No.

14-5291
IN THE UNITED STATES COURT OF APPEALS
FOR THE SIXTH CIRCUIT
GREGORY BOURKE, e t a l .,
Pl a i n t i f f s-Ap p e l l e e s ,
v .
STEVE BESHEAR, i n h i s of f i c i a l c a p a c i t y a s Gov e rn or of Ke n t uc ky ,
De f e n da n t-Ap p e l l a n t ,
a n d
JACK CONWAY, i n h i s of f i c i a l c a p a c i t y a s At t orn e y Ge n e ra l of Ke n t uc ky ,
De f e n da n t-Ap p e l l e e .
On Ap p e a l f rom t h e Un i t e d St a t e s Di s t ri c t Court
f or t h e We s t e rn Di s t ri c t of Ke n t uc ky
Ci v i l Ac t i on No. 3:13-CV-750 (Hon . Joh n G. He y burn II)
Bri e f of t h e Ame ri c a n Ps y c h ol ogi c a l As s oc i a t i on , Ame ri c a n Ac a de my of
Pe di a t ri c s , Ame ri c a n Ps y c h i a t ri c As s oc i a t i on , Na t i on a l As s oc i a t i on of Soc i a l
Worke rs , a n d Ke n t uc ky Ps y c h ol ogi c a l As s oc i a t i on a s Ami c i Curi a e i n Sup p ort
of Pl a i n t i f f s-Ap p e l l e e s
Na t h a l i e F.P. Gi l f oy l e Pa ul M. Smi t h
AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION JEIVIVEx & BLoc K LLP
750 Fi rs t St re e t NE 1099 Ne w York Av e . NW, St e . 900
Wa s h i n gt on , DC 20002
Te l e p h on e : (202) 336-6100
Fa x : (202) 336-6069
Ngi l f oy l e @a p a .org
Wa s h i n gt on , DC 20001
Te l e p h on e : (202) 639-6000
Fa x : (202) 639-6066
Ps mi t h @je n n e r.c om
Coun s e l f og Ami c i Curi a e
Case: 14-5291 Document: 51 Filed: 06/16/2014 Page: 1
UNITED STATES COURT OF APPEALS
FOR THE SIXTH CIRCUIT
Disclosure of Corporate Affiliation s
an d Fin an cial In terest
Six th Circuit
Case Number: 14-5291 Case Name: Bourke, et al. v . Besh ear
Name of coun sel: Paul M. Smith
Pursuan t to 6th Cir. R. 26. 1, Amicus Curiae American Psych olo ical Association
Name of Party
makes th e follow in g disclosure:
Is said party a subsidiary or affiliate of a publicly ow n ed corporation ? If Yes, list below th e
iden tity of th e paren t corporation or affiliate an d th e relation sh ip betw een it an d th e n amed
party:
INo
2. Is th ere a publicly ow n ed corporation , n ot a party to th e appeal, th at h as a fin an cial in terest
in th e outcome? If yes, list th e iden tity of such corporation an d th e n ature of th e fin an cial
in terest:
CERTIFICATE OF SERVICE
certify th at on Jun e 16, 2014 th e foreg oin g documen t w as serv ed on all
parties or th eir coun sel of record th roug h th e CM/ECF system if th ey are reg istered users or, if th ey are n ot,
by placin g a true an d correct copy in th e Un ited States mail, postag e prepaid, to th eir address of record.
s/Paul M. Smith
Th is statemen t is filed tw ice: w h en th e appeal is in itially open ed an d later, in th e prin cipal briefs,
immediately precedin g th e table of con ten ts. See 6th Cir. R. 26. 1 on pag e 2 of th is form.
6CA-1
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UNITED STATES COURT OF APPEALS
FOR THE SIXTH CIRCUIT
Disclosure of Corporate Affiliation s
an d Fin an cial In terest
Six th Circuit
Case Number: 14-5291
Name of coun sel: Paul M. Smith
Case Name: Bourke, et al. v . Besh ear
Pursuan t to 6th Cir. R. 26.1, Amicus Curiae American Academy of Pediatrics
Name of Party
makes th e follow in g disclosure:
Is said party a subsidiary or affiliate of a publicly ow n ed corporation ? If Yes, list below th e
iden tity of th e paren t corporation or affiliate an d th e relation sh ip betw een it an d th e n amed
party:
No
2. Is th ere a publicly ow n ed corporation , n ot a party to th e appeal, th at h as a fin an cial in terest
in th e outcome? If yes, list th e iden tity of such corporation an d th e n ature of th e fin an cial
in terest:
CERTIFICATE OF SERVICE
certify th at on Jun e 16, 2014 th e foreg oin g documen t w as serv ed on all
parties or th eir coun sel of record th roug h th e CM/ECF system if th ey are reg istered users or, if th ey are n ot,
by placin g a true an d correct copy in th e Un ited States mail, postag e prepaid, to th eir address of record.
s/Paul M. Smith
Th is statemen t is filed tw ice: w h en th e appeal is in itially open ed an d later, in th e prin cipal briefs,
immediately precedin g th e table of con ten ts. See 6th Cir. R. 26.1 on pag e 2 of th is form.
6CA-1
8/08 Pag e I of 2
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UNITED STATES COURT OF APPEALS
FOR THE SIXTH CIRCUIT
Disclosure of Corporate Affiliation s
an d Fin an cial In terest
Six th Circuit
Case Number: 14-5291 Case Name: Bourke et al. v . Besh ear
Name of coun sel: Paul M. Smith
Pursuan t to 6 th Cir. R. 26 . 1, Amicus Curiae American Psy ch iatric Association
Name of Party
makes th e follow in g disclosure:
Is said party a subsidiary or affiliate of a publicly ow n ed corporation ? If Yes, list below th e
iden tity of th e paren t corporation or affiliate an d th e relation sh ip betw een it an d th e n amed
party :
INo
2. Is th ere a publicly ow n ed corporation , n ot a party to th e appeal, th at h as a fin an cial in terest
in th e outcome? If y es, list th e iden tity of such corporation an d th e n ature of th e fin an cial
in terest:
liC
CERTIFICATE OF SERVICE
certify th at on Jun e 16 , 2014 th e foreg oin g documen t w as serv ed on all
parties or th eir coun sel of record th roug h th e CM/ECF sy stem if th ey are reg istered users or, if th ey are n ot,
by placin g a true an d correct copy in th e Un ited States mail, postag e prepaid, to th eir address of record.
s/Paul M. Smith
Th is statemen t is filed tw ice: w h en th e appeal is in itially open ed an d later, in th e prin cipal briefs,
immediately precedin g th e table of con ten ts. See 6 th Cir. R. 26 . 1 on pag e 2 of th is form.
6 CA-1
8/OS
Pag e 1 of 2
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UNITED STATES COURT OF APPEALS
FOR THE SIXTH CIRCUIT
Disclosure of Corporate Affiliation s
an d Fin an cial In terest
Six th Circuit
Case Number: 14-5291 Case Name: Bourke, et al. v . Besh ear
Name of coun sel: Paul M. Smith
Pursuan t to 6th Cir. R. 26. 1, Amicus Curiae Nation al Association of Social Workers
Name of Party
makes th e follow in g disclosure:
1. Is said party a subsidiary or affiliate of a publicly ow n ed corporation ? If Yes, list below th e
iden tity of th e paren t corporation or affiliate an d th e relation sh ip betw een it an d th e n amed
party:
~iC
2. Is th ere a publicly ow n ed corporation , n ot a party to th e appeal, th at h as a fin an cial in terest
in th e outcome? If yes, list th e iden tity of such corporation an d th e n ature of th e fin an cial
in terest:
INo
CERTIFICATE OF SERVICE
certify th at on Jun e 16, 2014 th e foreg oin g documen t w as serv ed on all
parties or th eir coun sel of record th roug h th e CM/ECF system if th ey are reg istered users or, if th ey are n ot,
by placin g a true an d correct copy in th e Un ited States mail, postag e prepaid, to th eir address of record.
s/Paul M. Smith
Th is statemen t is filed tw ice: w h en th e appeal is in itially open ed an d later, in th e prin cipal briefs,
immediately precedin g th e table of con ten ts. See 6th Cir. R. 26. 1 on pag e 2 of th is form.
6CA-1
8/08 Pag e 1 of 2
Case: 14-5291 Document: 51 Filed: 06/16/2014 Page: 5
UNITED STATES COURT OF APPEALS
FOR THE SIXTH CIRCUIT
Disclosure of Corporate Affiliation s
an d Fin an cial In terest
Six th Circuit
Case Number: 14-5291 Case Name: Bourke et al. v . Besh ear
Name of coun sel: Paul M. Smith
Pursuan t to 6 th Cir. R. 26 . 1, Amicus Curiae Ken tucky Psych ological Association
Name of Party
makes th e follow in g disclosure:
Is said party a subsidiary or affiliate of a publicly ow n ed corporation ? If Yes, list below th e
iden tity of th e paren t corporation or affiliate an d th e relation sh ip betw een it an d th e n amed
party:
m
2. Is th ere a publicly ow n ed corporation , n ot a party to th e appeal, th at h as a fin an cial in terest
in th e outcome? ff yes, list th e iden tity of such corporation an d th e n ature of th e fin an cial
in terest:
CERTIFICATE OF SERVICE
certify th at on Jun e 16 2014 th e foregoin g documen t w as serv ed on all
parties or th eir coun sel of record th rough th e CM/ECF system if th ey are registered users or, if th ey are n ot,
by placin g a true an d correct copy in th e Un ited States mail, postage prepaid, to th eir address of record.
s/Paul M. Smith
Th is statemen t is filed tw ice: w h en th e appeal is in itially open ed an d later, in th e prin cipal briefs,
immediately precedin g th e table of con ten ts. See 6 th Cir. R. 26 . 1 on page 2 of th is form.
6 CA-1
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
CORPORATE DISCLOSURE STATEMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i
TABLE OF AUTHORITIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v i i i
IDENTITY AND INTEREST OF AMICI CURIAE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
ARGUMENT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
I. The Sc i en t i f i c Ev i den c e Presen t ed i n Thi s Bri ef . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
II. Homosexuali t y Is A Normal Expressi on of Human Sexuali t y, Is
Gen erally Not Chosen , an d Is Hi ghly Resi st an t To Chan ge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
III. Sexual Ori en t at i on an d Relat i on shi ps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
A. Gay Men an d Lesbi an s Form St able, Commi t t ed Relat i on shi ps
That Are Equi v alen t t o Het erosexual Relat i on shi ps i n Essen t i al
Respec t s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
B. The In st i t ut i on of Marri age Of f ers Soc i al, Psyc hologi c al, an d
Healt h Ben ef i t s That Are Den i ed t o Same-Sex Couples Who
Can n ot Legally Marry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
IV. The Chi ldren of Same-Sex Couples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 3
A. Man y Same-Sex Couples Rai se Chi ldren . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 3
B. The Fac t ors That Af f ec t t he Adjust men t of Chi ldren Are Not
Depen den t on Paren t al Gen der or Sexual Ori en t at i on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 4
(1 ) The quali t i es of paren t-c hi ld relat i on shi ps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 4
(2) The quali t i es of relat i on shi ps bet ween si gn i f i c an t adult s
i n c hi ldren ' s li v es . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 5
(3 ) The av ai labi li t y of ec on omi c an d ot her resourc es . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 6
C. There Is No Sc i en t i f i c Basi s f or Con c ludi n g That Same-Sex
Couples Are An y Less Fi t or Capable Paren t s Than
Het erosexual Couples, or That Thei r Chi ldren Are An y Less
Psyc hologi c ally Healt hy an d Well Adjust ed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 8
v i
Case: 14-5291 Document: 51 Filed: 06/16/2014 Page: 7
V. Denying t h e S t a t u s of Ma rria ge t o S a me-S ex Cou ples S t igma t iz es
Th em..............................................................................................................2 4
CONCLUS ION........................................................................................................2 6
CERTIFICATE OF COMPLIANCE
CERTIFICATE OF S ERVICE
v ii
Case: 14-5291 Document: 51 Filed: 06/16/2014 Page: 8
TABLE OF AUTHORITIES
CASES
DeBoe~ v . Snyder, 973 F. Supp. 2d 755 (E. D. Mich. 2014) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
United Sta tes v . Winds or, 133 S. Ct. 26 75 (2013) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
TEXTS, TREATISES, AND OTHER AUTHORITIES
2010 Cens us a nd 2010 America n Community Surv ey, Sa me-Sex Unma rried
P a rtner or Spous e Hous eholds by Sex of Hous eholder by P res ence of
Own Children, a v a ila ble a t http://www. cens us . gov /hhes /s a mes ex/
files /s upp-ta ble-AFF. xIs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 , 13
J. M. Ada ms & W. H. Jones , The Conceptua liz a tion of Ma rita l Commitment,
72 J. P ers ona lity & Soc. P s ychol. 1177 (1997) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
D. W. Allen, High School Gra dua tion Ra tes Among Children of Sa me-Sex
Hous eholds , 11 Rev . Econ. of the Hous ehold 6 35 (2013) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-22
D. W. Allen et a l. , Nontra ditiona l Fa milies a nd Childhood P rogres s Though
School, 50 Demogra phy 955 (2013) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . :. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
P . R. Ama to, Children of Div orce in the 1990s , 15 J. Fa m. P s ychol. 355
(2001) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Am. Aca d. of P edia trics , P olicy Sta tement, P romoting the Well-Being of
Children Whos e P a rents a re Ga y or Les bia n, 131 P edia trics 8 27
(2013 ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1, 23
Am. As s n for Ma rria ge a nd Fa m. Thera py, Repa ra tiv e/Conv ers ion Thera py
(2009), a v a ila ble a t http://www. a a mft. org/iMIS 15/AAMFT/
MFT Res ources /Content/Res ources /P os ition On Couples . a s px . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Am. Med. As s n, P olicy H-6 0. 940, P a rtner Co-Adoption, a v a ila ble a t
http://www. a ma -a s s n. org/a ma /pub/a bout-a ma /our-people/member-
groups -s ections /glbt-a dv is ory-committee/a ma -policy-rega rding-
s exua l-orienta tion. pa ge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
v iii
Case: 14-5291 Document: 51 Filed: 06/16/2014 Page: 9
Am. Med. Assn, Policy H-65.973, Health Care D isp arities in Same-Sex
Partner Households, av ailab le at http ://www.ama-assn.org/amaJp ub /
ab out-ama/our-p eop le/memb er-group s-sections/glb t-adv isory-
committee/ama-p olicy-regarding-sexual-orientation.p age ............................2 4
Am. Med. Assn, Policy H-160.991, Health Cage Needs of the Homosexual
Pop ulation, av ailab le at http ://www.ama-assn.org/ama/p ub /ab out-
ama/our-p eop le/memb er-group s-sections/glb t-adv isory-
committee/ama-p olicy-regarding-sexual-orientation.p age .......................... 6-7
Am. Psychiatric Assn, Position Statement on Homosexuality and Civ il
Rights (1973), in 131 Am. J. Psychiatry 4 97 (1974 ) .......................................5
Am. Psychiatric Assn, Position Statement: Psychiatric Treatment and
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samesexmarriage.p df ................................................................................................2 3
Am. Psychoanalytic Assn, Position Statement: Attemp ts to Change Sexual
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Am. Psychoanalytic Assn, Position Statement: Parenting (2 012 ), av ailab le
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p arenting.asp x ............................................................................................2 , 2 3
Am. Psychol. Assn, Minutes of the Annual Meeting of the Council of
Rep resentativ es, 30 Am. Psychologist 62 0 (1975) ..........................................5
Am. Psychol. Assn, Rep ort of the American Psychological Association Task
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orientation. asp x ................................................................................................6
1X
Case: 14-5291 Document: 51 Filed: 06/16/2014 Page: 10
Am. Psychol. Assn, Resolution on App~op~iate Af f ir mativ e Responses to
Sexual Or ientation D istr ess and Change E f f or ts (2009), av ailable at
http: / / w w w .apa.or g/ pi/ lgbt/ r esour ces/ sexual- or ientation.aspx ........................6
Am. Psychol. Assn, Resolution on Mar r iage E quality For Same- Sex
Couples (2011), av ailable at http: / / w w w .apa.or g/ about/ policy/ same-
sex.pdf ..........................................................................................................1, 6
Am. Psychol. Assn, Resolution on Sexual Or ientation, Par ents and
Childr en (2004), av ailable at http: / / w w w .apa.or g/ about/ policy/
par enting.aspx ................................................................................................23
N. Ander ssen et al., Outcomes f og Childr en w ith Lesbian o~ Gay Par ents, 43
Scand. J . Psychol. 3 3 5 (2002) ........................................................................18
K.F. Balsam et al., Thr ee- Yeas Follow- Up of Same- Sex Couples Who Had
Civ il Unions in Ver mont, Same- Sex Couples Not in Civ il Unions, and
Heter osexual Mar r ied Couples, 44 D ev elopmental Psychol. 102
(2008 ) ...............................................................................................................9
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D iogenes 1 (196 4) ............................................................................................9
T.J . Biblar z & J . Stacey, How D oes the Gender of Par ents Matter ?, 72 J .
