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Originally, this book was written in Norwegian, primarily for the teaching of
corrosion theory and technology for students at the faculties of mechanical
engineering and marine technology and for other interested people at various
faculties of the Norwegian Institute of Technology (NTH) in Trondheim, now being
a part of the Norwegian niversity of !cience and Technology (NTN)" The book
has also been used at some other universities and engineering schools in
!candinavian countries, and as a reference book for engineers in industry"
The book was written with the aim of combining a description of practical
corrosion processes and problems with a theoretical e#planation of the various types
and forms of corrosion" $elatively much attention was paid to the effects upon
corrosion of factors such as flow, heat, materials selection, design, surface
conditions, and mechanical loads and impacts, as well as their roles in the
development of different corrosion forms" The scope of the book is wet corrosion in
general" However, because of the vital position of the offshore industry in Norway,
several cases and aspects dealt with are related to marine technology and oil and gas
In general, this edition is based on my own work on corrosion and related sub%ects
at NTH&NTN and its associated research foundation, !INT'(, during )*+,- years"
$esults and e#perience from our research and engineering activities at !INT'(
.orrosion .entre have deliberately been included because this work was done with
the same ob%ective in mind as was the teaching/ to solve practical corrosion
problems by more e#tensive use of theoretical tools and understanding, combined
with empirical knowledge" 0y approach in this direction was particularly inspired
by professor 1lmar2N3ss" He started the first modern teaching of corrosion for
students at the faculty of mechanical engineering and other typical engineering
students at NTH in the early 456-s, and stimulated to my own engagement in the
discipline" .onsidering the further work, I will like to acknowledge my nearest co2
workers during many years, including the permanent staff at !INT'( .orrosion
.entre as well as many former students" These people have carried out much of the
research and engineering work that I have referred to" I hope that the many
references that are made to their contributions show how important they have been""
$esults from ones own research milieu are valuable directly as well as by the
personal engagement they contribute to the teaching" These contributions to the
book have, however, been balanced with a ma%or proportion of general knowledge
.orrosion and 7rotection
and research results from the world around" !everal figures and tables are
reproduced from e#ternal publications"
The preparation of the manuscript has been supported by a number of persons,
with contributions such as comments to the content or language details of specific
sections, assistance in providing literature and pictures, help in formatting the
manuscript etc" 1cknowledgement for the use of photographs is made in the
captions" I wish to thank all for their kindness and help"
7articularly, I will take the opportunity to e#press my thanks to 8etlef
9lankenburg, head of 8epartment of 0achine 8esign and 0aterials Technology,
NTN, for permission to use the facilities of the department, and !iw 9revik for all
her efforts and patience in preparing the manuscript" :ast but not least, I will thank
my wife, :iv, who originally typed the manuscript and who has supported me in
many ways, my younger family members 'irunn and !igmund 9ardal, for,
respectively, comments to the language, and indispensable computer e#pertise and
efforts during the final preparation of the manuscript, and the rest of my family for
their patience and understanding"
;uly, <--)
'inar 9ardal

Preface v
1 Introduction 4
4"4 8efinition and 0ain =roups of .orrosion + Terminology 4
4"< Importance of .orrosion and 7revention 'fforts 4
4") .orrosion !cience and .orrosio n Technology )
$eferences ,
2 Wet Corrosion: Characteristics, Prevention and
Corrosion Rate *
<"4 8escription of a >et .orrosion 7rocess *
<"< .rucial 0echanisms 8etermining .orrosion $ates 6
<") .orrosion 7revention 0easures ?
<", '#pressions and 0easures of .orrosion $ates @
<"* 9asic 7roperties That 8etermine if .orrosion Is 7ossible
and How (ast 0aterial .an .orrode 4-
$eferences 4-
'#ercises 4-
3 Thermodynamics Equii!rium Potentias
)"4 Introduction 4)
)"< (ree 'nthalpy and .ell Aoltage 4)
)") The Influence of the !tate of 0atter on (ree 'nthalpy and
the .hange of (ree 'nthalpy 46
)", .hange of (ree 'nthalpy in .hemical $eactions"
$eversible .ell Aoltage 4@
)"* 'lectrode $eactions and 'lectrode 7otentials 45
)"6 !eries of !tandard 7otentials <)
)"? 'Builibrium 7otentials of $eactions with Iron at <* . <)
)"@ 7ourbai# 8iagram <6
)"5 1 !implified 7resentation of 'Builibrium 7otential and
8eviation from It <5
)"4- 7ossible $ange for $eal 7otentials nder .orrosion .onditions )4
$eferences )<
'#ercises )<
" Eectrode #inetics )*
,"4 Introduction/ 1nodic and .athodic $eactions )*

