IOSR Journal of Computer Engineering (IOSR-JCE) vol.16 issue.2 version.12

© All Rights Reserved

10 views

IOSR Journal of Computer Engineering (IOSR-JCE) vol.16 issue.2 version.12

© All Rights Reserved

- Using Elliptic Curve Cryptography to Secure Online Data & Content
- Hw Ch9 Hernan Ortega 2
- Rumor Riding: Anonymizing Unstructured Peer-to-Peer Systems
- [IJET-V2I4P10] Authors: Prof. Swetha.T.N, Dr. S.Bhargavi, Dr. Sreerama Reddy G.M,Prof. Gangadhar.V
- CCGA
- Cryptography-The Science of Hiding Information
- RAMisKey
- International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research
- Df 23647650
- McElice Key
- Survey of Management of Phr by Secure Cipher Text Policy Attribute Based Encryption Scheme
- Online Security
- Bh 35333338
- cns unit I two marks
- Chapter 4
- 3N19-IJAET0319309_v7_iss1_30-37
- h 43064650
- CSG513 NetSEc Lecture 1 Jan 09 2012
- Pl 1000tecryptoletterapril15
- 07543839.pdf

You are on page 1of 5

e-ISSN: 2278-0661, p- ISSN: 2278-8727Volume 16, Issue 2, Ver. XII (Mar-Apr. 2014), PP 91-95

www.iosrjournals.org

www.iosrjournals.org 91 | Page

BEST-1: A Light Weight Block Cipher

Jacob John

(Sinhgad Institute of Business Administration and Computer Application, Lonavala, Pune, India)

Abstract: The demand for applications involving Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) or RFID systems is

increasing. The sensor in a WSN and RFID tag/reader in a RFID system are called resource constrained

devices because these devices have limited processing power, memory size and energy supply. The information

transmitted among these low resource devices must be protected from unauthorized access using specifically

made cryptographic algorithms. In this paper a new block cipher BEST-1 (Better Encryption Security

Technique-1) is proposed with 64 bit block length and 128 bit key length. It is specifically designed for the

above mentioned low resource devices. It provides good security and better processing speed as a

cryptographic algorithm.

Keywords: Light weight, block cipher, cryptography, low resource, resource constrained devices.

I. Introduction

Radio frequency identification (RFID) tags and WSN nodes are few examples of ubiquitous

computing, which are used in applications like supply chain management, access control, inventory

management, automated electronic toll systems etc. There are security concerns about the confidentiality and

privacy of radio frequency communication between reader and the tag in a RFID system. A wireless sensor

network is a network composed of a large number of sensors that are physically small, communicate wirelessly

among each other. Sensor node senses surrounding environment, gather data, transmit them through network.

Sensor devices and RFID systems have critical resource constraints such as processing power, memory size and

energy supply. Due to wireless nature of the sensor network and constrained nature of resources, there are

number of security threats. Since the security and privacy of collected data are important, secure communication

channel must be established between nodes. In order to obtain a high level of security in the above said low

resource devices, it is necessary to use strong cryptographic algorithms.

The traditional cryptographic algorithms are not suitable for the light weight platforms of sensor network

and RFID systems. The algorithms already developed for this particular environment are Hummingbird-2[1,

2], PRESENT [3,4], HIGHT [3,5], DESXL [6], low resource version of AES [7], etc. To meet the demands of

the future, there is a need to design and develop a new light weight cryptographic algorithm with better security

and faster processing speed.

In this paper a new block cipher BEST-1 (Better Encryption Security Technique-1) is proposed, which is

specifically designed for low cost, low power and ultra light implementation. BEST-1 is designed to suit the

requirements of 8 bit oriented CPUs of sensor nodes in sensor networking system or RFID system.

The paper is organized as follows. In section II, the specifications of BEST-1 are presented. The design

principles of BEST-1 and the hardware implementation are described in section III. Security analysis is

discussed in Section IV. In section V, the performances of various block ciphers are analysed. Then the paper

is concluded in section VI.

