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A. Soil/Land Pollution
Land pollution is the degradation of the Earth's surface caused by a misuse of resources and
improper disposal of waste. It is contamination of the soil that prevents natural growth and
balance in the land whether it is used for cultivation, habitation, or a wildlife preserve.

Some examples of land pollution include:
Litter found on the side of the road
Illegal dumping in natural habitats
Oil spills that happen inland
The use of pesticides and other farming chemicals
Damage and debris caused from unsustainable mining and logging practices
Radiation spills or nuclear accidents
Land pollution is responsible for damage done to natural habitat of animals, deforestation and
damage done to natural resources, and the general ugly-ing up of our communities.

Some soil pollution, such as the creation of landfills, is deliberate, while much more is accidental
and can have widespread effects. This can lead to poor growth and reduced crop yields, loss of
wildlife habitat, water and visual pollution, soil erosion and desertification.

B. Water Pollution
Water pollution involves any contaminated water, whether from chemical, particulate, or
bacterial matter that degrades the waters quality and purity. Water pollution can occur in
oceans, rivers, lakes, and underground reservoirs, and as different water sources flow together
the pollution can spread.

Some examples of water pollution:
Raw sewage running into lake or streams
Industrial waste spills contaminating groundwater
Radiation spills or nuclear accidents
Illegal dumping of substances, or items in bodies of water
Biological contamination, such as bacteria growth
These kinds of environmental pollution are linked to health issues in humans,
animals and plant-life.
The effects of water pollution include decreasing the quantity of drinkable water available,
lowering water supplies for crop irrigation, and impacting fish and wildlife populations that
require water of certain purity for survival.

C. Air Pollution
Air Pollution is defined as any contamination of the atmosphere that disturbs the natural
composition and chemistry of air. This can be in the form of particulate matter such as dust or
excessive gasses like carbon dioxide or other vapors that cannot be effectively removed through
natural cycles, such as the carbon cycle or the nitrogen cycle.

Some examples of air pollution include:
Exhaust fumes from vehicles

The burning of fossil fuels, such as coal, oil or gas
Harmful off-gassing from things such as paint, plastic production and so on
Radiation spills or nuclear accidents

Depending on the concentration of air pollutants, several effects can be noticed. Smog increases,
higher rain acidity, crop depletion from inadequate oxygen, and higher rates of asthma. Many
scientists believe that global warming is also related to increased air pollution.

D. Light Pollution
Light pollution is the brightening of the night sky inhibiting the visibility of stars and planets by
the use of improper lighting of communities. It therefore interferes with astronomical
observation and personal enjoyment. If it is near residential areas, light pollution can also
degrade the quality of life for residents.

Some examples of what causes light pollution:
Street lamps that shine light in all directions, instead of with a hood to point light
downward toward the street.
Unnecessary lights, especially around the home
Light pollution uses more energy (by shining more light up instead of down), may
affect human health and our sleep cycles and most importantly, corrupts our kids
telescopes and their curiosity.

E. Noise Pollution
Noise pollution refers to undesirable levels of noises caused by human activity that disrupt the
standard of living in the affected area.
Some noise pollution may be temporary while other sources are more permanent. Effects may
include hearing loss, wildlife disturbances, and a general degradation of lifestyle.
Some examples of noise pollution:
Airplanes, helicopters and motor vehicles
Construction or demolition noise
Human activities such as sporting events or concerts

*Noise pollution is disruptive to humans' stress levels, may be harmful to unborn
babies, and drives animals away, causing nervousness and decreasing their ability
to hear prey or predators.

F. Visual Pollution
Visual pollution is what you would call anything unattractive or visual damaging to the nearby
landscape. This tends to be a highly subjective topic, as we all find different things attractive and
unattractive. It may lower the quality of life in certain areas, or could impact property values and
personal enjoyment.

Some examples of visual pollution:
Skyscrapers might block the view of a mountain
Graffiti or carving on trees, rocks or other natural landscapes
Billboards, litter, abandoned homes and junkyards could also be considered among
three kinds of environmental pollution

Mostly visual kinds of environmental pollution are annoying, although some may say
they are also depressing (such as when they can't see a view through a billboard).
Power lines
Construction areas
Neglected areas or objects such as polluted vacant fields or abandoned buildings

While visual pollution has few immediate health or environmental effects, whats causing the
eyesore can have detrimental effects.

