be removed by filtration. A colloidal dispersion is generally transparent or translucent and particles
are too small to be removed by filtration. Colloidal particles are extremely small, and they may reflect so
little light that the colloidal suspension may look clear, like a true solution, when viewed with natural light.
(True solutions look clear because the individual molecules of solute, and the solute–solvent clusters, are
too small to reflect light.)
SECTION 17.9 Colloidal Systems
A general classification of colloidal systems depends on the physical state of the dispersed phase
relative to the dispersion medium. The most common systems are known as sols, gels, aerosols, and
emulsions. A sol is a colloidal "solution" that exists as a liquid at room temperature, with water as the
continuous phase and a solid as the discontinuous phase. A gel is a similar colloidal dispersion that is a
solid at room temperature. Jello brand dessert is an example of a gel. An aerosol is a colloidal system in
which either a solid or a liquid is dispersed in a gas. Smoke is an example of an aerosol. Milk is an emulsion
consisting of a liquid (butter fat) dispersed in a liquid (water). A foam consists of a gas which is dispersed
through a liquid such as whipped cream or a solid such a pumice stone. Table 17.4 lists examples of
various types of colloids and the phases of the dispersed phase and the dispersion medium.
Tabl e 17. 4
Types and Examples of Colloids
Name Dispersed Dispersion Example Comment
Phase Medium
gel solid liquid jello solid at room temp.
sol solid liquid ink liquid at room temp.
aerosol solid gas smoke, dust
aerosol liquid gas fog, mist
emulsion liquid liquid mayonnaise
foam gas liquid whipped cream
foam gas solid pumice
17-17 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
ACTIVITY 17.10 A Laser–Aided Look at a Colloidal Suspension
-> -> -> Teacher Demonstration <- <- <-
There is a simple test that can be performed to distinguish between true solutions and colloidal
dispersions. It has to do with the way in which a beam of light passes through each of these two types of
solutions. The phenomenon is called the Tyndall effect.
Get the bottles labeled 17.8 from the materials shelf - one contains a true solution, one contains
an ordinary suspension, and the third contains a colloidal dispersion. They have been numbered 1, 2,
and 3 - but the numbers were randomly assigned and do not identify which is which. You are going to
shine a strong light through the side of each bottle. You will need a dark room to do this. Use a laser if you
have one (ask your instructor). Caution: never look directly into a laser beam! The instructor will assist you
if you are using a laser.
Any undissolved solid material in the liquids will scatter the light and will be appear as a visible
beam or cloudiness. The true solution should contain no undissolved solid material, however some
impurities like dust may be present and may cause a little scattering. The colloidal dispersion contains
suspended undissolved particles of silver chloride. (You may not be able to see them under room
lighting).
Arrange the bottles so that the light beam travels through the contents of all three bottles. Since
the particles in the suspension are largest they reflect the most light – followed by the colloidal dispersion.
Identify the suspension, colloidal dispersion, and true solution:
Bottle #1 contains the: _________________________________________
Bottle #2 contains the: _________________________________________
Bottle #3 contains the: _________________________________________
Turn off the light source, and return the bottles to the materials shelf.
SECTION 17.11 Optional Review Problems
Problem 11. How many grams of NaOH are needed to make 350. mL of a solution which is 0.150 M?
Probl em 12. How many liters of a 2.50 M solution of KCl can be made using 85.0 grams of KCl?
Probl em 13. How many moles of MgBr2 are contained in 6.70 L of a solution which is 0.500 M?
Problem 14. What is the molarity (M) of a solution which contains 65.0 grams of FeCl3 in 670. mL of
solution?
Molality: In Appendix C of your ALICE materials you will find a
section entitled "Freezing Point Depression, Boiling Point
Elevation, and Molality." This may be optional work for you, or
your teacher may choose to make it a required part of your
course. If you are told to complete Appendix C, you should do it
now. At this time ask your teacher about Appendix C.
?
17-18 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
SECTION 17.12 Learning Outcomes
Review the learning outcomes below, and check them off if you have mastered them. When they
have all been checked, arrange to take any quizzes or exams on Chapter 17. Take the quiz on Appendix
C too, if applicable. Then move on to Chapter 18.
_____1. Define and calculate concentration in terms of molarity.
_____2. Given two of the following values (molarity, mass, and volume), calculate the third value.
_____3. Given a chemical equation and the molarity or masses of any reactants involved, predict the
theoretical yield of products in a chemical reaction.
_____4. Explain the effect of a solute on vapor pressure, melting point, and boiling point of a solvent.
_____5. Distinguish between colloids, true solutions, and suspensions.
_____6. Given the common class name of a colloid, name the dispersed phase and the dispersion
medium. Give examples of each type of colloid.
_____7. Explain the principles involved in boiling-point elevation and freezing-point depression.
You will be expected to master the following two outcomes if you are responsible for the material in
Appendix C.
_____8. Solve problems in which you are asked to calculate the molality of a solution.
_____9. Solve problems in which you are required to calculate freezing–point depression and
boiling–point elevation.
17-19 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
SECTION 17.13 Answers to Questions and Problems
Questions:
{1} dilute; {2} lower; {3} solvent; {4} increases; {5} raising; {6} higher; {7} potential; {8} potential;
{9} Salt lowers the melting point of ice
Problems:
1. 4.00 M
2. 0.100M
3. 192 g
4. 2.41 L
5. 5.00 g
6.
Tabl e 17. 1
Review Problems Involving Molarity

Solute Grams Solute Moles Solute Liters Sol'n Molarity
NaNO3 25 ___0.29___ ___0.25___ 1.2
NaNO3 ___31.3 ___ ___0.368__ 16.0 0.0230
7. 17.4 g
8. 0.02 M
9. 2 L
10. 0.714 M BaSO4
11. 2.10 g NaOH
12. 0.456 L KCl solution
13. 3.35 moles MgBr2
14. 0.598 M FeCl3
17-20 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
NAME____________________________________ PER____________ DATE DUE____________
ACTIVE LEARNING I N CHEMISTRY EDUCATION
“ALICE”
CHAPTER 18
RATES OF
CHEMICAL
REACTIONS
"Kinetics"
18-1 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
NOTICE OF RIGHTS
All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form by any means,
electronic, mechanical, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the author.
Copies of this document may be made free of charge for use in public or nonprofit private educational
institutions provided that permission is obtained from the author . Please indicate the name and address
of the institution where use is anticipated.
© 1997 A.J. Girondi, Ph.D.
505 Latshmere Drive
Harrisburg, PA 17109
alicechem@geocities.com
Website: www.geocities.com/Athens/Oracle/2041
18-2 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
ACTIVITY 18.1 Comparing Rates of Reactions Between Metals and
Acids
You have, thus far, completed various activities in which different types of chemical reactions
occurred. These chemical reactions involved color changes, temperature changes, precipitate formation,
and the evolution of gases. These reactions occurred quickly. Many chemical reactions, however, can
proceed rather slowly. In this chapter, you will study the factors that determine the rates of reactions and
the extent to which chemical reactions occur. These two factors are generally called reaction kinetics.
Let's begin by looking at two simple chemical reactions that occur at different rates. Get the
materials labeled 18.1 from the materials shelf. Place about 4 mL of 3 M HCl into two 150 mm Pyrex test
tubes. Into one test tube place a small piece of zinc metal. Put a small piece (≈2 cm) of magnesium metal
in the other test tube. Answer the following questions about what you just did.
1. How can you tell that a chemical reaction has occurred in the HCl–zinc combination?
{1}________________________________________In the magnesium–HCl combination? {2]_______
______________________________________________________________________________
2. How does the rate of the zinc–HCl reaction compare to the rate of the magnesium–HCl reaction?_____
______________________________________________________________________________
3. Is your answer to the previous question a qualitative or a quantitative statement?{3}____________
Explain: {4}______________________________________________________________________
4. After you have compared the reaction rates, you should test each test tube for the presence of a
flammable gas. (Wear safety glasses.) Allow the gas bubbles to accumulate for about 20 to 30 seconds
while you keep your thumb loosely over the mouth of the tube. If needed, put more metal in the tubes.
Hold one tube at a 45 degree angle, remove your thumb and very quickly place a flaming wood splint at
the top of the tube. Repeat with the second tube. Identify the gas given off in this reaction: {5}________
SECTION 18.2 Solving Problems Involving Reaction Rates
It is a fairly simple task to quantitatively compare reaction rates. But, is there a way that we might
quantitatively express the rates of the reactions of magnesium and zinc with HCl which you witnessed in
activity 18.1.? Well, actually, there are several ways in which this could be done.

rate =
moles reactant used
time required for change
1. We could weigh the magnesium and record the time required
for it to react completely. Rate would then be defined by how fast
a reactant is consumed.

rate =
moles produce formed
time required for change
2. Or, we could time the reaction and measure the volume of gas
produced during the experiment. Rate would then be defined by
how fast a product is formed. From this data, the rate of the
reaction could then be calculated using the formula at right:
Often it is more convenient for scientists to calculate rate in units of grams/ second, or
grams/ week, or moles/ day, etc. When this is the case, the situation will specify the units you are to use
when solving a problem.
18-3 ©1997, A.J. Girondi

rate =
moles reactant used
second
If specific units are not requested, you should calculate the rate in
"moles reactant used / second."
Sample problem: If 0.048 grams of magnesium, Mg, completely reacted with acid in 20. seconds, what
would be the rate of this reaction in units of "moles Mg / sec?"
Note that in this problem you are given a quantitative relationship between Mg and time: 0.048 g
Mg / 20 sec. To change this ratio to "moles Mg / sec" will require a short fencepost. Complete the
fencepost below, and calculate an answer. Fill in the blanks.

0.048 g Mg
20. sec
X =
{6}
___________ mol e Mg /sec
If you got a small answer, don't be suspicious. Remember, a mole is a very large number of molecules!
Now, let's try another problem.
Sample Problem: In an experiment 0.0070 g of zinc metal completely reacts with acid in 30.0 seconds.
Calculate the average rate of this reaction. Complete the fencepost below and do the calculations to see if
you get the answer given.

0.0070 g Zn X X = 3.6 X 10
-6
mol Zn /sec
Next, let's try a problem with a different twist to it.
Sample Problem: It is known that the rate at which magnesium reacts with HCl is 5.0 X 10
-2
moles/ sec
and that the reaction takes 5.0 seconds to occur. Calculate the number of moles of magnesium that have
reacted.
Complete the fencepost below, and see if you can get the answer that is given.