II. Proposed Block Cipher BEST-1

The block length of BEST-1 is 64 bit and key length is 128 bit. The key schedule algorithm of BEST-1

generates transformation keys and sub keys. Sub keys are generated in the fly during encryption and decryption

process. It also keeps the value of the Master key in both these processes. The operations performed in BEST-1

are XOR, addition mod 2

8

, subtraction mod 2

8

and bitwise shift.

The notations used for the operations in BEST-1 are given as below.

: XOR (exclusive OR) : addition mod 2

8

: subtraction mod 2

8

X

<<<a

: a-bit left rotation of a 8 bit value X

The 64 bit plain text and cipher text are considered as concatenations of 8 bytes and denoted by

P=P

0

||P

1

||..P

7

and C=C

0

||C

1

|| .. C

7

respectively. The 64 bit intermediate values are represented as

X

i

=X

i,0

||X

i,1

||..X

i,7

where i=0,..,11.The 128 bit master key is considered as concatenation of 16 bytes and denoted

by MK=MK

0

||MK

1

||..MK

15

.

BEST-1: A Light Weight Block Cipher

www.iosrjournals.org 92 | Page

Figure-1 Encryption process of BEST-1

The encryption process of BEST-1, BESTEncryption consists of key schedule, initial transformation,

round function and final transformation. The main algorithm BESTEncryption is given below.

BESTEncryption(P,MK){

KeySchedule(MK,TK,SK);

BEncryption(P,TK,SK){

InitialTransformation(P, X

0

, TK

3

,

TK

2

,

TK

1

,

TK

0

);

for i=0 to 11

{

RoundFunction(){

Process( );

BlockReorder();

} }

FinalTransformation(C, X

11

, TK

7

,

TK

6

,

TK

5

,

TK

4

);

}}

TK and SK stands for Transformation keys and Sub keys.

2.1. Key Schedule

The algorithm KeySchedule consists of two sub algorithms TransformationKeyGeneration which

generates 8 transformation keys TK

0

..TK

7

and SubKey Generation which generates 96 sub keys SK

0

...SK

95

.

KeySchedule(MK,,TK,SK){

TransformationKeyGeneration(MK,TK);

SubKeyGeneration(MK,SK);

}

2.1.1 TransformationKeyGeneration( )

TransformationKeyGeneration generates 8 transformation keys which are used in initial and final

transformations. The algorithm TransformationKey Generation is given below.

TransformationKeyGeneration {

for i=0 to 7

{

If 0 i 3 then TK

i

MK

i+12

;

else TK

i

MK

i-4

;

}}

2.1.2 SubKeyGeneration( )

SubKeyGeneration algorithm generates 96 sub keys. In round function 8 sub keys are processed per

round. The algorithm SubKeyGeneration uses sub algorithm ConstantGeneration to generate 96 constants

d

0

..d

95

, then use these constants to generate sub keys SK

0

..SK

95

.

BEST-1: A Light Weight Block Cipher

www.iosrjournals.org 93 | Page

The value of d

0

is fixed. The algorithm ConstantGeneration uses LFSR to generate d

1

.. d

95

from d

0

as follows.

ConstantGeneration {

S

0

0 ; S

1

1 ; S

2

0 ;

S

3

1 ; S

4

1 ; S

5

0 ;

S

6

1 ; S

7

0 ;

d

0

S

7

|| S

6

|| S

5

|| S

4

|| S

3

|| S

2

|| S

1

|| S

0

for i=1 to 95 {

S

i+7

S

i+2

S

i-1

d

i

S

i+7

|| S

i+6

|| S

i+5

|| S

i+4

|| S

i+3

|| S

i+2

||S

i+1

||S

i+0

}

The algorithm SubKeyGeneration generates the sub keys as follows.