viii .orrosion and 7rotection
,"< 7olariCation and Overvoltage )6
,") '#change .urrent 8ensity )?
,", 1ctivation 7olariCation )?
,"* .oncentration 7olariCation )@
,"6 Overvoltage 8ue to .oncentration 7olariCation ,<
,"? .ombined 1ctivation and .oncentration 7olariCation ,)
,"@ $esistance (Ohmic) 7olariCation ,,
,"5 8etermination of .orrosion 7otential and .orrosion $ate ,,
,"4- $ecording 7olariCation .urves with a 7otentiostat ,?
,"44 .onditions That 1ffect 7olariCation .urves, Overvoltage .urves
and .orrosion $ates *-
$eferences *-
'#ercises *4
$ Passivity
*"4 7assivation and 7assivity 8escribed by 1nodic 7olariCation and
Overvoltage .urves *)
*"< 7assivity + $easons and .haracteristic (eatures *,
*") 9reakdown of 7assive (ilms *?
*", !table and nstable 7assive !tate *@
*"* 7ractical tiliCation of 7assivation and 7assivity 64
$eferences 6<
'#ercises 6<
% Corrosion Ty&es 'ith (ifferent Cathodic Reactions 6*
6"4 =eneral 6*
6"< .orrosion under O#ygen $eduction 66
6"<"4 =eneral .ircumstances and 8ata 66
6"<"< 'ffect of Temperature 6@
6"<") 'ffect of !urface 8eposits ?-
6"<", 'ffect of (low Aelocity ?-
6"<"* .orrosio n under Thin (ilms of >ater ?,
6") .orrosion under Hydrogen 'volution ?*
6", .orrosion under 'ffects of 9acteria ??
6"* .O .orrosion ?@
6"*"4 =eneral ?@
6"*"< 0echanisms ?@
6"*") .orrosion $ate @-
6"6 H ! .orrosion @<
6"? Other .athodic $eactions @)
$eferences @,
'#ercises @6

.ontents i#
) (ifferent *orms of Corrosion Cassified on the
+asis of ,&&earence @5
?"4 Introduction @5
?"< niform (=eneral) .orrosion 54
?") =alvanic .orrosion 5,
?")"4 .onditions That 8etermine .orrosion $ates 5,
?")"< 7revention of =alvanic .orrosion 4-*
?")") 1pplication of =alvanic 'lements in .orrosion
'ngineering 4-?
?", Thermogalvanic .orrosion 4-?
?"* .revice .orrosion 4-@
?"*"4 Occurrence, .onditions 4-@
?"*"< 0echanism 4-5
?"*") 0athematical 0odels of .revice .orrosion 44)
?"*", .revice .orrosion Testing 44*
?"*"* 7ractical .ases of .revice and 8eposit .orrosion 445
?"*"6 =alvanic 'ffects on .revice .orrosion 4<-
?"*"? 7revention of .revice .orrosion 4<4
?"6 7itting .orrosion 4<<
?"6"4 .onditions, .haracteristic (eatures and Occurrence 4<<
?"6"< 0echanisms 4<,
?"6") Influencing (actors 4<6
?"6", The Time 8ependence of 7itting 4<?
?"6"* 7itting .orrosion Testing 4)-
?"6"6 7revention of 7itting .orrosion 4)4
?"? Intergranular .orrosion 4)4
?"?"4 =eneral .haracteristics, .auses and Occurrence 4)4
?"?"< 1ustenitic !tainless !teels 4)<
?"?") (erritic !tainless !teels 4),
?"?", Ni2based 1lloys 4)*
?"?"* 1luminium 1lloys 4)*
?"@ !elective .orrosion (!elective :eaching) 4)*
?"5 'rosion and 1brasion .orrosion 4)@
?"5"4 .haracteristic (eatures and Occurrence 4)@
?"5"< Types and 0echanisms 4)5
?"5") 'rosion and 'rosion .orrosion in :iBuid (low with
!olid 7articles 4,-
?"5", Influencing (actors and .onditions in :iBuids and
:iBuid+=as 0i#tures 4,,
?"5"* .ritical Aelocities 4,6
?"5"6 1brasion and Other >ear 7rocesses .ombined with
.orrosion 4,5
?"5"? 7reventive 0easures 4*-
?"4- .avitation .orrosion 4*<