Mar r iage & Fam. 3 (2010) ................................................................. 18 , 19- 20
H. Bos et al., Lesbian and Heter osexual Tw o- Par ent Families, J . Child &
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H. Bos & T.G.M. Sandf or t, Childr en's Gender I dentity in Lesbian and
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S.L. Br ow n, The E f f ect of Union Type on Psychological Well- Being, 41 J .
Health & Soc. Behay. 241 (2000) ..................................................................11
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Health & Soc. Behay. 201 (1998 ) ..................................................................10
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D ev. 443 (1998 ) ...................................................................................... 15, 17
~ ~
Case: 14-5291 Document: 51 Filed: 06/16/2014 Page: 11
Consequences of Growing Up Poor (G.J. Duncan & J. Brooks-Gunn ed s.,
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E.M. Cummings et al ., Everyd ay Marit al Confl ict and Chil d Aggression, 32
J. Abnormal Chil d Psychol . 191 (2004) ........................................................15
A.R. D' Augel l i, S exual O rient at ion, in 7 Encycl oped ia of Psychol ogy 260
(A.E. Kazd in ed ., 2000) ...................................................................................4
E. Durkheim, S uicid e (J.A. S paul d ing & G. S impson t rans., 1951) (1897) ............10
S . Erich et al ., A Comparat ive Anal ysis of Ad opt ive Famil y Funct ioning W it h
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GLBT Fam. S t ud . 43 (2005) ..........................................................................19
S . Erich et al ., Gay and Lesbian Ad opt ive Famil ies, 9 J. Fam. S oc. W ork 17
(2005) .............................................................................................................19
Famil y Cont ext of Parent ing in Chil d ren' s Ad apt at ion t o El ement ary S chool
(P.A. Cowan, et al . ed s., 2005) ......................................................................15
R.H. Farr et al ., Parent ing and Chil d Devel opment in Ad opt ive Famil ies, 14
Appl ied Devel opment al S ci. 164 (2010) .......................................................19
A.L. Fed ewa & T.P. Cl ark, Parent Pract ices and Home-S chool
Part nerships, 5 J. GLBT Fam. S t ud . 312 (2009) ..........................................21
B.L. Frankowski, S exual O rient at ion and Ad ol escent s, 113 Ped iat rics 1827
(2004) ...............................................................................................................7
G.J. Gat es, LGBT Parent ing in t he Unit ed S t at es, The W il l iams I nst it ut e
(2013), avail abl e at ht t p: / / wil l iamsinst it ut e.l aw.ucl a.ed u/ wp-
cont ent / upl oad s/ LGBT-Parent ing.pd f ............................................................. 8
E. Goffman, S t igma (1963) ......................................................................................24
A.E. Gol d berg, Lesbian and Gay Parent s and Their Chil d ren (2010) ....................18
xi
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S. Golombok e t a l., Childre n w it h Le sbia n Pa re nt s, 39 De v. Psychol. 20
(2003) .............................................................................................................1 9
S. Golombok, Pa re nt ing (2002) ........................................................................ 1 4, 1 5
C. Gonsiore k, The Empirica l Ba sis fog t he De mise of t he I llne ss Mode l of
Homose xua lit y, in Homose xua lit y (J.C. Gonsiore k & J.D. We inrich
e ds., 1 991 ) ........................................................................................................5
W.R. Gove e t a l., Doe s Ma rria ge Ha ve Posit ive Effe ct s on t he Psychologica l
We ll-Be ing of t he I ndividua l? , 24 J. He a lt h & Soc. Be ha y. 1 22 (1 983) .......1 2
W.R. Gove e t a l., The Effe ct of Ma rria ge on t he We ll-Be ing of Adult s, 1 1 J.
Fa m. I ssue s 4 (1 990) ............................................................................... 1 0, 1 1
T.B. He a t on & S.L. Albre cht , St a ble Unha ppy Ma rria ge s, 53 J. Ma rria ge &
Fa m. 747 (1 991 ) .............................................................................................1 3
G.M. He re k e t a l., De mogra phic, Psychologica l, a nd Socia l Cha ra ct e rist ics
of Se lf-I de nt ifie d Le sbia n, Ga y, a nd Bise xua l Adult s in a U.S.
Proba bilit y Sa mple , 7 Se x Re s. Soc. Policy 1 76 (201 0) .............................6, 8
G.M. He re k, Ha t e Crime s a nd St igma -Re la t e d Expe rie nce s Among Se xua l
Minorit y Adult s in t he Unit e d St a t e s, 24 J. I nt e rpe rsona l Viole nce 54
(2009) .............................................................................................................25
G.M. He re k, Homose xua lit y, in 2 Corsini Encyclope dia of Psychology 774
(I .B. We ine r & W.E. Cra ighe a d e ds., 4t h e d. 201 0) ........................................4
G.M. He re k e t a l., Psychologica l Se que la e of Ha t e -C~ime Vict imiz a t ion
Among Le sbia n, Ga y, a nd Bise xua l Adult s, 67 J. Consult ing &
Clinica l Psychol. 945 (1 999) .........................................................................25
G.M. He re k e t a l., I nt e rna liz e d St igma Among Se xua l Minorit y Adult s, 56 J.
Counse ling Psychol. 32 (2009) ........................................................................6
E. Hooke r, The Adjust me nt of t he Ma le Ove rt Homose xua l, 21 J. Proje ct ive
Te chnique s 1 7 (1 957) ......................................................................................5
N.J. Johnson e t a l., Ma rit a l St a t us a nd Mort a lit y, 1 0 Anna ls Epide miology
224 (2000) ......................................................................................................1 1
X1 1
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J.K. Ki e c o l t - G l a s e r & T.L. Ne wt o n, Ma r r i a ge a nd He a l t h, 127 Ps yc ho l .
B u l l . 472 (2001) .............................................................................................1 Z
L.A. Ku r de k, Aye G a y a nd Le s bi a n Co ha bi t i ng Co u pl e s Re a l l y D i f f e r e nt
f r o m He t e r o s e xu a l Ma ~~i e d Co u pl e s ?, 66 J. Ma r r i a ge & Fa m. 880
(2004) ...............................................................................................................9
L.A. Ku r de k, Cha nge i n Re l a t i o ns hi p Qu a l i t y f o g Pa ~t ne ~s , f i ^ o m Le s bi a n,
G a y Ma l e , a nd He t e r o s e xu a l Co u pl e s , 22 J. Fa m. Ps yc ho l . 701 (2008).........9
L.A. Ku r de k, Re l a t i o ns hi p Ou t c o me s a nd t he i r Pr e di c t o r s , 60 J. Ma r r i a ge &
Fa m. 553 (19 9 8) .............................................................................................13
L.A. Ku r de k, Wha t D o We Kno w Abo u t G a y a nd Le s bi a n Co u pl e s ? 14
Cu r r e nt D i r e c t i o ns i n Ps yc ho l . S c i . 251 (2005) ...............................................9
M.E. La mb, Mo t he r s , Fa t he r s , Fa mi l i e s , a nd Ci r c u ms t a nc e s , 16 Appl i e d
D e ve l o pme nt a l S c i . 9 8 (2012) .......................................................................14
M.E. La mb & C. Le wi s , The Ro l e o f Pa r e nt- Chi l d Re l a t i o ns hi ps i n Chi l d
D e ve l o pme nt , i n D e ve l o pme nt a l S c i e nc e 429 (M.H. B o r ns t e i n & M.E.
La mb e ds ., 5t h e d. 2005) ........................................................................ 14, 15
J.A. La vne r e t a l ., Ca n G a y a nd Le s bi a n Pa r e nt s Pr o mo t e He a l t hy
D e ve l o pme nt i n Hi gh- Ri s k Chi l dr e n Ado pt e d Fr o m Fo s t e r Ca r e ?, 82
Am. J. Or t ho ps yc hi a t r y 465 (2012) ...............................................................19
G . Le vi nge r , Ma r i t a l Co he s i ve ne s s a nd D i s s o l u t i o n, 27 J. Ma r r i a ge & Fa m.
19 (19 65) ........................................................................................................12
B .G . Li nk & J.C. Phe l a n, Co nc e pt u a l i zi ng S t i gma , 27 Ann. Re v. S o c . 363
(2001) .............................................................................................................24
S . Mc La na ha n & G . S a nde f u r , G r o wi ng Up Wi t h a S i ngl e Pa r e nt 39 (19 9 4) ........16
J.E. Mu r r a y, Ma r i t a l Pr o t e c t i o n a nd Ma r i t a l S e l e c t i o n, 37 D e mo gr a phy 511
(2000) .........................: ...................................................................................11
Na t ' l Ac a de my o f S c i e nc e s ' I ns t i t u t e o f Me di c i ne , Re po r t : The He a l t h o f
Le s bi a n, G a y, B i s e xu a l , a nd T~a ns ge nde ~ Pe o pl e (2011), a va i l a bl e a t
ht t p: //www.na p.e du /o pe nbo o k.php?r e c o r d_i d=13128 ..............................4, 19
X111
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N a t ' 1 Assn of Soc. Workers, Policy St a t em ent : L esb ia n, Ga y, a nd B isex u a l
I ssu es, in Socia l World Spea ks 224 (6t h ed. 2003) ....................................2, 23
N a t ' l Assn of Socia l Workers, Posit ion St a t em ent : "Repa ra t ive"a nd
"Conversion "Thera pies for L esb ia ns a nd Ga y Men (2000), a va ila b le
a t ht t p: / / w w w .na sw dc.org / diversit y/ ig b / repa ra t ive.a sp ...................................7
N eig hb orhood Povert y (J . B rooks-Gu nn et a l. eds., 1 997 ) ......................................1 7
S.L . N ock, A Com pa rison of Ma rria g es a nd Coha b it ing Rela t ionships, 1 6 J .
Fa m. I ssu es 53 (1 995) ....................................................................................1 0
C.J . Pa t t erson, Children of L esb ia n a nd Ga y Pa rent s, Psycholog y, L a w , a nd
Policy, 64 Am . Psycholog ist 7 27 (2009) .......................................................1 8
C.J . Pa t t erson, Fa m ily L ives of L esb ia n a nd Ga y Adu lt s, in The Ha ndb ook of
Ma rria g e a nd Fa m ily 659 (G.W. Pet erson & K.R. B u sh eds. 201 3)............1 8
C.J . Pa t t erson, Fa m ily Rela t ionships of L esb ia ns a nd Ga y Men, 62 J .
Ma rria g e & Fa m . 1 052 (2000) .......................................................................1 8
C.J . Pa t t erson, Fa m ilies of t he L esb ia n B a b y B oom , 4 J . Ga y &L esb ia n
Psychot hera py 91 (2001 ) ...............................................................................1 7
C.J . Pa t t erson, Ga y Fa t hers, in The Role of t he Fa t her in Child Developm ent
(M.E. L a m b ed., 4t h ed. 2004) .......................................................................1 9
C.J . Pa t t erson, L esb ia n a nd Ga y Pa rent s a nd Their Children, in
Cont em pora ry Perspect ives on L esb ia n, Ga y, a nd B isex u a l I dent it ies,
N eb ra ska Sym posiu m on Mot iva t ion 1 41 (D.A. Hope ed., 2009) ................1 8
C.J . Pa t t erson, & P.D. Ha st ing s, Socia liz a t ion in t he Cont ex t of Fa m ily
Diversit y, in Ha ndb ook of Socia liz a t ion 328 (J .E. Gru sec & P.D.