SubKeyGeneration (MK , SK ){

Run ConstantGeneration

For i=0 to 7 {

For j=o to 5{

SK

16.i+j

MK

j

d

16.i+j

;

}

For j=0 to 5 {

SK

16.i+j+8

MK

j+8

d

16.i+j +8

;

} }

2.2. Initial Transformation

The plain text P is transformed into the input of Round Function X

0

= X

0,0

|| X

0,1

|| .. || X

0,7

through

InitialTransformation using four transformation key bytes TK

0

, TK

1

, TK

2

, TK

3

.

InitialTransformation(P, X

0

, TK

3

,

TK

2

,

TK

1

,

TK

0

){

X

0,0

P

0

TK

0

;

X

0,1

P

1

;

X

0,2

P

2

TK

1

; X

0,3

P

3

;

X

0,4

P

4

TK

2

;

X

0,5

P

5

;

X

0,6

P

6

TK

3

; X

0,7

P

7

;

}

2.3.Round Function

The sub algorithm RoundFunction() is given below.

RoundFunction()

{

Process( );

BlockReorder();

}

There are two sub algorithms inside RoundFunction() . They are Process() and BlockReorder().

2.3.1 Process( )

Four sub functions are used in process. They are F

1

, F

3

, F

4

and F

6

which are given as follows.

F

1

= X

<<<1

F

3

= X

<<<3

F

4

= X

<<<4

F

6

= X

<<<6

For i=0,..,11 Process( ) transforms X

i

=X

i,0

||X

i,1

||..X

i,7

into X

i+1

=X

i+1,0

||X

i+1,1

||..X

i+1,7

as follows.

Process ( X

i

, X

i+1

, SK

8.i+0

, SK

8.i+1

, SK

8.i+2

, SK

8.i+3

, SK

8.i+4

, SK

8.i+5

, SK

8.i+6

, SK

8.i+7

) {

X

i+1 ,0

SK

8.i+0

X

i,0

X

i+1 ,1

SK

8.i+1

X

i,1

X

i+1 ,2

SK

8.i+2

F

1

(X

i,2

)

X

i+1 ,3

SK

8.i+3

F

3

(X

i,3

)

X

i+1 ,4

SK

8.i+4

X

i,4

X

i+1 ,5

SK

8.i+5

X

i,5

X

i+1 ,6

SK

8.i+6

F

4

(X

i,6

)

X

i+1 ,7

SK

8.i+7

F

6 (

X

i,7

)

BEST-1: A Light Weight Block Cipher

www.iosrjournals.org 94 | Page

}

2.3.2 BlockReorder( )

BlockReorder() reorders the block after the execution of process( ) function in each and every round. In the

next round process( ) will be applied on the reordered block. The BlockReorder() algorithm is given as follows.

BlockReorder( X

j

, X

k

, j,k) {

j0; k 7;

While ( j<k )

{

swap(X

j

, X

k

); j j+1; k k-1;

}}

2.4.Final Transformation

Final transformation transforms X

11

= X

11,0

|| X

11,1

|| .. || X

11,7

to cipher text C using four transformation

key bytes TK

4

, TK

5

, TK

6

, TK

7

. The sub algorithm FinalTransformation is given below.

FinalTransformation(C, X

11

, TK

7

,

TK

6

,

TK

5

,

TK

4

) {

C

0

X

11,0

TK

4

;

C

1

X

11,1

; C

2

X

11,2

TK

5

; C

3

X

11,3

;

C

4

X

11,4

TK

6

;

C

5

X

11,5

; C

6

X

11,6

TK

7

; C

7

X

11,7

;

}

2.5.Decryption Process

Decryption is done as a sequence of steps after inverting the BEST-1Encryption(). During decryption,

in the round function is done instead of and bitwise shifting is performed in the reverse direction.

