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TransformerLess Low Cost DC Power Supply : Resistive & Capacitive:

One on the major part of our electronics products is the DC Power Supply that converts mains
AC voltage to a lower DC voltage. Usually we use a step down transformer to reduce mains AC voltage to
desired low voltage AC and then convert it to DC or we use Switched Mode Power Supplies. ut in !oth
cases cost is very high and it ta"es considera!le amount of space. Another #ow Cost alternative for
$ransformer and Switcher !ased power supply is $ransformer #ess Power Supply. $here are !asically
two types of $ransformer #ess Power Supplies.
Capacitive %esistive
$he main difference !etween them is& in resistive transformer less power supply e'cess energy is
dropped as heat across a voltage dropping resistor while in capacitor power supplies voltage is dropped
across a voltage dropping capacitor so there is no energy loss or heat dissipation.
Capacitive $ransformer#ess or Capacitor Power Supply(
)n Capacitor Power Supplies we use a *oltage Dropping Capacitor in series with the phase line.
An ordinary capacitor should not !e used in these applications !ecause Mains Spi"es may create holes in
dielectric of ordinary capacitors and the capacitor will fail to wor". $his may destroy the device !y
rushing current from the mains. $hus we use + %ated Capacitor with re,uired voltage is used for this
tas". + %ated Capacitors rated for -./& 0//& 1// * AC and higher are availa!le. %eactance of the voltage
dropping capacitor should !e greater than the load resistance to "eep constant current through the
load.
%eactance of Capacitor& + 2 34-5fC
6here f is the fre,uency and C is the Capacitance. $hus a /.--78 capacitor has reactance of 30.09: on
mains fre,uency ;./<=>. $he appro'imate value of ma'imum current can !e find out !y dividing mains
voltage !y reactance of the capacitor ;since load resistance is small>.
) 2 *4+
) 2 -?/ * 4 30. 0 2 3..@ mA
$hus a /.--78 capacitor can supply a ma'imum current a!out 3.mA.
As shown 3A fuse may !e used to avoid damages due to short circuit and a MO* ;Metal O'ide
*aristor> also may !e connected as shown a!ove to avoid pro!lems due to voltage transients. $he
resistor %3 is used to limit the high current that may occur during power on. Capacitor C3 --.9 ;-.-78> is
used as the *oltage Dropping Capacitor. A leeder resistor is connected parallel to it for discharging the
capacitor when the supply is switched off. Diodes D3 A D0 is wired as ridge %ectifier and the capacitor
C- is used to filter the pulsating DC. Bener Diode is used to regulate the filtered DC or you can use )C
*oltage %egulator for !etter results. %esistor %? is used to limit the current through the Bener Diode.

$he following ta!le shows the ma'imum current and open circuit voltage of some commonly used
capacitors.
Capacitor *oltage Current
3/09 0 C mA
??09 3/ -- mA
0D09 3- -. mA
1C09 3C* 3// mA
3/.9 -0* 0/ mA
--.9 -0* 3//mA

Capacitive $ransformer #ess #ow Cost DC Power Supply or Capacitor Power Supply
Advantages
Significantly smaller in si=e and lesser in weight than transformer power supplies.
#esser in Cost when compared to $ransformer or Switcher !ased power supplies.
Capacitor Power Supply is more efficient than %esistive $ransformer #ess Power Supply.
Disadvantages
<igher Cost when compared to a %esistive Power Supply.
Eo isolation from AC mains which introduces many safety issues.

Resistive TransformerLess Power Supply:
%esistive $ransformer #ess Power Supply is similar to Capacitor Power Supply e'cept
that instead of %eactance it uses resistance to limit current. $hus here e'cess energy is
dissipated as heat across the *oltage Dropping %esistor.

%esistive $ransformer #ess Power Supply Circuit Diagram
Care should !e ta"en while selecting *oltage Dropping %esistor since the e'cess power is
dissipated across it. Calculate power !y multiplying *oltage and Current. P 2 *)
)t is !etter to use a resistor of dou!le the rated power.
Advantages
Significantly small si=e and less weight than transformer !ased power supplies.
#esser Cost than $ransformer or Switcher !ased power supplies.
#esser Cost than Capacitor Power Supply.
Disadvantages
Eo isolation from AC Mains which introduces many safety issues.
%esistive Power supplies are less efficient as the e'cess energy is losted in the form of heat
across the *oltage Dropping %esistor.

Caution
DonFt $ry this circuit if you donFt have much e'perience with electronics. Care should !e
ta"en while testing or using this circuit. DonFt touch at any points of the circuit since some
points of this circuit is at Mains Potential. After constructing and testing enclose the circuit in a
metal casing without touching PC and metalGcase. $he metal case should !e properly earthed
to avoid shoc" ha=ards.