# .orrosion and 7rotection
?"44 (retting .orrosion ((retting O#idation) 4*,
?"4< !tress .orrosion .racking (!..) 4*6
?"4<"4 .haracteristic (eatures and Occurrence 4*6
?"4<"< 0echanisms 4*?
?"4<") (racture 0echanics Duantities 46)
?"4<", .racking .ourse and 8ata for !ome !.. .onditions 46,
?"4<"* 7revention of !.. 4?-
?"4) .orrosion (atigue 4?-
?"4)"4 8efinition, .haracteristic (eatures and Occurrence 4?-
?"4)"< Influencing (actors and 0echanisms 4?4
?"4)") (actors 0ost Important for .rack Initiation and
'arly =rowth 4?*
?"4)", .rack =rowth $ate and (actors 1ffecting It 4?6
?"4)"* .alculation of Number of .ycles to (ailure of >elded
!teel !tructures 4?5
?"4)"6 7revention of .orrosion (atigue 4@-
$eferences 4@4
'#ercises 4@,
- Corrosion in (ifferent Environments 45)
@"4 1tmospheric .orrosion 45)
@"4"4 'nvironmental (actors and Their 'ffects 45)
@"4"< 1tmospheric .orrosion on 8ifferent 0aterials 456
@"< .orrosion in (resh >ater and Other >aters 45@
@") .orrosion in !eawater <-)
@", .orrosion in !oils <-6
@"* .orrosion in .oncrete <4-
@"6 .orrosion in the 7etroleum Industry <4<
$eferences <4*
'#ercises <4?
. Corrosion Testin/, 0onitorin/ and Ins&ection <45
5"4 .orrosion Testing in =eneral <45
5"4"4 Ob%ectives <45
5"4"< Test 0ethods <<-
5"4") Testing 7rocedure <<4
5"< 'lectrochemical Testing <<)
5") .orrosion 0onitoring and Inspection <<6
5")"4 0onitoring of .athodic 7rotection <<?
5")"< Inspection and 0onitoring of 7rocess 7lants <<5
5")") 0onitoring and Testing in Other 'nvironments <)<
$eferences <))
'#ercise <),

.ontents #i
11 Corrosion Prevention <)?
4-"4 0aterials !election <)?
4-"4"4 =eneral .onsiderations <)?
4-"4"< !ome !pecial 1spects of 0aterials !election for the
Offshore Industry <,-
4-"4") nalloyed and :ow2alloy !teels and .ast Irons <,4
4-"4", High2alloy .ast Irons <,<
4-"4"* !tainless !teels <,)
4-"4"6 Nickel 1lloys <*-
4-"4"? .opper and Its 1lloys <*-
4-"4"@ 1luminium and Its 1lloys <*,
4-"4"5 Titanium and Its 1lloys <*6
4-"4"4- Other 0etallic 0aterials <*?
4-"4"44 Non2metallic 0aterials <*@
4-"< .hange of 'nvironment <*5
4-") 7roper 8esign <6<
4-", .athodic 7rotection <66
4-","4 7rinciple <66
4-","< 7rotection .riteria and !pecifications <65
4-",") .athodic 7rotection with !acrificial 1nodes <?)
4-",", .athodic 7rotection with Impressed .urrent <?6
4-","* 'lectrolyte $esistance, 7otential Aariation and .urrent
8istribution in .7 !ystems and =alvanic 'lements" <?@
4-"* 1nodic 7rotection <@4
4-"6 .orrosion 7rotection by .oatings <@<
4-"6"4 0etallic .oatings <@)
4-"6"< Other Inorganic .oatings <5<
4-"6") 7aint .oatings <5)
4-"6", Other (orms of Organic .oatings <55
4-"6"* 7re2treatment 9efore .oating )--
$eferences )-<
'#ercises )-,
2u!3ect Inde4 )-5