G. Thermal Pollution
Thermal pollution is the increase of temperature caused by human activity. It is excess heat that
creates undesirable effects over long periods of time. The earth has a natural thermal cycle, but
excessive temperature increases can be considered a rare type of pollution with long term effects.
Many types of thermal pollution are confined to areas near their source, but multiple sources can
have wider impacts over a greater geographic area.

Some causes of thermal pollution include:
Power plants
Urban Sprawl
Air pollution particles that trap heat
Loss of temperature moderating water supplies

*Included in thermal pollution should also be the increase in temperatures in
areas with lots of concrete or vehicles, generally in cities.

These kinds of environmental pollution can cause aquatic life to suffer or die due to the
increased temperature, can cause discomfort to communities dealing with higher temperatures
and can even affect plant-life in and around the area. As temperatures increase, mild climatic
changes may be observed, and wildlife populations may be unable to recover from swift changes.

H. Radioactive Pollution

Radioactive pollution is rare but extremely detrimental, and even deadly, when it occurs.
Because of its intensity and the difficulty of reversing damage, there are strict government
regulations to control radioactive pollution.

Some sources of radioactive pollution include:
Nuclear power plant accidents or leakage
Improper nuclear waste disposal
Uranium mining operations

Radiation pollution can cause birth defect, cancer, sterilization, and other health problems for
human and wildlife populations. It can also sterilize the soil and contribute to water and air


1. Mining in Rio Tuba, Palawan.

There are many environmental concerns about
the effects mining has on the land. Trees need
to be cut down in order to have a mine built,
and whole forests could be destroyed. Mining
involves moving large quantities of rock, and in
surface mining, overburden land impacts are
immense. Overburden is the material that lies
overtop of the desirable mineral deposits that
must be removed before the mining process
begins. Some mines make an effort to return
the rock and land to its original appearance by
returning the rock and overburden to the pit
that they were taken out of. Copper mines
sometimes extract ore that has very little copper actually in it (less than 1%). Almost all of the mined ore of
non-ferrous metals becomes waste. A lot of areas are pock marked by thousands of small holes by people
digging in search of precious minerals. Mining activities also may lead to erosion, which is dangerous and
bad for the land. It destroys river banks, and changes how the river flows, where it flows, what lives in it,
etc. Toxins used in the extraction of minerals (for example cyanide and byproducts like mercury) can
permanently pollute the land, which makes people not able to farm in certain places. Open-pit mining
leaves behind large craters that can be seen from outer-space.

Mining has a great effect on the
quality of the air. Since mines need
to blast through rock to get to an
ore, dust may be produced in the
process. Coal mines release
methane, which contributes to
environmental issues because it is a
greenhouse gas.


Mines use a lot of water, though some
of the water is reusable. Sulfide
containing minerals, when oxidized
through contact with air, via mining,
form sulfuric acid. This, when
combined with trace elements,
negatively impacts groundwater. This
happens from both surface and
underground mines. Another way
surface and underground water are
affected is through tailings dams and
waste rock heaps, because they are a
source of acidic drainage water.
Leftover chemical deposits from
explosives are usually toxic, and
increase the salinity of mine water, as
well as contaminating it. Groundwater
can be directly contaminated through in situ mining, in which a solvent seeps into un-mined rock,
leaching minerals. In the extraction of minerals, some toxins (for example cyanide and mercury) are used
that can permanently pollute the water, making it hard for fishers to find fish. Spills into oceans and lakes
add toxic heavy metals and sulfuric acid into the environment, which can take ages to fix. Also, Acid Mine
Drainage lowers the pH of the water, making it more acidic.

2. Motor vehicle engines in hi-ways and roads.

Puerto Princesa is becoming a
developed city as each day passes, but
this brings forth the use of many
vehicles for transportation purposes
since our population is also growing.
Because of the exhaust from motor
vehicles engines, our hi-ways are
becoming more polluted and the air
becomes toxicespecially to those
with respiratory problems such as


3. Light pollution caused by excess lighting
in buildings/ attractions

When there are events such as Christmas and
New Years eve, Palaweos often visit the City
Baywalk (Baybay) and there would be
throngs of peopleold and young, men and
women visiting the place. Not such a bad thing
though, to mingle with others and possibly
make new friends, but the thing is: when there
are events like these, the government often use a lot of electricity to fire up dozens of city
lightswhich in itself is not the bad thing here.

People pay their taxes so these things would
happen to their convenience, but what they dont
know is that when there are too many lights in a
certain place, you wont be able to see the true
beauty of nature. The stars would be blocked by
the electricity from the lighting and the moon
would be a mere white ball on the night sky.