III. Design Principles Of Best-1

Encryptions of a large amount of data are not expected in applications involving low resource devices. The

block length of BEST-1 is 64 bit. If the block length is increased it will decrease the speed of processing. CPUs

associated with the sensors in WSN are based on 8 bit processor. So every operation in BEST-1 must be 8 bit

oriented. Since encryption is simply converted into decryption process, implementation of circuit supporting

both encryption and decryption does not require much more cost than encryption only circuit. Key length of

BEST-1 is 128 bit, it provides adequate security. If length of key is increased more it will affect the speed of

processing. The combination of XOR and addition mod 2

8

plays an important role for resistance against existing

attacks. The inner functions F

1

, F

3

, F

4

, F

6

of round function provides BEST-1 bitwise diffusion. The sequence

d

0

... d

95

generated by linear feedback shift register enhances the randomness of sub keys. Many security attacks

will be resisted by these process. The function BlockReorder( ) included in the round function increases the

security.

The algorithm BEST-1 can be implemented in a hardware circuit. The main parts of the circuit are Key

schedule, Round function and Control logic. The resource requirements for the hardware implementation will

be approximately around 2200 GEs.

IV. Security Analysis

The security of BEST-1 is analysed against various attacks. It is found from the results of analysis that

BEST-1 is secure enough for cryptographic applications. The differential cryptanalysis [8] uses paths from the

plain text difference to the cipher text difference for attacking the ciphers. The round function with block

reorder function and final transformation make a good defensive mechanism against differential cryptanalysis.

Linear cryptanalysis [9] uses relations of plain text, cipher text and master key. In the case of BEST-1, such

attack requires more than 2

58

plain texts to get some success rate. Truncated differential cryptanalysis [10] is a

path from a partial difference of the input to partial difference of the output.

The probabilities of truncated differential characteristics are too low to be applied for attack.

Boomerang attack [11] use two differential characteristics with relatively high probabilities. The improved form

of Boomerang attack is amplified Boomerang attack [12] and rectangle attacks [13,14]. The block reorder

function and final transformation can resist such attacks. The weakness of the key schedule is exploited by the

slide [15] and related key attacks [16]. The sub key generation algorithm is strong enough to prevent such

attacks. Different sub keys are processed in each round of the round function. Different constants are used to

make those sub keys. This is a good resistance against slide attack. Related key attack is done by finding the

relation between two master keys. The combination of key schedule and round function will resist such attacks

BEST-1: A Light Weight Block Cipher

www.iosrjournals.org 95 | Page

V. Performance Analysis

A comparative analysis of the performances of various block ciphers are shown in the below given

table.

Table -1 Performance Analysis of Various Block Ciphers

Block length Cycles per

block

Key size Throughput (at 80 MHz)

in Mbps

BEST-1 64 14 128 365.7

Humming bird-2 16 4 128 320

PRESENT 64 32 80 160

HIGHT 64 34 128 150.6

DESXL 64 144 184 35.6

AES 128 1032 128 9.9

VI. Conclusion

A new block cipher BEST-1 with 64 bit block length and 128 bit key length is proposed. It is designed for

implementation in resource constrained devices such as RFID systems or wireless sensor networks. It is found

from security analysis that it has adequate security. The throughput of BEST-1 is 365.7 Mbps under the

operating frequency 80 MHz, which shows it has faster processing speed.

REFERENCES

[1] Daniel Engels, Marakku-Juhani O. Saarinen, Peter Schweitzer, Eric M. Smith The Hummingbird-2 Light weight Authenticated

Encryption Algorithm RFID Sec 2011.The 7

th

workshop on RFID Security and Privacy, Amherst, Massachusets , USA June 2011.

[2] Xinxin Fan, Guang Gong, K. Lauffenburger, T. Hicks FPGA Implementations of the Hummingbird Cryptographic Algorithm

Hardware Oriented Security and Trust (HOST) 2010 IEEE International Symposium.

[3] P Yalla , Jens-Peter Kaps Light Weight Cryptography for FPGAs IEEE International Conference on Reconfigurable

Computing and FPGAs 2009 IEEE Computer Society Press.