5.0 X 10
-2
mole Mg
1 sec
X
1
= 0.25 mole Mg
Problem 1. Calculate the number of grams of Mg that reacted in the problem above. Show your work.
__________ g Mg
Before moving on, it is important that you feel certain about your ability to solve rate problems. For
additional practice, solve the following problems.
18-4 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
Problem 2. After 2.0 minutes, 0.50 grams of zinc react completely in HCl. Calculate the rate of reaction
in grams of zinc per second.
__________ g Zn/ sec
Problem 3. Referring to the last problem, calculate the rate of the reaction in moles Zn used per
second.
__________ mole Zn/ sec
Problem 4. Given that magnesium reacts with air at a rate of 4.00 X 10
-3
moles per 1.00 second, how
many minutes would it take for 4.00 moles of Mg to react?
__________ minutes
Problem 5. Referring to problem 4 above, how many grams of Mg would react after 140. seconds?
__________ g Mg
Problem 6. In 3.0 minutes 0.10 g of CaCO3 will decompose in HCl. Calculate the rate of the reaction in
moles CaCO3 per second.
__________ moles CaCO3/ sec
18-5 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
SECTION 18.4 Collision Theory and Activation Energy
Now that you know how to express reaction rates quantitatively, you will do several experiments
that will enable you to determine the effects of certain factors on the rates of chemical reactions. They
include: (1) nature of the reactants; (2) concentrations; (3) temperature; (4) surface area; and, (5) catalysts.
It is usually quite simple to determine the effects of these factors on reaction rates once the basic
principles involved in chemical reactions are known. An explanation based on the collision theory plays a
major role in this.
The collision theory is based on the assumption that for a chemical reaction to occur, particles
must first collide with each other. In these collisions, atoms and electrons are rearranged by a reshuffling
of chemical bonds that results in the formation of products. A reaction does not necessarily occur every
time there is a collision. First, the reactant molecules must collide in just the right way. According to the
collision theory, the rate of a reaction depends on two factors: (1) the number of collisions per second
between the reacting particles, and (2) the fraction of these collisions that are effective. The colliding
particles must collide with sufficient energy to break the reactant's bonds. If sufficient force is not exerted,
no reaction will occur. This minimum amount of energy required to rearrange the reactants into products is
called their activation energy.
Activation energy is easiest to visualize using graphs. Figure 18.1, shows that the products of a
particular reaction possess more energy than the reactants do. There is only a 5 kJ (kilojoule) difference
between the energy of the reactants and the products. Logically, one would think that adding 5 kJ of
energy to the reactants would be enough to convert them into products. This is exactly what Figure 18.1
shows. Now look at Figure 18.2. This plot is of the same reaction shown in Figure 18.1, but the activation
energy has been added. Recall that the activation energy is the minimum energy needed to rearrange
reactants into products. This means that before the reaction in Figure 18.2 can occur, about 12 kJ (not 5
kJ) of energy must be added to the reactants.
When reactant molecules collide they form what is called an unstable activated complex which
quickly decomposes to form the products of the reaction. When this decomposition occurs, some of the
activation energy is given off. So while about 12 kJ of activation energy were needed to get the reaction
in Figure 18.2 to go, the actual difference in the energy content of the reactants and products is only 5 kJ.
kJ
5
10
15
20
reaction progress
reactants
products
Fi gure 18. 1
kJ
5
10
15
20
reaction progress
reactants
products
Fi gure 18. 2
Activation.
Energy
As you will learn in chapter 19, exothermic reactions give off heat energy, while endothermic
reactions absorb heat energy. Therefore, in exothermic reactions the products have less energy than the
reactants. In endothermic reactions the products have more energy than the reactants. Since the
products possess 5 kJ more energy than the reactants in Figure 18.2, would this plot represent an
exothermic or an endothermic reaction? {7}_______________________________
18-6 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
Study Figures 18.3 and 18.4. Label the reactants and products, and draw an arrow showing the
activation energy on each curve. How much energy would need to be added to the reactant in Figure
18.3 to get a reaction to occur? {8}________________. How much energy would need to be added to
the reactant in Figure 18.4 to get a reaction to occur?{9}_______________ Is the reaction represented in
Figures 18.3 exothermic or endothermic {10}________________________ Is the reaction represented
in Figures 18.4 exothermic or endothermic? {11}_________________________
kJ
5
10
15
20
reaction progress
Fi gure 18. 3
kJ
5
10
15
20
reaction progress
Fi gure 18. 4
In any reaction system, the molecules do NOT all have equal amounts of energy. That's why we
define the temperature of a system as a measure of the average kinetic energy of the molecules. As a
result, some molecules may not collide with sufficient energy to produce a reaction. If the activation
energy required for a particular reaction is high, fewer molecules are likely to have enough energy to react
when they collide. If a particular reaction has a very high activation energy, would you expect the reaction
rate to be fast or slow?{12}___________. Explain why. {13}___________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________. Would this same reaction have a
large or a small value for its reaction rate? {14}______________________
The "nature of the reactants" refers to the identity and properties of the reactants. Activation
energy is just one of these properties. Some combinations of reactants have high activation energies,
while that for other combinations is low.
Without specific knowledge about the reactants, you can't be certain whether a particular reaction
will occur rapidly or slowly. You may recall that when you were studying equations of single and double
replacement reactions, you had to predict whether or not a reaction would occur. However, it's possible
that some of those reactions may occur instantly, while others which are predicted to occur may occur
very, very slowly – perhaps even taking years until they are completed! Educated guesses about reaction
rates are possible if some characteristics of the reactants are known. Chemists have developed two rules
concerning relative rates of reactions:
1. Many reactions that do not involve the breaking of bonds occur rapidly at room temperature.
2. Many reactions in which bonds are broken tend to occur slowly at room temperature.
18-7 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
Use these two general rules to determine which of the reactions below would probably be faster. Write
the word faster next to that equation. Explain why you made your choice.
Reaction 1: H + H -----> H2
Reaction 2: 2 CH4 + 2 Br2 -----> 2 CH3Br + 2 HBr
Explanation: {15}_________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
The two reactions shown above involve either atoms or molecules of substances. It is also
possible for ions to react with each other. Ions are charged particles consisting of one or more atoms
which can exist as dissolved (aqueous) particles in water solutions or as gases at high temperatures.
Reactions between ions tend to occur very rapidly. Two examples of ionic reactions are shown below.
Note that the ions have the charges shown:
Ag
1+
(aq) + Cl
1-
(aq) ----> AgCl(s)
5 Fe
2+
(aq) + MnO4
1-
(aq) + 8 H
1+
(aq) ---> Mn
2+
(aq) + 4 H2O(l) + 5 Fe
3+
(aq)
ACTIVITY 18.5 Comparing the Rates of Two Reactions
In this activity you are going to compare the rate at which two compounds react with a solution.
The first compound is ferrous sulfate, FeSO4, which is ionicly bonded. The second compound is oxalic
acid, H2C2O4, which is covalently bonded. The solution they are going to react with is potassium
permanganate, KMnO4, which is ionicly bonded. Wear your safety glasses and an apron. Obtain a
dropper bottle containing a solution of 0.01 M potassium permanganate (KMnO4) which is purple in color.
Handle this solution with care since it can stain your skin or clothes. (Be sure to follow proper lab safety
procedures.) Obtain two 100 or 150 mL beakers and fill each about one-third full of distilled water. Label
them as beaker 1 and beaker 2. Add a small amount of solid FeSO4 to beaker 1 and a small amount of solid
oxalic acid to beaker 2. (Handle oxalic acid carefully. Wash your hands as needed.) Stir each solution for a
couple of minutes, rinsing the stirring rod before you move from one solution to the other. Don't be
concerned if some of the solid in either beaker remains undissolved.
Add a drop of the KMnO4 solution to the FeSO4 in beaker 1, stir the solution, and make a
qualitative estimate (such as rapid or slow) of the time required for the color to disappear. Repeat this
procedure by adding another drop of KMnO4 to beaker 1.
Repeat the procedure in the paragraph above, but add the KMnO4 to the oxalic acid solution in
beaker 2. Again, make a qualitative estimate of the time required for the color to disappear compared to
the result for beaker 1. There should be an obvious difference in rate.
Compare the rates of reaction for FeSO4 in beaker 1 and for H2C2O4 in beaker 2? __________________
______________________________________________________________________________
Suggest possible reasons for the difference in rates. (Refer to section 18.4 if you need help.) ________
______________________________________________________________________________
18-8 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
SECTION 18.6 Reaction Mechanisms
There is one additional factor related to the nature of the reactants that must be discussed here.
Look at the reactants and products in this reaction:
4 HBr + O2 ----> 2 H2O + 2 Br2
Remember that there must be collisions of sufficient energy between the HBr and O2 molecules before
the products can be formed. Is it possible that the O2 molecule could collide with the HBr with enough
energy to become bonded to the HBr, but not with enough energy to actually break the H–Br bond? If
this happened, you would have one larger molecule containing all of the reactants:
HBr + O2 ----> HBrO2
Let's take a closer look at what this means. Many chemical reactions involve several intermediate steps.
The pathway of intermediate steps through which the reactants pass as they are converted to products is
called the reaction mechanism. The reaction mechanism for the HBr + O2 reaction involves the three
steps shown below:
Step 1: HBr + O2 ----> HBrO2 <--------- (slow)
Step 2: HBrO2 + HBr ----> 2 HBrO <--------- (fast)
Step 3: 2 HBrO + 2 HBr ----> 2 H2O + 2 Br2 <--------- (fast)
Sum: 4 HBr + O2 + HBrO2 + 2 HBrO ----> HBrO2 + 2 HBrO + 2 H2O + 2 Br2
Net: 4 HBr + O2 ----> 2 H2O + 2 Br2
In step 1, a molecule of HBr combines with an O2 molecule to form a larger molecule of HBrO2. In step 2,
the HBrO2 molecule collides with another HBr molecule to form two molecules of HBrO. In step 3, two
more molecules of HBr collide with two HBrO molecules to form the final products which are two molecules
of H2O and two molecules of Br2. Note that the HBrO2 and HBrO molecules are both formed and
consumed during the reaction; therefore, they do not appear as either reactants or products in the overall
or net equation. Such substances are sometimes called "intermediates." If you "add up" the three
equations in the reaction mechanism, the result will be the net equation.
Two steps in this reaction mechanism occur extremely fast; however, one step occurs much more
slowly. For that reason, we say that the rate of the reaction depends on the slowest step in the
mechanism. Just like a relay team of runners, if even one runner is slow, the entire team may be
considered slow.
No chemical reaction can occur faster than the slowest step in its mechanism. This slow step is
called the rate-determining step. In the 3-step reaction shown above, which step is the rate-determining
step? {16}__________ Would the overall reaction be fast or slow?{17}___________________.
Explain: {18}_____________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
(Note: whether a reaction has a one-step mechanism or a multi-step mechanism depends on the nature of
the particular reactants involved.)
18-9 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
The rate of a chemical reaction is also affected by the concentration of the chemicals used.
Collision theory proposes that molecules must collide with each other before they can react. Using this
principle from collision theory, make a prediction about how increasing the concentration of reactants
would affect the rate at which substances react. Explain both how and why: {19}___________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
ACTIVITY 18.7 Solution Concentration and Reaction Rate
Now let's investigate the relationship between concentration and reaction time. For this activity
you will need two solutions from the materials shelf labeled solution 1 and solution 2. You will be timing
reactions in this series of experiments. It is important that you read through the entire activity before
beginning. In this way, you will know what is expected of you. It is always a good idea to do this before
performing an experiment.
Procedure:
1. Measure 5 mL of solution 1 and pour it into a 50 mL flask or beaker.
2. Add 5 mL of water (at room temperature) to the same flask. Swirl the container to mix the solution.
3. Carefully measure 5 mL of solution 2.
4. Get a watch ready (use a stopwatch, if available) and then mix solutions 1 and 2. Immediately stir the
solution by swirling. Begin timing the reaction at the moment solution 2 is added to solution 1. Record the
time required for a noticeable reaction to occur in Table 18.1. If you place the flask or beaker on a sheet of
white paper, the reaction will be more visible.
What evidence do you see that a chemical reaction has occurred?_____________________________
You have already carried out reaction 1 in Table 18.1. Now prepare the correct combinations shown in
Table 18.1 for each of the remaining three reactions. Be sure to use water which is at room temperature.
Time each reaction and record your results in the Table.
The last column of Table 18.1 asks that you calculate the concentration of HSO3
1-
ion present in
each of the reaction mixtures. The bisulfite ion, HSO3
1-
, is present in solution 1. To calculate this
concentration you need to know that the concentration of HSO3
1-
in the original stock solution is 0.072 M.
When you add solution 2 and water to the stock HSO3
1-
solution (solution 1), you reduce the
concentration of the HSO3
1-
ion. The total volume in each flask at the end of the reactions is always 15
mL.
Study the calculations shown below for determining the concentration of HSO3
1-
in reaction 1.
The formula you will use is:
M
c
V
c
= M
d
V
d
Mc = molarity of concentrated sol'n
Vc = volume of concentrated sol'n
Md = molarity of dilute sol'n
Vd = volume of dilute sol'n
18-10 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
Mc will have a value of 0.072 M HSO3
1-
in each of your calculations. Vc will vary in the four reactions: (5.0
mL, 4.0 mL, 3.0 mL,and 2.0 mL). Md is the concentration of the diluted HSO3
1-
solution (the unknown). Vd
will be 15 mL in each reaction.
For reaction 1 the calculation is as follows:

M
c
V
c
= M
d
V
d
so, M
d
=
M
c
V
c
V
d
and, M
d
=
(0.072) (5.0 mL)
(15 mL)
= 0.024 M
The equation above can be used whenever you wish to calculate the new concentration of a solution after
you have diluted it. Perform the calculations for the remaining three reactions. Show your work below.
Enter the results in Table 18.1.
Reaction 2:
__________ M
Reaction 3:
__________ M
Reaction 4:
__________ M
Tabl e 18. 1
Concentration vs. Reaction Time
Rx No. Volume Sol'n 1 Volume Sol'n 2 Rx Time Molarity of HSO3
1-
+ water (sec) (mol/L)
1 5 mL + 5 mL 5 mL ______ _________
2 4 mL + 6 mL 5 mL ______ _________
3 3 mL + 7 mL 5 mL ______ _________
4 2 mL + 8 mL 5 mL ______ _________
On the grid which follows, prepare a graph of reaction time versus the concentration of HSO3
1-
.
Label each axis, placing the independent variable on the horizontal (x) axis and the dependent variable on
the vertical (y) axis. The independent variable in this example is concentration. The value of the
dependent variable depends on the value of the independent variable.
Which variable is dependent here?{20}_______________________
18-11 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
State a general rule that relates the concentration of reactants to the rate of a chemical reaction: {21}_____
______________________________________________________________________________
What effect would diluting solutions with water have on the rate at which they react? {22}______________
______________________________________________________________________________
ACTIVITY 18.8 The Effect of Temperature on Reaction Rate
(Note: This activity is best done by all lab groups on the same day. Ask your instructor.)
Another factor that affects the rate of chemical reactions is temperature. Before actually
conducting this activity, give some thought to what is going to be happening to the kinetic energy
(motion) of the particles of the reactants as they are heated.
Scientists use a hypothesis as a means of predicting what is going to happen before they actually
perform an experiment. This gives them a chance to generate an "educated guess" about the results of
the experiment.
What effect will temperature have on the rate of a chemical reaction? (State a hypothesis in terms of the
collision theory.) :{23}_______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
To test your hypothesis, we will once again be using solutions 1 and 2. To be effective, both of
these solutions should be at the experimental temperature. This can be done quite easily by preparing a
water bath with a known temperature. Your class will be measuring the rate of the reaction at four different
temperatures. These temperatures should be close to the following: 5
o
C, 25
o
C, 40
o
C, and 50
o
C. Each
of the time trials will require 3 mL of solution 1, 7 mL of water, and 5 mL of solution 2.
A hot or cold water bath is prepared by filling a 600 mL beaker Figure 18.5 about half-full of water.
If there is a need to raise the temperature, use your burner to supply heat. Ice cubes can be used to lower
18-12 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
the temperature. The general setup is shown in Figure 18.5. Be sure that the level of water in the bath is
higher than that of the solutions in the test tubes that will be placed in the bath.
Your lab group will be assigned one temperature at which to time the reaction. Other labs groups
will be assigned different temperatures. Each group should repeat its time trials several times. The times
should be fairly close. Discard any times which are not close to the others which you obtained, then
average the results. If other lab groups in your class are assigned the same temperature as your group,
include their times when you calculate your average time.
Procedure:
1. To prepare your solutions, place 5 mL of solution 2 into a large (25 X 200 mm) test tube. Then,
measure 3 mL of solution 1 and 7 mL of water into a second large test tube. Do not mix these two
solutions, yet! They can be stoppered and saved. Be sure to label them.
2. Bring your water bath to the assigned temperature for your lab group.
When the proper temperature has been achieved, place each unstoppered
test tube in the water bath and give each enough time to reach the
temperature of the water bath. (This will be about 3 to 5 minutes.) Be sure to
maintain a constant and even temperature in the bath while the test tubes are
in it. Small pieces of ice or small amounts of heat with lots of stirring will do this.
The test tubes, themselves, can be used as stirring rods.
3. After time has elapsed, quickly mix the two solutions by pouring the
contents of one tube into the other tube. To provide good mixing, you should
immediately pour the mixture back into the empty tube and quickly place the
tube back into the water bath. Record the reaction time. Repeat the reaction
at the same temperature until you get two or three values which are close.
Average the values and record them in Table 18.2. (As noted above, if other
groups worked at the same temperature as yours, include their values in your
average.)
thermometer
sol'n
2
sol'n
1 +
water
Fi gure 18. 5
Heating Solutions
4. Obtain the average time values for the other three temperatures from other lab groups in your class.
Enter those values in Table 18.2.
Tabl e 18. 2
Temperature vs. Reaction Time
Rx No. Relative Experimental Rx Time
Temperature Temperature (sec)
1 Cold __________ ______
(about 5
o
C)
2 Room Temp __________ ______
(about 25
o
C)
3 Warm __________ ______
(about 40
o
C)
4 Hot __________ ______
(about 50
o
C)
18-13 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
5. Prepare a graph of temperature vs. reaction time on the grid which follows. Be certain to label each axis
on your graph. Put the dependent variable on the vertical (y) axis.
What is the dependent variable?{24}_________________________ Does the graph support your
hypothesis concerning temperature and reaction rate?__________ If not, explain: _______________
______________________________________________________________________________
Was the prediction you made in your hypothesis in agreement with the results that you obtained for this
activity? ___________ Experimental error tells us that some of the data we collect during experiments
is not always accurate. A lot of experimental error is really human error. We are often not demanding
enough of ourselves with our laboratory techniques. The end result is data that is not wrong, but not very
accurate, either. List a few sources of experimental error in this activity: _________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
ACTIVITY 18.9 The Effect of Surface Area on Reaction Rate
The next variable which you will study that influences chemical reaction rates is surface area.
Surface area has a large effect on rates of reactions in which solids are involved. Chemical reactions
involving solids take place only on the surface of the solid. Justify this statement using the collision theory
as your basis. Now, hypothesize about what effect increased surface area has on the rate of a reaction
involving a solid: {25}_______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
18-14 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
Part A. Steel Wool
Obtain a sample of steel wool. Tear off two small and approximately equal pieces about the size of
a quarter. Form one piece into a small, marble–sized ball. Separate and spread the fibers of the other
sample. Wear your safety glasses! Light a burner and use crucible tongs to hold the small ball of steel
wool directly over the flame, allowing the flame to touch the wool. Note the rate at which the oxygen in the
air reacts with the iron. Next, do the same thing with the other sample of steel wool. Was the rate of
reaction the same for both samples?__________. If not, reveal which reacted faster and why: ________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
Part B. Iron Filings or Powdered Iron
Next, obtain a bottle of iron filings from the materials shelf. Obtain a "pinch" of the iron filings
between your thumb and forefinger, and while holding your hand above the burner flame, sprinkle the
filings into the flame. Watch what happens. Iron filings are very small particles which provide a great
amount of surface area between the iron and the air. When the iron meets the flame it reacts very quickly
with the oxygen in the air. You see "sparkles" in the air!
Many people who own backyard barbecue grills use charcoal briquettes which are pieces of
carbon, that yield heat as they react with oxygen in the air. Gunpowder also contains carbon that reacts
with other chemicals to give off heat. Why must the carbon in the gunpowder be in the form of a powder?
______________________________________________________________________________
Part C. A Dust Explosion Using Lycopodium Powder - (Teacher Demonstration)
<--- blow air in
candle
Lid
Paint Can
powder
Fi gure 18. 6
Dust Explosion Apparatus
As you witnesses in the demonstration with
iron filings or powder, substances that normally burn
only very poorly or slowly burn much more quickly
when in powdered form. Many dangerous explosions
have occurred at flour mills. We don't normally think of
wheat as being explosive! However, when in the
powdered form it can be very hazardous. To
demonstrate the power of a dust explosion, your
instructor will use a fine powder which is actually a
pollen from the Lycopodium plant.
The powder will be placed in a small pile inside
an empty paint can. A candle is lit and placed inside the
can. The lid is tightly sealed to the can and a puff of air
is blown into the can to suspend the dust. If all goes
well, the lid will be launched toward the ceiling as the
exothermic dust explosion causes the gas inside the
can to rapidly expand!
ACTIVITY 18.10 The Effect of a Catalyst on Reaction Rate
The final factor that we will study which affects the rates of chemical reactions is the use of
catalysts. You experimented briefly with a catalyst called manganese dioxide, MnO2, in an earlier chapter.
A catalyst is a substance that can alter the rate of a chemical reaction. Most catalysts are used to speed up
the rate of reactions. You will be performing a "catalyzed" reaction which you saw in a previous chapter.
Procedure:
18-15 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
1. Place roughly 10 mL of hydrogen peroxide, H2O2, in each of four clean test tubes (they don't have to
be dry). Even though you cannot see it because it is so slow, there is a chemical reaction occurring in
which H2O2 decomposes. The equation for this reaction is: 2 H2O2(l) ---> 2 H2O(l) + O2(g) Certain factors
can speed up the rate of this decomposition.
Propose a reason that might explain why H2O2 is normally stored in a dark glass or dark plastic bottle.
{26}_______________________________________ Why is it a good idea to store H2O2 in the
refrigerator?{27}___________________________________________________________________
2. Add a little of the catalyst, MnO2, to one of the tubes of H2O2. Rapid bubbling indicates that the H2O2 is
rapidly decomposing into water and oxygen gas, and that the catalyst is working. Do you observe rapid
bubbling? ______________
3. Try adding a little Fe2O3 (iron (III) oxide) to the second tube and a little common dirt to the third. To the
fourth tube add a little bit of granular aluminum. Which of these substances appear to be good catalysts
for this reaction?_________________________________________________ Which (if any) do not
seem to catalyze this reaction?_______________________________________________________
A catalyst is a substance that can alter a reaction rate, but interestingly enough, it is not consumed
in the reaction. The catalyst is not a reactant or a product. For that reason, it does not appear in the
equation for the reaction (except that it may be written over or under the arrow (the yield sign) to indicate
that it is being used:
Uncatalyzed reaction: 2 H2O2 ----------------------------------> 2 H2O + O2 (slow)
Catalyzed reaction: 2 H2O2 ----------------------------------> 2 H2O + O2 (fast)
catalyst
ACTIVITY 18.11 Catalysts in Matches and in Cigarette Tobacco
--> --> --> A Teacher Demonstration <-- <-- <--
Hopefully, you are getting a bit curious about how a catalyst actually works. It is neither a reactant
nor a product, but it must take some part in the reaction, or else it could not affect the reaction rate.
O
O
H
H
O O
H
H
Surface Catalyst
Bonds weaken when
H2O2 contacts the catalyst
Fi gure 18. 7
Action of Surface Catalysts
A catalyst enters into a reaction by altering
the reaction mechanism. You will recall that
the reaction mechanism is the series of
reactions that together comprise the steps
in the overall changes observed. A catalyst
can alter the reaction mechanism in a variety
of ways. Some surface catalysts, such as
nickel, provide a surface on which one or
more of the reactants can be adsorbed.
Once adsorbed onto the surface of the
nickel, it is believed that reactant bonds may
be stretched and weakened so much that a
less energetic collision is sufficient to cause
the reaction.
18-16 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
kJ
5
10
15
20
reaction progress
Fi gure 18. 8
Effect of Catalyst on
Activation Energy
reactants
products
A
B
A = activation energy without catalyst
B = activation energy with catalyst
Other catalysts - sometimes called cyclic catalysts -
may actually combine chemically with a reactant, making it
more reactive. Later on in the reaction, the catalyst is
changed back to its original state, leaving the same mass of
catalyst at the end of the experiment as there was at the
beginning of it.
In spite of the specific mechanism involved,
catalysts perform their function by allowing reactions to
occur without adding as much energy to the reactants.
Recall that the activation energy is defined as the minimum
amount of energy required to rearrange the reactants into
the products. A catalyst lowers the activation energy (see
Figure 18.8).
Your teacher will follow this procedure:
1. Obtain a book of safety matches and a small piece of very fine sandpaper from the materials shelf. Tear
one match from the book and attempt to light it using the sandpaper. What's the result?
The activation energy required to start the reaction is greater than the small amount of heat generated by
the friction between the sandpaper and the match head.
2. Next, try to light another match by rubbing it on the striking pad on the book. Result?
______________________________________________________________________________
The striking pad on a pack of "safety" matches contains a catalyst that mixes with the chemicals on the
head of the match when you strike it. The small amount of heat produced is sufficient to cause a reaction
when the catalyst is present. This is because the activation energy is lower when the catalyst is present.
Exactly how catalysts do this is an active area of research in science. Why do you think they call these
"safety" matches? ________________________________________________________________
3. Next, obtain two sugar cubes and a container of cigarette ash from the materials shelf. Rub a few sides
of one of the cubes in the ash so that some of the ash adheres to the sides. Place the cubes on a Pyrex
watch glass supported on a ring stand and try to ignite them by flaming them directly with a burner flame
while holding the burner in your hand.
Describe what happens: ___________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
Tobacco ash, itself, does not serve as a catalyst. However, the temperature at which cigarettes burn is
often not high enough to insure that cigarettes will continue to burn slowly. To aid the burning process, a
catalyst is added to the tobacco when it is processed into cigarettes. The catalytic action prevents the
cigarette from going out by lowering the activation energy needed to keep the cigarette burning. This
same catalyst also aids the burning process with the sugar cube.
18-17 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
A catalyst lowers the activation energy for a reaction by changing the pathway by which the reaction
occurs. (Pathway refers to the intermediate series of reactions which cause reactants to become
products.) Altering the pathway is kind of like finding another way to walk home from school - perhaps a
route that will not require you to walk up a hill! Remember that the rate of a reaction depends on the rate at
which molecules collide and also the number of collisions which are effective. Raising the temperature will
{28}_____________ the rate at which collisions occur, thus speeding up the reaction. Lowering the
activation energy required can increase percentage of collisions which are effective. This is the job of a
{29}__________________.
There are also catalysts that can raise the activation energy of a reaction, which serves to decrease the
reaction rate. Such substances are called inhibitors.
SECTION 18.12 Some Uses of Catalysts
A catalytic converter is a device that helps to reduce the pollutants emitted by an automobile's
engine. The converter contains a wire screen which is plated with a catalytic metal, probably platinum or
palladium. Engines are not 100% efficient and do not burn gasoline completely into CO2 and H2O.
Instead, some unburned hydrocarbons escape through the exhaust system. These are compounds that
contain both carbon and hydrogen, and they are considered to be pollutants. When the hot but
unreacted hydrocarbons pass over the catalyst they react, reducing the hydrocarbon pollution produced
by the vehicle. The catalyst in this case is a metal that does not take part in and is not consumed by the
reaction. The reaction merely occurs on the surface of the catalyst. How do you think the catalyst affects
the activation energy needed to allow the burning of the hydrocarbons? {30}_____________________
Only "unleaded fuels" are supposed to be used in cars that have catalytic converters. If fuels
containing lead are used, the lead can form a coating on the surface of the metal in the converter which will
destroy its catalytic properties.
Catalysts are widely used by industry to increase the rates of many chemical reactions that
otherwise would take place too slowly to be practical. Catalysts are used to increase the yield of high-
octane gasoline from petroleum. Catalysts are widely used to increase the rate of formation of ammonia, a
major constituent of fertilizer. Catalysts also occur naturally.
The metal in a catalytic converter functions as a surface catalyst. Nitric oxide (also known as
nitrogen monoxide) is an example of a cyclic catalyst. A typical example of catalysis involving NO is its
effect on the decomposition of ozone, O3, in the upper atmosphere of the Earth. Without the presence
of NO, ozone decomposes slowly. In the presence of NO, which serves as a catalyst, the reaction occurs
rapidly:
2 O3 -----------------> 3 O2 <---- slow
2 O3 -----------------> 3 O2 <---- fast
[NO]
The steps involved in the reaction mechanism or pathway for the catalytic decomposition of ozone are as
follows.
Step 1: NO + O3 -----> NO2 + O2 <---- (fast)
Step 2: NO2 -----> NO + O <---- (fast)
Step 3: O + O3 -----> 2 O2 <---- (fast)
Overall: 2 O3 ---------------> 3 O2 <---- (fast)
NO is consumed in this step
But, NO is reproduced in this step
Overall, the NO is neither
produced nor consumed. It
is a cyclic catalyst.
[NO]
18-18 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
In the space below, list all of the reactants found in the three steps of this mechanism. (Do not consider
the overall reaction.)
Next, in the space below, list all of the products found in the three steps of this mechanism. (Do not
consider the overall reaction.)
Finally, draw a slash through any particles which appear in both lists, and write the formulas of the
remaining particles in the space below.
Remaining reactants:{31}____________________; Remaining products:{32}_____________________
Can you now use the remaining reactants and products to write the overall reaction?_________. The
sum of the steps in any reaction mechanism should "add up to" the overall reaction.
One specific type of catalyst is called an enzyme. Enzymes are complex substances present in
biological systems which function as catalysts for biochemical processes. Pepsin in gastric juice and
ptyalin in saliva are two examples of enzymes. Ptyalin is the catalyst that accelerates the conversion of
starch to sugar. Starch will react with water to produce sugar without the presence of the enzyme ptyalin,
but it takes weeks for the conversion to occur. We could not survive if our digestive processes occurred
that slowly. We would literally starve to death even as we eat!
SECTION 18.13 Review Questions and Problems
Problem 7. The equation: 2 H2 + O2 ----> 2 H2O describes a reaction in which 0.042 moles of H2O form
after 1.3 hours. Calculate the rate of this reaction in moles of O2 used per minute.
Problem 8. The equation: 2 Al + 3 H2SO4 ----> Al2(SO4)2 + 3 H2 describes a reaction in which 30.0 grams
of Al react with sulfuric acid in 10.0 minutes. Calculate the rate in moles of Al used per hour.
Problem 9. In the reaction: Cu + 2 AgNO3 ----> Cu(NO3)2 + 2 Ag it is found that if 0.082 grams of Cu is
consumed per 1.00 minute, how many moles of Ag will be produced in 1.00 hour?
18-19 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
Problem 10. In the reaction 2 H2 + O2 ----> 2 H2O, it is found that hydrogen gas reacts at a rate of 10.0
grams H2 per 1.00 minute. How many minutes will it take for 267 grams of oxygen gas, O2, to react?
Problem 11. On the axes below, sketch an "energy profile curve" (like those found in Figures 18.1 -
18.4) for a reaction which has an activation energy of 42 kJ and in which the total energy of the reactants is
103 kJ more than the total energy of the products which is 20 kJ. Put a kJ scale on the "y" axis.
kJ
Reaction Progress ---->
Probl em 12. Assume that you have 1.25 L of a solution of NaCl which is 0.36 M. If you add enough
water to this solution to increase the total volume to 2.10 L, what will the molarity (M) of the diluted solution
be? (See Activity 18.7 if you need help.)
Probl em 13. If you have 1.00 L of a 0.65 M solution of HCl which you want to dilute until its molarity is
reduced to 0.45 M, how much water will you have to add?
18-20 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
SECTION 18.14 Learning Outcomes
Place a check mark to the left of each learning outcome on the next page after you believe that
you have mastered it. Arrange to take any chapter exams or quizzes, and then move on to Chapter 19.
_____1. Explain the effects of the following on the overall rate of a chemical reaction: the nature of the
reactants, the concentration of the reactants, the temperature of the reactants, and catalysts.
_____2. Explain how the rate-determining step effects the overall rate of a chemical reaction.
_____3. Calculate rates of chemical reactions given the needed information.
_____4. Given the rate of a chemical reaction, calculate the number of grams or moles of product
produced after a specified amount of time.
_____5. Given the rate of a reaction and the number of moles produced, calculate the reaction time.
_____6. Define activation energy and explain how a catalyst and an inhibitor affect it.
_____7. Given several chemical equations, hypothesize about which reaction occurs fastest.
_____8. Explain the relationship between the collision theory and rates of chemical reactions.
18-21 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
SECTION 18.15 Answers to Questions and Problems
Questions:
{1} A gas is evolved (given off); {2} A gas is evolved (given off); {3} Qualitative; {4} It is based on
observation rather than measurement; {5} H2; {6} 9.9 X 10
-5
mole Mg/sec; {7} endothermic;
{8} about 6 kJ needed; {9} about 10 kJ; {10} exothermic; {11} endothermic; {12} slow:
{13} not many of the collisions would involved particles with enough energy to react; {14} small;
{15} H + H ---> H2 would be faster since no bonds need to be broken; {16} Step 1; {17} slow;
{18} If even only one step in a mechanism is slow, the overall reaction will be slow; {19} If substances are
more concentrated there will be more collisions between the reacting particles per unit of time, and
therefore a more rapid reaction; {20} reaction time; {21} More concentrated reactants will react faster than
less concentrated ones; {22} It would reduce the rate of the reaction; {23} At higher temperature there will
be more particle collisions per unit time and a faster rate of reaction; {24} reaction time; {25} Increased
surface area between reactants will increase reaction rate; {26} Light may act as a catalyst; {27} At cold
temperatures the decomposition of H2O2 would be slower than at room temperature; {28} increase;
{29} catalyst; {30} The catalyst lowers the activation energy; {31} 2 O3; {32} 3 O2
Problems:
1. 6.1 g Mg
2. 4.2 X 10
-3
g Zn/sec
3. 6.4 X 10
-5
mole Zn/sec
4. 16.7 min
5. 13.6 g Mg
6. 5.6 X 10
-6
mole CaCO3/sec
7. 0.0027 mole O2/min
8. 6.67 mole Al/hr
9. 0.155 mole Ag/hr
10. 3.37 min
11.
kJ
Reaction Progress ---->
20
123
165
12. 0.21 M
13. Must add 0.40 L of water to obtain a final volume of 1.4 L of diluted solution
18-22 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
NAME____________________________________ PER____________ DATE DUE____________
ACTIVE LEARNING I N CHEMISTRY EDUCATION
"ALICE"
CHAPTER 19
THE ENERGY
OF
CHEMICAL
PROCESSES
19-1 ©1997, A.J. Girondi