Ha st ing s eds., 2007 ) .......................................................................... 1 4, 1 5, 1 7
L .A. Pepla u & A. W. Fing erhu t , The Close Rela t ionships of L esb ia ns a nd
Ga y Men, 58 Ann. Rev. Psychol. 405 (2007 ) ..............................................8 , 9
L .A. Pepla u & A.W. Fing erhu t , Sa m e-Sex Rom a nt ic Rela t ionships, in
Ha ndb ook of Psycholog y a nd Sex u a l O rient a t ion 1 65 (C.J . Pa t t erson
& A.R. D' Au g elli eds., 201 3) ..........................................................................8
X1 V
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L.A. Peplau & N. Ghavami, Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual R elat io nships, in
Encyclo pedia o f Human R elat io nships (H.T. R eis & S. Sprecher eds.,
2009) ............................................................................................................8 , 9
L.A. Peplau & K.P. Beals, The Family Lives o f Lesbians and Gay Men, in
Handbo o k o f Family Co mmunicat io n 233 (A.L. V ang elist i ed., 2004) ..........9
E.C. Perrin et al., Technical R epo t : Co pa~ent o r Seco nd-Parent Ado pt io n
by Same-Sex Parent s, 109 Pediat rics 341 (2002) ..........................................18
Pew R esearch Cent er fo r t he Peo ple and t he Press, A Survey o f LGBT
Americans (2013), available at ht t p:/ / www.pewso cialt rends.o rg /
2013/ 06 / 13/ a-survey.-o f-lg bt -americans/ ...................................................8 , 25
D. Po t t er, Same-Sex Parent Families and Children's Academic Achievement ,
74 J . Marriag e & Fam. 556 (2012) ..............................................15-16 , 17, 21
D. Previt i & P.R . Amat o , Why St ay Married?, 6 5 J . Marriag e & Fam. 56 1
(2003) .............................................................................................................12
M. R eg nerus, Ho w Different Are t he Adult Children o f Parent s Who Have
Same-Sex R elat io nships?, 41 So c. Sci. R esearch 752 (2012) .......................16
B.F. R iess, Psycho lo g ical Test s in Ho mo sexualit y, in Ho mo sexual Behavio r
(J . Marmo r ed., 198 0) ......................................................................................5
I . R ivers et al., V ict imiz at io n, So cial Suppo rt , and Psycho so cial Funct io ning
Amo ng Children o f Same-Sex and Oppo sit e-Sex Co uples in t he Unit ed
King do m, 44 Develo pment al Psycho l. 127 (2008 ) ........................................19
G.I . R o isman et al., Adult R o mant ic R elat io nships as Co nt ext s fo r Human
Develo pment , 44 Develo pment al Psycho l. 91 (2008 ) .....................................9
M.J . R o senfeld, No nt radit io nal Families &Childho o d P~o g ~ess Thro ug h
Scho o l, 47 Demo g raphy 755 (2010) ................................................. 16 , 17, 22
C.E. R o ss et al., The I mpact o f t he Family o n Healt h, 52 J . Marriag e & Fam.
1059 (1990) ....................................................................................................11
C.E. R o ss, R eco ncept ualiz ing Marit al St at us as a Co nt inuum o f So cial
At t achment , 57 J . Marriag e & Fam. 129 (1995) ............................................11
S. Sarant ako s, Children in Thee Co nt ext s, 21 Child. Aust ralia 23 (1996 ) .............16
XV
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R.W. Simon, Re v is it ing t h e Re l a t ions h ip s Among Ge nde r, Ma rit a l St a t u s ,
a nd Me nt a l He a l t h , 107 Am. J . Soc. 1065 (2002) .........................................11
J .Z . Smit h e t a l ., Mu l t il e v e l Mode l ing Ap p roa ch e s t o t h e St u dy of LGBT-
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A. Al l e n e ds ., 2013)
.......................................................................................15
J . St a ce y & T.J . Bibl a rz , (How) Doe s t h e Se xu a l O rie nt a t ion of Pa re nt s
Ma t t e r?, 66 Am. Soc. Re v . 159 (2001) .................................................. 18, 19
S. St a ck & J .R. Es h l e ma n, Ma rit a l St a t u s a nd Ha p p ine s s , 60 J . Ma rria g e &
Fa m. 527 (1998) .............................................................................................10
C .J . Te l ing a t or & C .J . Pa t t e rs on, C h il dre n a nd Adol e s ce nt s of Le s bia n a nd
Ga y Pa re nt s , 47 J . Am. Aca d. C h il d &Adol e s ce nt Ps ych ia t ry 1364
(2008)
.............................................................................................................18
J .L. Wa inrig h t & C .J . Pa t t e rs on, De l inqu e ncy, V ict imiz a t ion, a nd Su bs t a nce
Us e Among Adol e s ce nt s wit h Fe ma l e Sa me-Se x Pa re nt s , 20 J . Fa m.
Ps ych ol . 526 (2006) ................................................................................ 19, 20
J .L. Wa inrig h t & C .J . Pa t t e rs on, Pe e p Re l a t ions Among Adol e s ce nt s wit h
Fe ma l e Sa me-Se x Pa re nt s , 44 De v e l op me nt a l Ps ych ol . 117 (2008) ............20
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C h il d De v . 1886 (2004) .......................................................................... 18, 20
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(1991)
.............................................................................................................13
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103 Am. J . Pu b. He a l t h 339 (2013) ...............................................................10
K. Wil l ia ms , Ha s t h e Fu t u re of Ma rria g e Arriv e d?, 44 J . He a l t h Soc. Be h a y.
470 (2003) ......................................................................................................12
XV l
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IDENTITY AND INTEREST OF AMICI CURIAEI
The American P s y cho l o g ical As s o ciat io n ("AP A") is a s cient if ic and
edu cat io nal o rg aniz at io n dedicat ed t o increas ing and dis s eminat ing p s y cho l o g ical
kno wl edg e; it is t he wo rl d' s l arg es t p ro f es s io nal as s o ciat io n o f p s y cho l o g is t s . The
AP A has ado p t ed mu l t ip l e res earch- b as ed p o l icy s t at ement s s u p p o rt ing t he rig ht s
o f g ay and l es b ian p eo p l e, incl u ding a 2011 p o l icy s t at ement s u p p o rt ing f u l l
marriag e eq u al it y f o r s ame- s ex co u p l es .2
The American Academy o f P ediat rics ("AAP ") is t he l arg es t p ro f es s io nal
as s o ciat io n o f p ediat ricians in t he wo rl d. Thro u g h edu cat io n, res earch, advo cacy ,
and t he p ro vis io n o f ex p ert advice, t he AAP s eeks t he o p t imal p hy s ical , ment al ,
and s o cial heal t h and wel l - b eing f o r inf ant s , chil dren, ado l es cent s , and y o u ng
adu l t s . The AAP s u p p o rt s marriag e eq u al it y f o r al l cap ab l e and co ns ent ing
co u p l es , incl u ding t ho s e who are o f t he s ame g ender, t o g u arant ee al l l eg al rig ht s
and b enef it s f o r t heir chil dren.3
The American P s y chiat ric As s o ciat io n is t he Nat io n' s l arg es t o rg aniz at io n o f
p hy s icians s p ecial iz ing in p s y chiat ry . It j o ins t his b rief f o r t he reas o ns ex p res s ed
1 No p art y ' s co u ns el au t ho red t his b rief in who l e o r in p art , and no p art y o r p art y ' s
co u ns el no r any o t her p ers o n o t her t han Amici co nt rib u t ed mo ney t hat was
int ended t o f u nd p rep aring o r s u b mit t ing t his b rief .
2 AP A Res o l u t io n o n Marriag e Eq u al it y Fo y Same- Sex Co u p l es (2011) (denial o f
marriag e eq u al it y "p erp et u at es t he s t ig ma his t o rical l y at t ached t o ho mo s ex u al it y ,
and reinf o rces p rej u dice ag ains t l es b ian, g ay , and b is ex u al p eo p l e").
3 AAP , P o l icy St at ement , P ro mo t ing t he Wel l- Being o f Chil dren Who s e P arent s
ay e Gay o r Les b ian, 131 P ediat rics 827, 828 (2013).
Case: 14-5291 Document: 51 Filed: 06/16/2014 Page: 18
i n i t s 2005 p o s i t i o n s t a t e m e n t , Sup p o rt o f Le ga l R e c o gn i t i o n o f Sa m e- Se x C i v i l
Ma rri a ge ("In t h e i n t e re s t o f m a i n t a i n i n g a n d p ro m o t i n g m e n t a l h e a lt h , t h e
Am e ri c a n P s y c h i a t ri c As s o c i a t i o n s up p o rt s t h e le ga l re c o gn i t i o n o f s a m e- s e x
m a rri a ge w i t h a ll ri gh t s , b e n e fi t s , a n d re s p o n s i b i li t i e s c o n fe rre d b y c i v i l
m a rri a ge . ") .
Th e N a t i o n a l As s o c i a t i o n o f So c i a l Wo rke rs ("N ASW") i s t h e la rge s t
a s s o c i a t i o n o f p ro fe s s i o n a l s o c i a l w o rke rs i n t h e Un i t e d St a t e s . N ASW de v e lo p s
p o li c y s t a t e m e n t s o n i s s ue s o f i m p o rt a n c e t o t h e s o c i a l w o rk p ro fe s s i o n .
C o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h o s e s t a t e m e n t s , N ASW s up p o rt s full le ga l a c c e p t a n c e o f le s b i a n ,
ga y , a n d b i s e x ua l p e o p le , i n c ludi n g t h e i r ri gh t t o m a rry .4
Th e Ke n t uc ky P s y c h o lo gi c a l As s o c i a t i o n ("KP A") i s t h e Ke n t uc ky a ffi li a t e
o f t h e AP A; i t i s n a t i o n a lly re c o gn i z e d a s o n e o f t h e p re e m i n e n t s t a t e p s y c h o lo gi c a l
a s s o c i a t i o n s , h a v i n g w o n m a n y AP A n a t i o n a l a w a rds , i n c ludi n g a n a w a rd fo r
di v e rs i t y i n i t i a t i v e s i n 2013. KP A e n ga ge s i n t h e a dv a n c e m e n t o f t h e s c i e n c e a n d
p ro fe s s i o n o f p s y c h o lo gy fo r t h e h e a lt h a n d ge n e ra l b e n e fi t o f s o c i e t y a n d t o
p ro m o t e a p s y c h o lo gi c a lly h e a lt h y Ke n t uc ky .
4 N ASW, P o li c y St a t e m e n t : Le s b i a n , Ga y , a n d B i s e x ua l Is s ue s , i n So c i a l Wo rk
Sp e a ks 224, 225 (6t h e d. 2003) .
2
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ARGUMENT
I . The S c i en t i f i c Evi den c e Presen t ed i n Thi s B ri ef .
Thi s b ri ef p resen t s an ac c u rat e su mmary of t he c u rren t st at e of sc i en t i f i c an d
p rof essi on al kn owl edge c on c ern i n g sex u al ori en t at i on an d f ami l i es rel evan t t o t hi s
c ase. Ami c i have made a good f ai t h ef f ort t o t ake i n t o ac c ou n t t he f i n di n gs of al l
val i d, p u b l i shed st u di es i n t hi s area.
Ami c i rel y on t he b est emp i ri c al researc h avai l ab l e. B ef ore c i t i n g a st u dy,
Ami c i have c ri t i c al l y eval u at ed i t s met hodol ogy, i n c l u di n g t he rel i ab i l i t y an d
val i di t y of t he measu res an d t est s i t emp l oyed, an d t he q u al i t y of i t s dat a- c ol l ec t i on
p roc edu res an d st at i st i c al an al yses.
S c i en t i f i c researc h i s a c u mu l at i ve p roc ess, an d n o emp i ri c al st u dy i s p erf ec t
i n i t s desi gn an d ex ec u t i on . Ac c ordi n gl y, Ami c i b ase t hei r c on c l u si on s as mu c h as
p ossi b l e on f i n di n gs t hat have b een rep l i c at ed ac ross st u di es rat her t han on t he
f i n di n gs of an y si n gl e st u dy.
Even wel l- ex ec u t ed st u di es may b e l i mi t ed i n t hei r i mp l i c at i on s an d
gen eral i z ab i l i t y. Man y st u di es c i t ed herei n di sc u ss t hei r own l i mi t at i on s an d
p rovi de su ggest i on s f or f u rt her researc h. Thi s i s c on si st en t wi t h t he sc i en t i f i c
met hod an d does n ot i mp eac h t hese st u di es' overal l c on c l u si on s.
Most of t he emp i ri c al st u di es an d l i t erat u re revi ews c i t ed herei n have b een
p u b l i shed i n rep u t ab l e, p eer- revi ewed ac ademi c j ou rn al s. S ome ac ademi c b ooks,
3
Case: 14-5291 Document: 51 Filed: 06/16/2014 Page: 20
book c h a p t e r s , a nd t e c h ni c a l r e p or t s , wh i c h t y p i c a l l y a r e not s u bj e c t t o t h e s a me
p e e r- r e v i e w s t a nda r ds a s j ou r na l a r t i c l e s , ma y a l s o be c i t e d, p r ov i de d t h a t t h e y
r e p or t r e s e a r c h e mp l oy i ng r i gor ou s me t h ods , a r e a u t h or e d by e s t a bl i s h e d
r e s e a r c h e r s , a nd a c c u r a t e l y r e f l e c t p r of e s s i ona l c ons e ns u s a bou t t h e c u r r e nt s t a t e of
knowl e dge .
I I . Homos e xu a l i t y I s A Nor ma l Exp r e s s i on of Hu ma n S e xu a l i t y , I s
Ge ne r a l l y Not Ch os e n, a nd I s Hi gh l y Re s i s t a nt t o Ch a nge .