[4] A. Bogdanov et al., PRESENT: An ultra-lightweight block cipher, in CHES 2007, ser. LNCS, vol. 4727. Springer, 2007, pp. 450

466.

[5] D. Hong, J. Sung, S. Hong, J. Lim, S. Lee, B.-S; Koo, C. Lee, D. Chang, J. Lee, K. Jeong, H. Kim, J. Kim, and S. Chee. HIGHT:

A New Block Cipher Suitable for Low-Resource Device, In L. Goubin and M. Matsui, editors, Proceedings of CHES 2006.

[6] G. Leander, C Paar, A. Poschmann, and K Schramm A Family of Lightweight Block Ciphers Based on DES Suited for RFID

Applications. In A. Biryukov, editor,Proceedings of FSE 2007, LNCS, Springer-Verlag.

[7] M. Feldhofer, S. Dominikus, and J.Wolkerstorfer.Strong Authentication for RFIDSystems Using the AES algorithm. In M. Joye

and J.-J. Quisquater, editors, Proceedings of CHES 2004, LNCS, volume 3156, pages 357370, Springer Verlag, 2004.

[8] E. Biham, A. Shamir. Differential Cryptanalysis of the Data Encryption Standard," Springer-Verlag,1993.

[9] M. Matsui, Linear Cryptanalysis Method for DES Cipher," Advances in Cryptology - EUROCRYPT'93, T. Helleseth, Ed., LNCS

765, Springer-Verlag, pp. 386-397, 1994.

[10] L. R. Knudsen, Truncated and Higher Order Differential," FSE 94, LNCS 1008, Springer-Verlag, pp. 229-236, 1995.

[11] D. Wagner,The Boomerang Attack," FSE'99, LNCS 1636, Springer-Verlag, pp.156-170, 1999.

[12] J. Kelsey, T. Kohno, B. Schneier, Amplified Boomerang Attacks Against Reduced-Round MARS and Serpent," FSE 2000, LNCS

1978, Springer-Verlag, pp. 75-93,2001.

[13] E. Biham, O. Dunkelman, N. Keller, The Rectangle Attack- Rectangling theSerpent," Advances in Cryptology - EUROCRYPT

2001, LNCS 2045, Springer-Verlag, pp. 340-357, 2001.

[14] E. Biham, O. Dunkelman, N. Keller, New Results on Boomerang and Rectangle Attacks," FSE 2002, LNCS 2365, Springer-

Verlag, pp. 1-16, 2002.

[15] A. Biryukov, D.Wagner, Slide Attacks," Advances in Cryptology - FSE'99, LNCS1687, Springer-Verlag, pp. 244-257, 1999.

[16] E. Biham, New Types of Cryptanalytic Attack Using Related Keys," Journal of Cryptology, Volume 7, Number 4, pp. 156-

171,1994.

- Using Elliptic Curve Cryptography to Secure Online Data & ContentUploaded byKefa Rabah
- Hw Ch9 Hernan Ortega 2Uploaded byHernán Esteban Ortega
- Rumor Riding: Anonymizing Unstructured Peer-to-Peer SystemsUploaded byKarthi Keyan
- [IJET-V2I4P10] Authors: Prof. Swetha.T.N, Dr. S.Bhargavi, Dr. Sreerama Reddy G.M,Prof. Gangadhar.VUploaded byInternational Journal of Engineering and Techniques
- CCGAUploaded byCarlos Calla
- Cryptography-The Science of Hiding InformationUploaded byMuktesh Chander IPS
- RAMisKeyUploaded byEndogen
- International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied ResearchUploaded bykurama
- Df 23647650Uploaded byAnonymous 7VPPkWS8O
- McElice KeyUploaded byCasandra Edwards
- Survey of Management of Phr by Secure Cipher Text Policy Attribute Based Encryption SchemeUploaded byIJSTR Research Publication
- Online SecurityUploaded byDheeraj Kannan
- Bh 35333338Uploaded byAnonymous 7VPPkWS8O
- cns unit I two marksUploaded byBharathi
- Chapter 4Uploaded byKobe Thuy
- 3N19-IJAET0319309_v7_iss1_30-37Uploaded byAjit Panada
- h 43064650Uploaded byAnonymous 7VPPkWS8O
- CSG513 NetSEc Lecture 1 Jan 09 2012Uploaded byNeha Sharma
- Pl 1000tecryptoletterapril15Uploaded bysrotenstein3114
- 07543839.pdfUploaded byMonish Reddy
- redacted cryptography term paperUploaded byapi-271897349
- IntroductionUploaded byKhairi Azmi
- Cry2Uploaded bySaadat Rehman
- Security BasicsUploaded byleonardo calderon
- project1.docxUploaded bydivya
- 041Uploaded byPravesh Luchoomun
- Puneeeth DhUploaded bySumana Nanjundaiah
- dadadadadani29aprilhariiniUploaded byikhsan lutfi
- Final PresentationUploaded bySwinkyKhanna
- Spot-OnUploaded byJason Bourne

