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COMPOSITES DESIGN WORKSHOP II

Pranav Dhoj Shah, PhD


MICMAC-FEA
January 14, 2009
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MIC-MAC:
Uniform stress state; point design
Powerful for estimation
Ease of use
MIC-MAC, FEA AND MIC-MAC/FEA
FEA (FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS):
e.g., MD Nastran, Simulia Abaqus, etc.
Advanced tool for engineers and designers
Non-uniform stress state
Stress concentrations
Simple linear stress analysis to non-linear analysis
Progressive damage
Linear perturbation analysis
Buckling instability analysis
Mic-Mac/FEA:
Combines the simplicity of MicMac and the power of FEA.
Easy to use Excel interface
FEA runs in the background
Strength analysis, frequency calculations and buckling analysis
Chart-Quick and Lamrank for optimization
Failure envelope
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How does Mic-Mac/FEA work?
Mic-Mac/FEA
(Excel Sheet)
FEA
(MD Nastranor
Simulia Abaqus)
Results
(Excel Sheet)
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NON-UNIFORM STRESS STATE
Coupon under tension applied without grips
Effect of text fixtures on coupon strength (R/FPF)
Coupon under tension applied with grips
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NON-UNIFORM STRESS STATE
Effect of text fixtures on coupon strength (R/FPF)- UD specimen
Laminate: [0]
s
Hotspots are indicated by red color.
Strength ratio contour for
a coupon without grips
Strength
(3500 MPa)
Strength ratio contour for
a coupon with grips
Strength
(3347 MPa)
A reduction of 4%
5
Strength
(562 MPa)
NON-UNIFORM STRESS STATE
Effect of text fixtures on coupon strength (R/FPF) : UD off-axis specimen
Laminate: [10]
s
Hotspots are indicated by red color.
Strength ratio contour for
a coupon without grips
Strength ratio contour for
a coupon with grips
Strength
(496 MPa)
A reduction of 12%
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NON-UNIFORM STRESS STATE
Determination of critical regions in an open hole specimen
Material: Im6/epoxy [SI]
Laminate: [0/90/45]
s
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NON-UNIFORM STRESS STATE
Determination of critical regions in an open hole specimen
Here shown in terms of failure index for FPF (k, reciprocal of the strength ratio, R).
Zoomed views of contour plots for the failure index
(spectrum: blue to red color for the lowest to the highest k values).
k = 0.98 k=0.3 k=0.95 k=1
Does max of all max strain components point to all of the actual hot-spots? No
Map
k = 1
Map e
o
1
4.6e
-3
Map e
o
2
-2e
-3
Map e
o
6
5.4e
-3
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OPTIMIZATION USING CHART-QUICK
Determination of an optimal laminate definition with respect to the strength for LPF
Material: T300/N5208 [SI]
Laminate: [q]
s
Rigid Body rotation
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OPTIMIZATION USING CHART-QUICK
Determination of an optimal laminate definition with respect to the strength for LPF
[ 20]
s
is the optimal laminate.
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
R/LPF
q
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BUCKLING ANALYSIS
Determination of critical loads for buckling.
Material: Im6/epoxy [SI] Intact
Laminate: [0/90]
s
(a) (b)
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BUCKLING ANALYSIS
Determination of critical loads for buckling.
BUCKLING (Eigen values)
Mode # Eigen values
Critical loads
(N/m)
1 0.003878 3.87767
2 0.013765 13.7652
3 0.034872 34.8715
4 0.035738 35.7383
5 0.089439 89.4392
Mode 1
Mode 2
Mode 3
Mode 5
Mode 4
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OPTIMIZATION USING LAMRANK
Choice of optimal laminate (in terms of R/FPF) from LamRank.
Material: Im6/epoxy [Eng] Intact
Laminate: [q
1
/q
2
]
s
Angles to be chosen from a pool of {0, 30, 60}.
500 k/in
1000 k.in
10 in
5
0