S e xu a l or i e nt a t i on r e f e r s t o a n e ndu r i ng di s p os i t i on t o e xp e r i e nc e s e xu a l ,
a f f e c t i ona l , or r oma nt i c a t t r a c t i ons t o ma l e s , f e ma l e s , or bot h . I t a l s o e nc omp a s s e s
a n i ndi v i du a l ' s s e ns e of p e r s ona l a nd s oc i a l i de nt i t y ba s e d on t h os e a t t r a c t i ons ,
be h a v i or s e xp r e s s i ng t h e m, a nd me mbe r s h i p i n a c ommu ni t y of ot h e r s wh o s h a r e
t h e m.5 Al t h ou gh s e xu a l or i e nt a t i on r a nge s a l ong a c ont i nu u m f r om e xc l u s i v e l y
h e t e r os e xu a l t o e xc l u s i v e l y h omos e xu a l , i t i s u s u a l l y di s c u s s e d i n t e r ms of t h r e e
c a t e gor i e s : h e t e r os e xu a l (h a v i ng s e xu a l a nd r oma nt i c a t t r a c t i on p r i ma r i l y or
e xc l u s i v e l y t o me mbe r s of t h e ot h e r s e x) , h omos e xu a l (h a v i ng s e xu a l a nd r oma nt i c
a t t r a c t i on p r i ma r i l y or e xc l u s i v e l y t o me mbe r s of one ' s own s e x) , a nd bi s e xu a l
(h a v i ng a s i gni f i c a nt de gr e e of s e xu a l a nd r oma nt i c a t t r a c t i on t o bot h s e xe s ) .
5 S e e Na t ' 1 Ac a de my of S c i e nc e s ' I ns t i t u t e of Me di c i ne , Re p ot : Th e He a l t h of
Le s bi a n, Ga y , B i s e xu a l , a nd Tr a ns ge nde r Pe op l e (201 1 ) ; A.R. D ' Au ge l l i , S e xu a l
O r i e nt a t i on, i n 7 Enc y c l op e di a of Ps y c h ol ogy 260 (A.E. Ka zdi n e d., 2000) ; G.M.
He r e k, Homos e xu a l i t y , i n 2 Cor s i ni Enc y c l op e di a of Ps y c h ol ogy 774- 76 (I .B .
We i ne r & W.E. Cr a i gh e a d e ds ., 4t h e d. 201 0) .
Case: 14-5291 Document: 51 Filed: 06/16/2014 Page: 21
When the American P s y chiatric As s ociation publis hed the f irs t Diagnos tic
and S tatis tical Manual of Mental Dis o~de~s ("DS M") in 1952, homos exuality was
lis ted as a mental dis order. However, this clas s if ication ref lected s ocial s tigma
rather than empirical res earch f indings . Recognizing the lack of s cientif ic
evidence f or this clas s if ication,6 the American P s y chiatric As s ociation removed
homos exuality f rom the DS M in 1973, s tating that "homos exuality per s e implies
no impairment in judgment, s tability , reliability , or general s ocial or vocational
capabilities . "~ In 1975, the AP A adopted a policy ref lecting the s ame conclus ion.$
For decades , the cons ens us of mains tream mental health prof es s ionals and
res earchers has been that homos exuality and bis exuality are normal expres s ions of
human s exuality ; that they pos e no inherent obs tacle to leading a happy , healthy ,
and productive lif e; and that gay and les bian people f unction well in the f ull array
of s ocial ins titutions and interpers onal relations hips .
Mos t gay men and les bians do not experience their s exual orientation as a
voluntary choice. In a U. S . national probability (i. e. , "repres entative") s ample of
6 S ee, e. g. , E. Hooker, The Adjus tment of the Male Overt Homos exual, 21 J .
P rojective Techniques 17 (1957); B. F. Ries s , P s y chological Tes ts in
Homos exuality , in Homos exual Behavior 296 (J . Marmor ed. , 1980); C. Gons iorek,
The Empirical Bas is f or the Demis e of the Illnes s Model of Homos exuality , in
Homos exuality 115 (J . C. Gons iorek & J . D. Weinrich eds . , 1991).
~ Am. P s y chiatric As s n, P os ition S tatement: Homos exuality and Civil Rights
(1973), in 131 Am. J . P s y chiatry 497 (1974).
g AP A, Minutes of the Annual Meeting of the Council of Repres entatives , 30 Am.
P s y chologis t 620, 633 (1975).
5
Case: 14-5291 Document: 51 Filed: 06/16/2014 Page: 22
662 s e l f- i d e n t i f i e d l e s b i a n , ga y, a n d b i s e x u a l a d u l t s , 88% of ga y me n a n d 68% of
l e s b i a n s r e p or t e d f e e l i n g t he y ha d n o choi ce a t a l l a b ou t t he i r s e x u a l or i e n t a t i on ,
whi l e on l y 5% of ga y me n a n d 16% of l e s b i a n s f e l t t he y ha d a f a i r a mou n t or a
gr e a t d e a l of choi ce .9
Al t hou gh s ome gr ou p s a n d i n d i v i d u a l s ha v e of f e r e d cl i n i ca l i n t e r v e n t i on s
t ha t p u r p or t t o cha n ge s e x u a l or i e n t a t i on f r om homos e x u a l t o he t e r os e x u a l —
s ome t i me s ca l l e d "con v e r s i on " t he r a p i e s —t he s e i n t e r v e n t i on s ha v e n ot b e e n
s hown t o b e e f f e ct i v e or s a f e . A r e v i e w of t he s ci e n t i f i c l i t e r a t u r e b y a n APA t a s k
f or ce con cl u d e d t ha t s e x u a l or i e n t a t i on cha n ge e f f or t s a r e u n l i k e l y t o s u cce e d a n d
ca n b e ha r mf u l .
I o
Al l ma jor n a t i on a l me n t a l he a l t h or ga n i za t i on s —i n cl u d i n g Ami ci —ha v e
a d op t e d p ol i cy s t a t e me n t s ca u t i on i n g t he p r of e s s i on a n d t he p u b l i c a b ou t
t r e a t me n t s t ha t p u r p or t t o cha n ge s e x u a l
or i e n t a t i on .l I
9 G. He r e k e t a l ., De mogr a p hi c, Ps ychol ogi ca l , a n d Soci a l C ha ~ a ct e N i s t i cs of Se l f-
I d e n t i f i e d Le s b i a n , Ga y, a n d Bi s e x u a l Ad u l t s i n a U .S. Pr ob a b i l i t y Sa mp l e , 7
Se x u a l i t y Re s . & Soc. Pol i cy 176 (2010); s e e a l s o G. He r e k e t a l ., I n t e r n a l i ze d
St i gma Amon g Se x u a l Mi n or i t y Ad u l t s , 56 J . C ou n s e l i n g Ps ychol . 32 (2009).
C omp a r a b l e d a t a f or he t e r os e x u a l s ' p e r ce p t i on s of t he i r own s e x u a l or i e n t a t i on a r e
n ot a v a i l a b l e .
t o
APA, Re p ot of t he Ame r i ca n Ps ychol ogi ca l As s oci a t i on Ta s k For ce on
Ap p ~ op ~ i a t e The r a p e u t i c Re s p on s e s t o Se x u a l O r i e n t a t i on (2009); s e e a l s o APA,
Re s ol u t i on on Ap p ~ op ~ i a t e Af f i r ma t i v e Re s p on s e s t o Se x u a l O r i e n t a t i on Di s t r e s s
a n d C ha n ge E f f or t s (2009).
11
Se e APA Re s ol u t i on on Ma r r i a ge E q u a l i t y, s u p r a n ot e 2; Am. Ps ychi a t r i c As s n ,
Pos i t i on St a t e me n t : Ps ychi a t r i c Tr e a t me n t a n d Se x u a l O r i e n t a t i on (1998); Am.
As s n f or Ma r r i a ge & Fa m. The r a p y, Re p a r a t i v e /C on v e r s i on The r a p y (2009); Am.
D
Case: 14-5291 Document: 51 Filed: 06/16/2014 Page: 23
I I I . Sexual Orientation and R elations h ip s .
Sexual orientation is commonly dis cus s ed as a ch aracteris tic of indiv iduals ,
lik e b iolog ical s ex or ag e. Th is p ers p ectiv e is incomp lete b ecaus e s exual
orientation neces s arily inv olv es relations h ip s w ith oth er p eop le. Sexual acts and
romantic attractions are categ oriz ed as h omos exual or h eteros exual according to
th e b iolog ical s ex of th e indiv iduals inv olv ed, relativ e to each oth er. I ndeed, it is
only b y acting w ith anoth er p ers on—or des iring to act—th at indiv iduals exp res s
th eir h eteros exuality, h omos exuality, or b is exuality. Th us , s exual orientation is
integ rally link ed to th e intimate p ers onal relations h ip s th at h uman b eing s form w ith
oth ers to meet th eir deep ly felt needs for lov e, attach ment, and intimacy. I t defines
th e univ ers e of p ers ons w ith w h om one is lik ely to find th e s atis fying and fulfilling
relations h ip s th at, for many indiv iduals , comp ris e an es s ential comp onent of
p ers onal identity.
Med. As s n, P olicy H-160. 991, Health Care Needs of th e Homos exual P op ulation;
Nat' l As s n of Soc. Work ers , P os ition Statement: " R ep arativ e " and " Conv ers ion "
Th erap ies foN Les b ians and Gay Men (2000); Am. P s ych oanalytic As s n, P os ition
Statement: Attemp ts to Ch ang e Sexual Orientation, Gender I dentity, or Gender
Exp res s ion (2012); s ee als o B. L. Frank ow s k i, Sexual Orientation and Adoles cents ,
113 P ediatrics 1827 (2004).
7
Case: 14-5291 Document: 51 Filed: 06/16/2014 Page: 24
A. Gay Men and Lesbians Form S t abl e, Commit t ed R el at ionsh ip s
Th at Are Equival ent t o Het erosexual R el at ionsh ip s in Essent ial
R esp ect s.
Most gay men and l esbians want t o form st abl e, l ong- l ast ing rel at ionsh ip s.
12
Many of t h em do so. According t o 2010 Census dat a, same- sex coup l es h eaded
more t h an 600, 000 U.S . h ouseh ol ds, incl uding over 32, 000 h ouseh ol ds in
Mich igan, Kent ucky and Tennessee.13 Dat a from nat ional p robabil it y samp l es
indicat e t h at more t h an t wo t h irds of l esbians and ap p roximat el y 40% of gay men
are current l y in commit t ed rel at ionsh ip s.14 Numerous st udies using nonp robabil it y
samp l es of gay men and l esbians h ave found t h at t h e vast maj orit y of p art icip ant s
h ave been in a commit t ed rel at ionsh ip at some p oint in t h eir l ives, and t h at many
exist ing coup l es h ave been t oget h er 10 or more years.
l s
12
For examp l e, in a 2013 nat ional p robabil it y samp l e of l esbian, gay, and bisexual
adul t s, 60% were current l y married or said t h ey woul d l ike t o get married. Pew
R esearch Cent er, S uy- vey of LGBT Americans (2013). In an earl ier nat ional survey,
78% of gay men and 87% of l esbians wh o were current l y in a rel at ionsh ip said
t h ey woul d marry t h eir p art ner if it were l egal . Herek et al ., Demograp h ic, sup ra
not e 9.
13
2010 Census and 2010 American Communit y S urvey, S ame- S ex Unmarried
Part ner or S p ouse Househ ol ds by S ex of Househ ol der by Presence of Own
Ch il dren; G.J . Gat es, LGBT Parent ing in t h e Unit ed S t at es, Th e Wil l iams Inst it ut e,
at 2 (2013 ).
14
Herek et al ., Demograp h ic, sup ra not e 9; Pew R esearch Cent er, sup ra not e 12.
is
S ee L.A. Pep l au & A.W. Fingerh ut , S ame- S ex R omant ic R el at ionsh ip s, in
Handbook of Psych ol ogy and S exual Orient at ion 165- 178 (C.J . Pat t erson & A.R .
D'Augel l i eds., 2013); L.A. Pep l au & A.W. Fingerh ut , Th e Cl ose R el at ionsh ip s of
Lesbians and Gay Men, 58 Ann. R ev. Psych ol . 405 (2007); L.A. Pep l au & N.
Gh avami, Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual R el at ionsh ip s, in Encycl op edia of Human
R el at ionsh ip s (H.T. R eis & S . S p rech er eds., 2009).
Case: 14-5291 Document: 51 Filed: 06/16/2014 Page: 25
Empirical re s e arch de mons trate s th at th e ps ych ological and s ocial
dime ns ions of committe d re lations h ips be twe e n s ame-s e x partne rs large ly
re s e mble th os e of h e te ros e xu al partne rs h ips . Same-s e x cou ple s form de e p
e motional attach me nts and commitme nts , with le v e ls of re lations h ip s atis faction
s imilar to or h igh e r th an th os e of h e te ros e xu al cou ple s .1 6 Th e y als o go th rou gh
s imilar proce s s e s to addre s s conce rns abou t intimacy, lov e , e q u ity, and oth e r
re lations h ip is s u e s . "
B. Th e I ns titu tion of Marriage Offe rs Social, Ps ych ological, and
He alth Be ne fits Th at Are De nie d to Same-Se x Cou ple s Wh o
Cannot Le gally Marry.
Marriage h as a profou nd e ffe ct on th e liv e s of marrie d indiv idu als .
Sociologis ts h av e obs e rv e d th at marriage cre ate s orde r in pe ople s ' liv e s '$ and
1 6
K. F. Bals am e t al. , Th e e-Ye as Follow-Up of Same-Se x Cou ple s Wh o Had Civ il
Unions in Ve rmont, Same-Se x Cou ple s Not in Civ il Unions , and He te ros e xu al
Marrie d Cou ple s , 44 De v e lopme ntal Ps ych ol. 1 02 (2008); L. A. Ku rde k, Ch ange in
Re lations h ip Qu ality for Partne rs from Le s bian, Gay Male , and He te ros e xu al
Cou ple s , 22 J . Fam. Ps ych ol. 701 (2008); L. A. Pe plau & K. P. Be als , Th e Family
Liv e s of Le s bians and Gay Me n, in Handbook of Family Commu nication 233, 236
(A. L. Vange lis ti e d. , 2004).
