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Series Editars: Andy Hopkins and Jocelyn Potter
Winston Smith lives in asociety where the government
control s people every second of the day. He fights this
world with love. But it's dangerous: lovefor another
person can be punished bydeath - and BigBrother
isalways watching.
Orwell's c1assicstory shows that there is no freedom
unless ideas and beliefs can be questioned. This isas true
today as when it was written, more than fiftyyears ago.
le:;:; 1 Booklcassette pack al 50 publ i s hed
., ;:'
"', .,',
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Retold by Mike Dean
Series Editors: Andy Hopkins andJ ocelyn Potrer
,PearSOD EducatioD Limired
Edinburgh G~te.. Hulow,
Essex CM2Q 2J E. Eng.bnd
:rndrosowecd CompULies throughout me world.
I SBN OS8::! m313
Fint published by Marrin Seckcr &: W3tburg lcd 1949
This edirion fine publishcd by Penguin Books 2003
Nineceen Eighcy-Four by Genrge Orwell (Cop~Tight O George O["\'..ell. 1949) ~d:1pted md
5UnpliJ ied by pernUssion o C A M HCJ th &: Cc, Ltd, on behill' ofBill H3.milton <lS me Liter,u",'
EXeC'Uto'rofilie Esut, ofili, Late Sonia'Browne!1 O["\,',D md '
Marrin S,d:er &:. Warburg ltd.
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C o ntents
I ntroduction
PART ONE TI,o llglltcrime
Chapter 1 BigBrother I sWatchingYou
Chapter 2 The Spies
Chapter 3 The Ministry of Truth
Chapter 4 Oll'lIlife
PART TWO Acts Against the Party
Chapter 5 A Political Act
Chapter 6.They Can't Get I mideYou
Chapter 7 Our Leader, Ernmanuel Goldstein
Chapter 8 Do ubletIJillk
PART THREE I nside Winston Snth's Head
Chapter 9 Milli/I/v
Chapter 10 Two andTwoMakeFive
Chapter 11 The LastMan
Chapter 12 Room 101
' ... SlzaU I teU you wlzy we Izave brouglzt you !Jere? 10 make you better.
Your (Times do noe illCerese uso Your actions do not interest uso W e are
illtereseed in your tllOuglzcs. le do noe desero)' our wemies, we c!Jange
tlzem. We clzange e!Jeir tllOuglzts. Do you understand ",llOt I mean?'
'Yes,J said VVi l 1s t OH.
Winston Smith lives in aworld where everyone is watched every
second of the day. It is a world where Big Brother and the
Thought Police control the past as well as the presentoThey
decide what you must do and, even more frighteningly, what you
must tbink.
When Winston fights this world of hate, hunger and pain, he
fights with love. His love for J ulia, and her love for him, is brave
and beautiful. lt is also dangerous because love can be punished
by death.
George Orwell was born in India in 1903 but grew up in
England. He was apoliceman in Burma (nowMyanmar) for five
years. He wrote about his own life in DOUOl alld Out ill Pars and
London (1933), wbich is about livingin big cities with no money.
Homage to Cata/onia (1938) is about bis time as asoldier in Spain.
In bis last two, world-famous booles Orwell invented
imaginary worlds and used them to show us our own world and
the people in it. In Allima/ Farm (1945) animals take control of a
farm from the people who run it, but they are as bad as the
humans when they have power. 1984 was Orwell's last book. It
came out in 1949, the year before he died.
1984 was an immediate success. Readers enjoyed the story, but
they also believed that Orwell was criticizing governmems of the
time. In Britain, afrer the Second WorId War, life seemed dull:
there were alot of rules, and you couId buy only limited amounts
of things like food and c1oth. The Nazis had just lost control of
Germany and other European countries, but the govermnents of
Russia and China were also seen asvery powerful and cruel. The
future of the worId looked dangerous.
fu 1984 carne c1oser, there was an unusual level of cliscussion
about the date, even by people who had not read Orwell's book.
But there has been no third worId war, and uncaring, all-
powerful governments are not more eommon riow than they
were in Orwell's time.
Orwell was not telling us, though, that the future \VouId be the
\Vorld of Big Brother and the Party, who see, know and control
everything. While he was reminding his readers of present
situations, he was only warning us about possible dangers. He
shows in the book how the power of the state can be used ro
change the reality that we thought \Veknew. One way is through
language. In 1984 anew language isbeing invented, and many of
Orwell's 'Newspeak' words and ideas are now known to English
speakers around the world: lII'perSOIl and dOl/bletltillk (the ability to
accept two opposite belielS at the same time), for example. There
are even television prograrnmes in which 'Big Brother' watches
people through carneras twenty-four hours a day.
In Oeeania, the country' where Winston Smith lives and
worles, the government is only interested in power. It does not
matter to the Party, the people at the top, how they get power
and keep it. They do not eare about individuals and their
feelings, or about happiness, or even money. For them, the only
aim of power is power itself, and they hold power by making
people sufrer. .
'If you want a picture of the future, Winston,' a Party
member says to him, 'imagine aboot stamping on a human face
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The society of Oceania demands that people shouId ehange
their feelings into a love of Big Brother and hate for imagined
enernies. During the 'Two Minutes Hate', people shollt and
scream these emotions at pietures of Big Brother, his enemy
Goldstein and ahated Eurasian solclier, and this is one of the most
powerful scenes in 1984. Even Winston - who appears to share
the Party's belielS but secretly has his own opinions - cannot stop
hirnself shouting \vith the rest.
The Party believes that Winston, an unbeliever, must be mad.
To Wi;"ston, the Parry is certainly mad. How can anyone say -
and believe - that two and two make five' When aman
disappears, how can his colleagues say - and believe - that he
never exisced?
Winston thinks a lot about the reality of his present, and tries
tO remember the reality of his past. But what is reality? What is
truth?Who decides?The individual or theThought Police? 1984
shows that there is no freedom unless ideas and belielS can be
questioned. And if there is no freedom, reality belongs to the
people \Vith the power.
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PART ONE Thollghtcrime
Chapter 1 BigBrother 15 WatchingYou
It was abright, cold day in April .nd the clocks were srriking
thirteen. Winsron Smith hurried home lOVictory MansiollS\Vith
his head down lOescapethe terrible wind. A cloud of dust bIe\V
insidewith him, and thehall smelled of dust andyesterday'sfood.
Ar theend of rhehall, aposter covered one\Vall.Ir sho\Vedan
enormous face, more than amerre\Vide:thefaceof ah.ndsome
man of about fOrly-five, wirh aIarge, black moustache. The man's
eyesseemed rofollowWinston ashemoved. Belo\Vthef.ce\Vere
WinslOn. \Vemup the stairs. He did nO! even try rhelift. Ir
rarely worked and at rhemomem theeIecrricity wasswitched off
during theday lOsavemoney for HateWeek.The fiarwason rhe
sevemh fioor andWinston, who was thirry-nine and had abad
knee, wenr slowly, resringsevera!rimeson rheway.Winsron\Vasa
small man and looked even smaller in rhe bIue overalls of rhe
Parry.His hair \Vasfair and theskinon his face, which usedrobe
pink, was red and rough from cheap soap, oId razor blades and
rhecoIdof rhewimer that hadjust ended.
Insidehis fiar, avoi"cewas reading out alist of figures for"last
year'sproducrion of iron. The voice came fromametal square, a
telescreell, in rhe righr-hand \Vall.Winston rurned it down, but
therewasno way of turning it off completely.
He moved ro the window. Outside, the world Iooked cold.
The ", ind blew dusr and bits of paper around in the streer and
there seemed robe no colour in anything, except in theposters
that wereeverywhere. The facewith theblack moustache looked
down fromevery comer. There was one on thehouse oppasite.
BIG BROTHER IS WATCHING YOU, it said, and the eyes
Iaoked inroWinston's.
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Behind him the voiee from the telesereell was still talking about
iron. There was now even more iron in Oeeania than the Ninth
Three- Year Plan had demanded. The telesaem had amierophone,
so the Thought Poliee eould listen to Winston at any time of the
day or nighr. They eould also wateh him through the telescreet!.
Nobody knew how often they actually did that but everybody
behaved correctly alI the time because the Thought Poliee lIlig"t
be watehing and listening.
Winston kept his baek to the teleserem. It was safer that way -
they eouldn't see your face. He looked out over London, the
biggest eity in this part of Oeeania. The nineteenth-century
houses were alI falling down. There were holes in the streets
where the bombs had fallen. Had it always been like this? He
tried to think back to the time when he was aboy, but he could
remember nothing.
He stared at the Ministry of Truth, where he worked. It was an
enormous white building, three hundred metres high. You eouId
see the white roof, high above chehouses, even a kilometre away.
From Winston's fiat it wasjust possible te see the three slogans of
the Party written in enormous etters on the side of the building:
The Ministry ofTruth was called Millitrlle in Newspeak, rhe
new language of Oceania. !vIillitme, it was said, had more than
three rhousand rooms above the ground and a similar number
below. The people there worked mainJ y on news and
entertainment. High above the sutrounding buildings, Winston
could also see the Minisrry of Peaee, where they worked on war.
Ir w~s ealled l\Iillipax in Newspeak.And the Ministry ofPlenty-
,'vIl/l/p/ellty - which \Vas responsible for the economy. And he
eould see the Ministry ofLove -lvIillil,," - whieh was responsible
for law and order.
The Ministry of Love was the really frightening one. There
were no \vindows in it. Nobody eould get anywhere near it
unJ ess they had business there. There were guards \v;th guns in
blaek uniforms even in the streers half akilometre away.
Winston turned round quickJ y. He smiled. It was a good idea
to look happy when you were faeing the te/esereell. He went ro his
small kitehen. He had not had luneh in the canteen before he left
work, but there was no food there exeept a piece of dark, hard
bread for tomorrow's breakfasr. He poured himseIf a eup of
colourless, oily gin and drank it down like medicine. It burned
him inside, but he feIt more eheerful afterwards.
He went baek to the living room and sat down ar asroall table
ro the left of the te/esaeen. It was the onJ y plaee in the room
where the teleserem could not see him. From adrawer in the table
he teok out. a pen and a big diary vvith beaurifuI erearo paper,
\Vhich he had bought in an old-fashioned shop in a poor part of
the town. Party members like Winston were not allowed to go
into ordinary shops, but many of them did. It was the onJ y way to
get things like taZor blades.
Winston opened the diary. This was not illegal. Nothing was
illegal, asthere were no laws now. But if the diary \Vasfound they
would punish him w;th death or \vith twenty-five years in a
prison campo He took the pen in his hand, then stopped. He felt
sick. Ir \vas a decisive aet ro start \vriting.
Eatlier that motning, a tetrible noise from rhe big telesereen at the
Ministry of Truth had called alI the \Vorkers to the eentre of the
hall for the Two Minutes Hate. The faee of Emmanuel Goldstein,
Enemy of the People, filled the te/esereen. It \Vasa thin, elever face,
w;th its white hair and small beard, but there \Vas something
unpleasant about ir. Goldstein began te speak in his sheep-like
voice: critieising the Party, making nasty artaeks on Big Brother.
demanding peaee \virh Eurasia.
In the past (nobody knew exactly when) GoIdstein had been
almost asimportant in the Parry asBigBrother himself, but then
he had worked against tbe Parry. Before he could be punished
with death, he had escaped - nobody knew how, exactly.
Somewhere he was still alive, and all crimes against the Parry
carnefromrus teaching.
Berund Goldstein's face on the telescreell were thousands of
Eurasian soldiers. Oceania was alwaysat war with either Eurasia
or Eastasia.That changed, but the. hate for GoIdstein never did.
'The Thought Poliee"[o~nd his spi~severy day.They were called
'the Brotherhood', people said, although Winston sometimes
asked himself if the Brotherhood really existed. Goldstein had
also written abook, a terrible book, abook against.the Parry. It
had no ticle;it wasjust known asthe book.
As Goldstein's face filled the telescreell and Eurasian soldiers
marched behind lm, the Hate grew. PeopIe jumped up and
down, shouting andsereaming sothey could not hear Goldstein's
voice. Winston wasshouting too; it wasimpossible not to.A girl
behind lm, with thick, dark hair was screaming 'Pig! Pigl' at
Goldstein, and sudden1y she picked up a heavy Newspeak
dietionary and threw it at the telescreell. It hit Goldstein on the
nose and fell to the f1oor.
Winston had ofien seen this girl at the Ministry but he had
never spoken to her. He did not know her name, but he knew
she worked in the Fiction Department. He had seen her with
tools so he guessed she was a mechanie on the story-writing
machines. She was a confident-looking girl of about twenty-
seven, and she walked quickly. She wore the narrow red belt of
theYoung People's League tied tightly round her overalls.
Winston had disliked her from the fmt moment he saw her.
He disliked nearly all women, especially young and prerry ones.
The young Womenwerealwaysmost loya! to the Party and were
happiest ro spy on others. But this girl was espeeially dangerous,
A oir! be/lilld him ",ith thick da,k hai, ",as saeamillg , ,
'Pig! Pig!' at Goldsteill.
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he thought. Once, when he hadseenher in the canteen, shehad

looked at rumin awaythat filledhimwith black terror. He even
thought she might be working for the Thought Police. As the
scteaming at Goldstein increased, Winston's dislike of the girl
turned to hate. He hated her becauseshewasyoung and pretty.
Suddenly he noticed someone else, sitting near the gir! ,
wearing the black overallsof an I nner Party member. O'Brien
was a large man with a truck neck and glasses. Although he
. I ooked frightening, Winston was interested in him. There was
sometimes an intelligence in his face that suggested- perhaps -
that he might question the official Party belief5.
Winston had seen O'Brien about twelve times in almost as
many years. Yearsago he had dreamed about O'Brien. He wasin
adark room and O'Brien had saidro him, 'We shall meet in the
place where there is no dark. 'Winston did not know what that
meant, but hewassureit would happen, one day.
The Hate increased. The screaming increased. The voice and
faceof Goldstein became thevoiceandfaceof areal sheep. Then
the sheep- face became aEurasian soldier, walking rowards them
with rus gun, so close that sorne people shut their eyes for a
second and moved back in their seats. But at the same moment
the soI dier became the face of Big Brother, black- haired,
moustached, filling the re/escrem . Nobody could hear what Big
Brother said, but it was enough that he \Vasspeaking to them.
Then the face of BigBrother disappeared fromthe re/escreell and
theParty sloganscarneup instead:
Then everybody started shouting 'B- B! B- B! ' again and again,
slowly, with along pausebetween the first B and the second. Of
courseWinston shouted roo- you had to. But there wasasecond


. _~
when the look on rusfaceshowed \Vhathe was trunking. And at
that exact moment ruseyesmet O'Brien's.
O'Brien was pusrung rus glassesup rus nose. But Winston
kne\V - yes he kllelV - that O'Brien was trunking the same trung
ashe was. '[ amwith you, ' O'Brien seemed to say to rum. '[ hate
all trus too. ' And then the moment of intelligence was gone and
O'Brien's facelooked likeeverybody else's.