(1.)Power Supply !DC no transformer
$his is circuiut power supply @*DC no transformer&)t easy circuit and small si=e.
*olt output 2 *olt Benerdiode. Output Current 3//mA ;min>.
)t easy circuit and small si=e. Power Supply @*DC no transformer
Hou may "now the reason that ma"e power supply circuit have largeGsi=ed as a result & !ecause
transformer. 6ay this out !e must not use. 6e use capacitor replace as a result wor" also well.
)n Power Supply @*DC no transformer circuit . $he this !ase e,uipment have =ener diode
perform heal voltage !e sta!le or @* DC %egulator. !ut "ind this circuit !e defective that
current not tall sir. $he detail is other & see in the circuit sir.



(".) DC power supply not use transformer

6or" cycle is C3 and %3 acts reduced AC Current Source to rectifier current is a DC *olt !y
!ridge diode circuit which D3GD0 acts to change AC to DC with the C- ma"es the filtering power
DC to smoother will a =ener diode acts to reduce voltage is e,ual to the num!er of volt =ener
diode and C? will DC* voltage output that is more smooth

(#.)$e%ative !ola%e Re%ulator &! not use Transformer

)f friends with loo" for Mini power supply 1* si=es. $hat give negative voltage. ) !egs for to
advise this circuit. )t has prominent smallGsi=ed point and light weight. ecause do not use
$ransformer. ut still can use current get /./DAmp not e'ceed and when see the circuit. $hin"
use Bener diode control voltage !e sta!le that 1* and have transistor enlarge the trend e,ual to
that want. And still systematically protect through the circuit or Shot Circuit Protect with
$ransistor as well. $he detail is other & see in circuit picture has yes.

('.) DC Re%ulator supply 1(! non transformer

8riends at donFt li"e largeGsi=ed of a transformer. ) !egs for to advise 3.*DC regulator power
supply can give the trend current get low a!out C/mA not e'ceed. ut enough will usa!le smallG
si=ed circuit has comforta!lely. $hin" ) uses Bener Diode !e formed help maintain oneFs position
volt !e sta!le & and use $ransistor help enlarge current tallly increasingly. Ma"e this circuit is
usa!le well & ut friends as a result must use the carefulness specially & !ecause apply to the
level voltage tall directly yes.


Transformerless Power Supply:
One of the major pro!lems that is to !e solved in an electronic circuit design is the
production of low voltage DC power supply from AC to power the circuit. $he conventional
method is the use of a stepGdown transformer to reduce the -?/ * AC to a desired level of low
voltage AC. $he most suita!le and low cost method is the use of a*oltage Dropping Capacitor in
series with the phase line.
Selection of the Dropping capacitor and the circuit design re,uires some technical
"nowledge and practical e'perience to get the desired voltage and current. An ordinary
capacitor will not do the jo! since the device will !e destroyed !y the rushing current from the
mains. Mains spi"es will create holes in the dielectric and the capacitor will fail to wor". +Grated
Capacitor specified for the use in AC mains is re,uired for reducing AC voltage.
+ %ated capacitor 0// *olt
efore selecting the dropping capacitor& it is necessary to understand the wor"ing
principle and operation of the dropping capacitor. $he + rated capacitor is designed for -./&
0//& 1// *AC. <igher voltage versions are also availa!le. $he Iffective )mpedance ; B >&%ectance
; + > and the Mains fre,uency ; ./ A 1/ <= > are the important parameters to !e considered
while selecting the capacitor. $he reactance;+ > of the capacitor ; C >in the mains fre,uency ; f >
can !e calculated using the formula
+ 2 3 4 ;- J fC >
8or e'ample the reactance of a /.-- u8 capacitor running in the mains fre,uency ./<= will !e
+ 2 3 4 K- J ' ./ ' /.-- '; 3 4 3&///&///> L 2 300D..@D1 Ohms /r 30.0 9ilo ohms. %ectance of the
capacitor /.-- u8 is calculated as +234-Pi.f.C.6here f is the ./ <= fre,uency of mains and C is
the value of capacitor in 8arads. $hat is 3 microfarad is 3 4 3&///&/// farads.<ence /.--
microfarad is /.-- ' 3 4 3&///&/// farads. $herefore the rectance of the capacitor appears as
300D..@D Ohms or 30.0 9 Ohms.$o get current ) divide mains *olt !y the rectance in "ilo
ohm.$hat is -?/ 4 30.0 2 3..@ mA.
Iffective impedance ;B> of the capacitor is determined !y ta"ing the load resistance ; % > as an
important parameter. )mpedance can !e calculated using the formula
B 2 v % M +
Suppose the current in the circuit is ) and Mains voltage is * then the e,uation appears li"e
) 2 * 4 +
$he final e,uation thus !ecomes
) 2 -?/ * 4 30. 0 2 3..@ mA.
$herefore if a /.-- u8 capacitor rated for -?/ * is used& it can deliver around 3. mAcurrent to
the circuit. ut this is not sufficient for many circuits. $herefore it is recommended to use a 0D/
n8 capacitor rated for 0// * for such circuits to give re,uired current.

+ %ated AC capacitors A -./*& 0//*& 1C/* AC

$a!le showing the + rated capacitor types and the output voltage and current without load