1 7 Ku rde k, Ch ange in Re lations h ip Qu ality, s u pra note 1 6 ; L. A. Ku rde k, Are Gay
and Le s bian Coh abiting Cou ple s
Re ally Diffe re nt from He te ros e xu al Ma~~ie d
Cou ple s ?, 6 6 J . Marriage & Fam. 880 (2004); G. I . Rois man e t al. , Adu lt Romantic
Re lations h ips as Conte xts fog Hu man De v e lopme nt, 44 De v e lopme ntal Ps ych ol. 91
(2008); s e e ge ne rally L. A. Ku rde k, Wh at Do We Know Abou t Gay and Le s bian
Cou ple s ?, 1 4 Cu rre nt Dire ctions in Ps ych ol. Sci. 251 (2005); Pe plau & Finge rh u t
(2007), s u pra note 1 5; Pe plau & Gh av ami, s u pra note 1 5.
1 8 P. Be rge r & H. Ke llne r, Marriage and th e Cons tru ction of Re ality, 46 Dioge ne s
1 (1 96 4).
D
Case: 14-5291 Document: 51 Filed: 06/16/2014 Page: 26
"provides a st ron g posit ive sen se of iden t it y , sel f- w ort h , an d mast ery ."1 9 Empirical
research demon st rat es t h at marriag e h as dist in ct b en efit s t h at ext en d b ey on d t h e
mat erial n ecessit ies of l ife.2 0 Th ese in t an g ib l e b en efit s h ave import an t impl icat ion s
for t h e ph y sical an d psy ch ol og ical h eal t h of married in dividu al s an d for t h e
rel at ion sh ip it sel f.
Becau se marriag e rig h t s h ave b een g ran t ed t o same- sex cou pl es on l y
recen t l y , l it t l e empirical research h as b een pu b l ish ed t h at compares married same-
sex cou pl es t o u n married same- sex cou pl es or t h ose in civil u n ion s.2 1 Based on
t h eir scien t ific an d cl in ical expert ise, Amici b el ieve it is appropriat e t o ext rapol at e
1 9 W.R. Gove et al ., Th e Effect of Marriag e on t h e Wel l- Bein g of Adu l t s, 1 1 J . Fam.
Issu es 4, 1 6 (1 9 9 0 ); see al so E. Du rkh eim, Su icide 2 59 (J .A. Spau l din g & G.
Simpson t ran s., 1 9 51 ) (1 89 7).
2 0 See S. St ack & J .R. Esh l eman , Marit al St at u s an d Happin ess, 60 J . Marriag e &
Fam. 52 7 (1 9 9 8); R.P.D. Bu rt on , Gl ob al In t eg rat ive Mean in g as a Mediat in g
Fact or In t h e Rel at ion sh ip Bet w een Social Rol es an d Psy ch ol og ical Dist ress, 39 J .
Heal t h & Soc. Beh ay . 2 0 1 (1 9 9 8); S.L. Nock, A Comparison of Marriag es an d
Coh ab it in g Rel at ion sh ips, 1 6 J . Fam. Issu es 53, 53 (1 9 9 5); Gove (1 9 9 0 ), su pra
n ot e 1 9 , at 5.
2 1
See R.G. Wig h t et al ., Same- Sex Leg al Ma~~iag e an d Psy ch ol og ical Wel l- Bein g ,
1 0 3 Am. J . Pu b . Heal t h 339 , 343 (2 0 1 3) (fin din g b ased on comparison of g ay ,
l esb ian , an d b isexu al Cal iforn ian s w h o w ere l eg al l y married t o t h ose in domest ic
part n ersh ips or n ot in a l en g t h y recog n ized rel at ion sh ip t h at "t h ere mig h t b e a
u n iqu e posit ive men t al h eal t h associat ion specifical l y con ferred b y l eg al marriag e,
part icu l arl y compared w it h n ot b ein g in an y t y pe of l eg al l y recog n ized rel at ion sh ip
at al l .").
1 0
Case: 14-5291 Document: 51 Filed: 06/16/2014 Page: 27
from t h e e mp i ri c a l re s e a rc h l i t e ra t u re for h e t e ros e x u a l c ou p l e s —wi t h q u a l i fi c a t i on s
a s n e c e s s a ry—t o a n t i c i p a t e t h e l i k e l y e ffe c t s of ma rri a g e for s a me- s e x c ou p l e s .
22
Th i s re s e a rc h s h ows t h a t ma rri e d h e t e ros e x u a l me n a n d wome n g e n e ra l l y
e x p e ri e n c e b e t t e r p h ys i c a l a n d me n t a l h e a l t h t h a n t h e i r u n ma rri e d c ou n t e rp a rt s .
23
Th e s e h e a l t h b e n e fi t s d o n ot a p p e a r t o re s u l t s i mp l y from b e i n g i n a n i n t i ma t e
re l a t i on s h i p ; mos t s t u d i e s h a ve fou n d t h a t ma rri e d h e t e ros e x u a l i n d i vi d u a l s
g e n e ra l l y ma n i fe s t g re a t e r we l l - b e i n g t h a n me mb e rs of c omp a ra b l e c oh a b i t i n g
c ou p l e s .24 Of c ou rs e , ma ri t a l s t a t u s a l on e d oe s n ot g u a ra n t e e b e t t e r h e a l t h or
g re a t e r h a p p i n e s s . Un h a p p i l y ma rri e d p e op l e oft e n h a ve l owe r l e ve l s of we l l - b e i n g
t h a n t h e u n ma rri e d , a n d ma ri t a l d i s c ord a n d d i s s a t i s fa c t i on a re oft e n a s s oc i a t e d
22
Comp a ri s on s b e t we e n ma rri e d a n d u n ma rri e d h e t e ros e x u a l c ou p l e s a re
c omp l i c a t e d b y t h e p os s i b i l i t y t h a t ob s e rve d d i ffe re n c e s mi g h t b e d u e t o s e l f-
s e l e c t i on ( i . e . , p e op l e wh o c h oos e t o ma rry ma y d i ffe r a p ri ori from t h os e wh o d o
n ot ) . R e s e a rc h e rs h a ve c on c l u d e d , h owe ve r, t h a t b e n e fi t s a s s oc i a t e d wi t h ma rri a g e
re s u l t l a rg e l y from t h e i n s t i t u t i on i t s e l f ra t h e r t h a n s e l f- s e l e c t i on . Se e , e . g . , Gove
( 1990) , s u p ra n ot e 19, a t 10; J . E . Mu rra y, Ma ri t a l P rot e c t i on a n d Ma ri t a l
Se l e c t i on , 37 De mog ra p h y 511 ( 2000) . I t i s re a s on a b l e t o e x p e c t t h a t s a me- s e x
c ou p l e s wh o c h oos e t o ma rry wi l l , l i k e t h e i r h e t e ros e x u a l c ou n t e rp a rt s , b e n e fi t
from t h e i n s t i t u t i on of ma rri a g e i t s e l f.
23
Se e N . J . J oh n s on e t a l . , Ma ri t a l St a t u s a n d Mort a l i t y, 10 An n a l s E p i d e mi ol og y
224 ( 2000) ; C. E . R os s e t a l . , Th e I mp a c t of t h e Fa mi l y on He a l t h , 52 J . Ma rri a g e &
Fa m. 1059 ( 1990) ; R . W. Si mon , R e vi s i t i n g t h e R e l a t i on s h i p s Amon g Ge n d e r,
Ma ri t a l St a t u s , a n d Me n t a l He a l t h , 107 Am. J . Soc . 1065 ( 2002) .
24
Se e Gove ( 1990) , s u p ra n ot e 19; S. L . Brown , Th e E ffe c t of Un i on Typ e on
P s yc h ol og i c a l We l l- Be i n g , 41 J . He a l t h & Soc . Be h a y. 241 ( 2000) . Bu t s e e C. E .
R os s , R e c on c e p t u a l i zi n g Ma ri t a l St a t u s a s a Con t i n u u m of Soc i a l At t a c h me n t , 57 J .
Ma rri a g e & Fa m. 129 ( 1995) ( fa i l i n g t o d e t e c t s i g n i fi c a n t d i ffe re n c e s i n d e p re s s i on
b e t we e n ma rri e d a n d c omp a ra b l e c oh a b i t i n g h e t e ros e x u a l c ou p l e s ) .
11
Case: 14-5291 Document: 51 Filed: 06/16/2014 Page: 28
with n e g a tiv e he a l th e f f e c ts .2 5 N e v e r the l e s s , s a tis f ie d ma r r ie d c oupl e s c on s is te n tl y
ma n if e s t hig he r l e v e l s of ha ppin e s s , ps y c hol og ic a l we l l - b e in g , a n d phy s ic a l he a l th
tha n the un ma r r ie d .
Be in g ma r r ie d is a l s o a s our c e of s ta b il ity a n d c ommitme n t. M a r ita l
c ommitme n t is a f un c tion n ot on l y of r e wa r d in g f e a tur e s of the r e l a tion s hip, b ut
a l s o of c on s tr a in ts on d is s ol v in g the r e l a tion s hip ( e . g . , f e e l in g s of f a mil y
ob l ig a tion ; mor a l a n d r e l ig ious v a l ue s ; l e g a l r e s tr ic tion s ; f in a n c ia l c on c e r n s ; a n d
a n tic ipa te d d is a ppr ov a l of othe r s ) .2 6 The e x is te n c e of s uc h b a r r ie r s a l on e is n ot
s uf f ic ie n t to s us ta in a ma r r ia g e in the l on g te r m, a n d pe r c e iv in g on e 's in tima te
r e l a tion s hip pr ima r il y in te r ms of r e wa r d s , r a the r tha n b a r r ie r s to d is s ol ution , is
l ik e l y to b e a s s oc ia te d with g r e a te r r e l a tion s hip s a tis f a c tion .2 7 N on e the l e s s ,
pe r c e iv e d b a r r ie r s a r e n e g a tiv e l y c or r e l a te d with d iv or c e ; thus , the ir pr e s e n c e ma y
Z S
S e e W. R. Gov e e t a l . , Doe s M a ~~ia g e Ha v e P os itiv e E f f e c ts on the P s y c hol og ic a l
We l l- Be in g of the I n d iv id ua l ? , 2 4 J . He a l th & S oc . Be ha y . 12 2 ( 1983) ; K.
Wil l ia ms , Ha s the Futur e of M a ~~ia g e Ar r iv e d ? , 44 J . He a l th S oc . Be ha y . 47 0
( 2 003) ; J . K. Kie c ol t- Gl a s e r & T. L. N e wton , M a r r ia g e a n d He a l th, 12 7 P s y c hol .
Bul l . 47 2 ( 2 001) .
2 6
S e e G. Le v in g e r , M a r ita l Cohe s iv e n e s s a n d Dis s ol ution , 2 7 J . M a r r ia g e & Fa m.
19 ( 196 5 ) ; J . M . Ad a ms & W. H. J on e s , The Con c e ptua l iz a tion of M a r ita l
Commitme n t, 7 2 J . P e r s on a l ity & S oc . P s y c hol . 117 7 ( 1997 ) .
2 7 S e e , e . g . , D. P r e v iti & P . R. Ama to, Why S ta y M a ~~ie d ? , 6 5 J . M a r r ia g e & Fa m.
5 6 1 ( 2 003) .
12
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i n c r e a s e p a r t n e r s ' m o t i v a t i o n t o s e e k s o l u t i o n s f o r p r o bl e m s r a t h e r t h a n d i s s o l v i n g
t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p .28
Fo r s a m e- s e x c o u p l e s l a c ki n g a c c e s s t o l e g a l m a r r i a g e , t h e p r i m a r y
m o t i v a t i o n t o r e m a i n t o g e t h e r d e r i v e s f r o m t h e r e wa r d s a s s o c i a t e d wi t h t h e
r e l a t i o n s h i p r a t h e r t h a n f o r m a l ba r r i e r s t o s e p a r a t i o n .29 Gi v e n t h i s f a c t , a n d t h e
l e g a l a n d p r e j u d i c i a l o bs t a c l e s t h a t s a m e- s e x p a r t n e r s f a c e , t h e p r e v a l e n c e a n d
d u r a bi l i t y o f s a m e- s e x r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e s t r i ki n g .
IV. Th e Ch i l d r e n o f Sa m e- Se x Co u p l e s .
A. Ma n y Sa m e- Se x Co u p l e s Ra i s e Ch i l d r e n .
Th e 2010 Ce n s u s r e c o r d e d 111, 033 h o u s e h o l d s h e a d e d by s a m e- s e x p a r t n e r s
wi t h c h i l d r e n u n d e r a g e 18; a p p r o x i m a t e l y 5, 946 o f t h e s e h o u s e h o l d s we r e i n
Mi c h i g a n , Ke n t u c ky a n d Te n n e s s e e .30 Th e s e f i g u r e s a r e wi d e l y a s s u m e d t o
u n d e r e s t i m a t e t h e a c t u a l n u m be r o f s a m e- s e x c o u p l e s wh o a r e r a i s i n g c h i l d r e n .31
28 Se e T. B. He a t o n & S. L . Al br e c h t , St a bl e Un h a p p y Ma r r i a g e s , 53 J . Ma r r i a g e &
Fa m . 747 (1991); L . K. Wh i t e & A. Bo o t h , Di v o r c e Ov e r t h e L i f e Co u r s e , 12 J .
Fa m . Is s u e s 5 (1991).
29
L . A. Ku r d e k, Re l a t i o n s h i p Ou t c o m e s a n d Th e i r P r e d i c t o r s , 60 J . Ma r r i a g e &
Fa m . 553 (1998).
30 2010 Ce n s u s Su r v e y, s u p r a n o t e 13.
31
Th i s i s be c a u s e t h e Ce n s u s d o e s n o t d i r e c t l y a s s e s s p a r t i c i p a n t s ' s e x u a l
o r i e n t a t i o n ; i t r e f l e c t s o n l y h o u s e h o l d s h e a d e d by c o h a bi t i n g s a m e- s e x p a r t n e r s
wh o v o l u n t a r i l y r e p o r t e d t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s t a t u s .