. Winston wro'te the date in rus diary: Ap,j[ 4rh. 1 984. Then he
stopped. He did not know definitely that trus IVas 1 984. He was
trurty- nine, hebelieved- he hadbeen born in 1 944 or 1 945. But
nobody couJ dbe sureof dates, not really.
'Who am 1 writing trus diary for?' he asked himself suddenlc
For the futte, for the unborn. But if the future was like the
present, it wouI d not listen to rum. And if it was different, rus
situation would bemearungless.
The re/esereell was playing marcrung music. What had he
intended to say?Winston staredat the page, then began to write:
Freedolll is rhe ,eedo", rosay r! lar IIVO alld IIVO lIlake 01lT. lf YO II have
l!lar, eve'ylhillg e/se jo/lO IVS ... He stopped. Should he go on? [f he
", rote more or did not write mote, the result ", ould be the same.
The Thought Police would get rum. Even before he wrote
anytrung, ruscrime "'as clear. T1IO IIgIJ1crillle, they calledit.
[t wasalwaysat night - the rough hand on your shoulder, the
lights in your face. People just disappeared, always during the
night. And then your name disappeared, your existence \Vas
denied and then forgotten. You ", ere, in Newspeak, vaporized.
Suddenly he wanted to scream. He started \Vriting, fast:
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Ther e wasaknock on the door . Alr eady! He satasquietly asa
mouse, hoping that they would go away. But no, ther e was
another knock. He could not de!ay - that would be the wom
thing he could do. His hear t was r acing but even now his face,
fr omhabit, pr obably showed nothing.
He got up and walked heavily r owar ds the door .
Chapter 2 The Spies
As he opened the door , Winston sa\Vthat he had lefethe diar y
open on the tableoDOWN WITH BIG BROTHER was \Vr itten
in it, in letter s you could almost r ead acr ossthe r oom.
But ever ything \Vasall r ight. A small, sad-I ooking wor nan was
standing outside.
'Oh, Cor nr ade Smith,' she said, in a dull little voice, 'do you
think you could come acr ossand he!pme with our kitchen sink?
The water isn't r unning awayand .. .'
I r was Mr s Par sons, his neighbour . She was about thir ty but
looked much older . Winston follo\Ved her into her Bat. These
r epair s happened almost daily.The Victor y Mansions fiats wer e
old, built in about 1930, and they wer e falling to pieces. Unless
you did the r epair s your self, the Par ty had to agr ee to them. 1t
could take t\Voyear ste get new glassin awindo\V.
'Tom isn't home,' Mr s Par sons explained.
The Par sons' fiatwasbigger thanWinston's andunattr active in
adiffer ent \Vay.Ever ything \Vasbr oken. Ther e wer e spor ts clothes
and spor ts equipment all over the fioor , and dir ty dishes on the
r abI e. On the walls \Ver ethe r ed fiag of the Young People's
Leagueandthe Spiesandafull-sizedposter ofBig Br other . Ther e
\Vasthe usual smell of old food, but alsothesmell of old sweat. I n
another r oom someone \Vassinging with the mar ching music
that wasstill coming fr omthe te/esereell.
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'I t'sthechildr en,'saidMr s Par sons,looking infear atthedoor to

the other r oom. 'They haven't been out today, and of cour se .. .'
Sheofeenstopped without finishing her sentences.
I n the kitchen, thesink wasfull of dir ty gr een water .
'Of cour se if Tomwashome .. .'Mr s Par sonsstaned.
Tom Par sons wor ked with Winston at the M.inistr yofTr uth.
He was a fat but active man \Vho \Vasunbelievably stupid and
endI essly enthusiastic. He \Vasa follower "ith no mind of his
own - the type that the Par ty needed even mor e than they
needed theThought Polir e.
At thir ty-five Tom Par sons had only just been thr o\Vnout of
the Young PeopI e's League, although he had \Vanr ed to stay.
Befor e that he had continued in the Spies for ayear beyond the
official age. At the Ministr y he had a job which needed no
intelligence,. but he wor ked for the Par ty ever y evening,
or ganizing waI ks.andother activities.The smell ofhis sweat filled
ever y r oom he wasin and stayedther e afeer hehadgone.
Winsr on r epair ed the sink, taking out the unpleasant I cnot of
hair that was stopping the water r unr ung away. He \Vashedhis
hands and went back to the other r oom.
'Put your hands up!' shouted avoice.
A big, handsome boy of nine was pointing a tey gun at him.
His small sister , about t\Vo year s younger , poinr ed a piece of
\Vood. Both \Ver edr essed in the blue, gr ey and r ed unifor r ns of
the Spies. Winston put his hands up. The look of hate on the
boy'sfacemade himfee! that ii \Vasnot quite agame. '
'You'r e a Eur asian spy!' scr eamed the boyo 'You'r e a
thollglJlerilllilla/! [,ll shoot you, [,ll vaporize you!'
Suddenly they wer e both r unning r ound him, shouting 'Spy!
17lollghterilllilla/!' The little gir l did ever ything seconds after her
older br other did it. I t \Vasfr ightening, likethe games of young,
danger ous ,vild animals that will soon be man-eater s. Winsr on
could see that the boy r eally wanr ed r o hit or kick him, and \Vas
nearly big enougli to do 50. He was glad lhal lhe gun in the boy's
hand was only atoy.
'rhey wanted lo see lhe Eurasian prisoners hang. Bul I'm 100
busy 10take them and Tom's at .. .'
'We wanl to see lhem hang!' shoured the boy, and lhen lhe girl
slarred shouting it lOO.
Sorne Eurasian prisoners, guilty of war cnmes against
Oceania, wero going to hang slowly in lhe park lhat evening.
Trus happened every monlh or lWOand was a popular evening's
entertainment. Children were often taken to see ir.
Winslon said goodbye te Mrs Parsons and walked lowards lhe
door. He heard a loud noise as a bomb fell. About twenty or
lrurty of lhem were falling on London each week. Then he felt a
lerrible pain in lhe back of his neck. He rurned and saw Mrs
Parsons trying 10lake sorne sharp slones from her son's hand.
'Goldstein!' screamed lhe boy.
Bul Winston was most shocked by lhe look of he1pless terror
on Mrs Parsons' grey face.
Chapter 3The Ministryof Truth
Winston pulled lhe speakll'rite tewards rum and pUl on rus glasses.
To the righl of the speakll'rite there was a small hole, lo lhe left a
larger one. In lhe offlce wall lhere was a third hole, larger than
the other lWO.
Messages carne lo Winston's office lhrough lhe smalles! holeo
Newspapers carne to rum lhrough lhe middle hole. The largesl
hole was for waste paper; hOl air carried lhal away.These large
holes were called 'memory holes', for sorne reason.
Today four messages had come through lhe smallesl hole, onlo
rus desk. The messages were aboul changes 10 lhe Tillles
newspaper. For example, in Big Brolher's speech in lhe Tillles of



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17 March, he had said lhal Sourh India \VdS safe. The Eurasians
would altack North Africa.
Trus had nol happened. The Eurasians had altacked Soulh
India, nol Norlh Africa. Winston had lo re-wrile par! of Big
Brolher's speec.h 50 you could read in lhe Tillles for 17 March
lhal Big Brolher had known abou! lhe atlack before it happened.
When WinslOn had finished, rus changes 10 lhe Tillles wenl
wilh lhe newspaper down lhe middle hole.A new edirion would
soon appear, wilh rus changes. Every copy of the old edirion
would disappear. Deslroyed. The message to Winslon with the
changes would disappear down lhe memory hole, to be burned.
Every day newspapers, magazines, photographs, ftlms, posters
and books were aII changed. The pas! was changed. The Palty was
a1ways right. The Party had a1ways been right. The Records
Deparrment; where they destroyed all the old copies of
evetytrung, was the largest deparrment in the Ministry of Truth,
but there \Vasno truth. The new copies were not true and the old
copies had not been true either.
For example, lhe Ministry ofPlenty had said lhey would make
145million pairs ofboo15 lasl year. SiXty-lWO million pairs were
made. Winston changed 145 million 10 57 million. So lhe Party
had made five million more boo15lasl year lhan lhey expected lo.
Bur il was possible lhal no boo15at all were made last year. And it
was possible thal nobody knew or cared how many boots were
.made. You could read in the newspapers that five million extra
pairs of boots had been made and you could see lhal half the
people in Oceania had no boots.
Winslon looked around the office. A woman wilh fair hair
spent aII day looking for lhe names of people who had been
vaporized. Each of lhem was, in Newspeak, an !lIlpersOIl. She look
their ames our of every newspaper, book, letter ... Her own
husband had been vaporized lasl year. She 100k rus name our lOO.
. I
i .
People disappeared from the newspapers when they were
,'aporized and they could also appear in the newspapers when
they did not exist.
Winston remembered Mr Ogilvy. He had appeared in the
newspapers because he had led the SOrtof lifethe Part)' wanted.
Ogilvy hadjoined the Spies at the age of SLX. At eleven he told
theThought Policethat his unde wasacriminal. At seventeen he
had been an organizer in theYoung People's League. At nineteen
he had invented a new bomb which had killed tmrty-one
Eurasians when it was ftrst rried. At twenty-three, Ogilvy had
died like a hero, ftghting the Eurasians. There were photographs
of Ogilvy, but .there had been no Ogilvy. Not really. The
photgraphs were made at the Ministry of Truth. Ogilvy was
part of apaSI thal never happened.
Anything could be changed. A dreamy man with hairy ears
called Anlpleforth re-wrole old poerns until lhey supported
everything the Party believed in.
But al! tms work, al! these changes, were not the main work of
the Minisrry of Truth. Most workers in the Minisrry were busy
wTitingeverything that the people of Oceania reador saw: al! the
newspapers,fms, plays,poel115, school books, telescrefll programmes
andsongs,the Newspeak dictionaries andchildren'sspellingbooks.
After his morning's work, Winston went to the canteen. Ir was
fulJ ,very nois)' and smelJ ed of cheap food and the gin thar was
soIdfromahole in the \Vall.
'Ah, 1waslooking 'lor you,' saidavoice behind Winston.
Ir was Syme, rus friend from the Dictionary' Department.
Perhaps'friend' wasnot exactly the right word.You did not have
friends these days, you had cornrades. But sorne cornrades were
more interesting than others.
Syme was working on the eleventh edition of the Newspeak
Dictionary. He was a smalJ man, even smaller than Winston,
with dark hair and large eyes. These eyes were sad but they
seemed to laugh at you and to searchyour facedosely when he
talked to you.
'Have you got any razor blades?'ask.edSyme.
'No;e,'saidWinston quickJ y,perhaps too quickJ y.Tve looked
for them everywhere.' Everyone was asking for razor blades.
There had been none in the Party shops for months. There was
alwayssometmng wmch the Party could not make enough of.
Sometimes it was buttons, sometimes it was wool; now it was
razor blades. Tve been using the same blade for SLXweeks,' he
lied. He actually had two new ones at home.
The people waiting for food and gin moved forward, slowly.
Winston and Syme took dirty platesfromthepile.
'Did you go to the park yesterday?' asked Syme. 'AlJ the
Eurasian prisoners \Verehanged.'
'1wasworking,' saidWinswn. '1'1Jseeit at the cinema.'
'That's not as good,' said Syme. His eyes looked hard at
Winston's face.'1know you,' they seemed lO say''1kno'" why you
didn't go to seethe prisoners die.'
Syme was an enthusiastic supporter of the Party's decisions
about \Var,prisoners, thollghtcrillJe, the deaths in the underground
reoros beIow the Minisrry of Love.Winston alwaystried to move
conversation \Vithhimawayfromal!that. Symekne\Valot about
Newspeak andwhen he talkedabout languagehewasinteresting.
'The prisoners kicked \Vhen they were hanged,' saidSyme. '1
al\Vayslike that. It spoilsit \Vhentheir legsaretied together. And
one of them had his tongue hanging right out of ms mouth. Ir
\Vasquite abright blue. 1Iikethat kind of detail.'
'Next, please,' called the prole who \Vasgiving out the food,
andWinston and Syme gaveher their plates. She put some grey
meat on each one. There was also sorne bread, a smal! piece of
cheese and acup of sugarlessblack coffee.
'There's arabIethere, under that telescrem,' saidSyme.'Let's get
agin and sit there,'
: ,
The gin was poured for them imo big cups and they walked
through the crowded canteen ro ametal table.There were sorne
pieces of meat on the rabIefromthe lasrperson's meal.
They ate in silence..Winston drank down his gin, which
brought tears to hiseyes.
'How's the Dictionary?' he said, speaking loudly because of
Tm on the adjectives: said Syme. '!t's wonderful work.' His.
eyesshone. He pushed his platea\Vay,rook his bread in one pale
hand and his cheese in the other, and put his mouth. near
Winston's ear sohe did no( havero shout. 'The eleventh edition
is the final one: he said. 'We're building a new language. When
\Ve'vefinished, people likeyou will haveto learn ro speak again.
You think the main job is inventing new words, don't you?
Wrong! We're destroying \Vords- lots of them, hundreds of
them, every day.We'reoruy leaving the really necessaryones, and
they'll stayin usefor along time.'
He ate his bread hungrily. His thin, dark facehad come alive
and his eyeswere shining like the eyes of a man in love. '!t's a
beautiful thing to destroy \Vords: he said. 'For example, a \Vord
like"good". (fyou have"good" in the language, you don'( need
ubad".You can say"wIgood".
Winsron smiled. !t \Vassafernot ro sayany(hing.
Syme continued. 'Do you understand? The airo of Newspeak
is to narrow (hought. In (he end we. \vill make thollghtcrillle
impossible, because people \Von't have (he .\Vordsto think the
crime. By the year 2050 there will be nobody alivewho could
evenunderstand this conversation.'
'Except .. : Winsron began and then stopped. He wamed ro
say,'Except (hepro/es.' BU( he \Vasnot sure if the Party would
aceep( (he thought.
Symehadguessedwha( he wasgoing rosayo'The proles arenot
really people: he said. 'By 2050 - earlier, probably - you won't
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need a slogan like "freedom is slavery". The word "freedom"
won'( exis(, so the whole idea of freedomwon'( exist either.The
good Party member won't have ideas. If you're a good Party
member, you won't need ro think.'
One of these days, thought Winston, Syme will be vaporized.
He isroo imelligenr. He sees too dearly and speaks roo operuy.
He goes to the Chestnut Tree Care, where the painters and
musieians go and where Goldstein himself used ro go.The Party
does nor like people like that. One day he will disappear. Ir is
written in his face.
Symelooked up.'Here comes Parsons: he said.Youcould hear
hisopinion ofParsons in hisvoiee. He thought Parsonswasafool.
Winston's neighbour from Victory Mansions \Vas corning
towards them. He wasafat, rniddle-sized man \Vithfair hair and
an ugly face. He looked like a litde boy in a man's clothes.
Winsron imagined him wearing not his blue Parry overallsbut
the uniform of the Spies.
Parsons shouted 'Hello, hello' happily and sat down at the
tableoHe smelled of sweat. Syme rook apiece of paper fromhis
pocket with alisr of words on it and srudied the words with an
ink-pencil bet\Veenhisfingers.
'Look at him, working in the lunch hour!' saidParsons. 'What
haveyou got there, old boy? Something abit too dever for me, I
expect. Srnith, old boy, I'll tell you why I'm chasing YOU. It's the
money you forgot to giveme: .
'What money?' saidWinston, feeling for money in hispoeker.
About aquarter of your earnings were paid back to the Parry in
different ways.
'The money for HateWeek.You know I collect themoney for
Victory Mansions, and we're going to havethe best flagsareund.
Two dollars you prornised me.'
Wins(on found t\Vo dirry dollar notes and gave them to
Parsons. Parsons wrote 'Two dollars' very carefully in.small dear
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lerters next to Wiruton's name in a little notebook. It was clear;
that he rarely read or wrote. !
'Oh, Smith, old boy, ' he said. '1 hear that son of mine threw; .J \,
stones at you yesterday. I taIked to him about it. He won't do iti ~ 1 0 : .; \~ r
again believe me' ; ~ '; : : ; : : y,
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'1 think he was angry because he couldn't see the Eurasian~
prisoners hang, ' saidWinston.
'Yes! Well, that shows what good children they are, doesn't it?,
Both of them. They ooly think about the Spies - and the \Var, of:
course. Do you know \Vhat my girI did last week? She \Vason a: :., :' , "
.... ~" ., ;. .
\Valk in the COUntry \\.;th the Spies and she saw a strange mano r.':; :'.::,
She and t\Vo other girIs follo\Ved him and. then told the police V " ) } ,'"
':1'-'. %j:
about him.' ; . , ..
'What did thev do that for?'Winston asked, shocked.
. ,
'They thought he was a Eurasian spy, ' said Parsons. 'They( c. __
noticed his shoes were ditrerent, ' he added proudly.
Winston looked at the dirry canteen, looked at all the ugly \
people in their ugly overalls, ate the terrible food and listened toi
he tdescreell. A voice from he Minis ry of Plenry was saying hatj
they \Vere all going to get more chocolate - twenry grammes a\
week. Was he the ooly one who remembered that last week they~"', '.
gor thirry grammes' They were getting less chocolate, not more. ~~~"
But Parsons would no remember. And even a clever man like! .
Syme found away to believe it.
Winston came out of his sad dream. The girI with dark hair, who
he remembered from the Two M.inutes Hate, was at he ne, :! tableo
She was looking at him, but when he looked back at her she looked \
a\Vay again. Winston was suddeoly afraid. Why was she watching I
him? Was she following him? Perhaps she was not in the Thought T,
Police, but Parry members could be even more dangerous as spies. ~
Ho\V had he looked when the telesaew voice told them about the :
chocolate? It was dangerous to ook disbelieving. There was even a 'Villstoll ate tlze terrible ood alld {istcllcd lo tlze Idesaeell.
word for it in Newspeak: jacemllle, it Wascalled.
Chapter 4 OWtllife
The girl had turned her back to him again. Ar rhar moment , 'l
rhe telescreell rold rhem all ro return to work and the three men .]
jumped ro rheir feer.
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Winston sat at rhe rabIeand opened his diary. He rhoughr of his
parents. He was, he thought, about ten or eleven years old when i
his mother disappeared. She was atall, silent woman wirh lovely .~
fair hair. He could not remember his father so well. He was dark .:
and thin and always wore dark clothes. They had both been ..
,'aporized in the 1950s. His thoughts moved to other women and'
he started \VTitingin the diary: J
le Il ' as three y ear s ago. Ir l l ' as 011 a dark ev el 1i l l g , in a Il ar r o w side~ J
street lIear olle of the big railway statiolls. She had a )'Ollllg Jate with ::::
thick lIIake-lIp. 1 Uked the lIIake-lIp. 711f ",hitelless atld the bright red"'~
Ups. No WOlllall ill the Party II'ore lIIake-lIp. 11lfre II'as 1I0bod)' else ill the ; 1
street alld 110telesaeens. She said two dollars. 1 . . . .J
Ir was too difficulr to continue. Winston wanted ro hit his head .;
against rhe wall, ro kick the rabIeover and throw rhe diary through ..;j
the window - anything ro stop rhe memory of rhar night.]
It was, of course, illegal ro pay a woman for sexo But the ~
punishment was about five yem in a work camp, not death. The ~
Party knew it happened. Sorne prole women soId themselves for a ;
bottle of ginand the Party didn't \Vorry much about that.The Party ~, l
\Vanted to stop loveand pleasure in sex, not sex itself. A requesr ro ~~
marry would be refused if aman and a\Voman found each other :, ~
attractive. Sex, to theParty, \Vasonly neeessary ro make children. ;1
He thoughr of Katherine, rus wife. Winston had been married. .;~
He was probably still married; if rus wife was dead, nobody had .
told rum. They had lived rogerher for about freen months, nine, .;;
ten, eleven years ago. Katherine \Vas a rall, fair-haired girl who .~l
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moved well. She had an interesting face, until you found our thar
there was almosr nothing behind ir. She believed everyrhing rhe
Parry said. She had sex only because ir was her duty to rry and
have childten. When no ehildten carne, rhey agreed ro separate.
Every rwo or three years sinee rhen, Winston had found aprole
\Voman who had agteed ro have sex for money. But he wanted
his own \Voman. He finished the story in his diary:
~Vhetl 1 saw her ill the liglu she II'as qllite all old WOlllall. She liad 110
teeth at al/o Bllt 1 liad sex ",ith her.
He had wrirren it down at last, but ir did not help. He still
wanred ro shout and scream.
He had walked several kilometres. Ir \Vasthe second time in rhree
weeks thar he had missed an evening at rhe Patty Members'
Club. This was nor agood idea; YOUtatrendanee at the Club \Vas
eatefu]]y ehecked. A Party member had no free time and \Vas
never alone excepr in bed. It \Vasdangerous to do anyrhing alone,
even go fot a\Valk.There \Vasaword for ir in Ne\Vspeak: oll'lIl!fe,
it was called, meaning separation from everybody else.
He was walking in aprole area near abuilding rhar had, in the
pasr, been an important railway station. The houses \Vete small
and dirty and teminded him of rat-holes. There were hundreds of
people in rhe streets: pretty young girIs, young men chasing the
girIs, f~t old women - the ptetty girls in ten yeats time. Dirty
children with no shoes ran through rhe mudo .
The people looked ar him sttangely. The blue overalls of the
Party were an unusual sight in asrreet like this. Ir was unwise to
be seen in such places, unless you had a definite reason to be
rhere. The Thought Police would stop YOllif they saw YOll.
Suddenly everybody was shollting and scteaming and running
back into their rat-hole houses. A man in a blaek suit ran past
WiIlSron and pointed ar the sky.
anyone 1 saidso, but ir'sdifficulr roget old tbings thesedays.And
\Vhenyou canget rhemnobody wants rhem.'The oIdman'sshop
was fuI] of rrungs, but rhey \Vereall cheap and dirry and useless.
'There's another room upstairs that you could look ar,'he said.
Winston follo\Vedrhe man upstairs.The room wasabedroom
wirh furniture in ir.There \Vasabed under the window, taking
nearly aguarter of the room.
'We lived here for thirty yearsuntil my \Vifedied,' saidrheold
man sadly.'l'm sellingrhe furniture, slo\Vly.That'sabeautiful bed,
but perhaps ir would be too big for you?'
Winston thought he could probably rem rhe room for afe\V
dollars aweek, if he dared too[r \Vouldbe so peaceful to liveas
peopIe used to live in the pasr, \\ith no voice taIking to you,
nobody watching you ...
'Theres no celescreeu,' hesaid.
'Ah!' saidthe old mano'1 never had one. Too expensive:
There was apicture on the wall. Ir sho\VedaLondon church
rhat used to be famous, in the days\Vhenchurches \Verefamous
and peopie still \Vent to them. Winston did not buy rhe picture,
but hesrayedin rheroon ralkingto theold manwhose name, he
discovered, \VasCharrington.
Even \Vhen he lefr he was still trunking abour renting rhe
room. Bur rhen, ashe srepped into rhe saeer, rusheart turned ro
ice. A \Vomanin blue overalls\VaswaIking ro\Vardsrum, nor ren
merres away.Ir \Vasrhe girl \\oirhdark hair, rheone in rheYoung
Peoples League.The girl musr be follO\\oingrum. Even if shewas
nor in rheThoughr Police, shemusr beaspy.
The Thougbr Police \Vould come for hin! one nighr. They
always carne ar nighr and rhey always caught YOU. And before
they killed you, before you asked rhemon your knees te forgive
you for your rhollglltcrillle, there would bealor of pain.