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15 Introduction
Thinking without learning is useless.
Learning without thinking is dangerous.
151 (efinition and 0ain 6rou&s of Corrosion
.orrosion is defined in different ways, but the usual interpretation of the term is Ean
attack on a metallic material by reaction with its environmentF" The concept of
corrosion can also be used in a broader sense, where this includes attack on non2
metallic materials, but such attacks are outside the scope of this book"
.orrosion of metallic materials can be divided into three main groups G4"4H/
4" >et corrosion, where the corrosive environment is water with dissolved species"
The liBuid is an electrolyte and the process is typically electrochemical"
<" .orrosion in other fluids such as fused salts and molten metals"
)" 8ry corrosion, where the corrosive environment is a dry gas" 8ry corrosion is
also freBuently called chemical corrosion and the best2known e#ample is high2
temperature corrosion"
This book concentrates %ust on wet corrosion" The terminology used mainly
corresponds to international standards and glossaries G4"<+4",H" 'Buivalents to the
'nglish terms in other languages are given in $eferences G4",+4"6H"
152 Im&ortance of Corrosion and Prevention
0aterials technology is a very vital part of modern technology" Technological
development is often limited by the properties of materials and knowledge about
them" !ome properties, such as those determining corrosion behaviour, are most
difficult to map and to control"

< .orrosion and 7rotection
In general, the development of modern society and industry has led to a stronger
demand for engineers with specialiCed knowledge in corrosion" There are a number
of reasons for this/
a) The application of new materials reBuires new corrosion knowledge"
b) Industrial production has led to pollution, acidification and increased corrosivity
of water and the atmosphere"
c) !tronger materials, thinner cross2sections and more accurate calculation of
dimensions make it relatively more e#pensive to add a corrosion allowance to
the thickness"
d) The widespread use of welding has increased the number of corrosion problems"
e) The development of industrial sectors like nuclear power production and
offshore oil and gas e#traction has reBuired stricter rules and control"
f) .onsidering the future, it should be noticed that most methods for alternative
energy production will involve corrosion problems"
The cost of corrosion in industrialiCed countries has been estimated to be about )+
,I of the gross national product G4"?, 4"@H" It has been further estimated that about
<-I of this loss could have been saved by better use of e#isting knowledge in
corrosion protection, design etc" In other words, there is a demand for applied
research, education, information, transfer of knowledge and technology, and
technical development" Teaching, where considerable emphasis is placed on the
connections between practical problems and basic scientific principles, is considered
to be of vital importance (see !ection 4"))"
The cost of corrosion is partly connected with the efforts to give structures an
attractive appearance, it is partly the direct cost of replacement and maintenance and
the simultaneous economic loss due to production interruptions, and it includes e#tra
cost of using e#pensive materials and other measures for the prevention of corrosion
and the loss or destruction of products"
9esides the financial cost, a good deal of attention should be paid to safety risks
and the pollution of the environment due to corrosion" 7ersonnel in%uries can occur
due to the fracture of structures, the failure of pressure tanks and leakages in
containers for poisonous, aggressive or inflammable liBuids, for e#ample"
The e#tent of corrosion damage in the process industry can be e#emplified/ of the
material failures recorded in the 8u7ont .ompany during a two2year period, *?I
were corrosion failures and ,)I were mechanical failures" In offshore oil and gas
production, !tatoilJs e#perience is th at abou t half of the material failures are due to
corrosion and corrosion fatigue"
The corrosion problems connected with oil production have been given much
attention in many countries, not least those with e#tensive engagement in offshore oil
production" This seems reasonable when one considers the huge offshore
installations which consist of non2resistant materials in contact with highly corrosive
environments, in deep water and under conditions that make inspection and control
difficult" It is evident that these problems represent a great challenge and reBuire a
high level of knowledge in corrosion technology" 0any research pro%ects have been