13
Case: 14-5291 Document: 51 Filed: 06/16/2014 Page: 30
B. The Factors That A f f ect the A djustment of Children A re Not
Dependent on Parental Gender or Sexual O rientation.
Hundreds of studies over the past 30 y ears have elucidated the f actors that
are associated w ith healthy adjustment among children and adolescents— i.e., the
inf luences that allow children and adolescents to f unction w ell in their daily lives.
A s one noted authority in developmental psy chology explained, based on the
accumulated empirical evidence:
Many studies have show n that adjustment is largely
af f ected by dif f erences in the q uality of parenting and
parent- child relationships, the q uality of the relationships
betw een the parents, and the richness of the economic
and social resources available to the f amily .
Dimensions of f amily structure — including such f actors
as divorce, single parenthood, and the parents' sexual
orientation — and biological relatedness betw een parents
and children are of little or no predictive importance once
the process variables are tak en into account, because the
same f actors explain child adjustment regardless of
f amily structure.
32
(1) The q ualities of parent- child relationships
Research show s that children' s adjustment is af f ected by the q uality of a
parent- child relationship— including attributes lik e parental w armth, consistency ,
32
M.E. Lamb, Mothers, Fathers, Families, and Circumstances, 16 A pplied
Developmental Sci. 98- 111 (2012); see also S. Golombok , Parenting (2002); M.E.
Lamb & C. Lew is, The Role of Parent- Child Relationships in Child Development,
in Developmental Science 429- 68 (M.H. Bornstein & M.E. Lamb eds., 5 th ed.
2005 ); C.J . Patterson, & P.D. Hastings, Socializ ation in the Context of Family
Diversity , in Handbook of Socializ ation 328- 5 1 (J .E. Grusec & P.D. Hastings eds.,
2007).
14
Case: 14-5291 Document: 51 Filed: 06/16/2014 Page: 31
and s t ab i l i t y . C h i l dr e n wh os e p ar e nt s p r ov i de t h e m wi t h l ov i ng g ui dance i n t h e
cont e x t of s e cur e h ome e nv i r onme nt s ar e l i k e l y t o s h ow mor e p os i t i v e adj us t me nt ,
r e g ar dl e s s of t h e i r p ar e nt s ' s e x ual or i e nt at i on.
33
(2) Th e q ual i t i e s of r e l at i ons h i p s b e t we e n s i g ni fi cant adul t s i n ch i l dr e n' s
l i v e s
A ddi t i onal l y , ch i l dr e n ar e mor e l i k e l y t o s h ow p os i t i v e adj us t me nt wh e n
p ar e nt al r e l at i ons h i p s ar e ch ar act e r i z e d b y l ov e , war mt h , coop e r at i on, s e cur i t y , and
mut ual s up p or t . In cont r as t , wh e n p ar e nt al r e l at i ons h i p s ar e confl i ct- r i dde n and
acr i moni ous , adj us t me nt t e nds t o b e l e s s fav or ab l e . Fami l y i ns t ab i l i t y , h ous e h ol d
di s r up t i on, and p ar e nt al di v or ce ar e oft e n as s oci at e d wi t h p oor e r adj us t me nt and
p r ob l e ms t h at can l as t i nt o adul t h ood.34 Th e s e p at t e r ns ar e ob s e r v e d, r e g ar dl e s s of
wh e t h e r ch i l dr e n ar e r e ar e d b y s ame- s e x coup l e s or h e t e r os e x ual coup l e s .
3s
33
Lamb &Le wi s , s up r a not e 32; P at t e r s on &Has t i ng s , s up r a not e 32; J . Z . Smi t h
e t al . , M ul t i l e v e l M ode l i ng A p p r oach e s t o t h e St udy of LGBT P ar e nt- Fami l i e s , i n
LGBT- P ar e nt Fami l i e s 307- 323 (A . E. Gol db e r g & K. A . A l l e n e ds . , 2013)
(q ual i t i e s s uch as p ar e nt al war mt h , p ar e nt s ' i nt i mat e r e l at i ons h i p q ual i t y , and
p ar e nt al we l l - b e i ng mat t e r mor e t o ch i l dr e n' s adj us t me nt t h an s e x ual or i e nt at i on).
34
Se e , e . g . , P . R. A mat o, C h i l dr e n of Di v or ce i n t h e 1990s , 15 J . Fam. P s y ch ol . 355
(2001).
35 Th e Fami l y C ont e x t of P ar e nt i ng i n C h i l dr e n' s A dap t at i on t o El e me nt ar y Sch ool
(P . A . C owan e t al . e ds . , 2005); R. W. C h an e t al . , P s y ch os oci al A dj us t me nt A mong
C h i l dr e n C once i v e d V i a Donor Ins e mi nat i on By Le s b i an and He t e r os e x ual
M ot h e r s , 69 C h i l d De v . 443 (1998); E. M . C ummi ng s e t al . , C h i l dr e n' s Re s p ons e s
t o Ev e r y day M ar i t al C onfl i ct Tact i cs i n t h e Home , 74 C h i l d De v . 1918 (2003);
E. M . C ummi ng s e t al . , Ev e r y day M ar i t al C onfl i ct and C h i l d A g g r e s s i on, 32 J .
A b nor mal C h i l d P s y ch ol . 191 (2004); Gol omb ok (2002), s up r a not e 32; D. P ot t e r ,
Same- Se x P ar e nt Fami l i e s and C h i l dr e n' s A cade mi c A ch i e v e me nt , 74 J . M ar r i ag e
15
Case: 14-5291 Document: 51 Filed: 06/16/2014 Page: 32
Consequently, r esea r c h er s must ta k e c a r e to a void c onf la ting th e neg a tive
c onsequenc es of ex p er ienc ing divor c e or h ouseh old insta b ility with th e
c onsequenc es of simp ly h a ving a g a y or lesb ia n p a r ent.
3 6
(3 ) Th e a va ila b ility of ec onomic a nd oth er r esour c es
Ch ildr en with suf f ic ient ec onomic r esour c es a r e lik ely to live in sa f er
neig h b or h oods, b r ea th e c lea ner a ir , a nd ea t mor e nutr itious f ood. Th ey a r e a lso
mor e lik ely to h a ve op p or tunities to p a r tic ip a te in p ositive a f ter- sc h ool a c tivities,
a nd h a ve soc ia l a nd emotiona l r esour c es f r om tea mma tes, c oa c h es, youth lea der s,
a nd oth er s. To th e ex tent th a t c h ildr en h a ve a c c ess to th ese r esour c es, th ey a r e
& Fa m. 556 (2012); M. J. Rosenf eld, N ontr a ditiona l Fa milies &Ch ildh ood
Pr og r ess Th r oug h Sc h ool, 47 Demog r a p h y, 755 (2010).
Alth oug h r esea r c h c onduc ted with c h ildr en r ea r ed b y h eter osex ua l p a r ents
indic a tes th a t th ey f a r e b etter with two p a r enting f ig ur es th a n with one, see, e. g . , S.
Mc La na h a n & G. Sa ndef ur , Gr owing Up With a Sing le Pa r ent 3 9 (1994),
c omp a r a b le studies of c h ildr en r ea r ed b y sa me- sex c oup les ver sus th ose r a ised b y
a sing le lesb ia n, g a y, or b isex ua l p a r ents h a ve not a p p ea r ed in th e r esea r c h
liter a tur e.
3 6
Sever a l studies th a t p ur p or t to identif y dif f er enc es in th e a djustment of c h ildr en
of h eter osex ua l ver sus sa me- sex c oup les ex h ib it th is f la w. See, e. g . , S. Sa r a nta k os,
Ch ildr en in Th r ee Contex ts, 21 Ch ild. Austr a lia 23 (1996 ) (in a study of Austr a lia n
c h ildr en, c onf la ting ef f ec ts of p a r enta l divor c e a nd soc ia l stig ma with th e ef f ec ts of
p a r enta l sex ua l or ienta tion); M. Reg ner us, How Dif f er ent Aye th e Adult Ch ildr en of
Pa r ents Wh o Ha ve Sa me- Sex Rela tionsh ip s? 41 Soc . Sc i. Resea r c h 752- 770 (2012)
(c onf la ting ef f ec ts of h ouseh old disr up tion with ef f ec ts of p er c eived p a r enta l
sex ua l or ienta tion). Bec a use of th ese a nd oth er sig nif ic a nt limita tions, th e
f or eg oing studies do not p er mit c onc lusions to b e dr a wn a b out th e ef f ec ts of
p a r enta l sex ua l or ienta tion on c h ildr en' s outc omes. See, e. g . , DeBoe~ v. Snyder ,
973 F. Sup p . 2d 755, 76 6 (E. D. Mic h . 2014) (a f ter a tr ia l on th e mer its, f inding
Reg ner us' a sser tion c h ildr en of h eter osex ua l c oup les f a r e b etter th a n th ose of g a y
p a r ents " entir ely unb elieva b le a nd not wor th y of ser ious c onsider a tion" ).
16
Case: 14-5291 Document: 51 Filed: 06/16/2014 Page: 33
more l i k el y t o show p osi t i v e a d j u st men t , reg a rd l ess of t hei r p a ren t s' sex u a l
ori en t a t i on .37
In short , t he sa me fa c t ors a re l i n k ed t o c hi l d ren ' s p osi t i v e d ev el op men t ,
whet her t hey a re ra i sed by het erosex u a l , l esbi a n , or g a y p a ren t s. Moreov er, when
t hei r p a ren t s c a n l eg a l l y ma rry , c hi l d ren ben efi t i n t erms of a l l t hree fa c t ors.
Ma rri a g e fa c i l i t a t es p osi t i v e p a ren t- c hi l d rel a t i on shi p s by p rov i d i n g c hi l d ren wi t h a
l eg a l rel a t i on shi p t o bot h p a ren t s. Thi s l eg a l rel a t i on shi p c a n p rov i d e n eed ed
sec u ri t y a n d c on t i n u i t y , esp ec i a l l y d u ri n g t i mes of c ri si s (su c h a s sc hool
emerg en c i es, med i c a l emerg en c i es, or t he i n c a p a c i t y or d ea t h of a p a ren t ) . In
a d d i t i on , c hi l d ren ben efi t when t hei r p a ren t s a re fi n a n c i a l l y sec u re, p hy si c a l l y a n d
p sy c hol og i c a l l y hea l t hy , a n d n ot su bj ec t ed t o hi g h l ev el s of st ress. To t he ex t en t
t ha t ma rri a g e fa c i l i t a t es sa me- sex c ou p l es' wel l - bei n g , st ren g t hen s t hei r
rel a t i on shi p s wi t h ea c h ot her, a n d red u c es t he ri sk of hou sehol d i n st a bi l i t y , i t
en ha n c es t hei r c hi l d ren ' s wel l - bei n g a s we1 1 .38 Thu s, Ami c i c on c l u d e t ha t
p ermi t t i n g sa me- sex c ou p l es t o ma rry i s l i k el y t o ha v e p osi t i v e effec t s on t he
c hi l d ren t hey ra i se.
37 Nei g hborhood Pov ert y (J . Brook s- Gu n n et a l . ed s. , 1 9 9 7) ; Con sequ en c es of
Growi n g Up Poop (G. J . Du n c a n & J . Brook s- Gu n n ed s. , 1 9 9 7) ; Pa t t erson &
H a st i n g s, su p ra n ot e 32; Pot t er (201 2) , su p ra n ot e 35; Rosen fel d (201 0) , su p ra
n ot e 35.
38 Cha n et a l . , su p ra n ot e 35; C. J . Pa t t erson , F a mi l i es of t he Lesbi a n Ba by Boom, 4
J . Ga y &Lesbi a n Psy c hot hera p y 9 1 (2001 ) .
Case: 14-5291 Document: 51 Filed: 06/16/2014 Page: 34
C. There Is No S c i en t i f i c Basi s f or Con c ludi n g That S ame-S ex
Couples Are An y Less Fi t or Capable Paren t s Than Het erosexual
Couples, or That Thei r Chi ldren Are An y Less Psyc hologi c ally
Healt hy an d Well Adjust ed.
Assert i on s t hat het erosexual c ouples are bet t er paren t s t han same-sex
c ouples, or t hat t he c hi ldren of lesbi an or gay paren t s f are worse t han c hi ldren of
het erosexual paren t s, are n ot support ed by t he c umulat i ve sc i en t i f i c researc h.
3 9
Rat her, t he vast majori t y of sc i en t i f i c st udi es t hat have di rec t ly c ompared t hese
groups have f oun d t hat gay an d lesbi an paren t s are as f i t an d c apable as
het erosexual paren t s, an d t hat t hei r c hi ldren are as psyc hologi c ally healt hy an d
3 9
The researc h on gay, lesbi an , an d bi sexual paren t s i n c ludes dozen s of empi ri c al
st udi es. Thei r f i n di n gs are summari zed i n revi ews of empi ri c al li t erat ure publi shed
i n respec t ed, peer-revi ewed journ als an d ac ademi c books. Rec en t revi ews i n c lude
T.J . Bi blarz & J . S t ac ey, How Does t he Gen der of Paren t s Mat t es?, 72 J . Marri age
& Fam. 3 -22 (2010); A.E. Goldberg, Lesbi an an d Gay Paren t s an d Thei r Chi ldren
(2010); C.J . Pat t erson , Fami ly Li ves of Lesbi an an d Gay Adult s, i n The Han dbook
of Marri age an d Fami ly 659 , 668-71 (G.W. Pet erson & K.R. Bush eds., 2013 );
C.J . Pat t erson , Chi ldren of Lesbi an an d Gay Paren t s, 64 Am. Psyc hologi st 727
(2009 ). For earli er revi ews an d relat ed researc h, see, e.g., J . S t ac ey & T.J . Bi blarz,
(How) Does t he S exual O ri en t at i on of Paren t s Mat t er?, 66 Am. S oc . Rev. 159
(2001); E.C. Perri n et al., Tec hn i c al Repot : Coparen t o~ S ec on d-Paren t Adopt i on
by S ame-S ex Paren t s, 109 Pedi at ri c s 3 41 (2002); C.J . Pat t erson , Fami ly
Relat i on shi ps of Lesbi an s an d Gay Men , 62 J . Marri age & Fam. 1052 (2000); N.