2 0
I r
'Bomb;.he shouted. 'Up there! Bomb!' 1
Winston threw lmself ro the ground. The proles were usually '1
righr when rhey warned you rhar abomb was falling.When he '1
stood up, he was covered wirh bits of glass from rhe nearest i
window. He continued walking. The bomb had desrroyed a 1

group of houses(wo hundred metres up rhesrreer and infromof

him he saw ahuman hand, cut off ar rhe wrisr. He kicked ir ro ,
.: .:
rhe side of the road and turned righr, a\Vayfromrhecrowd. I
He \Vasin anarro\V srreer wirh a few dark.lirtle shops arnong '1
rhe houses. He seemed ro knO\Vrhe place. Of course! He \Vas .1
standing outside rheshop where he had boughr rhediary.He \Vas l
afraid, suddenly. He had been mad to buy rhe diary, and he had "
prorrsed rumself he would never come near rrusplaceagain. Burl
he noticed rhar rhe shop was still open, alrhough ir was nearly1
rwenry-one hours. He would be safer inside rhan sranding rhere .;1
doing norrung outside, so he \Vemin. lf anyone asked, he could ::)
sal' he was rrying robuy arazor blade. )\
The owner had jusr lit a hanging oil larnp wruch smelled
undean bur friendly. He \Vasa small, gentle-looking man o(
abour SLXrywirh a long nose and rruck gImes. His hair was
aImosr wrure bur rhe resr of rusface looked surprisingly young.
He looked likeawrirer, or perhaps amusician. His voicewassoft
and he didn'r speak Iikeaprole. .
'1 recognized you \Vhenyou \Vereoutside,' hesaidirnmediarely.
~You're me gentleman \Vho bought rhe diary. There's beautiful
paper in rhar diary.No paper Iikerhat hasbeen madefor - oh, l'd
sal' ftfty years.'He iooked atWinston over rhetop of hisglasses.'Is
mere anything special 1 can do for you? Or did youjusr wanr to
look round?'
'1 \Vas... er' ... passing,' saidWinsron. 'And 1jusr carnein. 1
don't wanr ro buy anyrrung.'
'Well, rhar'sall right,' said the shop o\Vner,'because 1 haven't
got much to sell you.' He looked round theshop sadly.'Oon't rell
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For the rest of the morning it was ver)' diffieult to work, At
lunch time in the canteen the fool Parsons, still smelling of sweat,
did not stop talking ro rum about all the work he was doing for
He saw the girl at the other end of the canteen, at atable \\ith
tWO other girls, but she did not look in his direecion. [n the
afrernoon he looked at the words I 1 0 lle )'0 1 1 again and life seemed
better., He believ~d her. He did not think she'was in the Thought
Poliee, not now. He \Vanted to see' her again.How? How eouId'
he arrange ameeting?
Ir was aweek before he saw her again, in the canteen. He sat at
her table and at that moment sa", Ampleforth, the drearny man
with haii-y ears who re-WfOte poems. Ampleforth was walking
around \vith his lunch, looking for aplace to sit down. He wouId
eertainly sit \vith Winston if he saw him. Winston had about a
minute to arrange something \vith the girl. He started to eat the
watery soup they had been given for lunch.
'What time do you leave work?' he said ro the girl.
'Where can Vle meet?1
'Vicrory Square, near the pieture ofBig Brother.'
'It's fuU of te/escreel!s.'
'It doesn't matter if there's a crowd. But don't come near rne
until you see me among a Iot of people. And don't look at me.
J ust foUow me.'
'What time?'
'Nineteen hours.'
'All right.'
Ampleforth did not see Winston and sat down at another
table. Winston and the girl did not speak again and .they did not
look at each another. The girl finished her lunch quickly and lefr,
while Winsron stayed ro smoke acigarette.
: 1

Four days later he saw the girl with datk hair again. He was
walking to the toilets at the Ministry of Truth and she was
eoming rowards rum. She had hurt her hand. She had probably
hurt it on one of the story-writing maerunes - it was aeornmon
aeeident in that department.
The girl was about four metres away when she feU forwards .
As she feU,she rut her hand again and eried out in pain. Winsron
stopped. The girl got to her knees. Her faee had turned a milky
yellow colour, making her mouth look redder than ever. She.
looked at rum and her faee seemed to show more fear than pain. " , 1
Winsron felt astrange mi" of emotions. In rOnt ofhim \Vasan : 1 '
enemy who \Vasrrying to kill rum: in, ront of rum, also, was a
human being, in pain and perhaps with a broken bone. Already , j
he had started ro help her. He felt that her pain was in sorne " !
strange way rus own. ' , 1
'You're hurt?' he ,aido > 1
'It's notrung. My armoIt'U be all right in asecond.' ~l
He helped her up. 4
: , \ 1
'[t's nothing,' she repeated. 'Thanks, Cornrade.' " .
She walked away quiekly. Winsron was standing in ront of a ,
e/escreel!, so he did nor show any surprise on rus faee, although it . 1
\Vas difficult not to. As he had helped her up, she had put
! t
sometrung in rus hand. ~, .. l
It was a piece of papero He opened it carefuUy in rus hand in ~
the toilet, but did not try ro read it. You eouId be certain the t
te/escreen s would be watehing in the roilets. Back in his office, he . t
ut the pieee of paper down on rus desk among the other papers. ' ,
r .
A few minutes later he puUed it rowards him, with the nest job I
he had ro do, On it, in large letters, was written: ~
. ~
1 .
Chapter 5 A Political Act
PART TWO Acts Against the Party
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IVillstoll S,llI' rhe grlllear Big Brorhcr's pallrc .

~ N ' . \ ; ' \ ; .
~< .. ::-:,
H, ,,,i",' "Vi"o", Sq",,, ,: y. Bi,Bmili,,'pi=" look,'1
up at the skies where he had beaten the Eurasian aeroplanes (or J
Eastasian aeroplanes - it had been afew years ago) in the Great 'i
~r~aL .
Five nnures after the time they had arranged, Winston saw ,,1
the girl near Big Brother's picrure, bur it was not safeto move l
closer to her yer; (here were not enough people atound. Bur . :
suddenly some Eurasian prisoners were brought out and
everyone started running across the park. ~inston ran toO, nexr ~
to the gir!, lost in rhe crowd. '.!
'Can you hear me?' shesaid. ;:1
'Yes.' .1
'Are you working trusSunday afremoon?' ,;
'No.' 1
[ 1
'Then listen carefuliy. Go .. .'
Likeageneral in the army shetold him exactly where to go. A
half-hout railway joumey; rum left outside the station; rwo .: ... :, .. 1,'
kilometres along lhe road; agale; apath acrossafteld. Sheseemed
lOhave amap inside her head. '1
'Can you remember alI thal?' shesaid,finally. t
t 'YesoWhal time?',.
'Abour fifleen hours. You may have to wail. 'll get lhere by'f
anolher way.'!
She moved away from rum. BUI at lhe lasl moment, while the'l
crowd wasstill around them, her hand touched rus- though they '!
did nOI dare ook ar each olher. \

\ '{
Winslon opened lhe gate and walked a10nglhe palh across lhe
field.The air wassoft and the birds sango
Youwere not safer in lhe country hanin London. There were
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no te/esaeellS of course, but there were mi crophones and the . 1
Thought Poli ceoften wai ted at rai lwaystati ons. But the gi rl was .~
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elearlyexperi enced , whi ch mad e hi mfeel braver. ,~
He had no watch but i t could not be fi fteen hours yet, so he )
srarted to pi ck Aowers.A hand fell li ghtly on hi s should er. He i
looked up. It wasthe gi rl, shaki ng her head asawarni ng to stay ,~
si J enr.She walked ahead of hi m and i t \Vaselear toWi nston that]
she had been thi .sway before. He followed , carryi ng hi s Ao\Vers, ~
feeli ng that hewasnot good enough for her. :,
They \Verei n an open spaceof grassbetween tall trees when .
the gi rl stopped and turned . 'Here we are: she sai d . He stood ' . 1 ,
qui te eloseto her but d i d not d aremoyenearer. '1d i d n't want to 1
sal' anythi ng on rhe path because there mi ght be mi crophones .:1
there. But \Ve'reall ri ght here:
He sti ll \Vasnor brave enough to go near her. 'We're all ri ght {
here" he repeared stupi d ly.
'Yes, look ar the trees: They \Veresmall and thi n. 'There's ' : ' l ~
nothi ng bi g enough to hi d eami crophone i n.And 'vebeen here :.
b~~ j
He had managed to move eloser to her no\V.She stood i n!
from of hi m \Vi rhasmi J eon her faee. Hi s Ao\Vershad fallen to .::
. ' ;
theground . He took her hand . j
'Umi l now l d i d n'r e,'en kno", ",hat colour your eyes",ere: . !
he sai d . They \Verebro",n, li ght bro",n. 'And no\\' vou've seen ) , !
",har ['mreallyli ke, canyoueven look at me?' i
'Yes,easi ly'
Tm thi rty-ni ne yearsold . 'vegor awi ferhat 1can't ger ri d of. .1
I'vegot abad knee. 'vegot fi vefalseteeth: ' r
'1d on't care: sai d rhegi rl.
The next moment she \Vasi n hi s arms on the grass. But rhe .~
rruth was that a1though he felr proud , he a1s0felt d i sbeli ef. He .
had no physi cal d esi re; i r was too soon. Her beauty fri ghtened l,
hi m. Perhapshe\Vasjust used to li vi ngwi thout women . . . , 2