i
n
2 in
5 in
25 in
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OPTIMIZATION USING LAMRANK
Choice of optimal laminate (in terms of R/FPF) from LamRank.
LamRank Intact [FPF]
theta/1 theta/2 theta/3
Rank 0 30 60
min(R/Intact)
minimum value of
Strength ratio
Repeat
for failsafe
design.
Ceil(Repeat) Relat.
1 1 0 1 0.039 25.951 26 1.049
2 1 1 0 0.037 27.361 28 0.995
3 0 1 1 0.036 27.779 28 0.980
4 0 2 0 0.035 28.589 29 0.952
5 2 0 0 0.035 28.943 29 0.941
6 0 0 2 0.027 36.371 37 0.749
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VIBRATION
Calculation of first few vibration modes and natural frequencies.
Material: Im6/epoxy [Eng] Intact
Laminate: [0/45/-45]
5s
20 in
1 in
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VIBRATION
Calculation of first few vibration modes and natural frequencies.
FREQUENCY (Hz)
Mode # Intact
1 14.508
2 14.508
3 84.529
4 84.529
5 121.18
6 183.36
7 183.36
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FAILURE ENVELOPE
Failure envelope for notched specimen.
0.05
0.05
0.02125
Material:
Im6/ep [SI]
Laminate:
[0/90/45/-45]s
All dimensions are in m
0.01
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FAILURE ENVELOPES
Can one determine biaxial strength using uniaxial data? NO!
-400
-300
-200
-100
0
100
200
300
-400 -200 0 200 400
FPF Envelope
(FEA)
s
1
(MPa)
s
2
(MPa)
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FAILURE ENVELOPES
ULTIMATE FAILURE ENVELOPE
-400
-200
0
200
400
600
800
-400 -200 0 200 400 600 800
FAILURE ENVELOPE
(ULT)
s
1
(MPa)
s
2
(MPa)
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FAILURE ENVELOPES
Material:
Im6/ep [SI]
Laminate:
[0/90/45/-45]s
All dimensions are in m
0.05
0.05
0.0075
0.0025
0.02375
0.02125
Failure envelope for notched specimen.
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-400
-200
0
200
400
600
800
-500 0 500 1000
FAILURE ENVELOPE
(ULT)
FAILURE ENVELOPES
Can one determine biaxial strength using uniaxial data? DEFINITELY NOT!
s
1
(MPa)
s
2
(MPa)
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FAILURE ENVELOPES
Failure envelopes for smooth, open hole and open slot specimens.
s
1
(MPa)
s
2
(MPa)
-1500
-1000
-500
0
500
1000
1500
2000
-2000 -1000 0 1000 2000
NOTCHED SPECIMEN (OPEN
HOLE)
SMOOTH SPECIMEN
NOTCHED SPECIMEN (OBLONG
SLOT)
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MIC-MAC/FEA: GETTING STARTED
If any question, send queries to :
pranavdhojshah@gmail.com
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INSTALLING MIC-MAC/FEA
1) Download the latest version of Mic-Mac/FEA.
2) Unzip the file to a local folder.
3) Install proper version of Abaqus (Student edition -6.8 or full version -6.7).
4) Open the Mic-Mac/FEA Excel file.
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USING MIC-MAC/FEA
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USING MIC-MAC/FEA
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USING MIC-MAC/FEA
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USING MIC-MAC/FEA
Note: Loads are
always in MN/m or
kips/in. If moments,
they are in MN or
kips.
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USING MIC-MAC/FEA
Note: Loads are
always in MN/m or
kips/in. If moments,
they are in MN or
kips.
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USING MIC-MAC/FEA
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USING MIC-MAC/FEA
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USING MIC-MAC/FEA
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USING MIC-MAC/FEA
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USING MIC-MAC/FEA
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LIVE DEMONSTRATION
Due to time constraint, a simplified problem set has been created and packaged with
the distributed MicMac/FEA.
This presentation is applicable for MicMac/FEA-Abaqus.
Please open MicMac/FEA in your desktop and follow the steps.
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EXAMPLE: STATIC ANALYSIS
Material:
Im6/epoxy [SI]
Problem Set:
Example
Laminate:
[0/60/-60]
3s
Load:
N = {1,0,0} MN/m
Dimensions:
0.1x0.2 sq m
Run analyses as the followings:
1) Static analyses to fetch R/FPF and LPF
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EXERCISE: FREQUENCY
Material:
Im6/epoxy [SI]
Problem Set:
Example
Laminate:
[0/60/-60]
3s
Load:
N = {1,0,0} MN/m
Dimensions:
0.1x0.2 sq m
Run analyses as the followings:
1) Vibration analysis to fetch natural frequencies for FPF
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USING MIC-MAC/FEA
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USING MIC-MAC/FEA
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USING MIC-MAC/FEA
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USING MIC-MAC/FEA
NOTE:
While running Chart-Quick GUI option should be turned off , unless
required. This will save computer run-time.
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EXAMPLE :CHART-QUICK
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Material:
Im6/epoxy [SI]
Problem Set:
Example
Laminate:
[f]
3s
Load:
N = {1,0.5,0.1} MN/m
Dimensions:
0.1x0.2 sq m
Run Chart-Quick analysis to obtain the optimal helical angle in terms of R/FPF.
USING MIC-MAC/FEA
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USING MIC-MAC/FEA
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USING MIC-MAC/FEA
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USING MIC-MAC/FEA
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USING MIC-MAC/FEA
NOTE:
While running Lamrank, only run one problem at a time (e.g. do not run
buckling and static analysis, first run the static analysis and obtain results.
Then run the buckling analysis.
Running multiple problems at a time might crash Mic-Mac/FEA.
While running Lamrank, turn off the GUI option unless necessary.
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EXAMPLE : LAM RANK
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Material:
Im6/epoxy [SI]
Problem Set:
Example
Laminate:
To be chosen from a pool of 30, 60 and 45
[f
1
, f
2
]
s
Load:
N/A
Dimensions:
0.1x0.2 sq m
Run Lamrankanalysis to obtain the optimal laminate in terms of the first natural
freqency.
USING MIC-MAC/FEA
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USING MIC-MAC/FEA
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USING MIC-MAC/FEA
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USING MIC-MAC/FEA
NOTE:
While running Failure Envelope, at least 5 increments should be defined (value in
Cell G63>=5). Specify odd number of the increments.
Results are in MPa or ksi.
While running Failure Envelope, turn off the GUI option unless necessary.
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USING MIC-MAC/FEA
NOTE:
Since MicMac/FEA saves the Excel file every time it runs, make sure that all the
input fields are reset when a new analysis is started.
Material, laminate, geometry, etc. should be defined every time a new analysis is
started.
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EXAMPLE : FAILURE ENVELOPE
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Material:
Im6/epoxy [SI]
Problem Set:
Example
Laminate:
[0,90,45,-45]
s
Load:
N/A
Dimensions:
0.1x0.2 sq m
Plot failure envelope in sigma-1,2 axes
MIC-MAC/FEA PROBLEM SET
The following problem sets are currently distributed with Mic-Mac/FEA. More
problem sets can be added in future and updates will be issued as a new
release of Mic-Mac/FEA version 4.x.
Units:
Input loads are in MN/m or kips/inch.
Input moments are in MN or kips.
Dimensions are in m or inch.
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MIC-MAC/FEA PROBLEM SET
Load 1
Load 2
Width
L
e
n
g
t
h
Load 1
Load 2
Width
L
e
n
g
t
h
Rectangular Plate1 Rectangular Plate2
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MIC-MAC/FEA PROBLEM SET
Load 1
Load 1
Width
L
e
n
g
t
h
Load 1
Width
L
e
n
g
t
h
Smooth Coupon1
Coupon2
Load 1
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MIC-MAC/FEA PROBLEM SET
Width
L
e
n
g
t
h
Plate4
Moment 1
M
o
m
e
n
t