An derssen et al., O ut c omes f og Chi ldren wi t h Lesbi an o~ Gay Paren t s, 43 S c an d. J .
Psyc hol. 3 3 5 (2002); C.J . Pat t erson , Lesbi an an d Gay Paren t s an d Thei s Chi ldren ,
i n Con t emporary Perspec t i ves on Lesbi an , Gay, an d Bi sexual Iden t i t i es, Nebraska
S ymposi um on Mot i vat i on 141 (D.A. Hope ed., 2009 ); C.J . Teli n gat or & C.J ..
Pat t erson , Chi ldren an d Adolesc en t s of Lesbi an an d Gay Paren t s, 47 J . Am. Ac ad.
of Chi ld &Adolesc en t Psyc hi at ry 13 64 (2008); J .L. Wai n ri ght et al., Psyc hosoc i al
Adjust men t , S c hool O ut c omes, an d Roman t i c Relat i on shi ps of Adolesc en t s Wi t h
S ame-S ex Paren t s, 75 Chi ld Dev. 1886 (2009 ).
CE:j
Case: 14-5291 Document: 51 Filed: 06/16/2014 Page: 35
w e l l a d j u s t e d . More re s e a rc h h a s foc u s e d on l e s b i a n mot h e rs t h a n on ga y fa t h e rs ,
4o
b u t p u b l i s h e d s t u d i e s of ga y fa t h e rs fi nd t h a t t h e y a re a s fi t a nd a b l e p a re nt s a s
h e t e ros e x u a l fa t h e rs .41
A 2001 c omp re h e ns i ve s u rve y of p e e r-re vi e w e d s c i e nt i fi c s t u d i e s c onc l u d e d
t h a t t h e e vi d e nc e from e mp i ri c a l re s e a rc h "s h ow s t h a t p a re nt a l s e x u a l ori e nt a t i on
p e r s e h a s no me a s u ra b l e e ffe c t on t h e q u a l i t y of p a re nt-c h i l d re l a t i ons h i p s or on
c h i l d re n' s me nt a l h e a l t h or s oc i a l a d j u s t me nt . "42 Th e va s t ma j ori t y of re s e a rc h
4o
S e e , e . g. , H. Bos & T. G. M. S a nd fort , C h i l d re n' s Ge nd e r I d e nt i t y i n Le s b i a n a nd
He t e ros e x u a l Tw o-Pa re nt F a mi l i e s , 62 S e x Rol e s 114 (2010); H. Bos e t a l . ,
Le s b i a n &He t e ros e x u a l Tw o-Pa re nt F a mi l i e s , J . C h i l d . & F a m. S t u d . (2014); R. H.
F a rr e t a l . , Pa re nt i ng a nd C h i l d De ve l op me nt i n Ad op t i ve F a mi l i e s , 14 Ap p l i e d
De ve l op me nt a l S c i . 164, 176 (2010); S . Gol omb ok e t a l . , C h i l d re n w i t h Le s b i a n
Pa re nt s , 39 De ve l op me nt a l Ps yc h ol . 20 (2003); I . Ri ve rs e t a l . , V i c t i mi z a t i on,
S oc i a l S u p p ort , a nd Ps yc h os oc i a l F u nc t i oni ng Among C h i l d re n of S a me-S e x a nd
Op p os i t e-S e x C ou p l e s i n t h e Uni t e d Ki ngd om, 44 De ve l op me nt a l Ps yc h ol . 127
(2008); J . L. Wa i nri gh t & C . J . Pa t t e rs on, De l i nq u e nc y, V i c t i mi z a t i on, a nd
S u b s t a nc e Us e Among Ad ol e s c e nt s w i t h F e ma l e S a me-S e x Pa re nt s , 20 J . F a m.
Ps yc h ol . 526 (2006).
41
F a rr, s u p ra not e 40, a t 176; s e e a l s o J . A. La vne r e t a l . , C a n Ga y a nd Le s b i a n
Pa re nt s Promot e He a l t h y De ve l op me nt i n Hi gh-Ri s k C h i l d re n Ad op t e d F rom
F os t e r C a ge ?, 82 Am. J . Ort h op s yc h i a t ry 465-472 (2012); S . E ri c h e t a l . , Ga y a nd
Le s b i a n Ad op t i ve F a mi l i e s , 9 J . F a m. S oc . Work 17 (2005); S . E ri c h e t a l . , A
C omp a ra t i ve Ana l ys i s of Ad op t i ve F a mi l y F u nc t i oni ng w i t h Ga y, Le s b i a n, a nd
He t e ros e x u a l Pa re nt s a nd Th e i s C h i l d re n, 1 J . GLBT F a m. S t u d . 43 (2005). F or a
re vi e w of e a rl i e r re s e a rc h , s e e C . J . Pa t t e rs on, Ga y F a t h e rs , i n Th e Rol e of t h e
F a t h e r i n C h i l d De ve l op me nt 397, 413 (M. E . La mb e d . , 2004).
42
S t a c e y & Bi b l a rz , s u p ra not e 39, a t 176; s e e a l s o N a t ' 1 Ac a d e my of S c i e nc e s '
I ns t i t u t e of Me d i c i ne , s u p ra not e 5 (c onc l u d i ng t h a t "s t u d i e s s h ow t h a t [ t h e
c h i l d re n of l e s b i a n a nd ga y p a re nt s ] a re w e l l a d j u s t e d a nd d e ve l op me nt a l l y s i mi l a r
t o t h e c h i l d re n of d i ffe re nt-s e x p a re nt s ").
S e ve ra l s t u d i e s t h a t h a ve foc u s e d on s ma l l re p ort e d d i ffe re nc e s h a ve
i d e nt i fi e d p os i t i ve e ffe c t s on c h i l d re n of s a me-s e x c ou p l e s . Bi b l a rz &S t a c e y,
19
Case: 14-5291 Document: 51 Filed: 06/16/2014 Page: 36
f i n d i n g s r e p o r t e d i n t h e y e a r s s i n c e t h a t r e vi e w wa s p u b l i s h e d p r o vi d e f u r t h e r
s u p p o r t f o r t h i s c o n c l u s i o n .
Th e s e i n c l u d e f a i r l y r e c e n t s t u d i e s u s i n g n a t i o n a l p r o b a b i l i t y s a mp l e s . On e
s u c h s t u d y u s e d d a t a f r o m t h e N a t i o n a l L o n g i t u d i n a l St u d y o f Ad o l e s c e n t H e a l t h t o
c o mp a r e a d o l e s c e n t s p a r e n t e d b y f e ma l e c o u p l e s wi t h a d o l e s c e n t s p a r e n t e d b y
h e t e r o s e x u a l c o u p l e s . Th e r e s e a r c h e r s f o u n d n o d i f f e r e n c e s b e t we e n t h e t wo
g r o u p s o n me a s u r e s o f a l a r g e n u mb e r o f ke y va r i a b l e s , i n c l u d i n g p s y c h o s o c i a l
a d j u s t me n t , s c h o o l o u t c o me s , s u b s t a n c e u s e , d e l i n q u e n c y , vi c t i mi z a t i o n
e x p e r i e n c e s , a n d r e l a t i o n s h i p s wi t h p e e r s .
43
An o t h e r s t u d y u s e d d a t a f r o m t h e E a r l y Ch i l d h o o d L o n g i t u d i n a l St u d y —
K i n d e r g a r t e n Co h o r t (E CL S-K ) t o c o mp a r e t h e a c a d e mi c a c h i e ve me n t o f c h i l d r e n
g r o wi n g u p i n va r i o u s f a mi l y s t r u c t u r e s . Wh e n t h e e f f e c t s o f s i g n i f i c a n t f a mi l y
t r a n s i t i o n s (e . g . , p a r e n t a l d i vo r c e , s e p a r a t i o n , o r d e a t h ) we r e t a ke n i n t o a c c o u n t ,
c h i l d r e n i n s a me-s e x f a mi l y s t r u c t u r e s s h o we d s l i g h t l y h i g h e r a c h i e ve me n t l e ve l s
s u p r a n o t e 39 (n o t i n g t h e " u b i q u i t o u s f i n d i n g s o f n o d i f f e r e n c e s " i n t h e r e s e a r c h
l i t e r a t u r e b u t c o n c l u d i n g t h a t wh e n s ma l l d i f f e r e n c e s h a ve b e e n f o u n d , t h e y f a vo r
f a mi l i e s o f s a me-s e x c o u p l e s a t l e a s t a s o f t e n a s f a mi l i e s o f h e t e r o s e x u a l c o u p l e s ).
43
J . L . Wa i n r i g h t & C. J . P a t t e r s o n , P e e p R e l a t i o n s Amo n g Ad o l e s c e n t s wi t h Fe ma l e
Sa me-Se x P a r e n t s , 44 De ve l o p me n t a l P s y c h o l . 117 (2008); Wa i n r i g h t &P a t t e r s o n
(2006), s u p r a n o t e 40; Wa i n r i g h t e t a l . , s u p r a n o t e 39.
20
Case: 14-5291 Document: 51 Filed: 06/16/2014 Page: 37
than c hi l d r e n l i v i ng w i th the i r b i o l o g i c al mo the r and f athe r , al tho u g h thi s
d i f f e r e nc e w as no t s tati s ti c al l y s i g ni f i c ant.
44
Tw o o the r s tu d i e s , e ac h u s i ng the s ame d ata s o u r c e , d e mo ns tr ate the p i tf al l s
o f c o nf l ati ng p ar e nt s e x u al o r i e ntati o n w i th o the r v ar i ab l e s r e l e v ant to c hi l d r e n' s
d e v e l o p me nt. Bo th u s e d U. S. Ce ns u s d ata to c o mp ar e e d u c ati o nal o u tc o me s
amo ng c hi l d r e n r e s i d i ng i n ho me s w i th v ar i o u s f ami l y s tr u c tu r e s . One r e p o r te d
that c hi l d r e n i n ho u s e ho l d s w i th s ame- s e x c o hab i ti ng c o u p l e s had s i g ni f i c antl y
l o w e r l e v e l s o f s c ho o l p r o g r e s s than c hi l d r e n o f mar r i e d he te r o s e x u al c o u p l e s .
as
44
P o tte r , s u p r a no te 35; s e e al s o A. L. Fe d e w a & T. P . Cl ar k , P ar e nt P r ac ti c e s and
Ho me- Sc ho o l P ar tne r s hi p s , 5 J . GLBT Fam. Stu d . 312- 339 (2009) (u s i ng an
ECLS- K s u b s amp l e and f i nd i ng c hi l d r e n o f s ame- s e x c o u p l e s d i d no t d i f f e r
s i g ni f i c antl y f r o m c hi l d r e n o f he te r o s e x u al c o u p l e s i n ac ad e mi c ac hi e v e me nt o r
s o c i al ad j u s tme nt). In the ECLS- K, p ar e ntal s e x u al o r i e ntati o n and r e l ati o ns hi p
s tatu s w e r e i nf e r r e d f r o m a s e r i e s o f q u e s ti o ns ab o u t the ho u s e ho l d c o mp o s i ti o n
and c ar e tak e r s .
45
D. W. Al l e n e t al . , N o ntr ad i ti o nal Fami l i e s and Chi l d ho o d P r o g r e s s Thr o u g h
Sc ho o l , 50 De mo g r ap hy 955- 961 (2013). Ano the r r e c e nt p ap e r b y the s ame au tho r
c o mp ar e d ac r o s s f ami l y s tr u c tu r e s hi g h s c ho o l g r ad u ati o n r ate s amo ng y o u ng
ad u l ts (ag e 17- 22) i n Canad a s ti l l r e s i d i ng w i th the i r p ar e nts . D. W. Al l e n, Hi g h
Sc ho o l Gr ad u ati o n Rate s Amo ng Chi l d r e n o f Same- Se x Ho u s e ho l d s , 11 Re v . Ec o n.
o f the Ho u s e ho l d 635- 658 (2013). Thi s s tu d y i s i r r e l e v ant to q u e s ti o ns ab o u t
p ar e nti ng b e c au s e , as the au tho r ac k no w l e d g e d : "[T]hi s p ap e r d o e s no t s tu d y the
e f f e c t o f g r o w i ng u p i n a s ame- s e x ho u s e ho l d , b u t r athe r e x ami ne s the
as s o c i ati o n o f s c ho o l p e r f o r manc e f o r tho s e c hi l d r e n w ho l i v e d w i th s ame- s e x
p ar e nts i n 2006. " Id . (e mp has i s ad d e d ). Thi s nar r o w f o c u s i s ne c e s s i tate d b y the
l ac k o f d ata c o nc e r ni ng p ar e nts ' p r i o r mar i tal hi s to r y and the e ar l i e r f ami l y hi s to r y
o f the 17- 22 y e ar- o l d s . In ad d i ti o n, the s amp l e e x c l u d e d any 17- 22 y e ar- o l d s w ho
w e r e no l o ng e r r e s i d i ng w i th the i r p ar e nts , thu s p r e c l u d i ng a me ani ng f u l e s ti mate
o f ac tu al g r ad u ati o n r ate s in thi s p o p u l ati o n. Mo r e o v e r , the p ap e r ' s o w n anal y s e s
s ho w that d i f f e r e nc e s b e tw e e n the 17- 22 y e ar- o l d s c u r r e ntl y r e s i d i ng w i th g ay o r
l e s b i an p ar e nts v e r s u s tho s e r e s i d i ng w i th mar r i e d he te r o s e x u al p ar e nts w e r e no
21
Case: 14-5291 Document: 51 Filed: 06/16/2014 Page: 38
The o t her s t u d y , ho wever , co nclu d ed t ha t t he o bs er ved d i f f er ences wer e d u e t o
p a r ent s ' s o ci o eco no mi c s t a t u s a nd d i f f er ences a cr o s s f a mi ly t y p es i n chi ld r en' s
ex p er i ences wi t h ho u s eho ld d i s r u p t i o ns a nd i ns t a bi li t y . When t hes e f a ct o r s wer e
t a ken i nt o co ns i d er a t i o n, s cho o l p r o g r es s d i d no t s i g ni f i ca nt ly d i f f er bet ween
chi ld r en o f ma r r i ed het er o s ex u a l co u p les a nd chi ld r en o f s a me- s ex co ha bi t i ng
co u p les .