The gi rl sat up and pulJ ed a Aower out of her hai r. 'Don't
worry, d ear.There's no hurry. [sn't thi s awond erful place? I found
i t when I got lost once on awalk i n the country wi th theYoung
People'sLeague. If anyone was eomi ng, you could hear them a
hund red metresaway:
'What's your name?' asked Wi nston.
'J uli a. 1know yours. It'sWi nston - Wi nston Smi th. Tell me,
d ear, what d i d you thi nk of me before 1gaveyou the note?'
He d i d not even thi nk of lyi ng to her. It wasli ke an offer of
loveto tell her the truth. '1hated rhe si ght of you,' he sai d .'If you
reallywant to know, 1thought you were i n theThoughr Poli ce:
The gi rllaughed , elearly pleased that she had hi d d en her true
feeli ngs so well. She pulled out sorne chocolate from the pocker
of her overalls, broke i t i n half and gave one of the pi eces to
Wi nston. It w.asvery good chocolate.
'Where d i d you get i t?' he asked .
'Oh, there are ;Iaces,' she sai d . 'It's easi er i f you seem to be a
good Party member li ke me. 'm good at games. I was a Group
Lead er i n the Spi es. I work three eveni ngs aweek for theYoung
People's League. I spend hours and hours putti ng up posters all
over Lond on. I d o anythi ng they want and 1a1wayslook happy
about i r. It's the only way to besafe:
The taste of the excellent chocolate \Vassti ll i n Wi nston's
mouth. 'You arevery young,' he sai d . 'You're ten or fi fteen years
younger than 1amoWhat d i d you fi nd attracti ve i n aman li ke
'It wassomethi ng i n your faee. l thought I'd takeachanceoI'm
good at fi nd i ng people who d on't belong. When 1fi rst sawyou [
knew you wereagai nst t/zelll:
When J uli asai d t/zelll she meant the Party, espeei allythe Inner
Party. She spoke abour them wi th real hare, usi ng bad word s.
Wi nston d i d not r1i sli kethar. It was part of her personal war
agai nst the Party.
other in the street, in a different place evety evening and never
for more than half an hour at a time. The idea of ha"ing their
own hiding place, indoors and near home, had been exciting for
both of them.
Thel' \Verefools,Winston thought again. It wasimpossibleto
(omehere for mote than afew\Veekswithout being caught. But
heneeded her and he felt he deserved her.
J ulia \Vastwenty-six l'ears old. She lived in a Party building
with thitt)' other girls ('Always the smell of \Vomen! I hate
women!' she said) and she \Vorked, as he had guessed, on the
srory-writing machines. She enjoyed her job, looking after a
powerful elecrric motor. She \Vas'not clewr' and 'did nor mu(h
enjol' reading' but she liked machinery. Life, as she saw n, \Vas
quite simple.You \Vanteda good time, c h e )' (meaning the Party)
wanted to stop you having it, so you broke the rules aswell as
you could.
. At that momem he heard her on the stairsoutside and then
sheran into the room. She was carrying abagoShe wem down
onher knees, took packets of food fromthebagandput themon
the floor. She had real sugar, real bread, real jamoAll the good
food that nobodv had seen for years.And then ...
'This isthe o:le l'm really proud of. I had to put paper round
it because .. .'
But she did not hayeto tel! himwhy she had paper round ir.
The smel! \Vasalreadl' ftllingthe room.
'lt's caffee: he saidsoftll'.'Real coffee.'
'It's Inner Panl' coffee.There's awhole kilo here: shesaid.
'Ho\V did l'ou get it?'
'There's nothing those Inner Party pigs don't have. But of
course waiters and servants steal thing.,and - look, 1got alittle
packet of teaaswell.'
Winston opened the packet. '!t's real tea, not fruit leaves.'
'Yes:shesaid.'But listen, dear. I \Vaml'ou roturn your back on
Chapter 6 They Can't Get LnsideYou
He kissedher softly and rook her hands in his.'Have you done
this befote?'
'Of COurse.Hundreds of times- \Vell,alot of times.'
'With Party members?'
" "~
'Wirh members of the Inner PanY?':l
'Not with those pig., no. But there are plenty that !l'ollld if ;',;
they got the chanceoThey're nar aspure asthey pretend to be.' i
His hean raced. He hoped that the Pany \Vasweakened by a el
lie. 'Listen. The more men you've had, the more 1loveyou. Do ! J !
you understand that?' "
'Yes,perfectly.' ;1
'You like doing this? I don't mean just me. I mean the thing ',1
itse1f?' : . ,{~. i. '
That \Vaswhat he wanted to hear. The need for sex, not the .,j
love of one person, wouId finish the Pany. He ptessed her down ';1
on the grass.This time there \Vasno difficuIty. .1
Afierwards they fell asleep and slept for about ha]f an hour. :d
T eir love, their sex together, had beaten the Pan)'. It \Vasa J I
p~ti~=. ~
' ; , 1
. ~)
. . : i :
Winston looked round the little room above Mr Charringron's
shop.As hehad thought, Mr Charringron hadbeen happy to renr
ir to him. He did nar even mind rhat Winston wanted the room
to meet his J over. Everyone, he had said, \Vanteda place where
cheycould be alone andprivate occasionalll'.
They had taken the room because during the month of Mal'
they had made love only one more time. ('It's safe to meet
anywhere mice: J ulia had said).Then they had had to see eaeh
'". '
, :.
, t,
' I : J;,
I 1
1 1
: ~
: 1
me for three minutes. Go and sit on the other side of the bed. ' 1
- ,
And don't curnround until I teI l you.' '
Winsron 'I ooked out of the window. He listened to awoman
singing outsidewith deep feeling.Winston thought shewould be ~
quite happy if rhar June evening never ended. He had never ,
heard amember of the Parrysinglikerhar.'
'Youcan curnround now,'saidJulia. ,
He curned round and for asecond almosr clidnot recognize ,
her. He rhoughr she hadrakenher clorhes off.Bur the ehange in - \
her wasmore surprising rhan rhar. Shehad painted her faee.
He rhoughr the make- up musr be from a shop in rhe prole l '
area. Her lips were red, her faee was smoorh; rhere was even'

,omerhing under her eyesto makerhembrighrer. I r wasnor weI l r

done, burWinsron clidnot know that. He hadnever befare seena : 1
woman in the Parry with make- up on. Julia looked prettier and]
much more likeawoman. ' 1
He rook her in hisarms. ."
'Do you know what I 'm going ro do nexr?' she said. Tm;;'
going to ger a real \~oman's dress fr0r: ' somew~ere and wear it .,1
lnsread of thesehOrribleoveraI ls.I n rhisroom I mgomg ro be a;1
\Voman,not aParry cornrade.' : ii
' J
Afrer rhey madelovethey feI l asleep,and whenWinsron woke;
up rhe hands on the clock showed nearly nine - rwenry- one~l
hours. He did not movebecauseJulia wassleeping wirh her head~
~ 1 1
on hisarmoMost of her make- up wason the pillow or on him. < .
They had never ralkedabour marriage; it wasimpossible,even- .~
if Katherine clied.Winsron had roldJulia abour Karherine. SheJ
. ,.
\Vasgoodtl Jil l kfif, in Newspeak, unablero think abad rhoughr. She}
did nor likesexoI r wasjusI . . . '.' ,
'Our dury ro rhe Parry.'Julia had saidir for him. Jusr ro havei~
ehildren. Children who \Vouldone day spy on rheir parenrs and'f
telJ rhe Parry if rhey saidor did anything wrong. I n rhisway rhe: }
family had beeome parr of rheThoughr Poliee. Karherine had '~
i ; ; . .
< ~:
fYOIl [all tltT1l roltlld 1l 01l ~' said Julia.
. ,

' 1 1 ' " ,!

I "
. r . " : - t
' F ;
not t old t heThought Police about Winst on ooly becauseshewas
t oo st upid t o underst and his opinions.
' {
Winst on had t hought about killing Kat herine and once nearly '~
did. But no\\' he andJ ulia \\'ere dead. When you disobeyed t he ~
Part y you were dead...I ...
J ulia woke up and put her hands over her eyes. .
'We aret he dead,'Winst on said.
, ..
'We're not deadyet ,' saidJ ulia,pressingher body against his. ~
'We mal' be t oget her for anot her six mont hs - ayear. When f
t hey fmdust herewill benot hing ei~hehr ofusd'c~ndo fobrdt he0jt her.' .~
'We will t eU t hem everyt hing, s esa, . Every o y aways f
does.They makeyou feel somuch pain.' ~
'Even if we t eU t hem everyt hing, t hat 's not a bet rayal. The ~
: 1 t
bet rayaI wouId ooly be if t hey made me st op lovingyou.' Y t
She t hought about t hat . 'They can't do t hat ,' she saidfinally. . , 1
'[t 's t he one t hing t hey can't do.They canmakeyou sal' anyt hing.: ..... , r
- all)'thillg - but t hey can't make you believe it . They can't get t
insideyou.' " ' 1 '
'No,' hesaid,alit t le more hopefuUy: No, t hat 's quit e rrue.They . ; t .
can't get inside you.' ",
TU get up andmakesornecoffee,'shesaid.'We've got anhour. '.
What t im do t hey t uro t he light s off at your flat s?' i
'Twent y- t hree t hirt y.' : :
. .\
'[t 's t went y- t hree hours at t he Part y building. But you havet o ..
get in earlier t han t hat because .. .' ": l~
She suddeoly reached down t Tom t he bed t o t he floor,picked .. i. . . . .
up ashoe and t hre\\' it hard int o t he comer of t he room.
'What \Vasit ?' he saidin surprise. }~
'A rar. 1sawhishorrible lit t le nose.There's ahole do\Vnt here..a
" ' ;
I fright ened him,[ t hink.' : '1'
'Rat s!' saidWinst on quiet ly.'In t his room!' ' . i
'They're everywhere,' saidJ ulia,wit hout much int erest ,asshe : ~i
laydown again.'We've evengot t hem in t he kit chen at t he Part y ',
: 1
' . ~ . ' "
building. Did you know t hey arrack children? In sorne part s of
London a\Vomandaren't leaveababy alonefor t wo minut es.The
big bro\Vnones aret heworsr.They .. .'
'Stop! Scopf saidWinst on, hiseyest ight ly shut .
'Dearest !You'vegone quit e pale.What 's t hemat t er?'
'They aret he most horrible t hings in t heworld - rat s!'
She put her arms round himbut he did not re- open his eyes
inunediat ely.
'I'm sorry,'he said.'!t 's not hing. 1don't likerat s,t hat 'saU.'
'Don't worry. de'ar.We\Von't havet he dirt y animalsin here. I'U
put somet hing over t he hole before \Vego.'
J ulia got out of bed,put on hei overaUsand made t he coflee.
The smeU \Vasso powerful and excit ing t hat t hey shut t he
\Vindo\\',\Vorriedt hat somebody out side ",ouId not ice ir andask
quest ions. And t hey could t ast e t he real sugar in t he coffee- it
waseven bet t er t han t he t ast eof t he coffeeit self.
J ulia \Valkedround t he room wit h one hand in her pocket and
a piece of bread andjam in t he ot her. She looked at t he books
'vit hout int erest . She t old Winst on t he best ",ay t o repair t he
rabIe. She sat down in t he old armchair t o see if it \Vas
comfort able. Shesmiled at t he o]d.rwelve- hour dock.
'Ho\V old is t hat picrure over t here,do YOl1 t hink?' sheasked.
'A hundred years01&'
'More. T",o hundred. But it 'simpossiblet o discover t heageof
anyt hing t hesedays.'
Shelooked at ir.'What ist his place"
'It 's achurch. WeU,t hat 's what it used t o be.'
\Vhen Winst on got out of bed it \Vasdark. The room \Vasa
\Vorld,a past ",orld, and t hey were t he last t wo people fromit
\Vho\Verest illliving.
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Chapter 7 Our Leader, Emmanuel Goldstein
They ""porized Syme. One morning he \Vasnoe at work; a fe\V
earelesspeople talkedabout rusabsenee. On the next day nobody
talkedabout rum. Hisnamedisappearedfromlistsandne\Vspapers.
He didnot existoHe hadnever existed.
Parsonswashelping to organizeHateWeek. He\Vaseompletely
happy, running around painring posters, singing the ne", Hate
Song, smellingevenmore stronglyof sweatinthehot weather.
Daily life no longer eausedWinston pain: He had sropped
drinking gin at all hours andhisknee felt better. He did not want
roshout angry words ar rhe (desaee all the rime.
He-meeJ ulia four, five, si. . ,- sevenrimes during the monrh of
J une. Ir wasso hot ar rhe end of rhe month rhar they ayon rhe
bed inrheroom over Mr Charringron' s shop \Vithout dothes on.
The raehad never come baek.
Somerimes rhey talked abour a more open ",ar againsr the
Pan)' , but they did nor kno", how ro begin. Winston roId her
abour the strange understanding that seemed to exisr bet",een
himself and O' Brien. He somerimes felt like going ro see rum,
rellinghimhe wasthe enemy of rhePany, demanding O' Brien' s
help. Strangely, J ulia did not trunk rrus "' as a wild idea. She
judged people by their facesandit seemed natural roher rhat the
look in O' Brien' s eyes madeWinsron believe in rum. AJ so, she
rhought thar everybody seeretlyhated rhePart)' , although shedid
not believein Goldsrein and the Brorherho6d; she thought the
Parryhad invented them.
And rhen ar lasr ir happened. All ruslife, it seemed ro rum, he
hadbeen wairing for erus:there \VasamessagefromO' Brien.

Winston \Vasoutside rusoffieeat rheMinisrry when he heard a

small eough berund rumand turned. lt "' as O' Brien.
' 1 ",as reading your Newspeak anicle the other day.Youknow
alot about Newspeak, I believe. '
' Oh, nor really. I' venever invented any of the ",ords . .
' Bu, you write it very weU: saidO' Brien. ' That isnor onIy my
own opinion. I was ralking reeently ro a friend of yours who
knows a lot about Newspeak. 1 ean' r remember rusname at the
WinsEon' s heart jumped. This could onIy mean Syme. Bur
Syme was not onIy dead, he was vaporized, an IIllpersoll. Ir was
dangerous ro talk about an IIllperso,,; they could kill you for it.
O' Brien \Vassharing ahollghlcrillle \vith rum.
' In your Ne",speak arricleyou usedtwo ",ords wrueh ",e have
reeently raken our of rhe language: saidO' Brien. ' Have you seen
rhene\V tenth edirion?'
' No: saidWinsron. ' We srill havethe ninth in the offiee. '
' The tenth will not be sent to offices for sorne months but I ,
haveone. Would you like to seeit, perhaps?'
' Yes, very mueh: said Winsron, ",ho eould see where trus
' You will be interested, I' m sure. You ",ill like the smaller
number of verbs. Shall I send someone to you wirh rhe
Dierionary? Bur 1 al\Vaysforger rhat kind of trung. Perhaps you
eould eoUeet ir frommy fiat at aconvenient rime?Wair. Let me
giveyou my address. '
They were sranding in front of a Ie/escreell wruch eould see
",har he \Vaswriring. He ",rote an addressin anotebook, puUed
out rhepageand gaveit roWinsron.
' 1 am usually at home in the evenings: he said. ' If nor, my
servant \Villgiveyou rhe Dicrionary. '
And rhen he ",asgone.