- Effects of Formative Assessment on Mathematics Test Anxiety and Performance of Senior Secondary School Students in Jos, NigeriaUploaded byInternational Organization of Scientific Research (IOSR)
- Study the Changes in Al-ahwaz Marshal using Principal Component Analysis and Classification TechniqueUploaded byInternational Organization of Scientific Research (IOSR)
- The Effect of Instructional Methods and Locus of Control on Students’ Speaking Ability (An Experimental Study in State Senior High School 01, Cibinong Bogor, West Java)Uploaded byInternational Organization of Scientific Research (IOSR)
- Philosophical Analysis of the Theories of Punishment in the Context of Nigerian Educational SystemUploaded byInternational Organization of Scientific Research (IOSR)
- Comparison of Psychological Variables within different positions of players of the state Junior boys ball Badminton players of ManipurUploaded byInternational Organization of Scientific Research (IOSR)
- Comparison of Explosive Strength between Football and Volley Ball Players of Jamboni BlockUploaded byInternational Organization of Scientific Research (IOSR)
- Necessary Evils of Private Tuition: A Case StudyUploaded byInternational Organization of Scientific Research (IOSR)
- Project Based Learning Tools Development on Salt Hydrolysis Materials through Scientific ApproachUploaded byInternational Organization of Scientific Research (IOSR)
- Microencapsulation for Textile FinishingUploaded byInternational Organization of Scientific Research (IOSR)
- Geohydrological study of weathered basement aquifers in Oban Massif and environs Southeastern Nigeria: using Remote Sensing and Geographic Information System TechniquesUploaded byInternational Organization of Scientific Research (IOSR)
- Students’ Perceptions of Grammar Teaching and Learning in English Language Classrooms in LibyaUploaded byInternational Organization of Scientific Research (IOSR)
- Enhancing Pupils’ Knowledge of Mathematical Concepts through Game and PoemUploaded byInternational Organization of Scientific Research (IOSR)
- Factors Affecting Success of Construction ProjectUploaded byInternational Organization of Scientific Research (IOSR)
- Development of Dacum as Identification Technique on Job Competence Based-Curriculum in High Vocational EducationUploaded byInternational Organization of Scientific Research (IOSR)
- Youth Entrepreneurship: Opportunities and Challenges in IndiaUploaded byInternational Organization of Scientific Research (IOSR)
- Child Mortality among Teenage Mothers in OJU MetropolisUploaded byInternational Organization of Scientific Research (IOSR)
- Core Components of the Metabolic Syndrome in Nonalcohlic Fatty Liver DiseaseUploaded byInternational Organization of Scientific Research (IOSR)
- Auxin induced germination and plantlet regeneration via Rhizome section culture in Spiranthes sinensis (Pers.) Ames: A Vulnerable medicinal Orchid of Kashmir HimalayaUploaded byInternational Organization of Scientific Research (IOSR)
- Need of Non- Technical Content in Engineering EducationUploaded byInternational Organization of Scientific Research (IOSR)
- Comparison of Selected Anthropometric and Physical Fitness Variables between Offencive and Defencive Players of Kho-KhoUploaded byInternational Organization of Scientific Research (IOSR)
- Parametric Optimization of Single Cylinder Diesel Engine for Specific Fuel Consumption Using Palm Seed Oil as a BlendUploaded byInternational Organization of Scientific Research (IOSR)
- Mathematical Modeling of SFC Using RSM for CI Engine Fuled with Soybean Biodiesel and Diesel BlendUploaded byInternational Organization of Scientific Research (IOSR)
- Study of Effect of Rotor Speed, Combing-Roll Speed and Type of Recycled Waste on Rotor Yarn Quality Using Response Surface MethodologyUploaded byInternational Organization of Scientific Research (IOSR)
- Advancing Statistical Education using Technology and Mobile DevicesUploaded byInternational Organization of Scientific Research (IOSR)
- Lipoproteins and Lipid Peroxidation in Thyroid disordersUploaded byInternational Organization of Scientific Research (IOSR)
- A Review on Refrigerants, And Effects on Global Warming For Making Green EnvironmentUploaded byInternational Organization of Scientific Research (IOSR)
- Application of Xylanase produced by Bacillus megaterium in Saccharification, Juice clarification and oil extraction from Jatropha seed kernelUploaded byInternational Organization of Scientific Research (IOSR)
- Comparative Effect of Daily Administration of Allium sativum and Allium cepa Extracts on Alloxan Induced Diabetic RatsUploaded byInternational Organization of Scientific Research (IOSR)
- Investigation of Wear Loss in Aluminium Silicon Carbide Mica Hybrid Metal Matrix CompositeUploaded byInternational Organization of Scientific Research (IOSR)
- Research Analysis on Sustainability Opportunities and Challenges of Bio-Fuels Industry in IndiaUploaded byInternational Organization of Scientific Research (IOSR)