2
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MIC-MAC/FEA PROBLEM SET
Load 1
Width
L
e
n
g
t
h
Plate5
All sides constrained in out-of-
plane direction.
Load 2
Load 1
Load 2
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MIC-MAC/FEA PROBLEM SET
Load 1
Width
L
e
n
g
t
h
Plate 8
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
60
MIC-MAC/FEA PROBLEM SET
Width
L
e
n
g
t
h
Plate 9
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
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MIC-MAC/FEA PROBLEM SET
Load 1
Load 2
Width
L
e
n
g
t
h
Load 1
Load 2
Width
L
e
n
g
t
h
OpenHole1
OpenHole2
Radius (center hole)
Radius (center hole)
d1
d2
d1
d2
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MIC-MAC/FEA PROBLEM SET
Width
L
e
n
g
t
h
OpenHole3
Moment 1
M
o
m
e
n
t

2
Radius (center hole)
d1
d2
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MIC-MAC/FEA PROBLEM SET
Load 1
Width
L
e
n
g
t
h
OpenHole4
Load 2
Load 1
Load 2
Radius (center hole)
d1
d2
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MIC-MAC/FEA PROBLEM SET
Load 3
Load 1
Width
L
e
n
g
t
h
OpenHole5
Load 1
L
o
a
d

2
d2
Radius (center hole)
d1
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MIC-MAC/FEA PROBLEM SET
Load 3
Load 1
Width
L
e
n
g
t
h
OpenHole6
L
o
a
d