They had done it, rhey haddone ir ar J ase!

0 0 '
, o
The room waslong, carpetedandsoftlylit; thesoundfromthe
telescreell \Vas10 \V. At the far endof the room O' Brien wassirting
under alamp with papers on either sideof him. He didnot loo k
up when the servant showedWinston andJ uliain.
Winston' s hean \Vasbeating fasto Ir \Vasdangerous to arrive
\VithJ ulia, although they had met ooly outside O' Brien' s fiar.
Andalthough O' Brien hadinvitedhim, he \Vasstill afraidof the
black-uniformed guards in this enormous building with its
strange smellsof goodfoodandrobacco. Bur the guards hadnot
brderedhim out.
O' Brien continued to work anddidnot look pleasedat the
visit. It seemedquite possibleto Winsron that he badjust madea
stupidmistake. He couldnot evenpretendtbat hehadcome ooly
to borrow the Dictionary - ifbe had, why wasJ ulia here?
O' Brien got up slowl)' ti:ombis chair andcame towards tbem
acrosstbe thick carpet. He pressedaswitch on tbe \Vallandtbe
voicefromthe ce1cscrcEIIstopped.
J ulia gave a small cry of surprise and without thinking
Winsron said, ' Youcanturn it off]'
' Yes: saidO' Brien. ' We can turn it off.Wein the lnner Pany
areallo\Vedro do that:
Nobody spoke.Witbour the voicefromthe celeserecll the room
\Vascompletely silent.Then O' Brien smiled.
' Shall [ sal' it or 'viII you?' he said.
'I will say ir: saidWinston irnmediately. ' That thing is really
turned olP'
' YesoWearealone:
Winston paused. He didnot know exactly \Vhathe expected
froI11O' Brien. Then he continued, ' We believe that there is a
secret organization \Vorking against the Parry andtbat you are
pan of it.We\Vantto join it andwork for it.Weareenenes of
the Parry.Wearelovers, and\Veare chollghterilllillals. Andno\V\Ve
are in your power.'
' J oH, arc ellCIIlics q(che Parc],.'
O'Brien rook a bortle and filled rhree g1asses\Virh dark red
liquido It reminded Winston of somerhing he had seen a long
time ago. J ulia picked up her glass' and smeUed rhe liquid \Vith
great interes!.
'It is called wine,' said O'Brien with asmall smile. 'Not much
of it gets to ordinary Party members,l'm araid: His face became
serious again, and he lified his g1ass:'To our Leader: he said. 'To
Emmanuel Goldstein:
Winston lified his glass, wide-eyed. Wine was a rhing he had
read anci dreamed bout. For sorne reason he alway'- 'thought it
rasted sweer. But ir tasred of norhing. The trurh was thar after
years of drinking gin he could taste almost norhing.
'So Goldsrein isa real person?' he said.
'Yes he is, and he is ilive. Where, I do not know:
'And rhe Brotherhood is real, too? It was nor invented by [he
Thoughr Police?'
'No, ir is real. Bur you will never leam much more about he
Brorherhood rhan [ha[.' He looked a[ his watch. 'Ir is unwise even
for me ro tum rhe te/esaeell off for more rhan half an hour. It was
a mistake for both of you ro arrive here together, and you,
Cornrde: - he looked arJ ulia - 'will have to leave firs!. We have
about twenty minutes. Now, what are you prepared to do?'
'Anything thar we can: saidWinston.
O'Brien had tumed hirnself a little in his chair so that he was
looking at Winston. He seemed to think that Winston could
answer for J ulia.
'You are willing to give your lives"
'You are willing to murder another person?'
'You are \villing to cause the death of hundreds of innocent

'If, for example, ir would help us to blind a child and destroy
its face - would you do thar?'
'Are you \"illing to kill yourselves, if \Veorder )'OU to do so"
' Yes.'
'You are willing, the rwo of you, ro separate and never see each
other again?'
'No!' shouted J ulia.
Ir seemed ro Winston tha[ a long time passed belore he
answered. 'No,' he said finally.
'You did welJ to teU me: said O'Brien. 'It is necessary for us to
know everything:
O'Brien started walking up and down, one hand in the pocker
of his black overalls, the orher holding acigarette.
'You l!ndersrand: he said, 'rhar secrets "ill always be kepr from
you. You will receive orders and you "ill obey rhem \Virhout
knowing why. Larer [ shall send Y0l! a book by Emmanuel
Goldstein. \Vhen you have read rhe book Y0l! will be fuU
members of rhe Brorherhood. When you are finilly caught Y0l!
will get no help. Somerimes \Veare able to get a razor blade into
rhe prison to silence someone, but you are more likely to relJ
rhem all you knoV\' - althol!gh you will nor know very much. We
are rhe dead. We are fighting for a betrer life for peopie in the
hlture: He stopped and looked at his watch. 'Ir is almost time lor
you to leave, Cornrade,' he s~id to J ulia. 'Wair. 'rhere is stilJ some
\Vine.' He ftlled the glasses ai1dheld up his o\Vn g1ass.'Whar shall
we drink to?To the dearh ofBig Brother?To the future?'
'To the past: saidWinston.
'Yes, the past is more important: said O'Brien seriousiy.
They fmished the wine and a moment later J ulia stood up to
go. When she had left, Winston stood up and he and O'Brien
shook hands. At the door he looked back, bl!t O'Brien \Vas
already at his desk, doing his important \York for the Party.
". '
Chapter 8 DOllbletlrillk
On the si:"th day of Hare Week, just befare t\Vo thousand
Eurasian prisoners \Vere hanged in the park, the peopIe of
Oceania \Vereraid that rhey \Verenot at \Varwirh Eurasianow.
They were at war with Eastasiaand Eurasiawas afriendoYou
could hear it on thelelescreens - Oceania\Vasatwar withEastasia:
Oceania had al\Vaysbeen at war withEastasia.
Wil15ronhadworked morethannineryhours inthelastfivedays
of HateWeek. Now hehad finishedandhehadnothing to do, no
Pany work unril romorrow motning. Siowl)', in the anernoon
sunshine, hewalkedupanarrow meet ro Mr Charringron's shop,
watehing for theThought Paliee, but sure- although hehad no
reason ro besure- that he\\'assafe.In his case,heavy againsrhis
legs,hecarried ,he book, Goldstein'sbook. Hehadhadirtor si:"days
bur hadnot looked atityero
Tired but not sleep)', he climbed the stairs above Mr
Charrillgton's shop. He opened the window alld put the water
on for coffee. J ulia \ here soon. He took Goldstein's
book out of his caseand opened it.Then heheardJ uliaeorning
upthestairsandjumped out ofhis ehair ro meet her. Sheput her
browll rool bag on the loorand thre\V herself imo his arms. It
wasmorethan aweek sineerhey had seen eachother.
Tvegor Ihe book,' hesaid.
'Oh, you'vegot it? Good,' shesaidwithout much interesr, and
almost inunediately benr down to makethecoffee.
They did nor ralkabout thebook againunril rhey hadbeen I1
bed forhalf anhour. Itwasevening andjust cool enough rohave
ablanket over rhem. J ulia\Vasfallingasleepby his side.Winston
picked thebook upfromtheloorand satupin bed.
'We must read ir,' he said. 'You too. All members of the
Brotherhood havero read it'
'Youread it,' shesaidwith her eyesshut. 'Read it ro me, that's
thebest\Vay. Then you can explain ir to me.'
f: ..
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The clock's hands saidsix, meaning eighreen. They had three
or four hours ahead of them. Heput thebook againsthis knee
and began reamng:
TIlere halle alllJays been Ihree killds ~r people ill Ihe 1IJ0rld, the High,
the lv/idd/e alld the Lom TIle 1IJ0rld has cha/lged blll sociely alllJays
CO/JIaills these three groups.
'J ulia, areyou awake?' saidWinston.
'Yes,my lave, I'm listening.'
TI,e aims of Ihe three groups are complete/y d!ffemll. TIteHigh lIJa/JI
lo slaY .lIJhere ,hey are.'TI,e Midd/e 1IJ00it,to hallge places lIJith lhe High.
Somelulles .rhe LoIIJ halle 110 aim at all, because they are loo tired from
elld/ess bOrJ/lg Ivo,k lo have all aim. If they da halle O/le, they lIJallt lo
lille ill a lIetl' 1IJ0,Id IIJhere all people are eq/la/.
Al the begillllillg of the tllJentieth ce/llllry this eqliality became possib/e
Jor the first IIIlfe beca use machilles did so much of lhe 1IJ0rk.A CElllllries-
o/d dream seemed lo be comillg Inte. But illthe early 193Os the High
grolip sallJ the dallger to Ihem of eq'lality Jor all alld did everythilfg
possible lo SIOp il.
.TIte illdividual sllffered i/l lIJays that he had /101 suffered Jor wlI/lries.
Pnsouers cif !-VaT UJfrf sen! hzco slavery or h Q f J g e d . 7710HSQ lld s were sen! to
prisa". although Ihey had broke/l 110 lam TIte populatiollS of ",hale
coulltnes ",ere forced lo lealle Iheir homes. Alld all Ihis ,vas defellded alld
even supported by people IIJho said they believed illprogress.
TIte people ",ha enlered Ihe /le/V High group IIJere from the
professjotls: sciel1tists, teachers, j o u r lla!i st s. 77ley tlJed Ilf W Sp ap e r s, radio,
. ji/m alld Ie/evisioll to' cO/ltrol people's Ihoughts. When a lelevisioll Ihar
(allld hoth se lld Qud r e c e i v e ; ,ifO ' 11I al; 0 11 lIJ as lzv f lIt e d , privare ' li j e c am e
lo all elld. Every illdividllal, or al leasl every importalll illdividual
cOIl/d be IIJalc/red IlIJenlylollr hOllrs a day. For Ihe jinl lime illIJa:
possible lo force people lo obey lhe Parly alld lo share Ihe Party's
0P"IIOII 011 all sllbjec/s.
Afia Ihe 1950s O/Id 1960s the dallger of equa/il)' Iwd been ellded
alld sociel)' !tad re-grol/ped itself, as aIIVa)'s, illlo High, Middle alld Lol/(
1 ; . .
Blll l/U? Ilew High g r Ol /p , Jor lhe first time, klle1l' hOlfl lO std)' iJl tIwl
positi01l for eller.
First, i" I"e /IIiddle )'e",s of ,"C III'elltiel" CCII,"r)', ,"e Par,)' /IIade SIIre
I"al il o",,,ed all ,"e properl)' - all ,Ilefaaories, l"'ld, llOlIses, el'er)',hillg
excepl reall)' s/llall pieces of persollal proper,)'. TIlis /IIeallt ,"al a fell'
people (I"e [/IIer Parl)') o",,,ed all/1051 CC'CT)'lilillgalld Ihe :\liddle a"d
L o t l ' grllps o l l ' l l c d I/c ar l } ' IUl l /l i l l g . There Il ' as l/l(:T~fore Il(l h o p c oI 1Il 01' i n g
up i" Joder}' b }' vccomillg richer alld o 1l ' Il i l /g morCo
BHt the provlclIl oI stlyillg i" ptlll!cr is /l l o r e complicarcd r/wll thm,
111 the pm-t, Hg" g Wl ! PS Ih WC fallen fr(llll p Ol Uf r crha (,c c d u s e {he}'
h",'e losr cOlllrol of r"e Iddle or Lo", grollps or bcca"se rile)' """C
b c c o J l l e {(.lo Il ' c ak , ()r v e c al l s e (lte)' /at ' C b e e l l al f 1c k c d 11I1d b r at c /I b )' < 111
m m )' frt1 ll/ OIIl Si d c .
~rcr [he middlc (l [ltc CCl l 1l f r )' I/e r e Il'dS reall)' 110 IIlt
rc danga fnJI1l
Ihc Middle (l/"LOII' gn1llps. The p.1I'f)' had /IIIlde ilse!r slT<lllger b)' killil/g
all of irs firs, leaders (pe(lplc like )olles, :1"''OIISOII a"d R"lllCljord. B)'
1970 Big B r Ol l t e r l I' as che o l l l )' leader 11lld E' Il 1J h " l l 1//c l Go l d s l c i l l 1f'IS in
l Ii d i l l g stlmcII'//(.~rc.
T"c PIlrl)' Ihm kepl ilsc!( strallg. TIle c"ild ~r l1111CTPal'/)' P,"CIl1S is
11M Vt1 rl/ ;1110 t h e J I/IICf HUl )' ; there i s 11/ 1 e xt l m i l l t " l t ;o l l , r ak c II 1l t l l e d g r
oI ~'iXlecl1. l +c ak J /l l /Cf Hl r t y 11Ie l l l b e r s ar e Il l o l ' e d d OIJ l l l l 111d d e l /e l ' Dl Ic e r
Par c } ' 1I1c m b c r s t Ir e c 1110IJ l c d W l1/ lltJC IIp . A Ir /l Ol Ig h proles d o 1/o t Il Sl f t Tl l y
l/IOl'e IIp il/to thc Hlrt)"', the H11't)' altl'llys stops itsL '! fj imll b ccom; l1g
stllpid o,. lIcak.
. T I/ c Par l )' has 1l s o t 1w d c aUl l e k _(l ' o m tire o l l t s i d c i l l l j J o s s ;b l e . TIlcre elre
11011' o u l )' t l u c e g r L ' at w l l Il t r i e s ;11 Ihe I/' MId . They I1 re al ! l ' ay s t1t Il ' ar b Il t
1l (l l l e I.~fchem (011 w i l l o r e l ' CIl t l ' i s h e s l o w i l l t ! ,e s e l l ' ar s , Fo l l O[ j l i l 1g l ! J e
ide" ~r'dol/blelhil/k' Ihe lIIilld ~r Ihe H1rI)', whidl cOlllrols lIS al/, bOlh
k Il OIl ' S al /d does l l Ot m o l ! ' t! Ie aim (! f t! Icse " ,ar s . T I/ e aim i s to u s e
el'er)'lhillg rhar a COl/lllr)' pro dI/ces wihol/t 1I1<,killgi15peoplc rid,er. Ir
people becallle rid,el; Ihere wOl/ld bc ,111 elld lo Ihe world ~r rhe High, Ihe
l\Iiddle alld rhe Lo",. TI,e Lo", alld Ihe Middle ",ol/Id 1101",ish lo stay ill
Iheir places alld "'al/Id rrot lIeed lo.
.. ~
1 " .. ~I
" ' 1 "
, - - -
TIle Middle alld 1..011' are kept ill Iheir places b)' rheir belitif ill Ihe
llJars thal tlOlle of the lhree colHltries call will. So the Part)' has lo elld
illdepelldell rhollghl alld make people believe everyl"irrg Ihe)' are lold.
T Ile Parly must know wlzal every persofJ is t! Jinking, so the)' uever waHt
to elld the war. rM ir colltilllll?S, alwa}'s and for ever.
People are givell somell'here lo live, somel! Jiug lo wear mzd sometJzillg
lo eal. TIral is aJl rhe)' lIeed alld rhey ""lsI lIever ",alll /liare. TIle)' are
givell work, blll al")' Ihe TIIOIIghl Police do Iheir ",ork really ",ell.
AII good Ihillgs ill Ihe world of Oceallia today, aJl kllowledge, all
happilless, cOlllefrom Big Brolher. Nobady Iras ever seerr Big Brollrer. He
is a jace 011poslers, a voice 011 Ilre lelescreerr. We call be sllre Ilral Ire ,viII
lIever die. Big Brorlrer is Ilre ",o)' tire Parly shows ilself lo Ihe people.
Be/ow Big Brolher cOllles Ilre lmrer Party, wlric11 is 1I0Ul six mil/ioll
people, less ,lrOIl 2% of Ihe poplllaliorr of Oceallia. BeloUl Ilre lImer
Parly comes Ilre Olller Parl)'. TIre lImer Parl)' is He Ihe mirrd of Ilre
Parl)' alld Ilre Olller Parly is Iike irs Irallds. Be/ow Ilral came I I I I !milliolls
of people we caJl 'Ihe proles', abolJl 85% of lre poplllatio".
A Par/y member lives l/IIder /lre eye of Ihe TIlolIgh Police from birllr
lO dealh. Evell ",lwI Ire is alolle Ire call lIever be sllre he is alorre. He will
never make a free (/zoiee il! ! zj s [ife.
BIII Ihere is no law alld Ilrere are 110 nr/es. TIrey are 1101 Ilecessary.
MOSI people k"o", wlral Ihe)' rrlllsl do - ill Ne",speak Ilrey are
'gaodlhillkers'. Alld sillce Parl)' members were c1lildren Ilrey Irave beell
Iraitled ill tI"ee more Ne",speak words: 'cri/lleslop', 'black",lrile' alld
'dollblelhillk' .
Everr YOlII'g c1lildrerr are rallglrl 'crimeslop'. 11 memls sloppillg btifore
)'011 ,hillk a ",rorrg rhollghl. H11eJ 1 )'011 are tmilled irr 'crilllestop' )'Oll
mll/lOl tlrillk a IIrOllglr agaillst Ilre Parly. YOll Ilrillk ollly lI'lral ,lre Parl)'
l IJ al l l s YOf l l O tllink.
BlI l lre Parl)' lI'allls people lo Ilrillk d!fJerelll lrollglrts aJl tire ,ime.
TIre imparlmll ",ord Irere is 'blackll'lrile.' Like mllll)' Nell'spe"k lI'ords,
rlris Iras IlI'o meallillgs. Ellemies sal' tllal black is lI'lrile - rlrey (eJl Iies.
B'II Party I/lel/lbers sal' tlral black is ",lrile bemllse tire Parly lells Ilrem ro
aud beca"se the)' believe it. TI,,)' lII"sl Jorger that rhe)' ever had a
dif[erfllr beliq.
'BlacklVhite' aud 'crimestop' are bOlh parl of 'dollblelhiuk'.
'Dollblerhiuk' alloll's people ro }old tIVO differell! ideas iu Iheir lIIillds at
the sallle tillle - alld to aaept both of them. JIl this wa)' they call live
IVith a c}allgiug realit)', iucl"dillg a chaugiug pasto TI,e past IlIllSt be
chauged all the tillle beca"se the Parr)' cau uever lIIake a lIIislake. TIJat is
the 1II0St illlportall! reasoll. Jt is also illlportaut Ihat Ilobod)' call relllember
a tillle better thall IlOIV alld so becollle IlIIhapp)' lvilh che presellt. B)'
IISillg 'dOl,blethillk' the Part)' has beeu able lO stop histor)', keep po",er
alld ...
'J ulia?'
No ans\ver.
'J ulia, are you awake?'
No answer. She was asleep. He shU[ the book, put it carefu]]y
on the floor, lay down and put ehe blanket over both of ehem.
The book had not told him anything he did noe already know,
but afrer reading iehe knew he wasnot mad. He shU[hiseyes.He
wassafe,everything wasall right.
When he woke he thought he had slept a long rime but,
looking at the old dock, he saw it was only ewenty-thirty.
Outside he could hear singing. It was a song written in the
Ministry of Truth and aprole woman wassinging it. If there was
hope, thought Winston, it wasbecause of the proles. Even without
reading the end of Goldstein's book, he knew ehat was his
message.The future belonged to the-proles; Party members were
the dead.
'We are the dead,' he said.
'We are the dead,' agreed J ulia.
'You are the dead,' said avoice behind them.
They jumped awa)' fromeach other. Winsron felehisblood go
cold.J ulia'sface had turned amilky yeUow.
'You are the dead,' repeaeed the voice.