46
Ami ci emp ha s i ze t ha t t he p a r ent i ng a bi li t i es o f g a y men a nd les bi a ns —a nd
t he p o s i t i ve o u t co mes f o r t hei r chi ld r en—a r e no t a r ea s wher e mo s t cr ed i ble
s ci ent i f i c r es ea r cher s d i s a g r ee.47 Thu s , a f t er ca r ef u l s cr u t i ny o f d eca d es o f
r es ea r ch, t he APA co nclu d ed i n 2004 t ha t (a ) " t her e i s no s ci ent i f i c evi d ence t ha t
p a r ent i ng ef f ect i venes s i s r ela t ed t o p a r ent a l s ex u a l o r i ent a t i o n: Les bi a n a nd g a y
p a r ent s a r e a s li kely a s het er o s ex u a l p a r ent s t o p r o vi d e s u p p o r t i ve a nd hea lt hy
envi r o nment s f o r t hei r chi ld r en" a nd (b) " r es ea r ch ha s s ho wn t ha t t he a d j u s t ment ,
d evelo p ment , a nd p s y cho lo g i ca l well- bei ng o f chi ld r en a r e u nr ela t ed t o p a r ent a l
s ex u a l o r i ent a t i o n a nd t ha t t he chi ld r en o f les bi a n a nd g a y p a r ent s a r e a s li kely a s
lo ng er s t a t i s t i ca lly s i g ni f i ca nt when t he a na ly s es i nclu d ed a d d i t i o na l i nf o r ma t i o n
(i . e. , p a r ent s ' cu r r ent ma r i t a l s t a t u s a nd ho u s eho ld i ns t a bi li t y d u r i ng t he p r evi o u s 5
y ea r s ). I d . (Mo d el 3, Ta ble 8 o f t he Ap p end i x ).
46
R o s enf eld , s u p r a no t e 35.
47 To t he ex t ent t ha t Ap p ella nt s a nd a mi cu s cu r i a e i n s u p p o r t o f Ap p ella nt s
s u g g es t s t ha t s a me- s ex p a r ent i ng ma y ha ve neg a t i ve ef f ect s o n chi ld r en, t hei r
p o s i t i o ns d o no t r ef lect t he cu r r ent s t a t e o f s ci ent i f i c kno wled g e.
22
Case: 14-5291 Document: 51 Filed: 06/16/2014 Page: 39
t h o s e o f h e t e r o s e x u a l p a r e n t s t o fl o u r i s h . "48 S i m i l a r l y , t h e AAP h a s co n cl u de d t h a t
" [ t ] h e r e i s e x t e n s i v e r e s e a r ch do cu m e n t i n g t h a t t h e r e i s n o ca u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p
be t we e n p a r e n t s ' s e x u a l o r i e n t a t i o n a n d ch i l dr e n ' s e m o t i o n a l , p s y ch o s o ci a l , a n d
be h a v i o r a l de v e l o p m e n t . Ma n y s t u di e s a t t e s t t o t h e n o r m a l de v e l o p m e n t o f
ch i l dr e n o f s a m e-ge n de r co u p l e s wh e n t h e ch i l d i s wa n t e d, t h e p a r e n t s h a v e a
co m m i t m e n t t o s h a r e d p a r e n t i n g, a n d t h e p a r e n t s h a v e s t r o n g s o ci a l a n d e co n o m i c
s u p p o r t s . "
49
Th e N a t i o n a l As s o ci a t i o n o f S o ci a l Wo r ke r s h a s s i m i l a r l y de t e r m i n e d t h a t
" [ t ] h e m o s t s t r i ki n g fe a t u r e o f t h e r e s e a r ch o n l e s bi a n m o t h e r s , ga y fa t h e r s , a n d
t h e i r ch i l dr e n i s t h e a bs e n ce o f p a t h o l o gi ca l fi n di n gs . Th e s e co n d m o s t s t r i ki n g
fe a t u r e i s h o w s i m i l a r t h e gr o u p s o f ga y a n d l e s bi a n p a r e n t s a n d t h e i r ch i l dr e n a r e
t o h e t e r o s e x u a l p a r e n t s a n d t h e i r ch i l dr e n - t h a t we r e i n cl u de d i n t h e s t u di e s . "50 I n
a do p t i n g a n o ffi ci a l Po s i t i o n S t a t e m e n t i n s u p p o r t o f l e ga l r e co gn i t i o n o f ci v i l
m a r r i a ge fo r s a m e-s e x co u p l e s , t h e Am e r i ca n Ps y ch i a t r i c As s o ci a t i o n o bs e r v e d
t h a t " n o r e s e a r ch h a s s h o wn t h a t t h e ch i l dr e n r a i s e d by l e s bi a n s a n d ga y m e n a r e
l e s s we l l a dj u s t e d t h a n t h o s e r e a r e d wi t h i n h e t e r o s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . "s '
48 APA, R e s o l u t i o n o n S e x u a l O r i e n t a t i o n , Pa r e n t s , a n d C h i l dr e n (2004).
49
AAP, s u p r a n o t e 3 (ci t a t i o n s o m i t t e d).
s o
N AS W, Po l i cy S t a t e m e n t , s u p r a n o t e 4.
s l
Am . Ps y ch i a t r i c As s n , Po s i t i o n S t a t e m e n t : S u p p o r t o f Le ga l R e co gn i t i o n o f
S a m e-S e x C i v i l Ma r r i a ge (2005); s e e a l s o Am . Ps y ch o a n a l y t i c As s ' n . , Po s i t i o n
S t a t e m e n t : Pa r e n t i n g (2012); Am . Me d. As s n , Po l i cy H-60. 940, Pa r t n e r C o-
Ado p t i o n .
23
Case: 14-5291 Document: 51 Filed: 06/16/2014 Page: 40
V. Denying the Status of Marriage to Same-Sex Couples Stigmatizes Them.
The foregoing shows that the arguments about gay men and lesbians
advanced in support of laws against same-sex marriage are contradicted by the
scientific evidence and reflect an unreasoned antipathy towards an identifiable
minority. In depriving gay men and lesbians of membership in an important social
institution, these laws convey the States' judgment that committed intimate
relationships between people of the same sex are inferior to heterosexual
relationships. This is the essence of stigma.
A stigmatized condition or status is one that is negatively valued by society,
fundamentally defines a person' s social identity, and disadvantages those who have
it.5 2 Stigma has been characterized as "an undesired differentness."5 3 It is
manifested in social institutions, including the law, and in individual behaviors.
Laws that accord majority and minority groups differing status highlight the
perceived "differentness" of the minority and thereby tend to legitimize prejudicial
attitudes and individual acts against the disfavored group, including ostracism,
5 2
See E. Goffman, Stigma (1963); B.G. Link & J .C. Phelan, Conceptualizing
Stigma, 2 7 Ann. Rev. Soc. 363 (2 001); J . Crocker et al., Social Stigma, in 2 The
Handbook of Social Psychology 5 04 (D.T. Gilbert et al. eds., 4th ed. 1998); Am.
Med. Assn, Policy H-65 .973, Health Cage Disparities in Same-Sex Pa~tne~
Households (recognizing that "exclusion from civil marriage contributes to health
care disparities affecting same-sex households").
5 3 Goffman, supra note 5 2 , at 5 .
2 4
Case: 14-5291 Document: 51 Filed: 06/16/2014 Page: 41
harassment, d i sc ri mi nati o n, and v i o l enc e. Large numbers o f l esbi an, gay, and
bi sex ual p eo p l e ex p eri enc e suc h ac ts o f p rej ud i c e.
54
S tate l aws banni ng rec o gni ti o n o f same- sex marri ages are i nstanc es o f
i nsti tuti o nal sti gma. The "av o wed p urp o se and p rac ti c al effec t" o f these l aws "are
to i mp o se a d i sad v antage, a sep arate status, and so a sti gma" o n same- sex c o up l es.
Uni ted S tates v . Wi nd so r, 133 S . C t. 2675, 2693 (2013). They c o nv ey the S tates'
j ud gment that, i n the real m o f i nti mate rel ati o nshi p s, l egal l y uni ted same- sex
c o up l es are i nherentl y l ess d eserv i ng o f so c i ety' s ful l rec o gni ti o n than hetero sex ual
c o up l es. By d ev al ui ng and d el egi ti mi z i ng the rel ati o nshi p s that c o nsti tute the v ery
c o re o f ho mo sex ual o ri entati o n, these l aws c o mp o und and p erp etuate the sti gma
hi sto ri c al l y attac hed to ho mo sex ual i ty.
s4
A surv ey usi ng a nati o nal l y rep resentati v e samp l e o f gay, l esbi an, and bi sex ual
ad ul ts fo und that 21 %had been the target o f a p hysi c al assaul t o r p ro p erty c ri me
si nc e age 18 bec ause o f thei r sex ual o ri entati o n; 18%o f gay men and 16%o f
l esbi ans rep o rted they had ex p eri enc ed d i sc ri mi nati o n i n ho usi ng o r emp l o yment.
G. M. Herek, Hate C ri mes and S ti gma- R el ated Ex p eri enc es Amo ng S ex ual
Mi no ri ty Ad ul ts i n the Uni ted S tates, 24 J . I nterp erso nal Vi o l enc e 54 (2009). I n
ano ther surv ey wi th a nati o nal l y rep resentati v e samp l e, 30%o f l esbi an, gay,
bi sex ual , and transgend er resp o nd ents sai d they had been threatened o r p hysi c al l y
attac ked bec ause o f thei r sex ual o ri entati o n o r gend er i d enti ty; 26%o f gay men
and 23%o f l esbi ans sai d they had been treated unfai rl y by an emp l o yer bec ause o f
thei r sex ual o ri entati o n. Pew R esearc h C enter, sup ra no te 12; see al so G. M. Herek
et al . , Psyc ho l o gi c al S equel ae o f Hate- C ri me Vi c ti mi z ati o n Amo ng Lesbi an, Gay,
and Bi sex ual Ad ul ts, 67 J . C o nsul ti ng &C l i ni c al Psyc ho l . 945, 948 (1999).
25
Case: 14-5291 Document: 51 Filed: 06/16/2014 Page: 42
CONCLUSION
The judgments below, f i ndi ng the Mi chi gan, Kentucky and Tennessee laws
banni ng same- sex mar r i age unconsti tuti onal, should be af f i r med.
June 1 6 , 201 4
26
R esp ectf ully submi tted,
/ s/ Paul M. Smi th
Paul M. Smi th
JENNER &BLOCK LLP
1 099 New Yor k Ave. NW, Ste. 900
Washi ngton, DC 20001
Telep hone: (202) 6 39- 6 000
Fax : (202) 6 39- 6 06 6
PSmi th@jenner . com
Nathali e F. P. G i lf oyle
AMER ICAN PSYCHOLOG ICAL
ASSOCIATION
750 Fi r st Str eet NE
Washi ngton, DC 20002
Telep hone: (202) 336 - 6 1 86
Fax : (202) 336 - 6 06 9
Ngi lf oyle@ap a. or g
Counsel f og Ami ci Cur i ae
Case: 14-5291 Document: 51 Filed: 06/16/2014 Page: 43
CERTIFICATE OF COMPLIANCE
This b r ie f complie s with the type-volume limita tion of Fe d. R. App. P.
3 2 ( a ) ( 7 ) ( B ) b e ca use the b r ie f con ta in s 6,452 wor ds, e xcludin g pa r ts of the b r ie f
e xe mpte d b y Fe d. R. App. P. 3 2 ( a ) ( 7 ) ( B ) ( iii) . This b r ie f complie s with the
type f a ce a n d type style r e quir e me n ts of Fe d. R. App. P. 3 2 ( a ) ( 5) a n d 3 2 ( a ) ( 6) ,
r e spe ctive ly, b e ca use this b r ie f ha s b e e n pr e pa r e d in a pr opor tion a te ly spa ce d
type f a ce usin g Micr osof t Wor d 2 007 in Time s Ne w Roma n 14-poin t f on t.
Da te : Jun e 16, 2 014 / s/ Pa ul M. Smith
Pa ul M. Smith
JENNER &B LOCK LLP
1099 Ne w Yor k Ave . NW, Ste . 900
Wa shin gton , DC 2 0001
Te le phon e : ( 2 02 ) 63 9-6000
Fa x: ( 2 02 ) 63 9-6066
PSmith@je n n e r .com
Case: 14-5291 Document: 51 Filed: 06/16/2014 Page: 44
CERTIFICATE OF SERVICE
I c e r t i f y t h a t on June 1 6 , 201 4, I c a use d t h e f or e g oi ng Br i e f of t h e Ame r i c a n
Psy c h olog i c a l Assoc i a t i on, Ame r i c a n Ac a de my of Pe di a t r i c s, Ame r i c a n
Psy c h i a t r i c Assoc i a t i on, Na t i ona l Assoc i a t i on of Soc i a l Wor ke r s, a nd
Ke nt uc ky Psy c h olog i c a l Assoc i a t i on a s Ami c i Cur i a e t o be e le c t r oni c a lly f i le d
v i a t h e Cour t ' s CM/ECF Sy st e m. Counse l f or a ll p a r t i e s w i ll be se r v e d v i a t h e
Cour t ' s CM/ECF sy st e m a t t h e e ma i l a ddr e sse s on f i le .
Da t e : June 1 6 , 201 4 /s/ Pa ul M. Smi t h
Pa ul M. Smi t h
JENNER &BLOCK LLP
1 099 Ne w Yor k Av e . NW, St e . 900
Wa sh i ng t on, DC 20001
Te le p h one : (202) 6 39-6 000
Fa x: (202) 6 39-6 06 6
PSmi t h @je nne r .c om
Case: 14-5291 Document: 51 Filed: 06/16/2014 Page: 45