NOTICE OF RIGHTS
All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form by any means,
electronic, mechanical, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the author.
Copies of this document may be made free of charge for use in public or nonprofit private educational
institutions provided that permission is obtained from the author . Please indicate the name and address
of the institution where use is anticipated.
© 1997 A.J. Girondi, Ph.D.
505 Latshmere Drive
Harrisburg, PA 17109
alicechem@geocities.com
Website: www.geocities.com/Athens/Oracle/2041

19-2 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
SECTION 19.1 Introduction to Thermodynamics
One of the important principles you learned earlier in this course was the Law of Conservation of
Mass. This principle is a result of the fact that atoms cannot be created or destroyed during a chemical
reaction. They can, however, be rearranged from one kind of molecule into another. Since each atom has
a particular mass, it follows that this mass is neither created nor destroyed. Mass is not the only quantity
that is conserved in a chemical reaction. Energy is also conserved. Experiments have shown that energy
is neither created nor destroyed in any physical or chemical change. This principle is known as the law of
conservation of energy.
Energy is neither created nor destroyed in ordinary chemical or physical
changes. This is known as the law of conservation of energy.
The law of conservation of energy is one of a set of laws which are known as the laws of thermodynamics.
This set of laws is actually rather complicated, and we will not attempt to cover them in very much detail.
Instead, we will merely introduce a few of these laws to you and indicate how they help to explain the
energy changes that accompany chemical and physical changes.
In science, we often use words and descriptions that sound very complicated when first
encountered. The word thermodynamics is a good example of this. However, the word can be translated
into simpler terms that make it more meaningful. The first part of the word, thermo, means "energy." The
second part of the word, dynamics, means "motion." The word thermodynamics means "energy in
motion." Thermodynamics refers to how energy moves around or is converted from one form into another
during chemical and physical changes.
The word law sounds very legal, but must not be taken in that sense. When the word law is used
to describe natural principles, scientists are merely trying to describe the "rules" by which nature appears
to operate. It is through experimentation that we "observe" these laws of nature.
The laws of thermodynamics are the result of the work of scientists such as James Maxwell,
Ludwig Boltzmann, R.J.E. Clausius, and many other European scientists during the nineteenth century.
We will not attempt to explain all of these laws completely, but we will examine the first law as it relates to
chemical reactions and other processes.
The reason there is a "0th law" (pronounced "zeroeth" law) is that it was recognized after the other
laws were formulated, but was considered to be important in describing the other laws. Therefore, it was
numbered in sequence before them. What are the laws of thermodynamics? When written in scientific
terms, they can become quite complicated. The four statements on the next page represent simplified
versions of these laws.
The Four Laws of Thermodynamics
0th Law: The temperature of a system is a fundamental property of that system which can be measured.
(A system is that part of the universe that you are studying, such as the atoms and molecules
involved in a chemical reaction.)
1st Law: The total energy of the universe remains constant during any chemical or physical change.
2nd Law: The universe is continually changing from a state of higher organization (order) to a state of
lower organization (more disorder).
3rd Law: The lowest possible temperature is zero degrees Kelvin. At this temperature, a system is
perfectly ordered or organized – no entropy (disorder) exists.
19-3 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
Problem 1. Below, you will find four simple statements about the laws of thermodynamics. Referring to
the four laws, match the statements below with the correct law by writing the number of the law in the
blank.
a. _____ Everything in the universe is spreading out.
b. _____ At -273
o
C all molecular motion ceases.
c. _____ Energy is neither created nor destroyed during a change.
d. _____ It is possible to measure the temperature of any system.
SECTION 19.2 Heat and Temperature
The energy that a system has may be in the form of either potential energy or kinetic energy. You
will recall that potential energy is stored energy which is related to the position of an object. Kinetic energy
is the energy of motion. A boulder sitting on top of a hill possesses {1}_____________ energy. A
boulder that is rolling half-way down a hill has both {2}_________________ and _________________
energy. The motion of a boulder moving at the bottom of a hill represents {3}_______________ energy.
When heat energy is added to a group of molecules or atoms, the temperature will rise. When
heat energy is removed, the temperature will drop. By measuring temperature changes during a chemical
reaction, we can estimate the change in the energy content of the system. The concepts of heat and
temperature are very important in our study of energy changes, so let's give them a closer look. It is
important to realize that heat and temperature are not the same thing, but that they are related to each
other. Temperature is frequently defined as a measure of the average kinetic energy of the molecules of a
system. (Heat, on the other hand, is often defined as a measure of the total kinetic energy of a system.)
For our purposes, it is sufficient for you to recognize that temperature is a property of a system that can be
measured, and that this represents the 0th law of thermodynamics.
Problem 2. Look at the data below which describes three gases. Answer the four questions which
follow as they pertain to the gases.
Compound Temperature Volume Mass Pressure
Gas A 0
o
C 11.2 L 16 g 1 atm
Gas B 25
o
C 48.9 L 4 g 1 atm
Gas C 12
o
C 11.2 L 22 g 2 atm
a. Which gas has the greatest average kinetic energy? Explain your choice.
b. Which gas has the lowest average kinetic energy? Explain your choice.
c. Notice above that 11.2 L of gas A has a mass of 16 grams. What would be the mass in grams of 1.0
mole of gas A? (Remember: at STP (0
o
C and 1 atm) the volume of 1.0 mole of any gas is 22.4 L.)