'Ir was behind the picture,' breathed J ulia.
'It was behind the picture,' said the voice. 'Stay exactly where
you are. Do not move until we order you to.'
It was searring, ie was srarting aelast!They could do noehing
except look into each other's eyes.They did noe even ehink of
running for eheir livesor gemng out of the house before it was
too laee.lewasunthinkable eo disobey the voice fromthe wall.
There was acrash of breaking glass.The picture had fallento
the floor.There wasatelesereell behind ir.
'Now ehey cansee us,' saidJ ulia.
'Now we can see you,' said ehevoice. 'Stand in the middIe of
the room. Seandback ro back. Put your handsbehind your heads.
Do not eouch each other.'
'1suppose we should saygoodbye,' saidJ ulia.
'You should saygoodbye,' said the voice.
There was a crash as a ladder broke ehrough the window.
Soldiers carne in; more carne crashingin through ehedoor.
Winston did not move, not even his eyes. Only one ehing
mattered: don't give eheman excuse ro hit you.
One of ehe soldiers hit J ulia hard in ehe sromach. She feUto
ehe floor, fighting to breathe. Then two of ehempicked her up
and carried her out of ehe room, holding her by ehe knees and
shoulders. Winsron saw her face, yeUowwith pain, wiehher eyes
tightly shut aseheyrook her awayfromhim.
He did noe move. No one had hit him yet. He wondered if
they had got Mr Charrington. He wanted to go ro.theroiJ er. The
dock said mne, meamng twenty-one hours, but the light seemed
too strong for evening.Wasit reallymne in the morrung' Had he
andJ ulia slept all thae time?
Mr Charrington carne into the room and Winsron suddenly
realized whose voice he had heard on the teleserefll. Mr
Charrington still had his old jacket on, bue his hair, wruch had
been aImost wrute, was now black. His body was straighter and
'1 SI/ppose lile s/zo,lid say goodbye.'
looked bigger. His facewastheclear-thinking, cold faceof aman
of about thirty-five. Winston realized that for the first time in his
lifehe waslooking at amember of theThought Police.
PART THREE InsideWinston Smith's Head
Chapter 9 MitlilllV
. .
He did not know where he was. He thought he was in the
Ministry of Love,Mini/zw, but he could not be certain.
He was in ahigh-ceilinged, windowless cel! with white stone
walls.It wasbright with cold light. In thisplace, he felt, the lights
would never be turned out. One moment he felt certain that it
was bright day outside and the next moment he was equaliy
certain chat it was black night. 'Weshall meet in the placewhere
there is no dark,' O'Brien had said to him. In the !II1..inisttyof
Lovethere were no windows.
He thought of O'Brien more ofien thanJ ulia. He lovedJ ulia
and would not betray her, but he did not think about what was
happening to her. Sometimes he thought about what they would
do to him. He saw himself on the floor, screaming through
broken teeth for them to stophitting him. O'Brien must know
hewashere. O'Brien saidtheBrotherhood never tried to saveits
members. But they would send him arazor blade if they could.
One cut and it would aIIbe finished.
In biscel!, there wasacontinuous noisefromthemachine that
brought air in fromoutside. A narrow shelf went round the wall,
stopping onJ y at the door, and at the end opposite the door there
wasatoilet 'vith no wooden seat.There were four te/esaeellS, one
in each wall.
He was hungry. It might be twenty-four hours since he had
eaten, it might be thirty-six. He still did not know, probably
never would lenow, if it had been morning or evening when the
soldiers rook him. Since then he had been given no food.
He sat on me narrow shelf without moving, with rus hands
crossed on rus lenees. He had already earned not to move too
mucho If you moved around they shouted at you from the
te/escreen. But he wanred food so badly, especially apiece ofbread.
He thought perhaps there was a small piece in the pocket of rus
overalls. His need for the bread grew stronger than the fear; he
put ahand in rus pocket.
'Smith!' shouted a' voice from the te/escreen. '6079 Smith W!
Hands out of pockets in the cells!'
He crossed rus hands on rus lenee again. There was a sound of
marcrung boots outside. A young officer, black-uniformed, \vith
an emotionless face, stepped into me cell. He waved to the guards
berund him and they brought in aman who they were holding
by the arrns. It wasAmpleforth, the man who re-wrete poems for
the Party. The cell door cIosed berund him.
Ampleforth walked up and down the cell. He had not yet
noticed Winsron. He was dirty, Wore no shoes and had not shaved
for severa! days. The hairy half- beard gave him a criminal ook
mat was strange, with bis large weak body and nervous
Winston thought quickly. He must speak to Ampleforth even
if they shouted at rum through me telescreen. It was possible that
Ampleforth had the razor blade for him.
'Ampleforth: he said..
There was no shout from the te/esaeen. Ampleforth sropped
walking up and down. He seemed surprised. It took him a
momem ro recognize Winston.
'Ah, Smith!' he said. 'You too!'
'What are you in for?'
Ampleforth put a hand to bis head, trying to remember.
'There is sometrung .. .' he said. 'We were working on a poem
and I didn't change the word "God". It was necessary, in the
poem. There was no ether word. So 1len it.' For a momem he
looked happy, pleased \vith bis work on the poem.
'Do you lenow what time of day it is?' asked Winston.
Ampleforth looked surprised. '1hadn't mought about it. They
took me - it could be two days ago - perhaps three.' He looked
round the cell. 'There is no difference between night and day in
trus place. You can never lenow the time.'
They talked for a few minutes, then, tor no clear reason, avoice
from' the te/escreen told them toObes:ilent. Winsrori s:it quietly, rus
hands crossed. Ampleforth was too large for the narrow shelf and
moved frem side to side. Time passed - twenty minutes, an hour.
Again there was a sound of booes. Winston's stomach turned to
water. Soon, vety soon, perhaps now, me booes \VouIdcome for rum.
The door opened. The cold-faced young officer stepped imo
the cell. He waved bis arm at Ampleforth.
'Room 101,' he said.
Ampleforth rnarched out between the guards. He looked a
little worried but clidnot seem to understand what was happening
to him.
More time passed. It seemed like a long time to Winsron. He
had only six thoughts: the pain in rus stomach; a piece of bread;
the blood and the screaming; O'Brien;J ulia; the razor blade.
Then rus stomach turned to water again as he heard the boots
oueside. The door was opened and asmell of sweat carne in with
the cold airoParsons walked imo the cell.
'YOl/ here!'Winston cried out in surprise.
Parsons clid not seem interested inWinston or surprised to see
rum. He Iooked completely \vithout hopeo
'What are you in for?' said Winston.
'771Ol/gbtcril/le: said Parsons, almost crying. 'They \Von't shoot
me, wil! they? I mean, they don't shoet you \Vhen you haven't
done anyrrung - just thought? And they'll lenow everyrrung I've
done for lhe Party,won'l lhey? I'll jusI gel fiveyears, don'l you
lhink? Or even len years?Someone likemeeould reallyhelp lhe
Party in prison. They wouldn't ShOOIme forjust one misme?'
'Areyou guilty?' saidWinston.
'Of eourse I'm guilty!' saidParsons, looking al the telescreen as
hespoke. '1wouldn'l be here if I wasn'l. T11011g/taillle isalerrible
lhing. Do you kno\V how it happened? In my sleep!Yes,lhere I
was working a\Vayfor the Party - I never knew I had any bad
sruff in my mind al all.And then I started taIkingin my sleep.Do
you know whal I said?I said"Down with BigBrotherl" Do you
know what I'm going 10sayto them? I'm going lo say,"Thank
you for saving me.'"
'Who told lhemabout you?' saidWinston.
'My little daughter,' saidParsons, sadbut proud. He waIked up
and down afew more times, looking hard at the toilet. 'Excuse
me, old man,' hesaid.'1ean'l help it. It'slhe waiting:
Parsonslook hislrousers down. Winston coveredhisfaeewilh
'Smilh!' shouted the voiee fromthe telescreell. '6079 SmithW!
Uneover your faee.No faceseoveredin lhe eells:
Winslon uneovered his faee. Parsons used lhe loilel, loudly
andhorribly. The cell smelled terrible for hours af1:erwards.
Parsons was taken out. More men and women were broughl
in and laken out again by lhe guards. One woman was se!J I to
'Room 101' and seemed 10beeome smaller andehange eolour as
sheheard thewords.
'Cornrade! Oflicer!' she cried. 'You don't have to take me to
thal place! Haven'l 1 told you eyerylhing already? I'll say
anylhing.J usl write it down and I'll sayit! Not Room 101:
'Room 101,'saidthe guardo
A long timepassed.Winston wasalone andhadbeen alonefor
hours. Sometimes helhought of O'Brien andtherazor blade,but
with lessand lesshopeoHe alsothought, J essc1early;of J ulia. He
lhought lhal if she were in pain and he eould double his own
pain 10help her, he would do it.
He heard lhe bOOlSagain. O'Brien carne in. Winston got lo
hisfeet.The shock made himiorget the telesaem for lhe first time
in years.
'They've gOl you too!' he shouled out.
'They got me a long tinle ago; said O'Brien \vith a small
smile. He slepped tO one side. Behind him there was a large
guard with aheavy stiek in hishand.
'You kne\V this, Winston: said O'Brien. 'You have al",ays
knowI1 it.
Yes,he had alwayskno",n il. But lhere \Vasno lime to think o E
,hato The heavy stiek in the guard's hand might hit rum
any",here,on hishead, ear, arm, elbo", ...
. The elbow! He had gone do",n on hisknees, holding ,he pain
in his elbo", wi,h lhe other hand. There was an explosion of
yello", light. The pain "'as unbelievable, bm the guard had only
hi, him once. They \Vereboth looking down at him and the
guard \Vas laughing.
Well, one question "'as allS",ered. You could never, for any
reason on earth, wish for more pain. You only wished ior one
thing - that it ",ould StOp.Nothing in the world ",as asbad as
physieal pain. With pain there are no heroes, no heroes, he
thought again and again as he lay scream..ingon che floor. holding
hisuselessleft armo
Chapter 10Two and Two Make Five
He was lying on a bed and he eould not move. There was a
strong lighl in rusfaee.The damage to his elbow had only been
thestart of it. Fiveor sixmen in blaek uniforms had hil himwilh
sticksor iron bars, kieked himwith their boolS ...
He could not remember how many rimes they had mt mmor
how long tms punishmem had lasted. Somerimes he told them
what they wanted to know before they even touched mm. Other
times they mt mmagainand againbefore he saidaword. And all
this was just the start - the first stage of questioning that
everyone in the cellsof the Ministry of Lovehad to suffer.
Later the questioners were not guards but Parry men in suits
who askedmm questions for ten to twelvehours before they let
mm sleep.They made sure he was not eomfortable and was in
slight pain.They made afool of mm, made mmery.
Sometimes they said they would eall the guards and their
sticks again. Other times they ealled mm 'Cornrade' and asked
mmin the name ofBig Brother to sayhe wassorry.
He told them he wasresponsible for every imaginable crime.
He said he was an Eastasian spy.He said he had murdered ms
wife, although they knew very well shewasstill alive.He saidhe
knew Goldstein ...
He did not remember when the questions had stopped. There
was a rime when everytmng was blaek and then he was in tms
room, lying on tms bed, unable to move. O'Brien was looking
down at mm. His hand was on amachine.
'1 toldyou; saidO'Brien, 'that if wemet againit wouldbehere.'
'Yes; saidWinston.
O'Brien's hand touched alever on the macmne and awaveof
pain passedthrough Winston 'sbody.
'That wasforry; saidO'Brien. 'The numbers on the dial oftms
macmne go up to a hundred. Pleaseremember that I can make
you feel alot of pain at any time. If you lie, if you don't answer
the question or even if you answer with less than your usual
intelligence, you will feel pain. Do you understand that"
'Yes; saidWinston.
'Do you remember; O'Brien continued, 'writing in your diary,
"Freedom isthefreedomto saythat two andrwo makefour"?'
'Yes; saidWinston.
O'Brien held up ms left hand, itsbaek towardsWinston, wirh
the thumb mdden and four fingers pointing forwaro.
'How many fingers am1 holding up,Winston?'
1 Four:
'And if the Parry says that ir 15 not four but five - then
how many?'
The word ended in ashout of pain. The dial on the macmne
showed fifry-five.Winston could not stop mmself from c1)~ng.
O'Brien touched the lever, moving it just a liule, and the pain
grew slightly less.
1 How many fingers, Wins[on?'
O'Brien moved the lever and the dial showed sixry.'How
many fmgers,Winston?'
'Four! Four! What elsecan 1say?Four!'
The fingers swamin fronr of his eyes, unclear, but still four,
four of them.
'How many fingers,Winston?'
'Four! Stop it, stop ir! How canyou continue? Four! Four!'
'How many fingers,Winston?'
'Five! Five! Five!'
'No, Winston. That's no use.Youarelying.Youstill tmnk there
arefour. How many fingers, please?'
'Four! Five!Four!Anything youlike.OnJ ystopit,stopthepain!'
SuddenJ y he was sitting up with O'Brien's arm round ms
shoulders. He felt very old and shook uneontrollably. O'Brien
held mmlikeababyand hefelt much better. He felt that thepain
wassometmng that came fromoutside, and that O'Brien would
o 'You areaslowlearner, Winston; saidO'Brien gemly.
'How can 1 help it?' cried Winston, through ms tears. 'How
can I help seeing what is in front of my eyes?Two and twO
are fouf.'
'Sometimes, Winsron. Sometimes they arefive.Sometimes they
arethtee. Sometimes they areall ofthem.You must try hatder.'
He put Winston back down on the bed. 'Agajn,' he said.
The pain f1amedthtough Winston's body. The dial was at
seventy, then seventy-five. He had shut his eyes this time. He
knew that thefingetswete still there, andstill four. He hadto stay
a1iveuntiJ the pain wasover. He did not notice whether he was
crying out or notoThe pain grew lessagajn. He opened his eyes.
'Ho\v many fingers, Winston?'
'Four. 1wouId seefiveif I couId. I arnrrying ro seefive.'
'Which do you wish: to makeme believethar you seefive,or
really to seethem?'
'Really to seethem.'
'Again,' saidO'Brien.
Perhaps the machine was at eighty - ninety. Winston couId
remember only now and agajn why the pain was happening. In
front ofhis eyesaforest of fingersseemed to bemoving in akind
of dance. He wastrying ro count them, he couId not remember
why. He knew only that it wasimpossibleto count themand this
\Vasbecause four wasin sorne strange way the same as f,ve. He
shut hiseyesagain.
'How many fingersaro I holding up,Winston?'
'1 don't kno\V.1don't knO\v.You will kili me if you do that
again. Four, five,six- I honestly don't know.'
'Better,' saidO'Brien.
Winston wanted to reach out his hand and touch O'Brien's
arm, but he could not move. The oId feeling about him carne
back. It did not marter if O'Brien \Vasa friend or an enemy.
O'Brien \Vasaperson he couId taJ k ro. Perhaps peopIe did not
want ro be loved as much as undetstood. O'Brien had caused
himunhelievablepainandsoon \Vouldprobably kili him. It made
:,.~. .
':'. '
. , 1
" " " 1 ' " "

