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Decision making process:

Decision making is the process of selecting a course of action from among multiple
alternatives.Due to the large number of considerations involved in many decisions,decision
support system(computer based systems) have been developed to assist decision making
considering the implications of various courses of action.
The Decision-Making Process
The decision-making process involves the follo!ing steps
". Defining the problem The most significant step in the decision # making process is
describing !hy a decision is called for and identifying the most desired outcome of
decision making process. $ere, problem may an opportunity for the organi%ation.
The problem should be classified keeping in vie! the follo!ing factors
a.the nature of the decision !hether it is strategic or it is routine
b.the impact of the decision on other functions
c.the peridiocity of the decision, and
d.the limiting or strategic factor relevant to the decision.
&. Developing alternative solutions Thr decision maker should not limit to obvious
alternatives or !hat has !orked in the past but be open to ne! and better
alternatives.'ffective planning involves a search for the alternatives to!ards the desired
(. 'valuate the identified alternatives )hile evaluating alternatives , decision makers
should look at the likely positive and negative sides of each alternative. $e should
determine the results of each alternative and the probability that those results !ill be
*. +hoice of the alternative Proper evaluation of the alternatives !ould help in re,ecting the
non-feasible alternatives and selecting the most appropriate alternative course of
action.-election of the alternative can be based on the follo!ing approaches
c./esearch and analysis
0. 1mplementing the decision The choice of an alternative !ill not serve any purpose if it
is not put into practice.The manager should try to ensure that systematic steps are taken to
implement the decision.1n order to make the decision acceptable, it is necessary for the
manager to make the people understand !hat the decision involves, !hat is e.pected of
them and !hat they should e.pect from the management.The principle of slo! and steady
progress should be follo!edto bring about a change in the behavior of the subordinates.
2. 3ollo! up 1t is also necessary to check !hether the motives conform to the values
!hich are cherished by the organi%ation.The authority has to check the results after
putting the decision into practice. The reasons for follo!ing up of decisions are as
a. 1f the decision is good one, one !ill kno! !hat to do if faced !ith the similar problem
b. 1f the decision is not appropriate and one follo!s up soon enough, corrective action
may still be possible.
This information !ill be very useful in taking the corrective measures and in taking right
decisions in the future.
Ethical decision-making
'thical decision-making involves taking into consideration ethical issues at various stages
of the decision-making process.The basic steps involved in ethical decision making are
the same as in normal decision-making process.4ut in every step ethical aspects are given
due consideration. This approach is called PLUS approach !hich takes care of
Policies(P), 5egal aspects(5), 6niversality(6) and -elf(-) as given belo!
P 7 Policies (is the decision consistent !ith the organisation8s policies, procedures and
guidelines 9)
57 5egal (1s the decision acceptable under the applicable la!s and regulations9)
67 6niversal (does the decision conform to the universal principles and values, the
organi%ation has adopted9)
-7 -elf (Does the decision satisfy the manager8s personal definition of right, good,and
P56- approach assumes effective communication !ith all employees, so there is a
common understanding of
a. :rganisation8s policies and procedures as they apply to the situation.
b. ;pplicable la!s and regulations.
c. -et of <universal= values, in this case , empathy, patience, integrity and courage.
d. 1ndividual8s sense of right, fair, and good arising from their personal values set.