2
Load 1
d2
Radius (center hole)
d1
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MIC-MAC/FEA PROBLEM SET
Width
L
e
n
g
t
h
OpenHole8
Constrained in out-of-plane direction at
sides
d2
Radius (center hole)
d1
Load 1
Load 1
OpenHole8 (end conditions for
buckling analysis)
Constrained in out-of-plane direction
at bottom only
Width
L
e
n
g
t
h
d2
Radius (center hole)
d1
Load 1
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MIC-MAC/FEA PROBLEM SET
HollowShaft1
(for buckling analysis, only torsion is considered)
Layup is out to in.
Load 1
Load 2
Load 3, shear flow
Length
Radius
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MIC-MAC/FEA PROBLEM SET
Load 1
Width
L
e
n
g
t
h
Example file is for quick-run only. It may not produce acceptable results as it has a very
coarse mesh (4 nodes only).
Load 2
Load 1
Load 2
Load 1
Width
L
e
n
g
t
h
End conditions for buckling
for Example case.
Example
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MIC-MAC/FEA ADDING A NEW PROBLEM SET
Adding a new problem set in Mic-Mac/FEA requires familiarity with AbaqusCAE
environment.
Create a CAE file such that:
1) Geometry is defined.
(If orientation is not defined, global orientation is taken as the default)
2) Only 2D conventional shell element is accepted.
3) Mesh is defined (if using Student edition, maximum number of nodes is 1000).
4) Boundary condition is defined.
5) Load is defined (1 MN/m or kips/in or in case of bending MN or kips)
6) A Job is created as Job-1.
7) Save the CAE file to the following directory:
AbaqusMM>caefiles>CaseFiles
AbaqusMM
cae_files
CaseFiles
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MIC-MAC/FEA ADDING A NEW PROBLEM SET
Register the new problem set with MicMac/FEA Abaqus
1) Open MicMac/FEA and click on Raw Interface to go to ABAQUS sheet where the new
problem set can be registered.
2) Refer to the following slides to input variables in appropriate cell. Note that currently a
maximum of 50 problem sets can be registered (can be expanded).
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MIC-MAC/FEA ADDING A NEW PROBLEM SET
Number
Probl em
Name
Description
Predefi ned
Load1
Description:
e.g., 1000 N/m
Uni t (N/m or
l bf/i n)
Predefi ned
Load2
Description:
If non exi stent:
N/A
Predefi ned
Load3
Description:
If non exi stent:
N/A
Fi l e for static
analysis.
Fi l es are in
cae_fi les folder
Fi l e for buckling
analysis wi th same or
si milar BC of static
analysis.
Ei gen vector would be
l oad defined as load 1, 2
or 3.
e.g., 1000N/m
compressive
If does not exi st N/A
Frequency file.
If does not
exi st N/A
Di mension
updateable?
Y: Yes
N: No
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MIC-MAC/FEA ADDING A NEW PROBLEM SET
Di mension1
Legend.
Description
Predefi ned
Load1
Description:
e.g., 1MN/m
Uni t (MN/m or
ki ps/in)
Predefi ned
Load2
Description:
If non exi stent:
N/A
Di mension1 value. Do not
change thi s formula here
(l i nks to i nput di mension
val ue i n Mi cMac/FEA sheet
Can di mension be updated.
If Yes, i nput Y. For such
di mensions you need to
know the sequence (Di m1
wi l l be di m[0] i n Abaqus
sequence. El se, i f the
di mension is fi xed, i nput N.
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MIC-MAC/FEA ADDING A NEW PROBLEM SET
Di mension2 value. Do not
change thi s formula here
(l i nks to i nput di mension
val ue i n Mi cMac/FEA sheet
Di mension 2 l egend. If not
exi sting write N/A
Up to 7 di mensi ons can be
defi ned
Dimensions are in m or inch
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MIC-MAC/FEA ADDING A NEW PROBLEM SET
Ignore
Depth val ue; di scontinued
for now.
Ignore
Twi st value; discontinued
for now.
Is failure plot enabled?
Yes or No
If enabl ed, in the static file,
l oads should have been
defi ned (e.g., si gma1,
si gma2)
Ignore
Mask and seed (for
meshi ng) discontinued for
now.
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TROUBLESHOOTING
The program stops running in the middle:
Do not run other programs while running Mic-Mac/FEA. Always keep the Excel window in the
front (do not minimize it).
Check if the dimensions are defined correctly.
Do not define more than 50 number of plies. Excessive number of plies will slow down or even
crash the computer depending upon its capacity.
Error of abq682.bat or abq671.bat not found is displayed.
Make sure the correct version of Abaqus is installed.
Check if the path in the environment file is defined properly.
Try reinstalling Abaqus.
If your computer lies in a network, unzip the Mic-Mac/FEA to a local folder (such as
desktop or C: ).
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