16 g Gas A
11.2 L gas A


grams gas A
mole gas A
X =
19-4 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
d. Is gas A hydrogen (H2), oxygen (O2), or carbon dioxide (CO2)? Explain your choice. ______________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
The concept that ties the concepts of heat and temperature together is called heat capacity. All
substances have definite and measurable heat capacities. This refers to their capacities to gain and hold
heat energy without changing their temperature very much. If a substance can absorb a large amount of
heat and have its temperature change by only a small amount, it is said to have a high heat capacity. On
the other hand, if a small amount of heat added to a substance causes a large increase in temperature, this
substance is said to have a low heat capacity.
Let's look at an example of how heat
capacities differ for different substances.
Imagine an automobile that has been sitting
in the sun for several hours. You would not
hesitate to place your hand on the glass of
the windshield because, while it will be warm,
it is not likely to burn your hand. However,
you would hesitate to place your hand on the
metal hood because you know it will probably
be too hot to touch without burning your
hand. The windshield and the hood have
both been exposed to the same amount of
heat energy coming from the sun over the
same period of time, but the metal feels
much hotter than the windshield. Glass is a
substance that has a high heat capacity,
while metals tend to have very low heat
capacities. As a result, the temperature of
the glass did not rise as high as did the
temperature of the metal.
Glass Windshield
(High Heat Capacity)
Metal Car Body
(Low Heat Capacity)
Fi gure 19. 1
Heat Capacities of Car Parts
In addition to the definition offered above, temperature can also be considered to be a measure of
the ability of a substance to transfer its heat to another substance. Heat always flows from substances at
higher temperatures to substances at lower temperatures. When the temperatures of both substances
are equal, heat no longer flows. (Remember the meaning of thermodynamics.) With its smaller heat
capacity, the metal part of the car is at a higher temperature and is better able to transfer heat to your hand
when you touch it. This is the reason why the glass felt cooler than the metal parts of the car.
Write two definitions of temperature: {4} ________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
Now, let's test your skill at applying the concept of heat capacity to a real life situation. Imagine
your car sitting in the driveway on a very cold winter morning. Assume that all of the parts of the car are in
the same energy environment, absorbing the same amount of energy from the surroundings. Will the
frost melt off of the windshield first, or will it melt from the metal parts of the car first?
Explain your answer. {5}____________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
19-5 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
SECTION 19.3 Specific Heat and Heat Capacity
To make measurements involving any kind of energy (such as heat capacity), a unit is needed. A
traditional unit used to express heat energy is called the calorie. Scientists needed a way to define this
unit and did so by inventing the following definition:
1 calorie is the amount of heat energy needed to raise the
temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 degree Celsius (
o
C).
This should not be confused with the calorie counts found on food labels. The food calorie is actually
1,000 times larger than the scientific calorie, and technically should be called a kilocalorie. When you are
on a diet of 1200 calories per day, you are actually eating 1200 kilocalories or 1.2 X 10
6
calories of energy!
In the International System of Units (the metric system), a more acceptable unit of energy
measurement is the joule. A joule is smaller than a calorie. In fact, 1 calorie = 4.184 joules. Because of its
widespread acceptance, we will use the joule (J) in our energy calculations. Heat capacity depends in part
on the mass of a substance.
There are normally two types of heat capacities that are identified for substances. One type of
heat capacity is called specific heat. Specific heat is the number of joules necessary to raise the
temperature of 1 gram of a substance by 1 degree Celsius.

specific heat =
Joules
(grams) X (temp change)
=
J
g.
o
C
The other type of heat capacity is called molar heat capacity. This refers to the number of joules
needed to raise the temperature of one mole of a substance by 1 degree Celsius.

molar heat capacity =
Joules
(moles) X (temp change)
=
J
mole
o
C
GO TO APPENDIX D and read the "Swimming Pool Analogy" for
a better understanding of specific heat and molar heat capacity.
ACTIVITY 19.4 Determination of the Specific Heats of Three Metals
Specific heat can be measured in the lab with relative ease. However, good lab technique is required. To
measure specific heat, a calorimeter must be used. A calorimeter is simply a container made with insulated
walls. The insulation helps to reduce the heat loss or gain to or from the immediate surroundings. In this
activity, we will use a foam cup as our calorimeter.
Heat energy always flows from an object at a higher temperature to an object at a lower
temperature. The heat gained by the cooler substance will be equal to the heat lost by the warmer
substance, assuming no heat is lost to the surroundings. In this activity, a measured mass of several
metals will be heated to a known temperature. The metals will then be placed into a calorimeter containing
a known mass of water, also at a premeasured temperature. You probably figured out that the heat will flow
from the metal to the water until the water's temperature becomes equal to the metal's temperature. Will
the temperature of the water increase or decrease?{6}___________
19-6 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
heat lost by metal = heat gained by water
Sample of
Metal
water
Fi gure 19. 2
Foam Cup Calorimeter
heat lost by hot
metal, is gained by
the water
cardboard lid
From the mass of the metals and that of the water in the
calorimeter, and from the temperature changes, you will be able
to calculate the specific heat of the various metals. Follow the
procedures outlined below to measure the specific heats of the
three metals. Record all of your data in Table 19.1.
Procedure for determining the specific heat of a metal:
1. Prepare a water bath using a 400 mL beaker filled 2 / 3 full of
water. Bring the water to a boil. While waiting for the water to
boil, go on to step 2.
2. You will be using samples of iron, copper, and aluminum. The
metal samples will be in the form of cylinders. Obtain 2 cylinders
of each metal and examine them. Be sure that you can identify
which is which.
3. Measure the total mass of the two cylinders of iron. Repeat for
the copper and aluminum cylinders. Record the masses in Table
19.1.
4. Place all of the cylinders in the boiling water bath for 10
minutes. Continue on with step 5 while you are waiting for the
metal samples to heat.
(The time can be shortened to 5 minutes if necessary.)
5. Obtain 3 foam cups and label the cups 1, 2, and 3. Add exactly 100 mL of water to each cup. Record
the mass of the water in each cup. Remember, 1 mL water = 1 g.
6. After the metal samples have heated for at least 10 minutes, while keeping the samples in the water,
measure the initial temperatures of each of the metals by holding the bulb of a thermometer in the center
the hot water bath. Record this as the initial temperature of the metals in Table 19.1.
7. Measure and record the initial temperature of the water in calorimeter number 1. Use a second
thermometer to do this.
8. Using your crucible tongs, remove the iron cylinders from the water bath and very quickly place them
into the water in calorimeter 1. With constant stirring (very important), record the highest temperature
reached by the water. (Watch carefully!) The temperature will not rise very much and the change occurs
very quickly! Repeat this procedure using the other two metals and calorimeters 2 and 3.
Note: in Table 19.1, for each metal used, the final temperature of the metal will equal the final temperature
of the water.
9. You now have all of the data that is needed to calculate the specific heat of each metal. Before you do
these calculations, clean up your lab area. Dry the metal cylinders and return them to the materials shelf.
Calculations:
Calculating the specific heats of the metals involves the use of two mathematical equations which
are listed below. Keep in mind that the heat lost by the metal is equal to the heat gained by the water.
19-7 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
Let's call this quantity "q". Equation 1 below is used to calculate "q." The symbol ∆T refers to the change
in temperature, and the specific heat of water is 4.184 J / g.
o
C.
Equation 1: q = (mass in grams of water) (∆T of water in
o
C) (specific heat of water)
Now substitute your value for "q" from equation 1 (above) into the numerator of equation 2 (below). Enter
the mass of metal used and the temperature change of the metal into the denominator, and solve
equation 2 to obtain the specific heat of the metal.

Equation 2: specific heat of metal =
q
(mass of metal in grams) (∆T of metal in
o
C)
Once again, to calculate the specific heat of a metal first use equation 1 to calculate the heat lost by the
metal which is designated as "q" which is the substituted into equation 2. Solving equation 2 yields the
specific heat of the metal:
Use equation 1 to find the value of "q"
which is the heat lost by the metal.
Substitute the value of "q" into equation 2.
Solve equation 2 to for the specific heat of the metal.
Calculate the specific heats of the three metals used above. You must use both equations 1 and 2. Show
all of your work in the space provided below. Use your data recorded in Table 19.1.
1. Calculation of specific heat of iron:
S.H. iron = __________ J / g.
o
C
2. Calculation of specific heat of aluminum:
S.H. aluminum = __________ J / g.
o
C
3. Calculation of specific heat of copper:
S.H. copper = __________ J/g.
o
C
19-8 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
Data Table 19.1
Calculation of the Specific Heat of Three Metals
Metal 1 Metal 2 Metal 3
(Fe) (Al) (Cu)
Mass of metal cylinders (g) ____________ ____________ ____________
Initial temp. of hot metal ____________ ____________ ____________
Final temp. of metal ____________ ____________ ____________
Temp. change (∆T) of metal in
o
C ____________ ____________ ____________
Mass of H2O used in calorimeter (g) ____________ ____________ ____________
Initial temp. of H2O in calorimeter ____________ ____________ ____________
Final temp. of H2O in calorimeter ____________ ____________ ____________
Temp. change (∆T) of H2O in
o
C ____________ ____________ ____________
Your results will probably reveal a fair amount of error. Nevertheless, which metal did you find to have the
smallest specific heat?______________ Which metal did you find to have the greatest specific
heat?______________ The accepted values for the specific heats of these three metals, taken from the
Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, are:

copper: 0.389
J
g.
o
C
iron: 0.444
J
g.
o
C
aluminum: 0.908
J
g.
o
C
Did your results produce the correct order (smallest, middle, and greatest) of specific heats for the three
metals? _______________________________________________________________________
If samples of these three metals were placed in the sun on a hot summer day, which one would feel
hottest to the touch?{7}__________________________ Which of the metals would feel coolest to the
touch?{8}_______________________ The unit for specific heat measurements is J / g.
o
C. This means
that if a metal has a high specific heat, it requires {9}___________ energy to cause the temperature of one
gram of the metal to rise by 1
o
C. Therefore, if equal masses of two metals absorb equal amounts of
energy, the temperature of the one with the higher specific heat will go up {10}_________ than the one
with a lower specific heat value, and the one with the higher specific heat value will feel
{11}___________________.
SECTION 19.5 Molar Heat Capacity
When you compare the specific heats of two substances, you are comparing the amount of heat
needed to raise the temperature of equal masses of the two substances by 1
o
C. Since substances have
different densities, equal masses do not contain the same number of molecules or atoms. If you are
interested in comparing the amounts of heat needed to raise the temperature of equal numbers of
molecules or atoms of two substances by 1
o
C, you will have to compare their molar heat capacities instead
19-9 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
of their specific heats. Calculate the molar heat capacities of the three metals in the spaces provided in
Table 19.2 below. As an example, the calculations for the molar heat capacity of zinc are shown for you.
Tabl e 19. 2
Calculating Molar Heat Capacities
Substance Specific Heat Atomic Mass Molar Heat Capacity
(J / g.
o
C) (g / mole) (J / mole
o
C)
zinc 0.382 65.37 (0.382 J / g.
o
C)(65.37 g / mole) = 25
iron 0.444 _________
aluminum 0.908 _________
copper 0.389 _________
Note that the specific heats which are based on equal masses (1 gram) of the three metals are different,
while the molar heat capacities which are based on equal numbers of atoms (1 mole) are virtually identical.
Remember that 1 mole equals 6.02 X 10
23
atoms. This indicates that the amount of heat needed to raise
the temperature of an element by 1
o
C has been found to depend on the number of atoms of the element
present, not upon the identity or mass of atoms. This was first discovered by two Frenchmen in 1817,
Pierre Dulong and Alexis Petit. Since one mole of every element contains the same number of atoms, a
fixed amount of heat (about 25 J / mole
o
C) should then be required to raise the temperature of one mole
of a solid element by 1
o
C. This has come to be known as The Law of Dulong and Petit.
(The molar heat capacity of water is different from that of the metals, but it is a liquid compound, not a solid
element.)
The Law of Dulong and Petit
The amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of an element
by 1
o
C has been found to depend on the number of atoms of the
element present, not upon the identity or mass of atoms.
This law permitted scientists of the 19th century to begin to approximate the values of atomic
masses of many solid elements. They did this simply by using experimentally determined specific heat
values of the elements and the molar heat capacity value of 25 J / mole
o
C.
As an example, let's see if you can determine the atomic mass of element "X" which is found to
have a specific heat of 0.481 J / g.
o
C. Use the value of 25 J / mole
o
C for the molar heat capacity and
calculate the atomic mass of this element. Use the calculations in Table 19.2 as a guide. Show your work
below:
Atomic mass of element "X" = {12}_______ g / mole. What is the identity of element "X"?{13}___________
19-10 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
SECTION 19.6 Solving Problems Involving Specific Heat and Heat
Capacity
Knowing the heat capacity (specific heat) of a substance allows you to calculate how much heat
energy is required to raise the temperature of a known amount of a substance by a specified number of
degrees. As usual, unit analysis will be useful in solving such problems. Study the sample problem
below.
Sample Problem: How much heat energy is required to raise the temperature of 10.0 grams of water
by 50.0
o
C? (You must know that the specific heat of water is 4.184 J / g.
o
C)
Solution: You are asked to find an amount of heat energy, so you want find an answer in joules. You
are given two pieces of information including 10.0 g of water and 50.0
o
C. You could start the problem with
either of these quantities. We will use dimensional analysis and start with 10.0 g water.