- Penetration TestingUploaded byme4ram
- Criminalitate informaticaUploaded byLaura Pop
- Examen FortinetUploaded byAngel Cano
- D@re_EMCUploaded bySra
- Ethical HackerUploaded byKazim Naqvi
- Configuring the SRX300 Services Gateway Using the CLIUploaded byherusuparsin
- 2012S1-ITSY-2401-5420Uploaded byChristine Logue
- Encrypted Network File SystemUploaded byrobinthomas176693
- 11_MIFARE Classic is Completely BrokenUploaded bytotalexito1
- Sim 208Uploaded byjatinashra
- Cain and AbelUploaded byGrace Roselio
- Policy VPN JuniperUploaded byf_124
- 210-260 Reference Sheet.pdfUploaded byHaseeb Nasir Ali
- Cryptography.pptUploaded byAndreEa Corbu-Oprea
- 105-P10Uploaded byYoga Nur Ikhsan
- CP Mobile VPN iOS Admin GuideUploaded byomar182
- Guide to IPsec VPNsUploaded bydhammika77
- copa_tmtoUploaded byTariku Eshetu
- CEHCourseStructure comUploaded byCarlos Ivan Briceño Diaz
- SY0-501-demoUploaded byujh
- PGP (Pretty Good Privacy).pdfUploaded byBhanu Arora
- SSO with MS and SAPUploaded byGhochi EK
- A Secure Account-Based Mobile Payment Protocol with Public Key CryptographyUploaded byidesajith
- Faq for IsmsUploaded bySanjay Rajpal
- Smart Cards FinalUploaded byKrishna Atkalikar
- IJAEMS-A Brief study on Steganography techniquesUploaded byInfogain publication
- Q_A+SP800-32+PKIUploaded byisak
- Transport LayerUploaded byarun
- Fibonacci Serires 1.pdfUploaded byNinad Samel
- 28204452-IP-SpoofingUploaded byArun Kanade