no difference. They shared the same experiences; there was a

place where they could meet and talle O'Brien was looking
down at him with alook that suggestecl he felt the same thing.
When he spoke, it wasIiketalking to afriendo
'Do you know where you are,Winston?' he said.
'[ don't know. [ canguess. [n the Minisrry ofLove.'
'Do you know how long you havebeen here?'
'[ don't know. Days, weeks, months - [ think it ismonths.'
'And why do you think webring people to this place?'
'To makethem tell you about .their crimes.'
.. 'No, that isnot the reason.' .
'To punish rhem.'
'No!' shouted O'Brien. His face and voice were angry. 'No!
Notjust ro hear about your crimes. Nor just to punish you. Shall
[ tell you why we havebrought you here? To make you better.
Your crimes do not imerest us.Your actions do not interest usoWe
areimerested in your thoughts. We do not destroy our enemies,
we change them. Wechange their thoughts. Do you understand
what [ mean?'
A man in awhite coat carne imo the room and put a heavy
machine behind his head. O'Brien had sat down beside the bed
sohe could look intoWinston's eyes.
'This time it wil! not hurt,' saidO'Brien. 'Keep looking at me.'
Then he turned to the man in the white coat. 'Three rhousand,'
Winston felt the machine against his head. He heard a lever
pulled. Then it was like an explosion inside his head, though it
was not certain ifthere was any noise. There was blinding light
and the feeling that he had been thrown back on the bed where
he already was. Somerhing had happened inside his head. As he
opened his eyeshe remembered who he was, and where he was,
and he recognized the facethat waslooking down imo his own;
' ; ' 1
" 1
but something was empty inside his head. It felt like apiece had
been raken out of his brain.
'Look me in the eyes,' said O'Brien. He held up the four
fingers of his left hand with the thumb behind the hand. 'There
areftvefmgers there. Do you seeftveftngers?'
'Yes.'And he did see them,just for asecond. O'Brien's words
filledthe hole in his mind with the complere truth.
'Youseenow,' saidO'Brien, 'that ir ispossible.'
. 'yes,' saidWinston.
O'Brien smiled. '[ enjoy talking to you,' he said.'Your mind is
Iikemine, except that you aremad. Before wefinishyou canask
me afewquestions, if you want to.'
'Any question 1 like?'
'Anyrhing.' He saw that Winsron'seyeswere on rhe machine.
'[t isswitched off.What isyour first question?'
'What haveyou done withJ ulia?' saidWinston.
O'Brien smiled agam. 'She betrayed you, Winston.
Irnmediately, completely. [ have never seen anybody obey U5 so
quick1 y.AlIher feelingsagainst the Party havebeen burned out of
her. Shehaschanged herself completely.'
'Did you userhismachine?'
O'Brien did not answer.'Next question,' hesaid.
'Does BigBrother emt?'
'Of course he exists.The Party exists.BigBrother isthe faceof
the Party.'
'Does he exisr in rhesamewaythat 1 exist?'
'You do not exist,' saidO'Brien.
How couid he not exist? But what use was ir ro say so?
O'Brien would argue \\;rh himand win - again. '1 think 1 exisr,'
he saidcareftiliy.'1 was born and [ wil! die. 1 havearms and legs.
[n that sense, does BigBrother exist?'
'Ir isnot important. But, yes,BigBrorher exists.'
'Will he ever die?'




'Of course notoHow could he die' Next question:

'Does the Brotherhood e , o s e "
'That, Winston, you will never Ienow.If we choose to freeyou
and if you live to be ninery years oId, you will never leam
wherher rhe answer to that question isYesor No:
Winsron la)' silem. His cheS( moved up and down as he
brearhed. He still had not askedrhefirst question rhat had come
imo his mind. He wamed ro ask it but he could nor move his
tongue. O'Brien was smiling.' He knows, thoughr \Vinston
.. sddenly, he knows what 1 amgoing ro ask.Ashe thought rhat,
the words fell Out ofhis mouth:
'Whar isin Room 1 01 ?'
O'Brien "'as still smiling. 'You kno", what is in Room 1 01 ,
\Vinsron. Everyone knows what isin Room 1 01 :
Chapter 1 1 The Last Mim
'There arethree stagesin returning you ro societ)': saidO'Brien.
'There isleaming, there isunderstanding and there i$acceptance.
Ir istime for you robegin rhesecond stage:
Asalwa)'s,\VillStOn"'as Iyingfiaron his back. He wasstill ried
to thebed, but rhesedayshewasnor tiedsotightl)'.The machine,
too, ", as less frighrening. He could stop them llsing it if he
thoughr qllickly enough. O'Brien pulled, the lever only when he
saidsomerhing stupid.
\Vinston could nor remember ho", long rhissragehadlasted-
weeks possibly - or ho, , " many times he had lain down on the
bed, ralkingto O'Brien.
'You have read ! l e {" , o k, Goldsrein's book, or parts of ir, ' said
O'Brien. 'Did ir tell you anyrhing that you did not know
'Youhaveread ir?'saidWinston.


'.. 1
.: : .. .1
" ' 1
' .
' ;' : : ' j
,: ' J ..
. " r
l.: .
1 :.
'1 wrote ir. 1 was Dile of the people who wrore ir. No book is
wrirten by one person, asyou Ienow:
'Is any of it true?'
'Ir describes our situation truthfully, yesoIts solutions make no
senseat all.The pro l e s will never atrack rhe Parry or even criticize
it. Not in arhousandyearsor amillion.They cannot. 1 do nor have
to tell you the reason: you Ienowit aIready.The Parry will rulefor
all time. Make that thestarting point of your thoughts. Now, let us
tum to the question ~f " , ! l y weareruling.What do you think?'
Winston saidwhar he thought O'Brien wanted to her. 'You
are ruling over us for our own good, ' he said. 'You believe thar
people arenot ableto govem rhemselvesand so .. : .
He screamed. Pain had shot through his body. The machine
showed thirty-five.
'That was.stupid, Winston, stupid! ' said O'Brien. 'You should
know bener than ro sal" a thing like that: He switched the
machine off and continued. 'Now 1 will rell you the answer to
ml" question. The Parry isorul"interested in power - not in the
happiness of orhers, or monel", or long life.We wam power, oruy
power, pure power. And we will never, never ler it go. Now do
you begin to understand me?'
Winston rhought how tired O'Brien looked. O'Brien moved
forward in his chair, bringing hisfaceclosetoWinston's.
'You are thinking, ' he said, 'rhar my face is old and tired.You
arethinking rhat 1 tm of power but 1 cannot stop my own body
getting old.'Can you not understand, Winston, that eaehperson is
oruy avery small part of something much bigger? And when the
small part needs changing, the whole grows stronger. Do you die
when you cur your hair?'
O'Brien tumed a\vayfromthe bed and began to walk up and
down. 'Yol must understand thar power belongs to the group,
nor to one persono An individual has power oruy \Vhen he
belongs to agroup so completely rhar he isnor an individual any