10.0 g H
2
O X
????
????
X
????
????
= ???? joules
To change information about water into information about energy, you need to include some conversion
factors in the set-up that can relate these two units. That's the job of specific heat. Consider the unit ratio
for specific heat. It relates information about energy (J) to information about water (g) and (
o
C). So, let's
plug it into the fencepost:

10.0 g H
2
O X
4.184 J
(1g) (1
o
C)
X
????
????
= ???? joules
Notice that grams of H2O will now cancel, leaving J /
o
C. We want to end with joules only , so we want
o
C to
cancel. For this purpose, we can use the 50.0
o
C given in the problem:

10.0 g H
2
O X
4.184 J
(1g) (1
o
C)
X
50.0
o
C
1
= 2090 joules
After including the 50.0
o
C, all units cancel properly, so we just use a 1 as a denominator under the 50.0
o
C.
The answer turns out to be 2092 joules, which is rounded to three significant figures: 2090 J. That's all
there is to it. Just make sure that units cancel properly, leaving you with the units you want. If we had
decided to start with the 50.0
o
C instead of the 10.0 g H2O, the fencepost would have ended up looking
like this:

50.0
o
C X
4.184 J
(1g) (1
o
C)
X
10.0 g H
2
O
1
= 2090 joules
Your knowledge of basic algebra and of dimensional (unit) analysis will allow you to solve a variety
of problems involving specific heat and molar heat capacity. You should not have to memorize any
equations to solve thermodynamics problems, since dimensional analysis allows you to create your own
equations. Here is an example of a variation:
Sample Problem: When 3600. joules of heat energy are added to 140. g of water, how much does
the temperature go up?
Solution: We are asked for a temperature change, so we want to end with units of
o
C. Let's start the
fencepost with 3600. J:
19-11 ©1997, A.J. Girondi

Note that the specific heat ratio had to be
inverted this time so that joules would cancel.

3600. J X
(1g) (1
o
C)
4.184 J
X

=
{14}
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
o
C
Finish the problem above by filling in the blanks in the "fencepost" and calculate an answer. Next, try
some problems on your own. Set up each problem below so that units cancel to give the appropriate
answer. Show the complete set-up for each problem and include all units! Round answers to the correct
number of significant figures.
Problem 3. How many joules are required to heat 150 mL of water from 20.
o
C to 84
o
C? (Note from the
examples that the temperature change is what is important here. Also, recall that 1 g H2O = 1 mL H2O.)
__________ J
Problem 4. How many joules are required to heat 10. g of silicon from 22
o
C to 44
o
C? (The specific heat
of silicon is 0.76 J / g.
o
C) Hint: first calculate, ∆T, the change in the temperature.
__________ J
Problem 5. How much will the temperature change when 418.4 J of heat are added to 50. g of water?
__________
o
C
Problem 6. A piece of substance "Z" is heated directly and it is found that 5805 Joules of energy are
needed to raise the temperature of the substance from 25.0
o
C to 35.0
o
C. The specific heat of substance
Z is known to be 1.28 J/g
o
C. What was the mass in grams of this piece of substance Z? (Note: water is not
involved in this problem.)
___________ g
19-12 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
Problem 7. When 2092 J of heat are added to a certain mass of water, the temperature rises by 125
o
C.
What is the mass of the water?
__________ g H2O
Problem 8. A certain substance "Q" has a molar heat capacity of 18.6 J / mole
o
C. How many joules are
needed to raise the temperature of 2.0 moles of this substance by 200.
o
C?
__________ J
SECTION 19.7 Entropy
Now let's return to the laws of thermodynamics. The 0th law concerns the concept of
temperature. However, there is more to this law than meets the eye, particularly in relation to the concept
of entropy.
Entropy is a measure of the amount of disorder in a system.
Gases have high entropy (they are highly disordered) because the particles of a gas move around in
random motion. Thus, gases have no definite shape or volume. Solids have low entropy because the
particles of the solid are arranged in a definite order (such as a crystal lattice) and the motion of these
particles is very limited. They have a definite shape and volume.
SOLI D LIQUID GAS
lots of order a little order no order
Fi gure 19. 3
Degrees of Entropy in Three Phases of Matter
(low entropy) (moderate entropy) (high entropy)
19-13 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
How do you think the entropy of liquids compares to that of gases and solids?
{15}____________________________________________________________________________
Explain: {16}_____________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
As the temperature (kinetic energy) of a system is increased, the particles move more rapidly. This
increased activity can be viewed as an increase in the "disorder" of the system, and, therefore, the
{17}_______________ of the system has increased. On the other hand, when heat energy is removed
from a system, its temperature decreases and the disorder (entropy) tends to decrease. However, phase
changes must also be considered. If a solid turns into a liquid, does entropy increase or
decrease?{18}_____________________. If a gas condenses into a liquid does entropy increase or
decrease ?{19}_____________________.
Problem 9. Identify each situation below as being an example of either increasing or decreasing
entropy (circle one):
a. water becoming ice increase decrease
b. a bowl of chili cooling increase decrease
c. paper being shredded increase decrease
d. warming a cup of tea increase decrease
e. heating liquid water to a vapor increase decrease
f. hardening of liquid wax increase decrease
SECTION 19.8 Enthalpy
The 1st law of thermodynamics concerns the conservation of energy in chemical and physical
changes. By conservation of energy, we mean that when changes occur, energy is neither created nor
destroyed. This means that energy does not mysteriously "appear," nor does it mysteriously "disappear"
or cease to exist when a change occurs.
You know that a chemical reaction
begins with reactants and ends with
products. This description is not quite
complete, because there is also an
energy change associated with a
reaction. The energy change can be
either endothermic or exothermic.
reactants products
reactants products + heat energy
reactants + heat energy products
Exothermic
Endothermic
In the first case, heat energy is produced in addition to the products. This is normally called an exothermic
reaction. An easy way to remember this is to think of the word exit, which means "to leave." In an
exothermic reaction, energy leaves the system.
19-14 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
Problem 10. You must be able to distinguish equations for endothermic reactions from equations for
exothermic ones. Test your skills on the equations below. Label each equation as being either
endothermic or exothermic, based on whether the energy (kilojoules) is written on the reactant or the
product side.
a. CaCO3 + 177.8 kJ ----> CaO + CO2 __________________________________
b. 2 Ag + Br2 ----> 2 AgBr + 199.2 kJ _______________________
c. 2 SO2 + O2 ----> 186.6 kJ + 2 SO3 _______________________
d. 94.1 kJ + PCl5 ----> PCl3 + Cl2 _______________________

Generally speaking, more chemical reactions are exothermic than endothermic. In both types of reactions,
there is an energy difference between the reactants and the products. For an exothermic reaction, this
energy difference is a result of the excess energy leaving the system and going into the surroundings.
Fi gure 19. 4
Movement of Heat During a Reaction
CHEMICAL
SYSTEM
Surroundings
heat in
heat out
During an endothermic reaction, heat energy must enter
the system from the outside. There is never a net
increase or decrease in total energy in the system and
the surroundings. The energy that leaves the system
ends up in the surroundings. Thus, energy is neither
created nor destroyed, but is merely exchanged
between the system and surroundings. This is the 1st
law of thermodynamics.
What causes this energy difference between the reactants and the products? It involves more
than just a temperature change. It involves both kinetic and potential energy changes. As you know, heat
is a measure of the total kinetic energy of the molecules in a system, while potential energy is related to
the location or the position of molecules. In a larger sense, potential energy has something to do with the
arrangement and position of objects.
In chemical compounds, the chemical bonds are the result of attractions between charged parts of
atoms, which is a form of potential energy. Chemical bonds represent an arrangement with a specific
amount of potential energy. Potential energy is stored in chemical bonds. During a reaction, chemical
bonds are broken in the reactants and new ones are formed in the products. If the products have less
potential energy than the reactants, potential energy has been converted into kinetic energy. This makes
the molecules of the products move more rapidly. They ultimately transfer this energy to their
surroundings, causing the surroundings to become hotter. This situation represents an exothermic
process.
On the other hand, if the potential energy of the products is greater than that of the reactants (that
is, the chemical bonds in the products have greater potential energy than the chemical bonds of the
reactants), heat energy must enter the reactants from the surroundings in order for the reaction to occur.
In this case, kinetic energy (or heat energy) is converted into potential energy (in chemical bonds)
representing an endothermic process. The temperature in the surroundings decreases in this situation.
There is now a need to quantify all of this. This can be done by referring to the heat content of a
system as its enthalpy, which is a Greek word meaning "warm." Energy changes which involve heat are
known as enthalpy changes. The symbol used to denote the enthalpy of a system is the capital letter H.
19-15 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
An enthalpy change is denoted by the symbol ∆H. You may pronounce ∆H as either "delta H" or
"change in H." For any chemical reaction the enthalpy change can be written:
enthalpy change = ∆H = (H
p
– H
r
)
In this case, Hp represents the heat content of the products, and Hr represents the heat content of the
reactants. Recall that in an exothermic reaction, heat is released as one of the products. This means that
in such a case, Hp must be less than Hr. Steam condensing into water provides an example of such a
change:
steam
(g)
----> water
(l)
+ heat energy
In exothermic changes, the
heat content of the products
is less than the heat content
of the reactants.
Heat energy must be {20}________________________ the steam to cause it to condense. In this case,
the energy contained in the steam is greater than the energy contained in the liquid water. The energy
change of an exothermic reaction can be indicated in two ways. First, the energy can be written into the
equation as a product as you have already seen:
2 H2 + O2 -----> 2 H2O + 572 kJ
Since the energy is located on the right side of the equation above, this tells us that the energy is given
off and the reaction is exothermic.
The energy change can be shown separately by writing the ∆H value after the equation:
2 H2 + O2 -----> 2 H2O; ∆H = –572 kJ
When you write it this way, you need some method of indicating whether the energy is given off or
absorbed. To indicate that the energy is given off and that the reaction is exothermic, we make the value
for ∆H negative.
Now let's look at an example of an endothermic reaction such as the melting of ice.
ice
(s)
+ heat energy -----> water
(l)
In endothermic changes, the heat
content of the products is greater
than the heat content of the
reactants.
Heat energy must be {21}____________________ the ice before it can melt. In this case, is the energy
contained of the ice greater than or less than the energy contained in the liquid water? {22}____________
Because ∆H = Hp – Hr, would ∆H for endothermic reactions always be a positive or a negative number?
{23}____________________
Now look at this chemical reaction: N
2
+ 2 O
2
+ 67 kJ -----> 2 NO
2
In this chemical reaction, Hp is {24}____________________ than Hr, resulting in an endothermic change.
This equation can also be written: N2 + 2 O2 -----> 2 NO2; ∆H = +67 kJ
19-16 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
Enthalpy changes are associated with chemical and physical changes. These changes obey the
1st law of thermodynamics. You will notice that when a process is exothermic, the heat energy appears on
the right–hand side of the equation with the products.
When the process is endothermic, the heat energy appears on the left–hand side of the equation
with the reactants. Instead of including the energy in the equation, ∆H can be written after the equation.
In that case, the sign of ∆H is given a negative sign if the reaction is exothermic and it is given a positive
sign if the reaction is endothermic.
Problem 11. Use both methods of indicating the energy change for the chemical reactions defined by
the equations below. Include the energy quantity within the equation
Equation Energy Change
a. 2 H2 + O2 ----> 2 H2O 572 kJ (exo)
b. H2 + Cl2 ----> 2 HCl 185 kJ (exo)
c. H2 + I2 ----> 2 HI 51.1 kJ (endo)
d. 8 H2S ----> 8 H2 + S8 20.1 kJ (endo)
In the left column include the energy quantity within the equation. In the right column use "∆H."
a. ______________________________ ______________________________
b. ______________________________ ______________________________
c. ______________________________ ______________________________
d. ______________________________ ______________________________
ACTIVITY 19.9 How Much Heat Is Required To Melt Ice?
By using a calorimeter, you can measure the amount of heat which is absorbed when ice melts.
Procedure:
1. Obtain a thermometer, a foam cup, and a piece of cardboard large enough to serve as a lid over the
cup. Using a graduated cylinder, measure exactly 100. mL of water, and pour the water into the cup.
Record the temperature of the water to the nearest 0.5
o
C.
2. Obtain 2 or 3 ice cubes that have partially melted, so that the temperature of the cubes is 0
o
C. Remove
any excess liquid from the cubes with a paper towel, and add them to the cup. Place the cardboard lid
over the cup. The lid should have a small hole through which you should insert the thermometer.
Carefully stir the ice–water mixture. While you are providing continuous stirring (don't stop), observe the
temperature every 15 seconds as it goes down. When the temperature becomes constant for two
consecutive readings, record the final temperature to the nearest 0.5
o
C.
3. Remove the remaining ice and shake as much water as possible back into the cup from the ice cubes.
Do not leave the ice in the water after the temperature has leveled off – remove it immediately. Measure
and record the volume of water remaining in the cup. From this data you can determine the volume of
water that melted from the ice. Record all data in Table 19.3 below.
19-17 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
Tabl e 19. 3
Heat Required to Melt Ice
Original Volume of H2O _______mL
Original Temp. of H2O _______
o
C
Time Elapsed (sec) Temp (
o
C)
15 _______
30 _______
45 _______
60 _______
75 _______
90 _______
105 _______
120 _______
135 _______
150 _______
165 _______
180 _______
195 _______
210 _______
225 _______
240 _______
Lowest Temp. Reached _______
o
C
Final Volume of H2O _______mL
Volume H2O from Ice _______mL
Mass of Ice that Melted _______g
(1 mL H2O = 1 g H2O)
water
Fi gure 19. 5
Foam Cup Calorimeter
cardboard lid
ice cubes
The 100 mL of water cooled from its original temperature (to) to its final temperature (tf). The
absolute value of this temperature change is represented as |tf - to|. Calculate the change in the heat
energy of this water by using the formula below.
heat energy change = (mass of 100 mL H2O) (∆T) (S.H. of water)
∆T = |tf - to|
S.H. = 4.184 J / g.
o
C
joules
19-18 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
Calculation:
Energy change = __________ J
Now calculate the heat needed to melt one gram of ice by dividing the change in energy above (J), by the
mass of ice that melted (g). Show set-up.
__________ J / g
Now use the heat of fusion per one gram of ice from the calculation above to find the heat required to melt
one mole of ice. This is the change in heat energy when 1 mole (18.02 g) of water - in the form of ice -
melts. Set up the calculation below to change J / g to J / mole of water.
__________ J / mole
The accepted value from the Handbook of Chemistry and Physics is 6025 J/mole. Calculate the
percentage error involved in your experiment. The formula for %E is in the reference section of your
ALICE materials.
___________ %Error
What do you think was the greatest source of error in your experiment?__________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
The ice was absorbing energy as it melted. This energy was not gained as kinetic energy because
the temperature of the ice remained at 0
o
C for the entire experiment. Thus, the rate of motion of the
molecules was not increasing. If the rate of motion of the molecules was not affected, the energy must
have been gained as potential energy (energy of position). What change in the H2O molecules did this
additional potential energy cause? {25}__________________________________________________
The amount of heat required to melt a substance is sometimes called its heat of fusion. This
does not mean the same thing as nuclear fusion!
ACTIVITY 19.10 Measuring Enthalpy Changes
The next several experiments are designed to illustrate enthalpy changes. Perform each of the
following experiments and answer the questions given in each section.
19-19 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
Experiment 1: The formation of an aqueous solution of NaOH
1. Place 5 mL of water into a standard 150 mm test tube. Measure the temperature of the water.
T = _________
o
C
2. Using forceps, put 5 pellets of solid NaOH into the test tube. DO NOT handle the pellets with your
fingers. Wash your hands with plain water if contact is made. Wear safety glasses and an apron. Be sure
to quickly replace the lid tightly on the bottle of NaOH. (It absorbs water from the air.) Stir the solution in
the test tube for a minute or two and measure its temperature again. T = __________
o
C Does the test
tube feel warmer or cooler?________________________
In an exothermic process, heat is released by the
chemical system and is absorbed by the water which
serves as the surrounding "environment" of the
system. Thus, the water gets warmer. During an
endothermic process heat is absorbed from the
environment by the chemical system. Since the water
is the environment of the chemical system in this case,
an endothermic process would absorb heat from the
water making it cooler. Is the dissolving process for
NaOH exothermic or endothermic?______________
chemical
system
water gets
cooler
heat
water environment
Endothermic Reaction In Water
chemical
system
water gets
warmer
heat
water environment
Exothermic Reaction In Water
Fi gure 19. 6
Heat Exchange in Water
Rewrite the equation NaOH(s) -----> Na
1+
(aq) + OH
1-
(aq) below and include the term "heat" on the
proper side as a reactant or product:{26}_________________________________________________
Water is not included in the equation above, because dissolving is a physical change, not a chemical one.
Therefore, water is not a reactant. In the change above, do the reactants or the products have greater
enthalpy? {27}________________________
Experiment 2: The formation of an aqueous solution of NH4NO3.
1. Place 2 mL of water in a standard 150 mm test tube. Measure the temperature of the water.
T = _________
o
C
2. Add a small amount (about enough to cover a penny) of solid NH4NO3 to the water. Stir the solution for
a minute or two, and measure the temperature of the solution. T = __________
o
C
Does the test tube feel warmer or cooler?__________________ How did the temperature
change?________________________________ Was heat released to the water environment or
absorbed from the water environment by the chemical system? ______________________________
Is this process exothermic or endothermic?________________________________
Rewrite the equation NH4NO3(s) -----> NH4
1+
(aq) + NO3
1-
(aq) by adding the term "heat" as a reactant or
19-20 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
product to the proper side: {28}_______________________________________________________
In the change above, do the reactants or the products have greater enthalpy? {29}__________________
Experiment 3: The reaction of NaOH solution with HCl solution
If you have not already done so, put your safety glasses on. Put 3 mL of 1 M HCl solution into a
standard 150 mm test tube. Put 3 mL of 1 M NaOH solution (handle with care!) into a second similar test
tube. Wash your hands with plain water if contact is made. Measure the temperature of each solution,
rinsing the thermometer between uses.
THCl = __________
o
C; TNaOH = __________
o
C
Now mix the two solutions and stir well. Measure the temperature of the reaction mixture.
T = __________
o
C.
Did the water temperature increase or decrease after mixing?__________________ Is this chemical
reaction exothermic or endothermic?______________________
Rewrite the equation HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq) ---> HOH(l) + Na
1+
(aq) + Cl
1-
(aq) below by adding the term "heat"
to the proper side as a reactant or product: {30}____________________________________________

Assume that 55 joules of energy were exchanged in experiment 3. Then, write the equation above using
∆H to indicate the heat change instead of writing "heat" in the equation. Use the correct sign (+ or –) for
∆H.
{31}___________________________________; ∆H = __________J

In this reaction, do the reactants or the products have more potential energy? {32}__________________.
ACTIVITY 19.11 (Optional) Heat of Condensation of Water
Earlier in this chapter you determined the heat required to melt a given amount of ice. When
energy is added to water at its boiling point, 100
o
C, the temperature of the water does not increase.
Instead, the added energy allows the water molecules to move away from each other and enter the vapor
state. The energy required to vaporize one gram of a substance at its boiling point is known as the heat of
vaporization or the enthalpy of vaporization of the substance. When the vapor cools, the heat released is
known as the heat of condensation (or the enthalpy of condensation). In this activity, we are going to try to
determine the amount of heat released when one gram of water vapor condenses to liquid water.
Materials: foam cup with cardboard lid, 125–mL Erlenmeyer flask, one-holed rubber stopper, glass bend,
lab burner, 50-mL graduated cylinder, thermometer, distilled water.
Procedure:
1. Obtain a foam cup and a cardboard lid to cover the top of the cup. The lid should have a small hole in it
through which a thermometer will fit.
19-21 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
2. Measure the mass of the cup and its lid (together). Enter this as mass "A" in Table 19.4.
3. Place 40.0 mL of distilled water into the foam cup. Measure and record the total mass of the calorimeter,
lid, and water as mass "B" in Table 19.4.
cup
H2O
Lid
Fi gure 19. 7
Vaporization of Water Apparatus
4. Put some water into the 125-mL Erlenmeyer
flask until it is about one-fourth full.
5. Fit the flask with a glass bend and rubber
stopper as shown in Figure 19.7.
6. Heat the flask of water on a ring stand with a
laboratory burner as shown until it is gently
boiling. Lower the heat such that the water
continues to slowly boil.
7. As the water in the flask is getting hot, measure
and record the temperature of the water in the
foam cup. (An electronic thermometer can
provide more accuracy - to 0.1
o
C), if available.)
8. When fog is seen coming out of the glass
bend, insert the tip of the glass bend through the
hole in the cardboard lid and down into the water
in the calorimeter. Make sure that the glass
tubing is actually submerged into the water in the
cup. Hold it in this position for 1.5 to 2 minutes.
CAUTION: the glass tube and water vapor will be
hot! Hold the cup into position with beaker tongs
to keep your hands away from the hot fog.
9. Remove the glass bend from the cup. Measure the temperature of the water in the cup and record this
as final temperature "E" in Table 19.4.
10. Measure the mass of the cup with its lid, water, and condensed water vapor and record this as mass G.
Analysis and Conclusions:
1. Complete the Table 19.4 by finding the values of C, F, and H. Show work below.
19-22 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
2. The heat released when the water vapor condensed was added to the water in the calorimeter, causing
its temperature to increase. This quantity of heat "q" can be found using an equation which you used
earlier in this chapter. You will need to use the initial mass of water (data C), the change in temperature of
this water (data F), and the specific heat of water. Calculate this amount of heat,"q", in joules for your
experiment. Show work below.
3. The heat of condensation is the heat released, in joules, when 1.00 gram of water vapor condenses to
liquid water. Divide the results of analysis step 2 (data I in Table 19.4) by the mass of steam condensed
(data H). Show work below, and record the results.
Tabl e 19. 4
Heat of Condensation of Water
A. mass of empty calorimeter + lid __________ g
B. mass of calorimeter, lid, and water __________ g
C. mass of water (B – A) __________ g
D. initial temperature of water in calorimeter __________
o
C
E. final temperature of water in calorimeter __________
o
C
F. change in water temperature (E – D) __________
o
C
G. mass of calorimeter, lid, total water __________ g
H. mass of condensed water vapor (G – B) __________ g
I. heat released in condensation process __________ J
J. heat of condensation of water(I ÷ H) __________ J/g
4. The accepted value for the enthalpy of condensation of water is 2260 J/g. How does your experimental
enthalpy of vaporization of water compare with the actual value? _______________________________
Calculate your percentage error:
% Error = __________
19-23 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
5. The amount of heat given off when one gram of water vapor condenses to liquid water is the same as
the amount of heat needed to change one gram of liquid water to a vapor.
water vapor liquid water
2260 J/g
2260 J/g
In Activity 19.9 you experimentally determined the amount of heat required to melt ice. The accepted
value for that is 334.7 J/g. The heat required to vaporize liquid water is 2260 J/g. Why do you think there
is a significant difference between the amount of heat needed to melt ice and the amount of heat needed
to vaporize liquid water?
{33}____________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
6. The amount of heat given off when a vapor of ethyl alcohol condenses to a liquid is 855 J/g. For
benzene vapor the value is 395 J/g. How do these values compare with the enthalpy of condensation of
water in J/g? {34}_________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
C
C
C
C
C
C
H
H
H
H
H
H
7. The structure of benzene is shown at right. How might you use the
concept of polarity to explain why the amount of heat given off when benzene
vapor condenses to a liquid is less than that given off when an equal mass of
water vapor condenses to a liquid? {35}_____________________________
_________________________________________________________
8. How is the amount of heat given off when a vapor of substance X condenses to its liquid related to the
boiling point of substance X and to the strength of intermolecular forces in the liquid? {36}____________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
9. A burn caused by exposure to hot steam or hot fog at 100
o
C can be more harmful than a burn caused
by exposure to boiling water at 100
o
C. Why? {37}__________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
19-24 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
ACTIVITY 19.12 Superheated Steam
-> -> -> Teacher Demonstration <- <- <-
Once water has been converted into the gaseous state, additional heating cannot change its
phase again. Added heat simply causes the hot gas to increase in temperature. Superheated steam is is
gaseous water which is above 100
o
C. It can cause very severe burns. Your instructor will set up
equipment to produce superheated steam. You will see how it can be used to scorch paper!
Unbelievable!
Water is first heated to a vapor at 100
o
C.
Vapor is then heated to
temperatures above 100
o
C.
Superheated Steam
Fi gure 29. 8
Making Superheated Steam
SECTION 19.13 Optional Review Problems
12. How many joules of heat are needed to raise the temperature of 56.0 grams water from 45.0
o
C to
52.0
o
C? (S.H. H2O = 4.184 J/g.
o
C)
13. If 4.85 KJ of heat are added to 83.0 g of water initially at 67.0
o
C, what will its final temperature be?
14. The water in a calorimeter absorbs 234 J of heat and its temperature moves from 25.0
o
C to 38.0
o
C.
What is the mass in grams of water in the calorimeter?
15. Aluminum has a specific heat of 0.908 J/g
o
C. How many kilojoules of heat are released when a 1.5
kilogram block of aluminum cools from 135.0
o
C to 25.0
o
C?
16. A 85.96 gram block of metal is found to increase in temperature by 12.0
o
C when it absorbs 458 joules
of heat. Using information given in Section 19.5, identify this metal.
17. It is found that when 46.0 grams of a substance absorbs 672 joules of energy, its temperature
increases by 45.0
o
C. What is the value of the specific heat of this substance?
19-25 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
SECTION 19.14 Learning Outcomes
The principles of thermodynamics are important to your understanding of chemistry. Check off
the learning outcomes below after you feel you have mastered them. Arrange to take any tests or quizzes
on Chapter 19, and then move on to Chapter 20.
_____1. State, in general terms, the laws of thermodynamics.
_____2. Explain the concepts of specific heat and heat capacity.
_____3. Do calculations involving specific heat and heat capacity.
_____4. Explain transfers of heat involved in calorimetric measurements and be able to do calculations
involving these transfers.
_____5. Given a situation, determine whether it is an example of increasing or decreasing entropy.
_____6. Distinguish between exothermic and endothermic reactions.
_____7. Identify an equation as representing an endothermic or exothermic reaction if the equation
shows heat as a reactant or product.
_____8. Identify an equation as representing an endothermic or exothermic reaction if the value of ∆H is
given.
_____9. Explain and distinguish between enthalpy and entropy.
_____10. Identify and use the standard unit of energy in the International System of Units, the joule (J).
19-26 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
SECTION 19.15 Answers to Questions and Problems
Questions:
{1} potential; {2} potential and kinetic; {3} kinetic; {4} measure of average kinetic energy of particles, or a
measure of the ability of a substance to transfer heat; {5} It will melt off of the metal car body first because
metal has a lower heat capacity and, therefore, its temperature will rise more; {6} increase; {7} The one
with the smallest specific heat value; {8} The one with the largest specific heat value; {9} more; {10} less;
{11} cooler; {12} 52 g/mole; {13} Cr; {14} 6.15
o
C; {15} Liquids have greater entropy than solids but less
than that of gases; {16} The molecules of a liquid are free to move so that they are more disordered than
those of a solid - however, they are not able to move farther apart like those of a gas; {17} entropy;
{18} increase; {19} decrease; {20} removed from; {21} added to; {22} less than; {23} positive;
{24} greater; {25} The molecules moved farther apart during the phase change;
{26} NaOH(s) -----> Na
1+
(aq) + OH
1-
(aq) + heat; {27} reactants;
{28} NH4NO3(s) + heat -----> NH4
1+
(aq) + NO3
1-
(aq); {29} products;
{30} HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq) ---> HOH(l) + Na
1+
(aq) + Cl
1-
(aq) + heat
{31} HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq) ---> HOH(l) + Na
1+
(aq) + Cl
1-
(aq) ; ∆H = – 55 J
{32} reactants; {33} Melting requires that bonds between particles be weakened, whereas vaporization
requires that bonds be broken; {34} The values for ethyl alcohol and benzene are lower than that for
water; {35} The value for benzene is lower because it is nonpolar, while water is polar and polar bonds are
stronger; {36} A higher heat of vaporization indicates a higher boiling point and stronger forces of
attraction between the particles; {37} At 100
o
C hot steam or fog has more potential energy than boiling
water at 100
o
C.
Problems:
1. a. 2nd; b. 3rd; c. 1st; d. 0th
2. a. B - highest temperature; b. A - lowest temperature; c. 32 g;
d. oxygen - it has a molecular mass of 32 g/mole;
3. 4.0 X 10
4
J (rounded to two significant figures)
4. 167 J (rounds to 170 J)
5. 2.0
o
C
6. 454 g
7. 4.00 g H2O
8. 7.4 X 10
3
J (rounded to two significant figures)
9. a. decrease; b. decrease; c. increase; d. increase; e. increase; f. decrease
10. a. endothermic; b. exothermic; c. exothermic; d. endothermic
11. a. 2 H2 + O2 ----> 2 H2O + 572 kJ; 2 H2 + O2 ----> 2 H2O; ∆H = – 572 kJ
b. H2 + Cl2 ----> 2 HCl + 185 kJ; H2 + Cl2 ----> 2 HCl; ∆H = –185 kJ
c. H2 + I2 + 51.1 kJ ----> 2 HI; H2 + I2 ----> 2 HI; ∆H = 51.1 kJ
d. 8 H2S + 20.1 kJ ----> 8 H2 + S8; 8 H2S ----> 8 H2 + S8; ∆H = 20.1 kJ
12. 1640 J
13. Final Temp = 81.0
o
C
14. 4.30 g
15. 150. KJ of heat (rounded to three significant figures)
16. iron (S.H. = 0.444 J/g.
o
C)
17. 0.325 J/g.
o
C
19-27 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
SECTION 19.16 Student Notes
19-28 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
NAME____________________________________ PER____________ DATE DUE____________
ACTIVE LEARNING I N CHEMISTRY EDUCATION
"ALICE"
CHAPTER 20
CHEMICAL
EQUILIBRIUM
K
eq
20-1 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
NOTICE OF RIGHTS
All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form by any means,
electronic, mechanical, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the author.
Copies of this document may be made free of charge for use in public or nonprofit private educational
institutions provided that permission is obtained from the author . Please indicate the name and address
of the institution where use is anticipated.
© 1997 A.J. Girondi, Ph.D.
505 Latshmere Drive
Harrisburg, PA 17109
alicechem@geocities.com
Website: www.geocities.com/Athens/Oracle/2041