more.The Pa rty sa ys'lha t "!'reedom isSla vety" bUl lhe Opposileis
a 1s0tme. Sla very isFreedom. Alone - free- a huma n being will
diein the end. But if he ca nbe completely pa rt of the Pa rty,nOl
a n individua l, lhen he ca n do a nylmng a nd he livesfma ll time.
The second tmng is [ha t power mea ns power over lhe huma n
body but, a bove a ll, power over rhe huma n mind. We a lrea dy
control everyrmng else.'
For a moment Winsten fmgo[ a boul the ma cmne. 'How ca n
you sa y tha r you control everyrmng? You ca n'l control [he
wea ther. You don'l even control rhe Ea rth. Wha l a bout Eura sia
a nd Ea sla sia ?Youdon'l controllhem.'
'Unimporta nl.We sha ll control them when wewa nllo.And if
wedid nor, wha l differencewould il ma ke? Ocea nia islhe wodd.
Ha veyou forgotren doubletilink?'
Winslon la yba ck on lhe bed. He knew hewa srighl. O'Brien
wa s sa ying lha t nOlmng exisrs outside your own rnind. There
musl be a wa y of showing tmswa swrong?
O'Brien wa s smiling. 'The rea l power,' he sa id, 'is nol power
over things, but over men.' He pa used a nd for a momenl looked
like a lea cher la lking ro a e1everschoolboy. 'How does one ma n
show lha l he ha spower over a nOlher ma n,Winslon?'
Winslon lhoughl. 'By ma king hirn suffer,'he sa id.
'Exa ctly. By ma king hirn suffer. Power mea ns ca using pa in.
Power lies in la king huma n minds te pieces a nd pulling lhem
tegether a ga inin ne\Vsha pesof your own choice. Do you begin
losee, lhen, wha l kind of wodd wea rema king? 11 isrheOpposile
of the stupid wodds wmch people used lO ima gine, wodds of
lovea nd plea sure.Weha vebuilr a wodd of fea r a nd sufferinga nd
ha le. We sha ll desrroy evetylmng else - everylmng. We a re
destroying lhe lovebelWeen child a nd pa rent, belWeen ma n a nd
ma n, a nd belWeen ma n a nd woma n. In lhe future lhere ,viii be
no ,vives a nd no friends. Children will be la ken from lheir
mothers when lhey a reborn. There will be no love, excepl rhe
, 1 , .
, ~!,
, 1
" . 1 '
" . \ I
" ,
loveofBig Brolher. Nobody willla ugh, excepl a l a n enemy lhey
ha ve destroyed. There ",ill be no a rt, no lilera ture, no science. If
you wa nt a picture of lhe future, Winsten, ima gine a bOOI
sta mping on a huma n fa ce- fmever.'
Winslon could nor sa ya nylmng. His hea rt seemed frozen.
O'Brien continued: 'Youa rebeginning, 1ca nsee, lo understa nd
wha l lha l wodd will belike.BUl in lheendyouwill do more tba n
understa nd il.Youwill a ccepl il, we!come il, becomepa n ofit.'
Winslon wa s still jusI strong enough te spea k. 'You ca n'l,' he
sa id\Vea kly.
'Wha l do you mea n,Winston?'
'lf a society \Verebuill on ha le, it would fa lllo pieces.'
'No, no. You lmnk lha l ha ting is more tiring lha n loving.
Why should il be?And evenif il wa slme, wha l differencewould
il ma ke?' .
Winslon wa shelplessa ga in, una ble lo a rgue, una ble10 ftnd the
words te expla in lhe horror tha t he fell. 'Somelmng will bea t
you,' he sa id, fina lly.'Lifewill bea l you.'
'We control life,Winsten. And wecontrol lhe wa ypeople a re.
People ca nbe cha nged very ea sily,you know.'
'No! 1 know lha l you ,viii fa il. There is somelmng in a ll
huma n beings lha l will bea l you.'
'And a reyou a huma n being,Winslon? Areyou a ma n?'
' Yes.'
'If you a rea ma n, Winslon, you a relhe la sl ma noYour kind of
ma n is'finished. Do you undersla nd lha l you a re alone? You a re
outside hislory, you do nol exiSl.'His voice cha nged a s he ga ve
WinSlon a ha rd look. 'And you rmnk you a re beller lha n us,
beca use \Veha tea nd ca usepa in?'
'Ves,I think 1a mbetrer.'
O'Brien did not spea k.Two other voices \Verespea king. Afrer
a moment Winsten recognized one of lhe voices a s his o\Vn.11
wa s lhe conversa tion he ha d ha d wilh O'Brien on lhe nighl he
had joined the Brotherhood. He heard himself promising to
murder another person, to cause the deaeh of hundreds of
innoeene peopie, ea make a ehild blind and destroy ies faee.
O'Brien pressed aswitch and ehe voiees stopped.
'Gee up from the bed,' he ,aido
Winston got off rhe bed and stood up with diffieuJ ty.
'You are the last man; said O'Brien. 'Are you really beCter than
usi You're going to see yourself asyou are. Take off your clothes.'
Winston took rusdiny overallsoff and sawhimself in athree-sided
mirror at rhe end of the room. He cried out at the horrible sight.
'Move closer.' said O'Briell. 'Look at yourself dosely in the
rhree nurrors.'
\Vinston had stopped walking to\Vards the mirror beeause he
\Vasfrightened. A benc, grey-eoloured thing \Vaswalking to\Vards
him in the minor. His iaee \Vascompletely changed. He had very
litde hair, his baek \Vasbenc, he was terribly thin.This looked like
the body of an old, dying mano
'You have thought somerin1es,' said O'Brien, 'that my iaee -
the faee of a member of the h1ner Parry - looks old and tired.
\Vhat do you think of your own faeei' He pulled out a handti.,l
of Winston's hair. 'Even your hair is eonling out in handfuls.
Open your mouth. Nine, ten, eleven teeth leti:. Ho\V mmy did
you have when you eame to usi And they are dropping out of
your head. Look here!'
He took hold of one of WiIlSton's fe\Vfront teeth bet\veen his
thumb and t\Vo tingers. Pain filled Winston's tace. O'Brien had
pulled out the loose tooth. He threw it aeross the eeU.
'You are falling to pieees,' he ,aido'You are dirty. Did you know
you smell like a dogi What.are youi J ust a dirty animal. Now
look ineo that nlirro.r again. That is the laSt man.'
Before he kne\V what he was doing, Winston had sat on a
srnall ehair near the mirror and starred to ery.'You did it!' he said,
through bis tears. 'You made me look like this.'
.o'Brien put a hand on his shoulder, almost kindly. 'No,
Wmston. You did it yourself when you stopped obeying the
Party.' He paused for a moment and then eontinued. 'We have
beaten you, Winston. We have broken you. You have seen your
body. Your mind is in the SaInestate. There is nothing that \Vedid
not make you do.'
Winston scopped erying. '1have not betrayed J ulia,' he said.
O'Brien looked down at him choughtfully. 'No,' he said. 'No,
that is true.You have not betrayedJ ulia.'
Winston ."chought again how intelligent O'Brien was.
Nothing, it seemed, (Quid stop him admiring the mano O'Brien
had understood that Winston still loved J ulia and that meant
more than betraying the details of their meetings.
'Tell me,' he said. 'How soon will chey shoot me?'
'Ir might be along rinoe,' said O'Brien. 'You are adiffieult case.
But don't give up hopeo Everyone is eured sooner or later. In che
.end we shall shoot you.'
Chapter 12 Room 101
He was mueh bener. He was getting fateer and stronger every
day.The new eell was more eornforrable than the others he had
been in. There was a bed and a ehair to sit on. There was paper
and an ink-peneil. They had given him a bath and they let him
wash frequendy in a metal bowl."They even gave him warm
water to wash with. They had given rum new overalls, pulled out
the rest of his teeth and given him ne\V false teeth.
Weeks had passed, perhaps months. He eould coum time
passing by his meals; he reeeived, he thought, three meals in
t\Venty-four hours. The food was surprisin"ly "ood with meat
. ;:, ~'
every third meal. Once there was even apackec of eigarenes.
His mind grew more active. He sar down on his bed, his back
againsc the wall, and began ro re-train his nlind. He belonged to
them now, that was agreed. As he realized now, he had given in,
he hadbeen ready to belong to them, along time before he had
made the decision. From his ftrst moment inside the Ministry of
Love- and yes, even when he andJ ulia stood helplessin front of
the telescreell in Charringron 'sroom- he had understood that it
hadbeen stupid to ftght against thepower of the Party.
He knew that for sevenyearstheThought Policehad watched
him,looking do\Vnon himlikeaninsectwalkingalongapath.They
kneweverythingthat hehadsaidor done.They hadplayedru; voice
back to him, sho\Vn him photographs. Sorne of them were
photographs of J uliaand himself.Yes,even ... He ('Quidnot ftght
agairut theParty now.And why shouldhe?The Party\Vasright.
He began to write, with big child-like letrers:
And while he worked on cri/1lestop inside rus mind, he
wondered when they would shoot rum. They might keep him
here for years, they might let rumout for ashort time - asthey
sornetimes did. But one day they \Vouldshoot rum. You never
knew when. Often they shot you from berund, in the back of
the head.
One day - or one night perhaps - he had a dream. He \Vas
waiting fOl them to shoot rum. He was out in the sunshine and
he calledout, 'J ulia!J ulia! My love!J ulia!'
I-Ielay back on the bed, frightened. How many years had he
added to rustime in this cell by shouting out her name?
There wasthe noiseofboots outside. O'Brien walkedinto the
cell. Berund him were the olficer with the emotionless faceand
the black-uniformed guards.
'You have had thoughts of berraying me: he said. 'That \Vas
stupid.Tell me,WillSton- andtell methetruth becauseI will know
if youarelying- tell me, \Vhatdo youreallythink ofBig Brother?'
'. ]
': :
'You hate him. Good. Then the time has come for you to take
the laststep.Youmust loveBigBrotheL'
He pushedWinston towards theguards.'Room 101: hesaid.

Winston alwaysknew if the cellswere rugh up or low down in

the building. The air was different. This place \Vasmany merres
underground, asdeep down asit \Vaspossibleto go.
lt \Vasbigger than most ofthe cellshehadbeen in.There were
two small tablesin front of him. One \Vasamerre or two away,
theother wasnear the dOOLHe wastied to achair so tightly that
he could not move, not even hishead. He had to Iook srraight in
front of rum.
O'Brien carne in. 'You asked me once: he said,'what \Vasin
Room 10L I said that you kne\V the answer already.Everyone
knows it. In Room 101there istheworst thing in the \Vorld.'
The door opened again. A guard carne in carrying a box.
There was atube at the front of it. He put it down on the table
near the door.
'The worst thing in the world,' said O'Brien, 'is different for
each personoIt may be death by ftre, or by water, or fifty other
deaths. Sometimes it issometrung quite small, that does not even
kill you.'
He had moved to one side andWinston ('Quidnow seewhat
\Vason the tableoIt \Vasabig metal box and through holes in the
sideshe could seemovement. Rats.
'For you,' saidO'Brien, 'the worst thing in the\Vorldistats.'
Winston had been afraid before, but suddenly he understood
\Vhatthe tube \Vasfo'LHe felt very,very sick.
'You can't do that!' he screamed. 'O'Brien! What do you want
me to do?'
'Pain alone,' said O'Brien quietly, 'is not alwaysenough. The
rat,' he continued,like ateacher giving alesson,'eats meat. In the
poor parts of the town a mother earmot leave her baby outside
beeause in ten minutes there will only be bones lefr. Rats are aJ so
very imelligent. They know when ahuman being is helpless.'
The rats were big and brown, they were making little rugh
eries, fighting with eaeh other. O'Brien moved the box until it
was ametre fromWinston's faee.
'You understand trus box and tube? One end of the tube goes
into the box and the other, wider end goes over your faee. When
1press trus switch, adoor into the tube will open and the rats will
mn along it towards your face. Sometimes they attaek the eyes
first. Sometimes they eat through the faee, imo the tongue.'
One end of the tube was put over his face. He eould see the
first rat, its face, its teeth.
He knew there was only one hope, one last hopeo He needed
ro put someone else between rumself and that ratoHe needed to
give them someone else. And he heard rumself shouting,
sereaming, 'Do it to J ulia! Do it to J ulia! Not me! J ulia! 1don't
eare what you do to her. Destroy her faee, leave only bones. Not
me! J ulia! Not me!'
He heard O'Brien toueh the switch and knew he had closed
the door to the tube, not opened it.

The ChesmutTree Caf was almost empty. It was the lonely time
of fifreen hours. Music carne from the le1esaeetls now but Winston
was listening for news of the war. Oeeania \Vas at war with
Eurasia. Oceania had always been at war with Eurasia. He drank a
glass cf gin, although ir tted terrible. A waiter brought mm that
day's Times.
His finger moved on the tableoHe wrote in the dust:
'They can't get inside you,' she had said. But they could get
inside you. And when they elid, somerrung inside you elied.
_;. 'l.
- ;...".~:, .
He ""ore in rhe dusl:
He had seen her; he had even spoken te her. There was no
danger in it. He knew thar. They took no interest in him now.
They could even see each other again if either of them wanted
to. But they did not want to.
He had met her by chance in the park on acold day in March.
She was fatter now. She had walked away romhim at first. When
he caught her, he put rus arm round her waist but did not try to
kiss her. He did not want te kiss her.
They sat down on rwo iron chairs, not too clase together.
There were no telescreell5 here but possibly rudden microphones.
It did not matrero
'1betrayed you,' she said.
'betrayed you, too,' he said.
'In the end they do something so terrible that you say"Don't
do it to me, do it to somebody else, do it to the person I love."
You muy care about yourself.'
'You only care about yourself,' he had agreed.
And he had meant it. He had not just said it, he had wished ir.
He had wanted her at the end of the robe when they ...
Sometrung changed on the telescrew in the Chestnut Tree
Caf. The music stopped and the face of Big Brother filled the
telescreell. Winston looked up at the enormous face with the
moustache. Tears ran down his face and he was happy. He had
won the fight with rumself. He loved Big Brother.
Chapters 1-3
Befare you read
1 Whal do you know aboul lhe book 1984? Read lhe Inlroduclion.
Whal kind01luture world does il describe?
2 Answer the queslions. Findlhe words inItalics inyour dictionary.
They are all used inthe slory.
a Isabrotherhood one persanor agroup of people?
b Ooes freedorn giveyou choice or no choice?
e If people arehanged, are they hurt or killed?
d Isknowledge the same or the opposite 01ignorance?
e If you see the word Mansions inan address, do you expect a
small buildingor alargeone?
I .Are workersat aMinistIy paidbybusinessmen orthegovernment?
9 Can arazor blade cut you or poison you?
h Iss/avery the opposite 01Ireedom, or the same?
i Ooes avictory mean that you have won or lost?
3 Match the words Irom 1984 withthe definitions below. Use your
dictionary lo help you.
edition overalls poster sweat tl1lth
a abigsheet 01paper on awall, withapiclure or writingon il
b the opposite 01alie
e clothes lhat you wear lar dirlywork
d liquidthat runs Iromyour body when you are hot
e all lhe copies 01 a book lhat are exactly the same and are
prinled al lhe same time
4 The language 01power inOceania, in 1984, is called Newspeak.
Some of these words are occasionally used today:
prole: alower-class persan
telescreen: lhe par! 01atelevision where words or piclures appear
vaporize: to make someone disappear completely
Which01these more common words areconnected withpower or
politics? What do the other words mean?
canteen cornrade gin league party slogan
After you read
5 Who or what is being described? Oiscuss what you know about
these people and places.
a a room with dirty dishes on the table
b a girl with dark hair
e a dreamy man with hairy ears
d a handsome man with a large black moustache
e a place with no windows
I a large city where houses are all lalling down
9 aman with a thin, clever lace
Chapters 4-6
Before you read
6 Guess the correct answer and then check as you read the next
three chapters.
a Winston's parenls live near him/were vaporized.
b Winston is nol mamed/was mamed.
e The Party is lor/against ownlife.
d It would be impossiblelunusual to find a room in Oceania
without a lelescreen.
e We are going to learn a lot more aboul Parsons and Syme/
Winslon and the giri wilh thick, dark hair.
7 Look up betray and betrayal in a dictionary. Write the correct word
in this sentence:
The Party wants children in the Spies to ..... their own parents.
After you read
8 Work with a partner and play the parts 01 Winston and J ulia. The
two lovers talk about their work, where they live, their past lives
and what they really think 01 the Party. Have this conversation.
Chaplers 7-9
Before you read
9 Read again the last sentence in Chapler 6: The room was a world,
a past world, and they were the last two people from it who were
st/llliving. Oiscuss whal il means:
a In whal sense is lhe room 'a world'?
. . - ~: - " 't- :
,.,..... ~
b In whal sense is il 'a pasl world'?
e In what sense are Winslon and J ulia lhe lasl two people who
are stillliving?
d Whal do you think lhe lulure will be like lar them?
10 Find lhese words in your diclionary. Then wrile a lorm 01 each
word in the correct senlence below.
artiele eell individual
a Prisoners are locked in .
b ..... appear in newspapers.
e Eaeh person is an .
After you read
11 Pul lhese events in lhe same order as in lhe story, Slart wilh d.
a Soldiers eome into Charringlon's shop.
b The people 01 Oceania aretold lhat lhey are at war with Eastasia.
e Winslon lell~J ulia about O'8rien.
d Syme is vaporized.
e J ulia and Winslon drink lo Emmanuel Goldslein.
l J ulia and Winslon visit O'8rien al his Ilat.
9 Winston sees O'8rien al the Minislry 01 Love.
12 1984 was written in 1948-9. In your own words, what does
Goldslein 's book say has happened belween 1950 and 1984?
Chapters 10-12
Before you read
13 Which 01 these things will happen in lhe last lhree chaplers? As
you read, see il you were right.
a Winston will betray J ulia.
b Winston will see J ulia again.
e They will shoot Winston.
d Winston will diseover what is in Room 101.
e O'8rien will gel inside Winston's mind and change it.
l Winston will learn to ,Iove8ig Srother.
14 Answer the questions. Find the words inital/cs in your dictionary.
a Do you turn or press a dial?
b Do you turn or pull a lever?
e Do you stamp with your arms or your feel?
. l.
. ;
17 Write a letter, either from Winston to J ulia or from -J uliatoWiiiston, '. '
justaltertheirlastmeetinginthepark. '.' ..... ;:.
18 Write a page 01Winston's diary alter the end 01the book... '. .
19 Write O'Brien's report on '6079 Smith W'. D~scribe ho~'Win~to';'
Smith was watched, and what happened to hlm. Say what you '.'
think should happen to him inthe luture. ....,;.'. ,". '.' !
20 Write a 200.word description 01 1984 to go on the back'ol lhe .... ,
book. Your description should make people want to buy the book ..
21 Suggest how 1984 could be rriadeinto a 'film.' List the' most'
important scenes. How would you film therr Which stais would ."
you use lor the main characters? '1
22 Compare 1984 with another book, filmor tEllevision programrrie '.
which describes a world that is not ours.
lS\vcn [OI theActivities inthis book :Itt .1'nibble fromyour locu Peuwn Eduaoo niee. '.:
Altenurivdy. ",'rile to:Penguin Readers Marketing Depmmenl, peu50n duoDan. ,:
Edinburgh G:llc. Hulo, . Esse.'C"CM20 2J E. .
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After , + read " ',' ".""' .',
15 DiscusS theseopini~ns 011984.. . ..' .' ..
a niis book has nothing to say to us today b~~se, years alter
1984, the world 01the bo'ok isnot Iike our world; . . .
b The book is still p~pular because it Isa great lo~e'sio
and a
great adventure story. ." '. .
c We do not really knoWJ ulia, Winston and O;Brien as individuals
because we are not told enough about them.' '.' ". ..
16 'Two prograrnmes on British television use ideas that'come straight .
from.1984. Are there similar prograrnmes in your country? Discuss
the programmes and which ideas have been taken from the story.' .
Bi9 B t|e A group 01people in a house are watched all the time.
Television viewers can see almost everylhing they do. 1I those
people are not popular with the British pLJ blic,lhay have to ieave
the house. The winner i~the lasi person still in the house: ..
Room 101: Each week, a lamous person talks about the things"
that he or she hates most in the world. The'presenter decidas il he
agrees that those things shouid go 'into R~om 101'.' . .
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