20-2 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
SECTION 20.1 Introduction to Equilibrium Systems
In most of the chemical reactions we have studied so far, it appears as though all of the reactants
are converted to products before a reaction stops. In truth, however, experiments show that the
conversion of reactants into products is often incomplete in chemical reactions. This is the case no matter
how long the reaction is allowed to continue.
As a reaction progresses, the concentrations of the reactants decrease, while the concentrations
of the products increase. Eventually, a state is established in which the concentrations of products and
reactants no longer change. This is known as the state of equilibrium. You have already studied many
examples of equilibrium. The most obvious example was probably encountered during your study of
solutions. At that time, you performed some activities that involved the use of saturated solutions.
Equilibrium is a balance between two equal and opposing processes or forces. When a system
reaches equilibrium, it does not undergo additional change unless the equilibrium is somehow disturbed.
A saturated solution is in equilibrium because there is a balance between the two opposing forces of
dissolving and crystallizing. (See Figure 20.1 below.) This is an example of a physical equilibrium since
dissolving and crystallizing are physical changes. An equation can be written to represent what is
occurring in this saturated solution after equilibrium has been reached:
REACTANTS PRODUCTS
CaCl2(s) Ca
2+
(aq) + 2 Cl
1-
(aq)
The (aq) subscript refers to "aqueous"
which means dissolved in water.
Ca
2+
Cl
1-
Cl
1-
Saturated CaCl2 Solution
Fi gure 20. 1
Solution Equilibrium
The double arrow indicates that the forward reaction is occurring
at the SAME RATE as the reverse reaction. Therefore, no
overall change occurs in the system. To an observer, it appears
as though nothing whatsoever is happening in the saturated
CaCl2 solution. Actually, the change shown at right is occurring
constantly in both directions. Note that the equation above
shows chlorine as 2 Cl
1-
, not as Cl2. Chloride ions (Cl
1-
) do not
exist in diatomic form. This is because these ions already have a
stable octet of electrons. Only chlorine atoms form diatomic
molecules: (Cl2). This is also true for the other diatomic elements.
CaCl2(s) <===> Ca
2+
(aq) + Cl2(aq) WRONG! ---> <--- WRONG!
CaCl2(s) <===> Ca
2+
(aq) + 2 Cl
1-
(aq)

The type of change shown in Figures 20.1 and 20.2 is referred to as dynamic equilibrium because,
although no changes can be observed in the system, the two opposing changes are happening
constantly.
Figure 20.2 illustrates two more examples of physical equilibria. Examine what is in each beaker,
and note how a double arrow is used in the equilibrium equation for each situation. Note, too, how the
state (solid, liquid, gas, or aqueous) of each substance is represented using subsscripts. Finally, notice
that coefficients are used to balance the equations properly.
20-3 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
Figure 20.2 Equilibrium Systems in Saturated Solutions
Saturated AlCl3 Solution
Al
3+
Cl
1-
AlCl3(s) <===> Al
3+
(aq) + 3 Cl
1-
(aq)
Cl
1-
Cl
1-
AlCl3
Pb
2+
I
1-
Saturated PbI2 Solution
I
1-
PbI2 (s) <===> Pb
2+
(aq) + 2 I
1-
(aq)
PbI2
Problem 1. The three equations below represent equilibrium systems created by dissolving solids in
water. Complete the equilibrium equations below. Include any charges on ions and the state of the ions
which in this case is "aqueous" or (aq):
a. NaCl(s) <====> _____________________________
b. Fe2(SO4)3(s) <====> _____________________________
c. BaBr2(s) <====> ______________________________
The formula for water is not included in the examples above because dissolving is not a chemical change
and, therefore, water is not consider a reactant. When substances dissolve in water they do not
chemically react with it. They merely come part in the water. Later in this chapter you will study reactions
that involve chemical equilibrium, since the changes are chemical, rather than physical.
There are several criteria that must be satisfied before an equilibrium can be achieved. Let's take a
closer look at some of these. Compare the two systems shown below (beakers A and B). Which beaker
contains a system at equilibrium?{1}_________ What do you think prevents the system in the other
beaker from forming an equilibrium system? {2}____________________________________________
Fi gure 20. 3
Closed and Open Systems
H2O(g)
H2O(l)
BEAKER "A"
H2O(g)
H2O(l)
BEAKER "B"
H2O(l) H2O(g)
20-4 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
Could equilibrium ever be achieved in an open system such as that shown in beaker B? {3}________ Why
or why not? {4}___________________________________________________________________
Hopefully, you have arrived at the conclusion that an equilibrium can be established in a system
such as this only if the system is closed. In addition, this system must be held under conditions of
constant temperature, pressure, and volume. If one or more of these factors is altered, the equilibrium
changes as well. (Not all equilibrium systems are affected by pressure or volume, but all equilibrium
systems are affected by temperature. We will discuss this later in the chapter.)
Equilibrium equations give an overall picture of the types of chemical changes that are occurring.
The equations do not, however, provide any information about the actual amounts of reactants and
products present. The equilibrium equation for a saturated sodium chloride solution:
NaCl(s) <====> Na
1+
(aq) + Cl
1-
(aq)
merely indicates the identities of the ions and molecules involved in the equilibrium, and the double
arrows show that equilibrium prevails. There is absolutely no way that you can tell what the concentrations
of any of the products or reactants are just by looking at this equation. The reaction container may have a
few crystals of solid NaCl present or it may have a large pile of solid salt.
SECTION 20.2 Solving Problems Involving Equilibrium Systems
There is a simple relationship between the concentrations of the products and the reactants.
Through much experimental study, scientists were able to come up with a law of chemical equilibrium.
Consider the hypothetical equilibrium system: A + B <===> C + D
Brackets such as, [ ], are used to denote molar (M) concentration. So when you see something like
[Ag
1+
], it means "molar concentration of silver ions." This law of chemical equilibrium states that if you find
the product of the concentrations of the products, [C] [D], and divide that result by the product of the
concentrations of the reactants, [A] [B], the result will be a constant value:

constant value =
[C] [D]
[A] [B]
Now, let's look at a real example:
4 NO(g) + 6 H2O(g) <====> 4 NH3(g) + 5 O2(g)
Since this system is at equilibrium, this means that the RATE of the forward reaction (--->) is equal to the
RATE of the reverse (<---) reaction. From the equation for the equilibrium system, we can write what is
called the equilibrium expression for this reaction:

equilibrium expression =
[NH
3
]
4
[O
2
]
5
[NO]
4
[H
2
O]
6
You should notice two things about the expression above. First, note that the numerator contains the
product of the concentrations of the products, and the denominator is the product of the concentrations
of the reactants. Second, you should see that the coefficients in the equation become exponents in the
equilibrium expression. The reasons why we turn coefficients into exponents can be explained using
kinetic–molecular theory and collision theory. However, we will simply accept this, and save the
explanation for a more advanced course. If you know the concentrations of all the reactants and products
in this equilibrium system, you can plug those values into this expression and solve it. The value you will
20-5 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
get is a constant. Why? Well, if you somehow manage to change the concentration of NH3, for example,
the concentrations of the other substances in the system will change, too. The net effect will be that the
expression will maintain the same value. Since it is a constant value, it is given the symbol K. Since it
involves equilibrium, it is often called Keq. (Other authors may designate it as K, Kc, etc.) So,

K
eq
=
[NH
3
]
4
[O
2
]
5
[NO]
4
[H
2
O]
6
Problem 2. Write the equilibrium expressions for each of the chemical situations given below.
a. 2 NO2(g) <===> N2O4(g) Keq =
b. N2(g) + 3 H2(g) <===> 2 NH3(g) Keq =
c. Ag
1+
(aq) + 2 NH3(aq) <===> Ag(NH3)2
1+
(aq) Keq =
d. 2 NO(g) + 2 H2(g) <===> N2(g) + 2 H2O(g) Keq =
Setting up an equilibrium expression is an extremely useful skill after you become aware of what
information it can provide. In other words, what good is Keq?
One way to determine the value of Keq for a particular reaction is to allow the reaction to proceed at
a given temperature in such a way as to allow the products to accumulate in the reaction container. After a
period of time, the reaction will reach equilibrium. At this point, it may be possible to experimentally
determine the concentrations of the reactants and products in the container. The concentration values
are then substituted into the equilibrium expression which is then solved for Keq.
Let's consider an equilibrium system involving only gases and assume that some method is
available to determine the concentrations of reactants and products at equilibrium. Equilibrium equations
are frequently accompanied by the temperature at which the reaction was allowed to achieve equilibrium.
Since temperature always affects equilibrium, it also affects the value of Keq. For example:
H2(g) + I2(g) <===> 2 HI(g) (at 250
o
C)
Let's look at how the value of Keq for this system can be determined (at this temperature).
1. Start by writing the correct formula for the Keq of this reaction:

K
eq
=
[HI]
2
[H
2
] [I
2
]

20-6 ©1997, A.J. Girondi
2. Below are the experimentally determined equilibrium concentrations of each reactant and product for
the system above. The brackets mean molarity (moles / liter of sol'n).
Temp. [H2] [I2] [HI]
Experiment 1: 250
o
C 0.00560 0.000590 0.01270
Experiment 2: 250
o
C 0.00460 0.000970 0.01476
Notice that two experiments were probably per